BulltinNo. 6 Nw SriesJanary
MARY A. STENNIS
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Bulletin No. 46
N RESPONSE to many requests from within and
from without the state, this bulletin has been
prepared to acquaint Florida people, and people
everywhere, with Florida fruits and vegetables and
their nutritive value and uses in the menu.
The great variety of food from which to choose, as
well as the possibilities of food production in the
state, are apparent. An increased utilization of
Florida's products will come from a better knowl-
edge of their adaptability for a year 'round diet.
Commissioner of Agriculture.
Table of Contents
I. Florida's Contribution to the Food Needs of the Nation 5
II. Florida Vegetables .... . . . 11
III. Florida Fruits . . . . . . . 22
IV. Uses of Florida Fruits and Vegetables . . . 41
1. Cocktails, Drinks, Sherbets . . . . 41
2. Hors d'(Euvres ... . . 44
3. Salads . . . . . . 44
A. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables for
Salads .... . . . 44
B. Salad Dressings . . . . . 45
c. Salad Combinations . . . . 48
D. Special Salads-Florida . . . 49
E. The Fruit and Vegetable Salad in the Menu 51
4. Cooked Products . . . . ... 51
A. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective"
Value of Vegetables . . . 51
B. General Recipes . . . ... 57
Vegetables . . . .. 57
Fruits . . . 72
c. Desserts . . . 81
D. Crystallized Fruits . . . . 83
V. The Body Needs and Florida Menus to Meet the Needs 85
1. Calory . . . . . . .. 91
2. Vitamin . . . . . . 91
3. Florida Fruits .... . . 96
Florida Vegetables .. . . 96
4. Weight-Height-Age Tables . . . . 97
Floridas Contribution to the Food
Needs of the Natiop
FOOD resources tend to concern any section of the country.
Transportation and refrigeration have reduced the distribution
problem but, even today, an abundant and varied food produc-
tion is of vital interest. Through science, by means of chemical
analyses and animal feeding, we know now that at least 35 simple
substances' make up man's optimum food supply-that is, the sup-
ply necessary to promote normal growth and to maintain health.
We know, too, that of these substances, mineral content is of
great importance. Of the ten essential minerals, for instance, cal-
cium and phosphorus must balance each other in proper relation.
Sunshine greatly aids not only the plants, but the animals, in the
process by which they utilize calcium and phosphorus and thus
build good frame structure. Before the sun can do its work, of
course, it is essential that the minerals be present-in the soil, in
the plant and in the human body. A deficiency of iodine has caused
goiter, while a lack of phosphorus in some parts of the world's soil
has caused great loss in livestock, the animals becoming bone
chewers. Recent research has shown that some copper is necessary
in order that the iron may be used for the formation of the red
pigment which helps the red corpuscles to carry oxygen to the
tissues. The need for lime is recognized as fundamental.
At the present time we feel fairly sure that at least six vitamins
are necessary for health. We know, too, that some of these vita-
mins are water soluble, some are fat soluble, some are in one type
of food and missing in others. We have known for a long time
that not one protein alone but sixteen digestion products of proteins
are needed for body building and that a balance of several foods is
required to supply the building food material needed.
Having gone this far, we know that no one food can complete
the diet. Variety is essential. Whole wheat bread, for instance, is
not vital; cereals for breakfast are not a necessity; but a combina-
tion of foods, with a balance of various substances, is essential to
optimum health and living. Efforts have been made to prove that
the human being can live on milk; can exist on grains; can remain
alive on potatoes. Why try to prove possible existence even for a
short time? Of what use is bare existence? Abundant life, health,
is the goal. Concentrated sugar relieves hunger quickly and so
people have believed that sugar has an enormous "food value." It
is strictly for energy but, alone, it overtaxes the system. It is
habit-forming. It is minus minerals, vitamins, and all structural
I Eighteen of these substances are digestion products of proteins; ten are mineral
elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, phosphorus, sul-
phur, iron, and copper) ; six are called vitamins-distinguished as vitamins A, B,
C. D, E, and G.; one is sugar glucose derived either from glucose or from cane sugar,
or starches, milk sugar, etc.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
material for growth and repair. In some sections meat has been
published far and wide as the most nearly perfect food and as the
most essential food. Meat is a good protein. It has a limited
amount of iron and vitamin G, but it is poor in calcium and has no
vitamins other than G.
The normal life history of a human being (or animal) shows that,
if born of normal parents, he will start life with vitality, and if
well cared for and well fed, will develop a sound body. Some people
live well until 80; some die at 40. Some die at 40 and are unburied
until 80. They have the privilege of a half life of ill health. Animal
feeding has shown that right feeding prolongs life and efficiency
and that it affects the rate of growth in the young, the ultimate
size, the time for old age to begin to show, the fertility and success
of the mothers in raising the young, the reproduction, and the nerv-
ous system. The faulty diet of the animal produces physical defects
such as short and stocky form, enlarged joints, defective teeth, gen-
eral runtiness, poor quality of hair, nervousness, abnormal fear-
the special symptoms, depending upon the nature of the defect. In
addition to this, McCollum and other research authorities tell us
that they have seen, repeatedly, each of the deficiency diseases appear
in animals deprived of one or another of the required food factors.
Today we still hear, however, that so long as human beings have
variety of diet, they are safe. Investigation shows that this is not
necessarily true. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, rye, peas, beans, soy-beans,
potato, sweet potato, radish, turnip, beets, carrot, parsnips, do not
supply safety. Add lean meat and yet the safety is not assured.
All this list is lacking in the very important item calcium and may
be very poor in protein or deficient in vitamins. Leafy vegetables
are lacking. Milk is lacking. Both are good sources of calcium.
Both are splendid sources of protein. Milk supplies abundant pro-
tein while vegetables supply protein in small quantities but of good
quality and easily digestible. Fruit is also missing in this list.
Fruit, leafy vegetables, and milk are all good sources of vitamins.
They should largely supplement even the varied diet above listed.
A cross section of the "Common American Diet of Today" has
been pictured for us by a study made by Dr. Lovell Landstrother
who made rather true records on the diets of 501 patients suffer-
ing from degenerative diseases. Keeping in mind the nation's
habit of "meat, bread, potato, and dessert" diet, with its usual
accessories of butter, cream, sugar, mayonnaise, on the one hand and
the so-called "protective" diet (fruit, green vegetables, milk) on the
other, he found that 88 per cent of the calories in the total diets was
supplied by non-protective foods and 12 per cent by protective foods.
Bread supplied 16 per cent and butter 17 per cent. All except 31
patients used meat; except 107, potato; except 128, sweets; except 36,
used vegetables in some amount. Thus 88 per cent were getting a con-
centrated, too refined and acid diet. Vitamin content was poor, except
A which occurred in butter and cream. Carbohydrate was high, cal-
cium low. A protective diet, of 70 per cent vegetables, fruit and
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
milk, was prescribed and substituted. The result was that all
showed remarkable improvement and 73 per cent recovered.
The diet of the 501 patients studied here is said to be indicative
of the American habit of eating. The diseases are in some cases,
of course, due to heredity, stress of employment, environment, in-
fection, wear and tear, but as was shown in the response of these
cases and in thousands of others, partial protection, at least, lies in
the "protective foods"-fruits, vegetables and milk.
