Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Running water for the farm...
 Sewage disposal
 Farm carpentry
 Farm forge and shop work

Group Title: Bulletin. New Series
Title: Farm engineering
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014970/00001
 Material Information
Title: Farm engineering
Series Title: Bulletin. New Series
Physical Description: 28 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1930
Subject: Agricultural engineering   ( lcsh )
Farm equipment   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 26-28.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October, 1930."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014970
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7364
ltuf - AKD9400
oclc - 28539435
alephbibnum - 001962723

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Running water for the farm home
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Sewage disposal
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Farm carpentry
        Page 24
    Farm forge and shop work
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text

Bulletin No. 43 New ~Series October, 1930




State of Florida
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


Bulletin No. 43


October, 1930


Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture........ Tallahassee
T. J. Brooks, Assistant Commissioner. .......... .Tallahassee
Phil S. Taylor, Supervising Inspector ............ Tallahassee

Introduction .................... ........... 5
Drainage ................................. 5
The Open Ditch ........................ 6
Underground Drainage ................... 6
Irrigation ...................... ............ 8
Surface or Furrow Irrigation ............. 8
The Overhead Spray System ............... 8
Sub-Irrigation ........... ................ 10
Terracing .................................. 10
Concreting .................................. 12
M ixtures ................................ 13
Reinforcing Concrete ...................... 14
Running Water for the Farm Home ............. 14
M otive Power ............................ 15
The W ater Tank ......................... 18
Sewage Disposal ............... ............. 18
Silos ......................... ............ 21
How to Make a Concrete Silo .............. 22
Farm Carpentry ............................. 24
Farm Forge and Shop Work ................... 25
Acknowledgments ............................ 25
Bibliography ................................ 26

Farm Engineering

ANY farm demands some building, repairing, improving,
changing. Work requiring a certain degree of mechani-
cal skill and knowledge is sure to be needed from time to
time. An ax must have a handle inserted, a plow point will
need setting or sharpening, a ditch to be dug requires a certain
slope. Modern life insists that the farm home be equipped with
certain conveniences of the city and these must be installed and
occasionally repaired.
Work of this nature comes within the scope of what we shall
term "farm engineering." And it is wider than the above sug-
gestions would indicate. The more one thinks about farm engi-
neering, the wider and wider it grows. Obviously it is impos-
sible to adequately cover this big field in a brief bulletin. Many
phases of it can not be even mentioned. Those included will
be, of necessity, discussed only briefly.'
But the line has to be drawn somewhere. Space will not per-
mit the giving of complete details on any one subject. Therefore,
it has been decided to restrict the bulletin to a brief general dis-
eussion of the more apparent farm engineering problems of
Florida. If the reader does not find adequate information
herein for his particular purpose, he is referred to the list of
publications available on various subjects of this nature. This
list will be found on the last few pages of this publication. He
might also call upon his county or home demonstration agent.
It is hoped that, besides giving a certain degree of useful in-
formation on pertinent farm problems, this bulletin will serve
Florida agriculture by stimulating a desire to improve the farm
and the home. If this is done, something will have been accom-
plished. And then, if more information is needed, the reader
will be able to find it among the publications listed.
The drainage of farm land is one of the most important opera-
tions with which the farmers of Florida have to deal. A large
part of our lands is in need of drainage in one form or another.
From the standpoint of drainage, there are two kinds of water
in the soil: 1. Capillary water and, 2. hydrostatic or gravita-
tional water. The water that moves upward through the soil in
the manner of oil in a lampwick is called capillary water. It
is the water required by plants for growth. Its supply is con-
stantly replenished by hydrostatic water below. Gravitational
water is excess water in the soil which tends to obey the laws
of gravity by traveling downward.



Fig. 1. Here one gets a whole lesson in laying tile for underground drain-
age and irrigation. Note the depth of the drain by the portion of the man
below the surface. Note size of tile and type of ditch necessary to dig. In
this case the bottom level is being tested by means of a line stretched tight
at a fixed level and a measuring or grading rod. (Photo reproduced from
Bulletin 234, N. C. Exp. Sta.)