Our total diet, according to records made by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture of over 400 families, includes about 35 per
cent wheat flour and 14 per cent sugar. The amount of meat varies
and potato comes in for a good share. This "make-up" is poor in
vitamins A, C, D, and E, and in calcium and in other minerals. How
shall we make up the deficit? Keen competition in placing certain
staple foods (as well as "luxuries") on the market has produced
confusion and complications in planning the daily menu. Nutri-
tionists who have done the greatest scientific food research have
interpreted their findings regarding the essential diet as follows:
"A quart of milk will supply about 27 per cent of the total food
intake. Two salads-raw-vegetables or fruit each day and a gen-
erous serving of green leafy vegetables added to the milk will be
a safe plan for health. The appetite will take care of the remainder.
A decrease in the milk should mean an increase in fruits and vege-
tables, always. The solution of the problem lies then in the reduc-
tion of sugars and starches, probably meat, and the increase in the
What can Florida contribute to the nation's diet, to the happi-
ness, health and efficiency not only of Florida's people but of the
nation's population? Does she have a contribution? Does her choice
place in the nation, a chosen strip nearest the sun, a selected land
with a soil endowed richly with warmth, moisture, calcium, phos-
phorus and sunshine-a soil receptive to further soil feeding when
necessary-have any effect upon her production of "protective"
food? Does the fact that Florida receives the purifying effects of
the Atlantic breezes from the east and the mild Gulf winds from
the west and south, giving her perfect air drainage and a moist
atmosphere not of the usual fog and mist of the sea-level type but
of a clearness that is seemingly reflected sunlight, mean that the
ultra-violet rays of the sun are able to come through more effee-
tvely in this favored land?
Tests, made by the Department of Health, Chicago, found that,
due to smoke, the ultra-violet rays of the sun were only 50 per cent
effective. In tests made in Washington, D. C., with an atmosphere
practically free from smoke even the winter sunlight was found
effective in successful irradiation. (Anti-rachitic Efficiency of
Winter Sunlight of Washington, D. C., Military Surgeon, LXII
(1928) 592.) Colonel Brooke in his discussion of "Influence of the
Tropics in Rickets" in Annals of Internal Medicine, II (1928), 281,
says that the ideal conditions of ultra-violet light are found where
the sunlight is most intense and where the atmosphere is free from
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
smoke and cloudiness. Florida is free from smokiness and Florida
not only has no long rainy season (as is true in the more tropical
locations) but she has very few successive cloudy days during the
year.' Colonel Brooke also mentions "humidity" as a limiting fac-
tor. Does Florida have humidity? She has moisture but very little
humidity as the term is commonly used to represent mist and fog.'
The shifting of the breezes, coming as has been said from the At-
lantic on one side and from the Gulf on the other-mild winds of
a similarity of temperature-sweeps Florida atmosphere clean and
clear, giving her sun free air passage directly to the earth. Even
through the season of most rainfall the moisture in the atmosphere
precipitates quickly, the atmosphere clears, and the sun "comes
Does being nearer the sun mean anything? Florida with a lati-
tude of between 240 32" and 310 north, is nearer the sun than is
any other state. Dr. Katherine Blunt, University of Chicago, who
has recently made a most complete summary of what science knows
today of the effect of sunlight on nutrition,' says that in the tropics,
where the sun's rays are more direct, the intensity of the ultra-
violet light is greater, except for cloudiness. Tropical and semi-
tropical light have greater anti-rachitic power, she says, and this
fact is borne out by the smaller amount of rickets found in such
locations. (American Journal of Diseases of Children, XXXV
(1928), 590, "Influence of Severe Rickets in New Orleans and
One other limiting factor remains-that of the sun's altitude,
the sun's angle, meaning its distance from the southern horizon,
that which makes a difference between summer and winter; between
noon, morning or afternoon. Tisdale and Brown ("Relation of the
Altitude of the Sun to Its Anti-rachitic Effect," Journal American
Medical Association, XCII (March 16, 1929), 860), making tests of
the effectiveness of the ultra-violet rays of the sun in the prevention
of rickets have reached the conclusion that where the minimal sea-
sonal altitude of the sun is above about 35 degrees the light is pro-
tective; and where the sun's altitude is below 35 degrees rickets
exists in severe form. The minimal seasonal altitude of the sun at
40 degrees north latitude is 26 degrees; at Glasgow, Scotland, 11
degrees (and below 35 degrees six months) ; at London, England,
16 degrees (and below 35 degrees for five months); in Boston, 23
degrees (and below 35 for four months) ; in Baltimore, 27 degrees (be-
low 35 degrees for three months). In Florida the minimum seasonal
altitude of the sun is always above 37 degrees, an angle at, or above,
which ultra-violet light is always effective.
The three factors limiting the effects of ultra-violet light as
stated by Dr. Blunt (namely: the fog, smoke, and dust of the
Average seasonal rainfall in Florida is as follows: winter, 3 inches per month;
autumn, 4.39; summer, 6.94; and spring, 3.12.
2 Fog Periods in Florida: Western and extreme north Florida, 12 to 14 days during
the year, mostly between November and March; west central coast about 10 days dur-
ing the year; east coast, less than 10 days; extreme south exceedingly rare, almost
never at any time during the year.
3 "Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition" (P. 135), Katherine Blunt.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 9
atmosphere, the distance of the sun, and the angle of the sun)
having been disposed of satisfactorily, we may, without modifica-
tion, say that, as far as scientists know, Florida receives snore of
the effective ultra-violet light of the sun than does any other loca-
tion in the United States. In simple words we may say Florida
occupies the best place in the sun-her vegetables and fruits mature
and ripen in the most effective sunshine in the United States.
What does all this sunshine mean? Scientists have, by mechani-
cal means, used ultra-violet rays of light in the treatment of foods
and have thereby been able to give certain foods increased health-
giving power or what is known as vitamin D. Irradiated foods have
shown good results in the better bone building, in the better use of
calcium and phosphorus taken into the body. Dr. Katherine Blunt
says, "With the limited sunshine of Northern winters, a palatable,
readily available food with anti-rachitic power, the power to assist
the body in the assimilation of calcium and phosphorus is an impor-
tant contribution to national health." She refers to irradiated oil
treated artificially with this same ultra-violet light which Florida's
food products receive from her own natural sunshine, through an
almost unobstructed atmosphere, in Nature's own dose, more gen-
erous and more effective than that in the northern climate. Is it not
at least a more pleasing prospect to take the daily dose, not in oil
(artificially treated), but in appetizing, palatable fresh fruit and
Since the sun plays such an important part in the process of
using the calcium and phosphorus in the human body and has shown
some power even in the northern climate to give vitamin D to a
number of foods, including vegetables, cabbage, other greens, soy
beans, hay grown in the open in summer, it seems reasonable to
conclude that where the light is more effective the storage of vita-
mins in vegetables and fruits will be greater. Dr. Blunt says that
"the scarcity of vitamin D in northern vegetables may lie partly
in the relatively small amount of ultra-violet light in the sunshine
and partly in its slight penetrating ability." Various vegetables
and orange juice are listed among the foods successfully irradiated.
Plants contain the same mother substance, ergosterol,' upon which
light acts in human cells to produce vitamin D. Therefore if the
sunlight in the proper intensity and at the proper angle can reach
the plant for a sufficient period, it is reasonable to believe that the
same good work proceeds-the storing of vitamin D for human use.
Florida, having the year 'round advantage of all other locations
in the United States in the quality of her sunshine, furnishes a field
for unlimited research along these lines.
Artificial irradiation has been found to be effective, if properly
used, but harmfully so, if overdone. Irradiated ergosterol" (Vio-
Ergosterol, the parent substance of vitamin D, is a sterol found always where-
ever cholesterol occurs. It exists in largest quantities in ergot or in yeast. Phylesterol,
too-the sterol common in plants-is accompanied by ergosterol. Irradiated ergosterol,
even a one per cent solution in oil, is very potent, two and a half to ten drops being
equivalent to one cup of good grade cod liver oil.
2 Viosterol, the new standard product of irradiated ergosterol, is much less con-
centrated than the above-mentioned irradiated ergosterol, a dose of eight to ten drops
being equivalent to three to five teaspoons of cod liver oil. "Ultra-Violet Light and
Vitamin D in Nutrition," Katherine Blunt.
10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
sterol) has been successfully used but also misused. The United
States Public Health Service says, "Of course we would not be
understood as deprecating the therapeutic use of irradiated ergo-
sterol, but would rather call attention to the possible harm that
might result from too large doses." Foods over-irradiated have
been found to be ineffective. Equipment for artificial irradiation
has been found to be not yet dependable. There is much that is
uncertain. There is a broad field of research open for future
scientists. But, in the light of what has been done, there is the
satisfaction that in Florida sunlight at least, if we make full use of
the sun food products-fruits and vegetables-there is reason to
believe protective power does exist.
Sunlight, however, is not the whole story. Fruits and vegetables
come from the soil. Plant food must come from the soil. Again
calcium and phosphorus are essential. Florida soil, in many sec-
tions, abounds in lime. Calcium and phosphorus exist in vast stores.
In fact, Florida produces more phosphate than any other state in
the Union. These two minerals, among others, are available within
the State. Florida's soils by experiment have shown that they are
easily receptive to such additional mineral food as is needed. By
soil selection and by proper supplementary feeding all the vege-
tables and fruits of the warm climate type and many of the tem-
perate climate type may be produced economically and successfully,
and well stored with the calcium, phosphorus and other minerals
necessary in animal and human nutrition.
From January to January throughout the entire breadth and
length of the State from Pensacola to Key West, fruits and vege-
tables of some type or many types are "in season" and not only in
season but in sunshine. Not only are they in sunshine but out-of-
doors in sunshine, fully exposed and natural in their development,
and in a soil so varied and adaptable that suitable plant feeding
locations are easily available for a big variety of the known fruits
and vegetables and for many varieties not known elsewhere. With
an abundant and effective sunshine all year, a generous moisture,
a soil containing varied mineral food' and receptive to added min-
eral foods, Florida, an all-'round, all-year agricultural possibility,
has a wealth of health not only for herself but for the country at
large to whom she sends her luscious fruits and fresh nutritious
vegetables. The minerals, vitamins and roughage she sends abroad
are adding to the nation's wealth, health and efficiency. From the
modest little red-haw or blueberry of northwest Florida, over the
wide range of hundreds of fruits to the gorgeous mango of the far
south; from the "first families" of the "greens" of north Florida
to the newly-rich romaine of the south there is reason to believe
that these food plants have gleaned, in the growing, the best Nature
has to offer.
I "Soils of Florida," 0. C. Bryan, published by the Florida State Department of
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
WHY MORE VEGETABLES? GREEN, FRESH VEGETABLES?
VEGETABLES, next to milk-particularly the green, leafy
vegetables-supply the body with more mineral food than
does any other class of foods. "An edible leaf," McCollum
tells us, "is essentially a complete and nearly or quite balanced
food." Animals have subsisted for generations on the leaves of
plants. Animals do not succeed on grain, tuber, root diet. Hogs
fed largely on peanuts and sweet potatoes have a soft, oily fat and
fragile bones. As hay and forage go into the diet of the animals,
let us add the leafy greens to the human diet.
Vegetables are rich in calcium. All other foods except milk
are poor in calcium. Calcium is absolutely essential for body build-
ing. It must come from the soil to the plant to the human body
for proper nutrition. Leaf vegetables are also rich in other neces-
sary minerals as are also root vegetables. They supplement each
other. But the leafy fresh vegetable goes further than other foods
-grains, tubers, roots, meat or even fruit-in furnishing the min-
erals and thus keeps the body in the proper neutral or very slightly
Vegetables have a vitamin content which supplements that of
cereals, roots, and tubers and even fruits. Here again the green
leafy vegetables and the yellow types excel.
Vegetables have a contribution to make in protein-small but
very valuable in that it again supplements cereals. In fact the pro-
tein of the green leaf helps the body to utilize the protein of cereals.
In addition to the regulation effected by the minerals contained
in vegetables there is a very definite aid rendered to the mechanical
process of digestion. Vegetables possess an amount of nondigestible
matter of water holding capacity and are thus able to maintain a
favorable consistency for elimination. The so-called "roughage"
of vegetables is non-irritating to the delicate linings of the alimen-
tary tract. The starchy roots also make a contribution in "nondi-
gestibles" capable of swelling in water.
FLORIDA VEGETABLES AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
The artichoke, also called the globe artichoke, consists of a bulb or head
of thickened spiny green leaves having fleshy bases. The thickened por-
tion at the base of the leaf-like scales and the core or receptacle, are the
edible parts of the artichoke. The edible part of young and tender arti-
chokes raw is suitable for salads. This vegetable has been grown only in
home gardens in Florida.
Preparatory to cooking, cut off the stem close to the leaves and the top
of the bud; soak the heads in cold salted water for 2 hours, and then boil
12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
for 20 minutes. Remove parts of the flower in the center of the flower bud,
chill the heads, and serve with mayonnaise in individual dishes. At table,
the scales are pulled with the fingers from the cooked heads, and the
base of each leaf is dipped in mayonnaise. The artichoke can also be used
as a hot vegetable served with drawn butter or thin cream.
Jerusalem artichoke is an underground tuber of the sunflower family.
It is not an artichoke and it is not from Jerusalem. It is native to the
United States and was used among the early Indians.
The tubers are elongated to round in shape. They are red and yellow to
white in color, the flesh being white. The skin is rough, with many eyes, the
general appearance being that of a potato.
The composition of this tuber is different from that of the potato, being
about 14.7 per cent sugar and 0 per cent starch. It is an agreeable change
from potato and it may be cooked in a similar manner.
Asparagus is 94 per cent water, but the edible portion contains more
protein than most succulent vegetables. Its delicate flavor, its quick growth
and tender quality, its ready digestibility, make it popular in Florida where
it appears in what is still winter elsewhere.
The tender, young, white or greenish-white stems of asparagus are used
as food. Preparatory to cooking, cut off the woody base or snap off the
stems with a sharp knife. Tie the stems in neat bundles and place them in
boiling salted water for 20 minutes with the cut ends resting on the bottom
of the vessel; then drop on sides so that the heads will be submerged, and
cook until tender. Serve with warm butter, or on well-toasted bread, and
season with pepper and salt.
Limas are kidney shaped flat beans. They grow well even in the hot
summer. They should be used the day they are picked if desired fresh.
Use soft water for cooking or else the lime of the hard water forms an
insoluble compound with the protein of the bean. Combined with sweet
green corn they make a favorite well known Indian dish known as succotash,
usually made by cooking the green beans from twenty to thirty minutes and
combining them with canned corn. The mixture is then tossed into a pan
containing finely chopped fried hot bacon or is seasoned with butter.
GREEN STRING BEANS
Green beans have shown at least as much vitamin A as head lettuce
and much more than the inner leaves of fresh cabbage. They are particu-
larly rich in vitamin C when fresh. String beans grown in Florida have
a texture more tender and a flavor more delicate than beans in climates
of slower growth. They are similar to "greens" in food value when young
and tender. To prepare for cooking break off and discard the ends of the
pods; break into pieces. wash well and drop into boiling water and cook rapidly
for fifteen minutes. Allow water to evaporate. Season well with salt and
butter or with bacon. Place over a slow heat and cook 30 minutes longer.