Air in the soil is as essential to the growth of plants as is
water. When the pores of the soil are filled with water, air is
excluded and plants are injured. In drainage the object is to
reduce the amount of gravitational moisture and increase the
capillary water and air in the soil.
The Open Ditch has its place in the farm drainage system,
but its principal use is, or should be, as an outlet for water
collected by tile or surface collectors. The open ditch is unde-
sirable in fields on account of the difficulty of operating teams
and machinery over and around it. When open ditches are
employed, they should be so designed that the bank will not
slough off. In sandy soils a 2-to-1 slide slope is advisable. (This
means that for every foot the ditch is deep it should be 2 feet
wide. And the slope should be the same on both sides.) In
heavy soils the side slope may be 1 to 1.
When there is danger of surface waters from high lands
flooding fields in low areas, ditches are often dug around the
fields. They interrupt the incoming water, preventing damage
to crops from the overflow. This is usually termed "rim
Underground Drainage: The object of underground drain-
age is to lower the water table or level and it has been accom-
plished in many ways. Poles, brush and rocks have been used


in underground drainage systems, but hollow tile is considered
most satisfactory, due to its efficiency and permanence.
In a tile-drained field nearly all rain water passes down
through the ground, thus replenishing the moisture in the soil.
Tile furnishes an excellent channel for underground water to
pass off. It does not function until the ground water rises to
the height of the line of tile, then all of the water that enters
the soil above this point gradually finds its way into the tile.
There are two kinds of tile-clay and concrete-used in drain-
age work. There is little choice between the two kinds of tile,
provided the quality is the same.
The arrangement of the lines of tile is determined largely by
the topography of the land, although for level land there are
several recognized arrangements which should be closely fol-
lowed in order to secure the best and cheapest drainage. In the
"gridiron" system the main is laid on one side of the field and
the laterals made to enter the main at approximately a 60-
degree angle. In the "herring bone" system the main is placed


00,.00 .01 00,-0

I---.0 . -o o '100,000
0000'0000 000' 00

100 o- 0.000


Fig. 2. Illustrating two underground drainage systems, the "herring
bone" to the left and the "gridiron" to the right. See text.
along the lowest part of the field and the laterals made to enter
from each side at about 60-degree angles. These are the two
most common systems.


The depth of drains and their distance apart are largely de-
termined by the slope of the soil surface and by the texture of
the soil. The depth varies from 2 to 41 feet. In sandy soils the
tile lines are placed from 60 to 150 feet apart and from 3 to
41/ feet deep. A fall of at least 31/2 inches per 100 feet of the
tile line is needed for adequate water removal.
Tile 4 inches in diameter is usually employed for laterals,
while the size of the main is determined by the maximum amount
of water necessary to remove at any one time. Outlets should
be so constructed or covered that small animals can not enter
While Florida's rainfall is ample to supply all the moisture
necessary for the growing of all crops grown in the state, its
distribution is such that irrigation is almost a necessity in cer-
tain areas of highly specialized farming. There are three kinds
of irrigation prevalent in Florida, viz., surface, overhead spray
and sub-surface.
Surface or Ftirrow Irrigation is employed where a cheap
supply of water is available, as in the case in the artesian-well
districts of the state. The main ditches are placed on the high
side of the field and the water is run from them into the fur-
rows between the rows of crops, which have a fall away from the
main ditch. This fall must be sufficient to cause the water to
reach the most distant points to be watered.
The Overhead Spray System of irrigation is of two general
types. One type has pipes mounted on posts about 6 feet high
with small nozzles screwed into the pipes at intervals of from
3 to 4 feet. These pipes are placed usually about 50 feet apart
and are provided with turning unions to permit turning the

Fig. 3. Close-up view of a corner of one type of an overhead spray irrigation
system. Note the handle at the right hand end of the first pipe. This han-
dle serves to turn the pipe and change the direction of the water which is
forced by pressure through small holes in the pipe for 20 or 30 feet.



Fig. 4. Plan of subirrigation system. A-Supply pockets; B-stop pockets;
C-water main.


pipe in order to thoroughly wet the ground between the rows of
pipes. Usually a pressure of approximately 40 pounds is main-
tained. The capacity of this type of an irrigation system is 50
gallons per acre per minute.
The other type of overhead spray is the one that makes use
of the whirling nozzle to distribute the water. The main sup-
ply lines are placed under the ground sufficiently deep to pre-
vent damage when the land is plowed. The rows are usually
from 30 to 40 feet apart, depending on the type of nozzle used.
At intervals of from 30 to 45 feet along the supply lines upright
pipes from 6 to 8 feet in length are placed. The nozzles are
placed on the ends of these pipes. Sufficient pressure should be
maintained on these lines to force the water to be thrown to
half the distance between the lines of pipes. It is better to have
the uprights on the different lines "staggered," rather than in
a straight line.
Sub-Irrigation: In order to successfully use sub-irrigation
the following are necessary: 1. An abundant supply of water;
2. soil underlaid with an impervious strata within 5 feet of the
surface; 3. soil above the subsoil through which water can be
readily distributed and through which, near the- surface, water
can be conveyed freely by capillary action; 4. land that can
be well drained.
The main supply line is placed in the high side of the field
and is usually of 4- or 6-inch terra cotta pipe. Supply pockets,
consisting of a 12-inch terra cotta pipe placed upright, are
placed in the supply lines at intervals of from 20 to 24 feet.
The laterals, consisting of 3- or 4-inch drain tile, are led out
of the supply line. The joints are usually laid in a small quan-
tity of gravel or crushed rock which aids in distributing water
and prevents clogging up of the drain. At the-end of the
lateral a stop pocket is placed. When irrigating a nipple is
inserted in the end of the lateral to prevent the irrigation water
from passing out through the end of the lateral. Another open-
ing in the stop pocket permits draining off into an open ditch of
excess water. Laterals usually are given a fall of 1 inch per
100 feet from the supply line to the stop pocket.
Soil erosion is always a very important farm problem. It is
especially important where there are hills and rolling land.
Sheet washing, which is not as noticeable as gullying, takes
place and causes the loss of much fertility on many farms in
this state. The most effective means of preventing soil erosion
on hilly land is by terracing.


There are two principal classes of terraces employed today;
namely, Mangum and level. Both are known as broad base ter-
races, the only difference being that the Mangum has a very
gradual fall toward its ends or toward its center, while the
level has no fall whatever. In the Mangum terrace the fall along
the terrace should not be
greater than 6 inches per
100 feet. The level type has
f the distinct advantage of
holding practically all soil
and fertility in the field.
Terraces are built by first
staking out their positions
along the side of the hill
which are comparable to
land contours on a map. In
case of the Mangum terrace
the proper fall, w h i c h
should not exceed 6 inches
per 100 feet, is given at this
time. The vertical distance
b et w e e n terraces is gov-
erned by the slope of the
S land and usually is from 3
,to 41/2 feet. The steeper
slopes have the greater ver-
tical distances.
Fig. 5. The level shown here with tri- After the position lines
pod and graduated rod can be used for have been determined and
establishing any line, as for drainage, staked out throw up sev-
irrigation, terraces, foundations for ake ou ow Up sv-
buildings, etc. eral furrows with a turn
plow. Then, with a V-shaped
ditcher, push or throw up the earth to a height of 3 feet. The
field is next plowed toward the terrace, from above and below,
until the terrace is from 18 to 24 feet wide at the base.
Each year plow the land so as not to lower the terrace. Fields
terraced in this manner can be cultivated with machinery with-
out serious difficulty. The rows may be run with or across the
There are many inexpensive farm levels on the market with
which very accurate leveling can be done. The equipment
needed for terracing is level, tripod, graduated rod (see figure
5), and measuring tape.
Carpenter's levels are sometimes mounted on staffs and used
for leveling work, such as terracing. By sighting over the top
of the level at a target on a graduated rod the difference in
elevation can be obtained and calculations made.



Concrete is an artificial stone made by cementing together
particles of sand and coarse aggregate. Portland cement is,
most generally used on account of its adaptability to the various
types of construction. Other cements are manufactured but
have certain restrictions in their use. Portland cement is
usually sold in bags which weigh 94 pounds and contain 1 cubic

Fig. 6. Here are shown the necessary equipment for mixing concrete.


Fig. 7. Illustrating the quantities of cement, sand and gravel in a 1-2-4
mixture and finally the completed mixture. Note that the finished con-
crete occupies but slightly more space than the gravel alone; the sand and
cement fill the void in the gravel.



Sand for concrete work should be free of organic matter and
clay and consist of particles of various sizes. Sands that have
too great a proportion of fine particles require too much cement
to make a strong concrete.
The coarse aggregate used in concrete work is usually crushed
stone, gravel, crushed brick or cinders. Crushed hard stone or
flinty gravel is considered best for concrete work. Soft rock
is undesirable for concrete. Gravel as a rule makes a good ag-
gregate. It is second only to crushed granite or other extremely
hard rock. Crushed brick is quite variable in degree of hard-
ness. Hard brick, when crushed, makes a fairly good aggre-
gate, while soft brick is very poor. Cinders usually contain con-
siderable ash and are not suitable unless screened. Hard cinders
can be employed very successfully in concreting. If large, they
should be crushed.
In proportioning materials for concrete, volume measuring is
always the practice. The proportion of cement in the mixture
is given first, sand second, and coarse aggregate third. Thus,
a 1-3-5 mixture means 1 volume-measure of cement, 3 volume-
measures of sand and 5 volume-measures of rock.
In mixing concrete the sand and cement are mixed on the
mixing board while still dry. After they are thoroughly mixed,
water is added. The amount of water used per bag of cement
usually varies from 61/2 to 7 gallons. Use as little water as pos-
sible, just enough to make the concrete workable, just over the
solid-liquid line. This is sug-
tested because the less water
used the stronger the concrete
will be, provided the mixture
is workable.
After the cement, sand and
water have been thoroughly
mixed, the coarse aggregate
-.is finally added and com-
S pletely incorporated. The
concrete is now ready to be
0 .... poured into the forms. These
should be well made and
h braced. As a general rule,
concrete should be placed
within 30 minutes after it is
mixed, for in warm weather
it will get its initial set soon
Fig. 8. Concrete has a multiplicity of after that time.
uses. It serves here as the foundation
of a crib built for fumigating to kill MIixtures: A rich mixture,
the corn weevil. such as a 1-1T/-3, is used