Do not "soak" beans before cooking. This process loses flavor and food
value. Sometimes a distinction is made between string beans and snap beans,
the latter being smaller but similar in food value and method of preparation.
(Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Greens-Beet greens contain vitamin A and are rich in calcium. They
are somewhat like chard. When young the entire plant, including the root,
may be used as "greens." Wash thoroughly and cook from 20 to 30 minutes
in boiling salted water. Chop in fine pieces. Season with butter and cream.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Roots-The roots of beets supply some iron and phosphorus and have a
small vitamin C content. Beets contain a certain amount of sugar and
starch but very little protein. They add attractiveness of color. Beets lose
much of their nutritive material and color in cooking and should be cooked
in the skins and with at least two inches of the top. Boil for one hour in
a large volume of water. Leave the lid on. For a quick method peel and
slice or chop finely. Add a very small amount of water and cook for 15
minutes. Add lemon juice and butter. Serve hot. Beets adapt themselves
nicely to waterless cookers. Put unpeeled beets in a saucepan with three
tablespoons water. Cook until tender. Peel and dress with butter, pepper,
and salt. They are sweeter and of better flavor cooked by this method. A
sauce of one tablespoon vinegar, 2 tablespoons butter, 1/2 teaspoon scraped
onion, one tablespoon sugar and 1/2 teaspoon of salt may be made to give
small beets a piquant flavor. Pour over peeled beets and let stand in a cov-
ered hot pan a few minutes.
Broccoli is a winter vegetable in Florida. It looks a little like the
cauliflower but is more hardy. It contains, probably more vitamin A than
cauliflower but otherwise is similar in composition. Select when young and
Brussels sprouts is a variety of cabbage, having blistered leaves and
the stem of the plant covered with small heads of cabbage which form the
edible portion of the plant, and which are more delicate in flavor than the
cauliflower or cabbage. It is used as cabbage in the menu. It contains more
vitamin A than the white leaves of cabbage.
The breadfuit tree (40 feet high) resembles a big chestnut tree. Bread-
fruit is oval shaped something like a melon. It is covered with short, hard
projections. The skin is green and is marked in small hexagons. The stem
should be cut and covered with salt and the fruit kept until it turns brown.
The fruit has a considerable amount of starch and a higher caloric value
than the banana. The ash fiber, and protein are high. It is a good source
of vitamin A but has no B or C.
To prepare, put in the oven and bake. When cooked, open and season
with butter, pepper and salt. Fresh breadfruit may be cut in slices and
dried in the sun. A paste called "Mahe" is sometimes made. This ferments
and has a disagreeable odor but when cooked the paste is a good nutritious
food. The sago-like farinaceous pellets inside are often made into puddings.
The jackfruit is the largest of tropical fruits, being sometimes two feet
long and weighing forty pounds. It grows from the trunk of the tree. It
has a hard rind which has to be cut with an axe. It is green, then greenish
yellow and finally brown as it ripens. Inside are numerous small cavities
each with a seed surrounded by a soft brownish pulp, somewhat suggestive of
banana. It is eaten fresh or preserved. When the flesh is boiled in fresh
milk and strained off, the milk, when cold, becomes a gelatinous consistency
of blanc-mange of orange color and melon flavor. The seeds boiled or
roasted are good to eat.
This plant probably ascended from the "colwart" or collard. It stands
high as a "protective" food due to its high vitamin content of A, B and C,
and to its generous supply of calcium. It loses some vitamin C in cooking.
The flavor and digestibility of the raw material seem to rate higher than
that of the cooked product. Cabbage and other members of the cabbage
family have some sulphur compounds which when boiled in water produce
a disagreeable odor and the volatile substance given off in the steam is dis-
agreeable. The container should be left open for a few minutes at least.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Young tender cabbage may be steamed. It is delicious when cooked in the
water where a ham bone has been boiled. Raw cabbage lends itself to many
varieties of dishes and combinations. (See Salads.) (Bulletin 23, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
1. Chinese Cabbage (Pe-tsai)-This cabbage is made of white, close-
growing stems with green leaves. The centers are very tender and may be
used for raw salads. To cook, cut and place in boiling salted water for 30
minutes or less. Season with butter and lemon juice.
2. Cauliflower-Cauliflower and broccoli are about the only flowers used
as vegetables. Cauliflower is considered as a cabbage, but it is milder in
flavor and possibly more easily digested. It has a high water holding
capacity. It is a good source of calcium, having nearly twice as much as
any other vegetable. It is expensive.
The principle of cooking is the same as for cabbage. Soak it upside down
in salt (mild) water to kill insects hiding there. (Bulletin 23, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
3. Rape-Rape, sometimes called Portuguese Cabbage, is used in the
very young tender stage for greens. It is cooked in boiling water about 30
minutes. Grated cocoanut or tomato catsup make a good seasoning.
4. Kohl-Rabi-Kohl-Rabi has from one to three times as much phos-
phorus, calcium, and protein as have beets and carrots-it also has as much
Kohl-Rabi or turnip cabbage has the stem or bulb, the edible portion of
the plant, largely above the ground. The smaller bulbs are less tough and
fibrous than the larger ones. To prepare, cut the leaves and bulbs in small
pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water 15 minutes. Then add the leaves and
cook another 30 minutes. Slice the bulbs. Arrange the greens around the
edge of the plate and the bulb slices in the center. Use melted butter.
The carrot, rich in an essential oil that gives it a strong odor or flavor,
sometimes objectionable, has, on the other hand, a yellow pigment (tasteless
and odorless) that gives it a beautiful color always desirable in planning a
Carrots are about 12 percent solid matter, about half of which is sugar.
The outer layer contains pectin. Young carrots possess greater caloric value
than old carrots, the latter having a tendency to become woody.
Calcium and vitamins A, B and C are well stored in carrots. The in-
digestible carbohydrates, pectin, etc., are a mechanical aid in digestion and
elimination. Recent experiments show the peel contains more vitamin B
than the flesh. Grated, young, raw carrots easily include the peel and are
more attractive in flavor than the cooked product. Because of the rich color-
ing and the pectin content, carrots are combined with pineapple and some
other fruits, lacking in pectin, in the making of marmalades. (Bulletin 23,
Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Cassava is a starchy root or underground stem. There are two kinds,
bitter and sweet. The plant is 4 to 6 feet high. The roots containing the
starch sometimes grow to be 4 feet long and about 2 inches in diameter.
These roots are of pure white solid tissue harder and drier than potato.
They have a reddish bark easily removed. The sweet varieties the natives
in the tropics peel and cook. They make a thin cake from the meal. It
is "Cassava bread." McCollum tells us that cassava and other tropical roots
contain ergosterol which, after it has been taken into the body, becomes
activated by the ultra-violet light of the nearby sun. Thus vitamin D is
produced. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Kilgore's Wonderful Pearl Special Celery
Southern Giant Curled Mustard
Escarolle or Broad-Leaved Batavian Endi
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 15
Celery is a winter crop in Florida where, on fewer acres, more celery
is produced than in any other state. The enlarged succulent stalk of the basal
leaves is the edible portion. Celery salt is ground celery seed and is highly
prized for flavoring soups and salads. Celery leaves (green) have vitamin
A, the stalks have some A and are good in vitamin B. A very small quantity
of essential oil gives celery its taste. Celery may nearly always be obtained
even when other fresh vegetables are scarce. It often gives variety to an
otherwise "soft" and concentrated menu. Since this is true it should really
not be cooked except as a flavor and then only slightly cooked so that it
will afford a good "crunchy feel" and something to chew, something with
which to give the teeth proper exercise. The outside leaves and tougher
portions may be used in soups, sauces, stews, omelets or cooked dressings.
(Volume 36. Number 2, Florida State Department of Agriculture, "Celery
Growing in Florida.")
Swiss chard, a variety of beet which, instead of a root, has thick broad
leaves growing on a large succulent stem. The outside leaves may be
removed and used and the plant left to grow. Chard is a good source of
vitamin A and calcium. It should be cooked in a small amount of water.
Stir until the leaves settle in the water.
Corn is a cereal, but in its fresh green state deserves mention in this
list. To prepare, place in boiling salted water for 10-12 minutes. Serve hot
with butter. Be careful not to overcook. Yellow corn probably is a richer
source of vitamin A than is white corn.
Collards belong to the non-heading thick-leaf vegetables growing on
one stalk. Both cooked and raw they are excellent in vitamin A. They are
also a source of vitamins B and C. They are a good winter vegetable and
are improved with cool mornings and light frosts. In colder climates the
leaves form loose heads but in Florida they do not head. Leaves may be
broken from the stems and the plant left to continue to grow through the
The cucumber is about 96 percent water. It lends freshness and crisp-
ness to the meal. It grows very rapidly in Florida, is tender and appetizing
even when large in size. Fresh in salads is the best form of preparation.
It may be brined, then treated with boiling vinegar with or without sugar
or spices. "Dill pickles" are usually large cucumbers flavored with dill seeds.
As an appetizer to vary a diet, cucumbers supply a cool, palatable relish.
To cook, peel, slice in quarters lengthwise and put into boiling water and
boil five minutes, or steam. Season with butter, pepper, and salt. Turn
heat low, cover closely. Cook 30 minutes. A prickly variety, small in size,
is the Gherkin, particularly good for pickling. (Bulletin 23, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
This plant has a greenish-white stem with a rosette of curly light-green
leaves which make an attractive garnish for salads or cooked dish-the
curly type for salads, and the broad-leaf type for cooking. It has a bitter
flavor which some call a "tonic." The bleached leaves are more crisp and
tender. It is best served with a French dressing of oil and lemon juice.
Sometimes a bit of hot bacon juice, instead of oil, is added to the lemon juice
Egg plant has a low food value. It may be fried, baked or steamed. It
adds bulk, variety and interest to the diet. It forms a good basis for combi-
16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Garlic resembles onion sets in appearance but has a white papery outer
shell. Remove the outer covering and slice through. It is very strong in
flavor. Use very sparingly.
Lettuce is particularly known for its vitamin, the green raw leaves
being excellent in A and C and good in B and E. Its mineral salts are
abundant. Some people have thought that lettuce has a medicinal virtue due
to a small quantity of sleep inducing substance called lactucarium. This
is found more in the stem, however. Others have thought that the iron is
particularly valuable in that it is in original form, chemically confined in the
chlorophyl. Lettuce does not have as much iron as spinach and turnip
greens. It lends itself most agreeably to the making of salads, It is usually
eaten raw and is therefore not depleted in food value.
Escarole is a large non-heading curly lettuce growing on one stalk. It
is listed as excellent in vitamin A and is of a rich green color. The outer as
well as the inner leaves should be eaten. To prepare for salad chill
thoroughly. Another way of serving is to tie the outer leaves together and
drop them into hot soup for 5 minutes. Remove the lettuce, taking care to
retain its shape, and squeeze dry. Cut in inch lengths and serve hot, capped
with grated cheese, or chop fine and serve with melted butter and a little
cream. Non-heading lettuce is delicious served wilted with bacon, or cooked
Water cress consists of long tender stems having small lobed leaves. It is
used in salads or cooked like "greens." It is an excellent source of vitamins
A and C. It should be grown in good water-water that is fit to drink.
Para cress grows in extreme south Florida and is known as toothache plant.
It presumably has some narcotic quality. It is used in salads.
Recent research made by Mendel and Vickery Laboratory Physiological
Chemistry, Yale, finds water cress leaves notably "rich in vitamin A; com-
parable with other vegetables in dietary factors formerly called vitamin B;
more potent than lettuce in vitamin E." (Jour. Home Economics, July, 1930.)
Mint consists of small green leaves with an aromatic flavor. It may
be chopped fine or used whole to flavor fruit cocktails, salads or jelly. It is
convenient to make a mint sauce by mixing it with sugar and vinegar or with
sugar and lemon juice. It sometimes is used with peas and new potatoes and
to flavor chutney and preserves.
Mustard has green crumpled leaves which should be crisp and a vivid
green. To prepare, cut crosswise finely and boil in a little water for five
minutes. Season with butter, salt and pepper. Cover and cook slowly 30
The Chinese mustard is a hot weather green whereas the common mus-
tard is of agreeable flavor only in cool weather. The Chinese variety has
a half pungent flavor very agreeable.
This is a quick growing thin leaf green plant, rich in vitamin A.
The thick-leaved, large-leaved variety will grow in Florida but has not
been used to any great extent. It is used in salads and in cooking.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 17
The okra plant is similar to the cotton plant. It is a dry weather
fruiting plant and thrives through the hot, dry season when other vegetables
are scarce. It grows easily nearly all over the state and bears well over
a period of several weeks.
The fruit is a small green pod and is best selected when young and
tender. It has a vitamin B content. The flavor is most pleasing in soups.
The mucilaginous consistency is a means of thickening soup. The texture
of full grown okra is to some palates not agreeable but if the pods are
selected early and lightly boiled or steamed so as not to break the skins the
effect is good and usually successful. Okra with tomatoes (gumbo) is a
delightful dish, the tomato lending the acid flavor and the okra thickening
the tomato to a pleasing consistency. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department
Onions, raw, are good sources of vitamin C. Onions have been ranked
with oranges, lemons, tomatoes and raw cabbage in richness in vitamin C.
Osborne and Mendel rank onions with about the same vegetables and fruits
as sources of vitamin B. Onions contain from 10 to 15 per cent nutrients.
Bermudas, shallots and leeks and other green onions grow abundantly in
Florida. The mineral value and the "nerve tonic" idea have probably been
over-rated but there seems to be no doubt about the laxative effect of onions.
They are classed as thick-leaf vegetables.
Green or immature onions are long, slender, white stalks having tubular
green leaves. To prepare for the table, remove the green tops, and serve raw
as a relish in salad, or chop and put in stew.
The Spanish or Bermuda onion is a spherical-shaped or flattened bulb
having a dead, shriveled stem and a dry, tan-colored, papery outer husk.
To prepare for the table, peel from the root up, place in rapidly boiling water
and cook for 5 minutes. Let the water evaporate, and season the vegetable
with butter, salt and pepper. Cover closely and steam for 30 minutes. To
bake, place for 5 minutes in rapidly boiling salted water, then remove, and
put under meat to be roasted. (Selected.) (Extension Bulletin 9, Hawaii
Pickling or Portuguese onions are small, round, partly mature bulbs
which are sold in bunches. Owing to their flavor, they are especially fine
for pickling whole in vinegar, or for use in stews and salads. To pickle,
select very fresh onions and peel them from the root up, taking care to keep
the bulb whole and round. While peeling, drop into a salt solution made
by dissolving 2 tablespoons of salt in 2 cups of cold water to prevent dis-
coloration and softening. When ready to pickle (this may be done imme-
diately if desired), dry on a cheese cloth and drop into a hot sterilized
bottle, adding boiling hot vinegar to cover. To prepare the vinegar for 4
pounds of small onions, boil 2 cups of malt vinegar with 1 tablespoon of
salt, 1 dozen peppercorns, 6 allspices, 3 bay leaves, and 6 small red peppers.