where high stresses or exceptional water-tightness and resistance
to abrasion is desired. The standard mixture, a 1-2-4, is generally
used for reinforced concrete and water-tight work. A medium
mixture, say a 1-3-5, is used for silos, bases and sidewalks. A
lean mixture, about 1-3-6, is sometimes used for machinery foun-
dations, floor foundations, etc.
The curing of concrete after it has been placed is very im-
portant. It should be kept moist for at least seven days after
being placed. Protect green concrete from the sun, if practical
to do so. Concrete does not obtain its working strength until
after 28 days and, therefore, it should not be loaded until that
To make 1 cubic yard of concrete, the following amounts of
materials would be needed for the different mixtures indicated:
Bags of Cu. Yds. Cu. Yds.
Mixture Cement of Sand of Gravel
1-11/2-3 ....-...... -..... .- ..... ... ......- 7.64 .42 .85
1-2-4 -..--........------------..... ------........-- --....... 6.04 .45 .89
1-3-5 .-..-......---------...-...--..-..-.. -------..........-. .. 4.64 .52 .86
1-3-6 .-...-..-- ...--...--..........---------.-........- ....-----... 4.24 .47 .94

For a wearing surface, as floors and walks, mixtures of sand
and cement are used. Unless an extremely hard wearing surface
is desired, a 1-2 mixture is satisfactory. But if an extremely
hard surface is desired, use a 1-1 mixture.
Reinforcing Concrete: While concrete has a high resistance
to a compression load, the tensile or pulling strength is very low.
Therefore, it is necessary to reinforce it with some material that
does have such strength. Steel is most commonly employed for
this purpose. It has a breaking stress of many times that of
concrete and if properly placed in concrete it greatly
strengthens it.
In concrete beams, which are supported on each end, the steel
is placed near the bottom; in an 8-inch beam the steel should be
7 inches from the top of the beam. About 1 percent of the
cross sectional area of the beam should be steel. For fence
posts the reinforcing should be placed near each corner and not
in the center. Number 6 gauge wire is satisfactory for fence
post reinforcing.

To have running water in the home does not necessarily mean
the expenditure of a lot of money. Systems may be installed that
provide water in the house at a very low cost. Be sure your
water supply is from an uncontaminated source. Ordinarily
a "deep well (75 or more feet deep) or a surface well or pump,


located on land some distance from and higher than sources of
contamination, may be regarded as safe.
Where the water supply is from a shallow well, a simple
pitcher pump placed in the kitchen is a big improvement over
the old method of toting the water in buckets from a well or
pump outside, too often at a considerable distance. Another

Fig. 9. This windmill is adequate for a tank two or three times the size of
the one shown here. If there is not enough wind to operate the pump, dis-
connect the windmill, attach the pump handle (see close-up view at right)
to the pump and go to work. Rarely in this state is it necessary to resort
to other than the windmill where it has been established.

simple and inexpensive but most convenient appliance is a
kitchen sink. It affords a means of disposing of waste water
with little danger of contamination and of lessening household
drudgery which usually falls on the shoulders of the women
Motive Power: A hand-operated force pump may be em-
ployed to raise the water to an overhead tank, from which it
flows to faucets whenever provided. This is a simple, inex-
pensive and convenient way of supplying water to the farm
But frequently we want, and need, better motive power. The
gasoline engine or electric motor (where electric current is




available) may be employed for pumping water where force
pumps are used.
There are many commercial water systems on the market.
Many of them are provided with air-tight tanks into which


Fig. 10. Few are the homes that can not afford at least
this much by way of running water. An entire system
of this type is estimated to cost about $50. (Courtesy of
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.)