Seal the bottled onions and keep them in a dark place. (Selected.) (Exten-
sion Bulletin 9, Hawaii Experiment Station.)
Chives are milder and more tender than onions. They are grown for
the leaves and are useful in salads, soups, and stews.
Shallots are small clustered bulbs which resemble partly mature pickling
onions, but have fine, slender leaves. To cook, remove the tops and steam
the bulbs. Serve with butter. The delicate nutty flavor of shallots is very
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Parsley consists of sprays of bright green, finely curled dissected leaves.
It is used for soups, stews, sauces and to garnish salads, or cooked vegetables,
It gives attractive color.
The parsnip is a winter vegetable. It has more starch, more sugar than
the carrot and turnip. It also has a generous amount of pectin and cellulose.
To prepare, peel thickly, cook one hour in water to cover. Mash and season
with milk, pepper and salt, or mash with finely chopped browned bacon.
Peas and beans are used as food both in the green and in the dry stage.
They have a high protein content. In the dry stage they contain a higher
percentage of protein than meats but do not entirely take the place of meat
due to the fact that the proteins of legumes are not the only proteins needed
in body building and repair. These vegetables also furnish a fair amount
of iron and phosphorus and some calcium. They, although high in protein,
are alkaline in reaction. Fresh green peas or fresh cowpeas have good
supply of vitamin A, B and C. Dried leaves and peas may be counted upon
for vitamin B. Green peas (English peas) are a winter crop in Florida
while the cow-peas, lady-peas and black-eyed peas flourish during the sum-
The field pea is a Southern dish. Experiments made by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture (Farmer's Bulletin 318) as to the nutritional
value of the field pea shows that it compares favorably with other legumes.
Long and general use on Southern tables proves its satisfactory food value.
The lady-pea was found more digestible than the kidney bean, 83 percent of
the protein and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates being digested. The sugar
crowder and lady are popular. The bush conch is a popular Florida table
pea. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
PIGEON PEA (S.)
This pea grows on a tall, woody, half-hardy shrub that yields heavily.
The unripe pea is used for the English pea and has been pronounced a good
starting point for a tropical green pea.
Red peppers or long "hot" peppers are tapering pods which are first
green, then red when matured. They are used in pickles, chutney, sauces, for
seasonings. The juice is very strong and should be used sparingly. Children
should not handle it. These peppers are easily cured or dried in the sun.
Sweet peppers in Florida sometimes bear as long as 6 or 8 months in the
year. Pimentoes are smooth, have a thick, juicy flesh and are sweeter than
the other types. They are better for canning. Tests of canned pimentoes
made by MacLeod, Nutrition Laboratory, Columbia (Journal Home Eco-
nomics, July, 1930) showed a vitamin C content equal to that of grapefruit.
The bell pepper is hardier than the pimento but has a good flavor and
color. "Stuffed peppers" is a favorite Southern dish. Peppers for salads
should be well crisped. Peppers for canning should be placed in a hot (not
warm) oven for loosening the peel. (Bulletin 23, page 29, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The potato is a modified stem, an enlargement for storing starch. It
shows in an analysis, some potash, a small amount of iron, calcium, and
phosphorus. Both white and sweet potatoes show vitamin C content and the
sweet potato (the yellow variety) shows a greater vitamin A content. Both
potatoes contain very little cellulose. They yield an alkaline ash and are
cheap sources of vitamin C which occurs more often in the "luxuries." They
help to balance the acid residue of meat.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 19
Very young potatoes and old potatoes (ready to sprout) have less
starch and more sugar than well grown but still fresh potatoes. The average
potato (mature) has 75 per cent water, 20 per cent starch, and about one-eighth
that much protein, and a relatively large amount of ash as compared with
other vegetables. The more moist potatoes have a greater proportion of
protein while the mealy potato has more starch. Experimental cooking of
the potato has shown that in boiling (peeled) 8.2 per cent of the protein
is lost when the potatoes are plunged directly into boiling water, 25 per cent
when they are soaked beforehand, and 15.8 per cent when they are placed
in cold water and brought to a boil. When boiled in the jackets they lose
only one per cent of the protein and only three per cent of the mineral.
Baking potatoes loses almost none of the nutrients. (Bulletin No. 3, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
Many varieties of sweet potato flourish in Florida soils. Usually the
moist sweeter potato goes on the local market while the dry mealy article
is sent to the Northerner who likes it better. The sweet variety has from
6 to 8 per cent sugar and therefore a higher caloric value than the white
potato. The sugar increases while the starch decreases during storage. The
protein percentage is possibly a little less in the sweet potato. Peanuts are
a splendid supplement and are combined in many interesting ways with the
sweet potato. (See Recipes.)
Canning factories are now taking care of the small potatoes not suitable
for shipping and are supplying localities not able to purchase the fresh
potato all year. Recently canneries in Florida have begun also to can the
white potato too small to ship. Now a vegetable dinner with potato is being
placed in one can for the market.
The "Porto Rico," rich in color, moist in texture, sweet in flavor, and the
Nancy Hall, with a creamy pink yellow flesh, are two of the more popular
varieties among Southern people. The Triumph and Big Stem Jersey, dry
and mealy in texture, are more popular among Northern people who are
more accustomed to the white potato and who like the drier type. Various yam
varieties are splendid for home use but are rather tender and easily bruised
in handling. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
This is not a sweet potato. It is a larger tuber than the sweet potato
and not so sweet. When it grows to unusual size it is tougher and coarser
than the sweet potato. It keeps more easily than the potato. In the lower
part of the state it remains in the ground from year to year without replant-
ing. Negroes use it for bread. They "dig" it as they need it from day to day.
The dasheen is an underground corm or tuber in which the plant stores
starch. The leaves are similar to "Elephant Ear." It is similar to the white
potato but has less water and more starch and protein. It has a nutty
flavor, when cooked by boiling or baking, that suggests boiled chestnuts. It
is served with drawn butter. It bakes nicely. The dasheen makes a success-
ful fluted "crisp" to be eaten with the fingers like potato chips. Dasheen
leaves are also used as greens. They should be selected when young and
tender. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Plantain has the appearance of a very large coarse banana. It is not
edible raw but is a good source of vitamin A and B in the cooked stage. It
should be cooked slowly. Before it is ripe it may be sliced very thin and
cooked like potato chips. It may also be baked or boiled. It is akin to the
sweet potato in taste and texture when cooked. Lemon juice and butter add
to the flavor.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Radish greens are the tops of the little radish roots and are suitable to
combine with other varieties of spring or winter "greens." The roots are
peppery in flavor, attractive for salads, and are easily and quickly grown in
early spring. Radishes are a source of vitamin B and C and the greens
Salsify or oyster plant consists of long brown roots. It grows wild or
may be cultivated. To prepare, scrape and cut into one inch pieces. Drop
into boiling water and let boil 5 minutes; then place in a creamy white
sauce and boil 30 minutes. To fry cut in 2 or 3 inch lengths, dip in flour,
then in egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat. The food has a delicate flavor
which suggests oysters. Select young.
Spinach has slender, succulent stems having small leaves. It has a
highly alkaline residue in the process of digestion. It is rich in iron and in
vitamins A, B and C. According to Sherman it has as much vitamin A as
an equal weight of egg yolk or butter. It needs only a few minutes high
temperature in cooking and therefore maintains its rich vitamin content.