water is pumped, compressing the air in the tank. As soon as
the desired pressure is reached the pump is stopped, either auto-
matically or by the operator. Some of the systems are equipped
with electric motors having automatic switches which are
thrown in, or out, as soon as the lowest, or highest, pressure
desired for operation is reached.
There are many other types of water systems on the market,
but space does not permit of their mention and discussion here.
On many farms in Florida there are springs of sufficient flow
and fall to successfully operate a hydraulic ram. Springs with
a flow of not less than 3 gallons per minute and a fall of at
least 3 feet can operate a hydraulic ram. The amount of water


Fig. 11. This drawing shows the installation of a hydraulic ram
where the flow from the spring is 7 gallons per minute with a
fall of 10 feet from the spring to the ram. The drive pipe is 60
feet long and 1V2 inches in diameter. Under these conditions
the ram would deliver approximately 60 gallons per hour to a
tank 50 feet above the ram. Sufficient fall to dispose of the
overflow water from the ram must be had. A hydraulic ram and
drive and discharge pipes, as described, will cost (to buy and in-
stall) approximately $75. This does not include tank and tower.
Call on your county agent for the names and addresses of man-
ufacturers of hydraulic rams, if you contemplate purchasing one.




5PR1G 6 0 P .1

G0 GAIL-t-I.7PER-h0U.




0 iD.AUI R






pumped and the height to which it is pumped are dependent
upon the flow of water from the spring and the force that can
be secured. A good hydraulic ram will raise one-seventh of the
-volume of water from a spring five times the fall in feet.
The windmill has been used to pump water by many people
in Florida. It has been very satisfactory where the amount
of water and lift has not been great. It is predicted that there
will be many windmills installed on Florida farms in the future.
Besides its utility value it adds a certain degree of color to the
farmstead which is, at least, impressive.
The Water Tank need not be expensive. Several barrels
could be placed on the ceiling joists and serve very well as a
tank. Or a wooden tank might be constructed in the upper part
of the house. This might be adequate where running water is
supplied for only the kitchen and where the water is pumped
by hand. Connect these barrels near their bottoms by pipes in
such a manner that only one inlet and outlet will be necessary.
Provide barrels with sufficient capacity for a day's water
By filling these barrels or the ceiling tank once a day, usually
there is enough water for 24 hours. With a good pump this
can be done quickly. Most certainly it can be done with less
effort than laboriously toting the same amount of water from a
well or pump outside the house, to say nothing of the conven-
ience it means.
However, a tank on a tower will be desired in most cases.
Perhaps it is better to buy a tank than to attempt to make one.
There are many cohecerns which specialize in building tanks, and
they are equipped as the farmer can not be to make them well.
Galvanized sheet iron and cypress are the two types most com-
monly used. Perhaps the metal will be found more satisfactory
and economical in the long run.
The height of the tower determines the amount of water pres-
sure. For every foot of height of the tower you will get ap-
proximately .43 pounds of pressure per square inch. For in-
stance, a tank 30 feet high will give a pressure of approxi-
mately 13 pounds per square inch.
With running water in the house a septic tank affords a cheap
and the most convenient means of disposal of waste. At the
same time it is safe. Raw sewage contains considerable organic
matter. This must be broken down, and this places a require-
ment upon the septic tank.



Fig. 12. Double-chamber septic tank, type sug- A5,OR5PTION SYT
gested for use on farm homes. This may be small
or large, depending on the number of persons using
it. See text for dimensions. (Courtesy of Florida
Agricultural Extension Service.)






Fig. 13. Drawing to illustrate a simple absorption system for use with septic
tank. (Courtesy of Florida Agricultural Extension Service.)

Two types of bacteria are made use of by the septic tank in
its work of breaking down raw sewage. One type lives in the
absence of air and breaks down solid matter into liquid. The
other type of bacteria requires light and air to bring about the
oxidation of the liquids produced by the breaking down of the
solids. On account of the different requirements of the two
types of bacteria a double-chamber septic tank is the most
The size of the tank is determined by the number of persons
it is to serve. For four people the first chamber of the double-
chamber type should have an approximate capacity of 270 gal-
lons and be approximately 3 feet wide, 3 feet long and 5 feet
deep. The second chamber should have an approximate capacity
of 120 gallons and be approximately 3 feet wide, 4 feet long and
21/2 feet deep. (See figure 12.)
The opening between the two tanks should be constructed so
as to prevent the scum that forms on the first tank from being
disturbed by the passage of liquid into the second tank. A baf-
fle board is usually used for this purpose.
If greasy water from the kitchen sink goes into the tank, a
grease trap should be provided to collect the grease before it
enters the tank. Do not permit antiseptics to enter the tank,
as they interfere with bacterial action and growth.
An absorption system constructed of 4-inch drain tile is
usually provided, so that the water discharged from the tank is
readily absorbed by the soil. (See figure 13.) In sandy soil
a foot of absorption tile should be provided for every gallon
of water discharged from the tank in 24 hours. Automatic
siphons are sometimes installed in septic tanks so that the water
may be discharged intermittently.
Whenever running water is not provided, the outdoor privy
is the principal means of disposing of human waste. Special
care should be exercised where the privy is used to prevent con-
tamination of the water supply and the spread of disease by
flies and other insects. By all means it should be thoroughly
screened to prevent the entrance of the housefly, which is the
greatest spreader of disease.