It is better steamed than boiled. Lemon juice helps the flavor. Add butter.
NEW ZEALAND SPINACH
This vegetable is not related to the ordinary spinach. It is a hot weather
grower and forms a good substitute for spinach during the season when
spinach does not thrive. It is cooked as "greens" and is popular often among
people who do not like spinach.
1. Winter Squash-Winter squash may be seeded and peeled thinly and
steamed, mashed and served with butter, salt and pepper. Or it may be
steamed in slices for serving. By placing a towel on the steamer rack, the
squash on the towel, and another cloth over the food, the extra moisture is
absorbed and the squash is a nice, tender consistency, yet firm-not "watery."
2. Chinese Squash-Chinese squash or melon is a light green color. It
has a whitish, fuzzy appearance when young. It is round or slightly elongated.
The rind is like a watermelon. The meat, about 2 inches thick, is white, as
are also the seed. The flavor is mild. It forms a good casserole lining
for squab or chicken.
3. Hubbard Squash-Hubbard squash or pumpkin is oval shaped, green-
ish-yellow and has a good amount of vitamin A. Without removing the peel
place in the oven and bake slowly 45 minutes. Cut into neat pieces. Serve
in the skin.
4. Summer Squash-Summer squash is a light green, oval shape. Serve
like Chinese squash. Yellow squash is said to have more vitamin A than
the white variety. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
5. Chayote-The chayote grows on a climbing vine. The fruit is pear-
shaped more or less and varies in size and color as well as shape. It has
one big seed. Like squash, it is watery and is better cut into slices for serv-
ing and steamed only until tender. Chayote in the raw state has only a fair
amount of vitamin A and seemingly no vitamin B or C.
To prepare for cooking, peel, slice or dice. This squash may be creamed,
fried in butter, made into fritters, salad or pickles. A sauce may be made
by boiling or steaming and mashing them and adding the juice of the flowers
of the roselle (a beautiful red). When sugar is added a good dessert is the
The chayote will thrive when other vegetables are usually scarce. When
once established it continues to grow year after year.
ilgore's New Long-standing Bloomsdale Savoy
Long Green Okra
Early Snowball Cauliflower
Romaine or White Paris Cos Lettuce
E'--- PI--A-- NA-L -C MY- 1 T4 IARII:
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 21
The tomato is in season in some localities almost the year 'round in
Florida. It is one of the most common, yet most valuable, of Florida vege-
tables. It is the vegetable richest in vitamins, particularly vitamin C, the
one most lacking in the American diet. Tomato juice should be a part of the
diet of everybody, beginning with the babies only a few weeks of age.
Orange juice and tomato juice, easily taken, are splendid supplements of
deficient diets. They are "fool proof" in nutritional value. Fresh or canned
tomatoes add variety, color, food value (both mineral and vitamin), flavor,
and pleasure to any menu. (Bulletin 23, State Department of Agriculture.)
The plum tomato is a small oval-shaped tomato varying from yellow to
red. It is good for cooking purposes, particularly for preserves.
Turnip greens are the tops of the common turnip. They are unusually
rich in iron and calcium. They are a valuable source of vitamin A, B and C.
They should be selected young and tender and cooked quickly. The liquor
in which they are cooked should be used for soups. Bacon adds a splendid
flavor to turnip greens. These greens are not easily hurt by frost and light
freezes. They are hardy and should be grown all winter.
Root turnips are good in vitamin B and C and the yellow turnips prob-
ably contain vitamin A. They have a spicy, pungent taste (due to an essential
oil) and, when combined with the turnip greens and slices of cured bacon and
hot corn muffins, they form a favorite fall meal in the South. It is said that
the juices of tomatoes and turnip greens have had a big place in the list of
protective foods in the southern climate. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Depart-
ment of Agriculture.)
Swedish Turnip-(Rutabaga)-The rutabaga has a denser yellow flesh
and takes longer time to mature than the white turnip. The roots can stand
longer summer heat without becoming woody or acrid. The yellow turnip
surpasses the white in its vitamin A content and it also contains more sugar.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WHY MORE FRUITS? FRESH FRUITS?
FRUITS have a very decided nutritive value. Although people,
in some climates, consider fruit a mere luxury, it is well known
that in tropical climates many natives practically live on fruits.
Many people, on the other hand, use fruit as a medicine due largely to
its hygienic value rather than to its food value. According to Farmers
Bulletin No. 293, U. S. Department of Agriculture, a study of 400
families in the United States showed that 4.4 per cent of the total
food material and 3.7 per cent of the total carbohydrates are from
fruit. As to digestibility, it is estimated that 80 per cent of the
protein, 97 per cent of the fat, and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates
in fruits are digested. It is not the purpose of this bulletin to
compare a vegetable diet with a meat diet but in the light of various
experiment station records it seems safe to say that a fruit and nut
diet plus a liberal amount of cereal and vegetables and eggs with a
limited amount of meat, make a more attractive variety of adequate
food of less bulk and of less cost than does the usual meat, potato and
A wise use of fruit is certainly beneficial if the particular needs
of the system are considered. The organic acids of the fruit, which
increase the flow of saliva and indirectly of gastric juice, aid
digestion. These acids increase the secretions of the liver, pancreas,
and the mucous linings of the intestines. They serve, also, to keep
the upper intestinal contents free from harmful bacteria. Fruits help
to keep the fluids and tissues of the body in neutral or slightly alka-
line condition by supplying minerals, especially calcium, phosphorus
and iron and in this way they help to overcome the acid reaction
of the meat, egg and starch foods. Vitamins, particularly vitamin
C (usually absent in foods other than fresh fruits such as citrus,
tomatoes and fresh uncooked leaves and very important in the
building and preservation of teeth) are generously supplied. An
appetite is stimulated both by the vitamins in fresh fruit and by the
attractive flavor and appearance.
Ripe fruit, poor in protein, furnishes a small proportion of build-
ing and energy foods. A very large and expensive amount of fruit
would be necessary to furnish as much protein as a small package
of peas, beans or cereals. Nevertheless, fruits are necessary and
should be used regularly.
From the standpoint of calories (energy value), ripe fruits sup-
ply mainly sugar. In nearly all fruits the ripening process changes
starch to sugar, partially at least. Sugar, supplied in nature's own
form as in fruits, grains and milk is much more easily and naturally
used than concentrated sugar.
Berries have been found, in so far as they have been studied,
similar in their dietary qualities to other fruits. Strawberries have
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
shown a certain protective effect from scurvy in guinea pigs and
therefore a good supply of vitamin C. Melons are classed with
fruits in their dietary properties and have the same organic acids.
They are not so rich in minerals and vitamins but they reveal many
of the general fruit qualifications. Nuts have, in some way, possibly
because of their attractive flavor, been compared with fruits as to
dietary properties. They are, however, in this respect more similar
to proteins and fats and are among the richest of foods. Because
of their concentration, they should be taken in small quantities as
compared with fruits.
Not purely from a standpoint of nutritive value but because of
their aid in the mechanical process of elimination and in the promo-
tion of a hygienic intestinal condition, fruit is essential. Almost
all other foods have been refined, or softened until only fruits and
vegetables remain as our dependable supply of roughage so neces-
sary in the digestive machinery. Other foods, for the most part,
have been cooked, while fruit, because of its pleasing flavor and
texture, survives as our fresh raw food, natural in its hygienic
Therefore, in the promotion of greater consumption of fruit lies
at least the partial solution of the problem of an adequate supply
of minerals, organic acids, vitamins, and roughage essential to the
well-being of animals, particularly of human beings.