The need of succulent feed for dairy and beef cattle during
winter, that period of the year when pastures do not furnish a
sufficient quantity of feed, makes the silo a necessity-at least
an advantage-on most farms for the most economical produc-
tion of livestock. By means of the silo large quantities of suc-
-culent feed may be stored for use at any period of the year when




needed. Concrete, hollow tile, wood and pit silos are in use in
The sizes of silos used range from 10 to 20 feet in diameter.
When the herds are small, the smaller silos are desirable on ac-
count of the necessity of taking off at least 2 inches of silage
daily after feeding has begun. A herd of sufficient size to con-
sume this quantity of silage should be had before attempting to
have a silo. It is doubtful if a herd of less than 20 cattle justi-
fies the construction of a silo.
Silos vary in height from 24 to 48 feet. One 10 feet in
diameter and 30 feet in height has a capacity of 47 tons. One
12 feet in diameter and 36 feet in height has a capacity of 87
tons. With 14 feet in diameter and 32 feet in height its capacity
is 100 tons. If it is 16 feet in diameter and 42 feet in height,
its capacity is 207 tons.
In constructing silos pay special attention to the foundation.
Place it approximately 2 feet below the surface of the ground
and make it from 10 to 30 inches wide, depending upon the con-
dition of the soil upon which it is built. If built on a sandy
soil, the base should be wider than if constructed .on a clay soil.
Doors should be placed about 21/2 feet apart.
How to Make a Concrete Silo: Directions for constructing
a monolithic or solid-wall silo are given here very briefly. (This
type of silo is the most common in Florida. See figure 14.)
Two forms are necessary, inside and outside forms. The inside
one is constructed of wood covered on the outside by sheet
metal, while just the sheet metal is all that is necessary for the
outside one. These forms are 36 inches high and the inside one
has the diameter of the inside of the-silo, while the outside one
has the same diameter plus 12 inches, as the walls of the silo
are 6 inches thick. The forms are made in two or three sections,
depending on the size of the silo.
The mixture of concrete generally used is 1 part of cement,
3 parts of sand and 5 parts of gravel. The reinforcing material
consists of 36-inch hog fencing wire with 6-inch stays. If the
walls of the silo are more than 30 feet in height, the reinforcing
of the first three or four courses should be doubled and
securely fastened. Steel rods should be placed around the
openings left for doors, in order to strengthen them.
In pouring concrete the forms are filled each day. By the
next morning the concrete has set sufficiently to permit raising
the forms.
The inside wall of the silo should be painted, first, with a neat
coat of cement and, then, with coal tar. This prevents the
moisture from the silage from passing through the walls of the



* t _. T:_-^ - -- : S- .= : -;-- ----- -----

Fig. 14. Concrete silos being filled. The tractor at the left is driving the
ensilage cutter. Note the ladder and entrance to the larger silo, also the
chutes to the right. These silos were built at least 15 years ago and have
seen continuous service. They are still in good condition.

Provide a chute down which the ensilage may be thrown, so
it will not be scattered and wasted. A ladder is placed inside
the chute. While not necessary, roofs are usually placed on silos.
The wooden silo is usually constructed of staves made of
2 x 6 inch material which are held together by metal hoops.
They require considerable attention when empty, or the staves



will shrink and the silo will be blown over. The initial cost of
this silo is less than of the concrete, but it is much less durable.
The pit silo is used in areas in Florida where the water level
is low and where the soil is a heavy clay. This silo is made by
digging a hole from 20 to 25 feet deep in the ground. The
diameter may be whatever is desired. Some pit silos are
walled up with brick, while others have only the clay as walls.
Silage keeps very well in these silos, but it is somewhat diffi-
cult to get it out. Collection of gases has been reported in pit
silos. Therefore, use precautions to prevent being overcome
by them.

In order to do the necessary repair and construction work
on the farm, a complete set of carpentry tools should form a
part of the farm equipment. Following is a list of carpentry
tools most often needed on the farm:

Cross cut saw
Hand saw
Hand rip saw
Jack plane
Carpenter's draw knife
Marking gauge
S-inch tri-square
1 set auger bits, 1/ to
1 inch, inclusive
Expansion bit
Ratchet brace
Large screw driver
Small screw driver
Counter sink
Steel square
8 and 10 inch flat files

8 inch triangular file
Half-round wood file
Auger bit file
Pair pliers
Oil stone
16 ounce claw hammer
24 inch carpenter's level
Putty knife
Set wood chisels, 1 to 11/
Bench hatchet
2-foot folding ruler
Cross cut saw tools
Pinch bar
8 inch winged dividers
Screw driver bit

Carpentry tools are easily misplaced or lost, unless they are
looked after very carefully. Considerable time and effort is
consumed in looking for misplaced tools. It is advisable, there-
fore, to have a place for each tool, either on the wall or in a
cabinet provided for this purpose. If a work bench is used, a
good place to hang the tools is on the wall just above this bench.
The place for each tool could be indicated by painting a sil-
houette of the particular tool on the wall where it is to be
placed. In this way you can tell at a glance just what tools
are missing.
Just one more step will enable you to keep up with tools lent
out. Provide a set of blank pasteboard cards with a short string
attached to each. When a tool is lent to an individual, write
his name and the date on a card and hang it to the nail or hook


from which the particular tool is removed. When the tool is
returned, remove the card.
If not properly cared for, wood-working tools rust badly in
Florida. The humid atmosphere is conducive to rapid oxidation
and for that reason it is advisable to wipe off each tool, after
using, with a cloth saturated with oil. The entire metal surface
must be protected from the air, if rusting is to be prevented.
For the repair of modern machinery, which is constructed
largely of iron and steel, metal-working tools are a necessity.
In fact, any farm ought to possess some such tools and a simple
forge, whether or not it uses much up-to-date equipment. The
following equipment is generally recommended for a farm shop:

Anvil Hardie
Forge Hack saw
1 pair bolt tongs Punch
1 pair straight jaw tongs Cold chisel
2 pound ball pene hammer Pipe wrench
Steel vice Flat files
Stocks and dies Bolt cutter
Post drill Steel square

While all the above tools are desirable, a lot of repair work
can be done with much fewer. It is surprising the type and
amount of work that can be done with only a forge, an anvil, a
hammer and a pair of pliers.
The advisable fuel for forging is coke, a spongy, grayish black
material that burns readily and forms a dense hot fire. How-
ever, coal and even ordinary charcoal may be employed. A fire
for forging should be deep, clean and compact.
Fluxes are often advantageous in welding iron and steel to
prevent the formation of scales on the heated iron. A flux made
by mixing 1 part of sal amlimoniac and 4 parts of borax usually
gives satisfactory results.
Much information contained in this publication has been
drawn partly from a number of other publications, either books
or bulletins of states or of the United States Department of
Agriculture. These as well as others are given below, and per-
sons desiring more specific information would make no mistake
by referring to them.
The author is under many obligations to Frazier Rogers, pro-
fessor of agricultural engineering of the University of Florida,
for his fine spirit of cooperation in the preparation of the bul-




letin. He offered many very valuable suggestions and placed
his notes and collection of books and bulletins at my disposal.
He also read and criticised the manuscript.
The manuscript was also read and criticised by Profs. A. P.
Spencer and H. G. Clayton of the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service.

Below are given the names and publishers of a number of
books and bulletins on various phases of farm engineering which
the interested person would do well to secure and study. Most
bulletins of the United States Department of Agriculture may
be had for the asking. Write direct to the department or to
your congressman or United States senator. Some states send
out publications to residents of other states without charge.


Tile drainage on the Farm, Farmers Bulletin 524, U. S. D. A., Wash-
ington, D. C.
Drainage of Farm Lands, Farmers Bulletin 187, U. S. D. A.
Terracing Farm Lands, Farmers Bulletin 1386, U. S. D. A.
Farm Drainage, Farmers Bulletin 1606, U. S. D. A.
Tile Drainage, Bulletin 188, Texas Agri. Exp. Sta., College Station,
Farm Drainage, Bulletin 234, North Carolina Agri. Exp. Sta., Raleigh,
N. C.
Installing Farm Drainage Systems, Bulletin 10, Vol. 18, Ohio State
Univ., Columbus, Ohio.
The Cost of Tile Drainage, Circular 147, Ohio, Exp. Sta., Wooster,
The Theory of Underdrainage, Bulletin 50, Iowa Engi. Exp. Sta.,
Ames, Iowa.
Tile Drainage of the Farm, Bulletin 254, Wisconsin Exp. Sta., Mad-
ison, Wis.
Practical Farm Drainage by C. G. Elliott; J. Wiley & Sons, New
York, N. Y.
Land Drainage by Powers and Teeter; J. Wiley & Sons, New York,
N. Y.
Farm Drainage Methods, Bulletins 216 and 217, Michigan Agri. Exp.
Sta., East Lansing, Mich.
Orchard Irrigation, Farmers Bulletin 1518, U. S. D. A.
Irrigation in Florida, Bulletin 462, U. S. D. A.
Sub-Irrigation, Bulletin 5, Florida Agri. Ext. Service, Gainesville,
Irrigation of Potatoes, Bulletins 142 and 157, Utah Agri. Exp. Sta-
tion, Logan, Utah.
Concrete Construction on the Livestock Farm, Farmers Bulletin 481,
U. S. D. A.
Construction of Concrete Fence Posts, Farmers Bulletin 483, U. S.
D. A.



Concrete on the Farm, Farmers Bulletin 461, Office of Public Roads,
U. S. D. A.
Plain Concrete for Farm Use, Farmers Bulletin 1279, U. S. D. A.
Small Concrete Construction on the Farm, Farmers Bulletin 1480,
U. S. D. A.
Better Concrete on the Farm, Circular 124, Missouri Ext. Service,
Columbia, Mo.
Concrete Construction for Rural Communities by Roy Seaton; Mc-
Graw Hill, New York, N. Y.
Publications of the Portland Cement Association, Chicago, Ill.


Water Systems for Farm Homes, Farmers Bulletin 941, U. S. D. A.
Water Supply, Plumbing and Sewage Disposal, Bulletin 57, U. S. D. A.
Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural Homes, Bulletin 46,
Florida Agri. Ext. Service, Gainesville, Florida.
Water Supply of the Farm Home, Bulletin 45, Vol. 52, Kansas Agri.
Exp. Sta., Manhattan, Kan.
Running Water in the Farm Home, Bulletin 19, Virginia Agri. Exp.
Sta., Blacksburg, Va.
The Farm Water Supply, Circular 43, West Virginia Ext. Service,
Morgantown, W. Va.
Running Water Possible in Every Country Home, Circular 4, Ala-
bama Poly. Inst., Auburn, Ala.
The Farm Water Supply, Cornell Exp. Sta. Bulletin 50, Cornell Uni.
Ithaca, N. Y.
Running water in the Farm Home, Bulletin 1, Indiana Agri. Exp.
Sta., Lafayette, Ind.


Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural Homes, Bulletin 46,
Florida Agri. Ext. Service, Gainesville, Florida.
Sewage Disposal for Country Homes, Bulletin 45, Cornell Ext. Ser-
vice, Ithaca, N. Y.
The Treatment of Sewage for Single Houses and Small Communities,
Bulletin 101, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D. C.
Sewage and Sewage Disposal for Farm Homes, Farmers Bulletin
1227, U. S. D. A.
Septic Tanks for the Farm, Ext. Circular 89, Pennsylvania State
College, State College, Penna.
Sewage Disposal for Villages and Rural Homes, Bulletin 41, Iowa
Eng. Exp. Sta., Ames, Iowa.
Modern Conveniences for the Farm House, Farmers Bulletin 270,
U. S. D. A.
Farm Engineering by Robb and Behrends; J. Wiley and Sons, New
York, N. Y.


The Silo in Florida, Bulletin 22, Florida Agri. Ext. Service, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
Home Made Silos, Farmers Bulletin 855, U. S. D. A.
Silos and Ensilage, Bulletin 143, Louisiana Agri. Exp. Sta., Baton
Rouge, La.
Silo Construction, Bulletin 129, West Virginia Agri. Exp. Sta., Mor-
gantown, W. Va.



Farmers' Shop Book by L. M. Roehl; Bruce Pub. Co., Milwaukee,
Farm Mechanics. Field, Olsen and Nylin; The Century Co., New
York, N. Y.
Agricultural Mechanics by R. H. Smith; Lippincott, Philadelphia,
Farm Buildings by Foster and Carter; J. Wiley & Sons, New York,
N. Y.
Engineering on the Farm by J. T. Stewart; Rand McNally Co., New
York, N. Y.
Farm Structures by K. J. T. Ekblaw; MacMillan Co., New York,
N. Y.
Carpentry, Parts 1, 2, 3,-4, 5; International Text Book Co., Scranton,

Agricultural Mechanics by R. H. Smith; Lippincott, Philadelphia,
Farmers' Shop Book by L. M. Roehl; Bruce Pub. Co., Milwaukee,
Farm Mechanics, Field, Olsen and Nylin; The Century Co., New
York, N. Y.
Blacksmith Shop Equipment and Welding; International Text Book
Co., Scranton, Penna.

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