Now in progress is an experiment that is showing striking re-
sults of what citrus fruit will do for teeth when taken in sufficient
quantity. M. T. Hanke, Dental Research Association, Chicago, and of
the 0. S. A. Sprague Institute, University of Chicago, made careful
records of 191 dental patients, only 17 of whom were free from trench
mouth and pyorrhea, and found that of the 17, 16 had diets containing
sufficient vitamin C. Of the 174 affected, not one was getting enough
vitamin C (the scurvy-preventive). Of the 174 patients, 94 were lack-
ing in vitamin C, only; all other vitamins were being supplied.
Accurate records were made of 104 of the patients and the fol-
lowing diet recommended; a pint to a quart of milk daily, plenty of
meat, fresh vegetables and fruit, one or two eggs, a part of a head
of lettuce and THE JUICE OF HALF A LEMON AND A PINT OF
ORANGE JUICE DAILY.
Fifteen of the people failed to carry out directions and admitted
the fact. Not one of the fifteen showed improvement. Eighty-five
gave perfect cooperation and 85 made very evident improvement
and many became cured in the period of less than eight months. Of
60 who had active progressive decay, all remained free from it for
the period of the eight months' experiment. Unfilled cavities did not
The diet prescribed other than citrus fruit juice is the usual
diet required for normal nutrition. Other people have prescribed
citrus fruit for the health of the teeth but this test is different in
that it calls for greater quantity and the results reveal with what
effects. The experiment is being continued for further truth.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FRUIT ZONES IN FLORIDA
Zone III-North Florida and Gulf Coast. This zone extends as far south
as St. Augustine, Palatka, Gainesville.
Mulberry, pears, persimmons. plums, peaches, satsuma, orange, loquats.
limequats, kumquats, colamondin, figs, quince, huckleberry, pomegranate,
bunch grapes, muscadine, blackberries, dewberries, strawberries, blueberries,
Zone IV-Central Florida. This zone lies below Zone III and reaches,
roughly speaking, from Vero southwest to Moore Haven, north to Davenport
and Lakeland, and southwest to Bradenton.. Some locations south of this are
Avocado, mulberry, citrus, pears, peaches, persimmons, loquats, guavas,
surinam cherry, fig, pomegranate, dewberries, blackberries, bunch grapes,
Zone V-South Florida.
Avocado, mulberry, mango, grapefruit, citrus, loquat, sapodillas, tama-
rind, rose apple, surinam cherry, guava, papaya, granadilla, carissa, pineapple.
NOTE: The above information as to fruit zones is according to Hume in
"Gardening in the Lower South." Other fruits marked (S.) are grown only
in the southern end of the State. A few others are marked (N.), indicating
FLORIDA FRUITS AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
The avocado grows on a scraggly evergreen tree which blooms in March
and April and fruits from July to January, depending on variety. Size, shape,
color, and quality greatly vary. The size varies from 16 to 29 ounces. The
skin is about one-sixteenth of an inch thick, very firm and tough. The firm,
greenish-yellow flesh of buttery texture and nutty flavor makes one-half of
the weight. One large seed in the center slips out easily, leaving just space
for a salad filling or dressing of lime juice and a little salt.
There are three races-Mexican. Guatemalan, and West Indian. The
Mexican, varying from 3 to 15 ounces, is hardiest and ripens from June to
October. The color ranges from green to purple. The crushed leaves have
an anise scent. The oil content is very high. The Mexican is thin-skinned
and rather suited to local use. The Guatemalan is fairly hardy; the skin
is thick, hard, and granular; the fruit, green to dark purple in color, is of
splendid quality; the period of maturity is October to June. The West
Indian avocado, grown only below Palm Beach and Fort Myers, is the com-
mercial avocado of south Florida. It will stand but little frost. It is large,
smooth and leathery skinned, of high quality, and ripens in late summer.
The skin measures from one-sixteenth to one-sixty-fourth of an inch.
The avocado shows high percentage of solids, especially soluble solids
due, in part, to oil which passes through linen filter. The caloric value is
more than twice that of any other fresh fruit. Protein and ash rate high for
fruit. There is a small amount of water and a high fat content. The acid
is very low. The avocado is a good source of vitamins A and B. Protein
and fat percentages in the avocado rank higher than that of any other
Analysis of the West Indian avocado (seedlings) made by Jennie Tilt
and May Winfield, Florida State College, Nutrition Research Laboratory,
showed an average of 1.14 per cent for protein, 6.82 per cent for carbohydrate,
1.17 per cent for crude fiber, 1.02 per cent for ash.' The results obtained
showed the West Indian avocado somewhat higher in moisture and lower in
fat and protein than the Mexican and Guatemalan races.
The avocado is most palatable uncooked. It is often served on the half-
shell, the flesh being scooped out with a spoon. It makes a nice buttery
spread for toast or crackers.
It is commonly served as a salad with salt and lime juice or salt and
lemon juice. Some prefer orange or pineapple juice. Because of the buttery
'The average moisture content found in mature fruit was 83.02 per cent and
average fat content of West Indian (seedlings) was 8.09 per cent.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
consistency of the fruit an oil dressing is too rich for avocado. Catsup,
celery, nuts, onions are not good combinations for avocado. They destroy
or conceal the delicate flavor. In its native land the avocado is much eaten
by the Indians. They break it open, sprinkle on a little salt and scoop out
the pulp with corn cake called tortillas. Cooking or canning lessens the
attractiveness as well as the flavor of the fruit. (Bulletin 24, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The banana plant grows well only in South Florida. The Cavendish,
brownish in color when fully ripe, is a dwarf variety bearing dense bunches
of small fruit of very high quality. The Hart variety, taller, is also a good
home use banana of fine flavor and texture.
This fruit, formerly considered "indigestible," has come into its own. The
ripe banana is high in protein and also high in sugar content (about 20 per
cent), being highest in the baking variety. The mineral content is not quite so
high as the average avocado but is quite above the average for fruits. The in-
digestible factor in the banana, recent research shows, disappears with the
complete ripening of the fruit, the stage at which it shows numerous brown
spots. Whether it be due to the fact that the tannin becomes imprisoned in
the ripened stage and therefore harmless, or to the fact that the raw starch
nearly all turns to sugar in the ripening process, or to the effect on pectose,
the fact remains true that cooking or ripening renders the banana easily
digestible and suitable for adults, children and even babies. L. Von Meysen-
burg, M. D., Tulane University, says:
"In the feeding of the normal baby, banana is of value in supplementing
the diet, aiding constipation and often stimulating the appetite. It may be
given as early as the fourth month but must be thoroughly ripe and
"The banana is a good source of vitamin G, the pellagra-preventive
factor. Through many experiments it has been found that, in scurvy or in
symptoms leading to scurvy, the banana is curative. It is palatable and
Banana supplements milk by supplying more vitamin C and carbo-
hydrates needed by the child. It combines nicely in salads with citrus juices
which give it an added acid flavor. About half an inch from each end should
be removed as should also the "strings." Florida bananas have a finer
texture and flavor than imported bananas. (Vol. 35, Bulletin No. 4, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
Wild berries in north Florida include May-haw (red) and a Red-haw
(red), ripening in the late summer; the huckleberry, blueberry, dewberries,
blackberries, mulberries and loganberries.
The haws are small seedy berries growing wild on a shrub. They are best
known for their use in making jelly of a wonderfully distinctive flavor and
rich coloring. Some people have called the red haw north Florida's cranberry.
Huckleberries are different from Florida blueberries in that they contain
the large seeds whereas the blueberry has many inconspicuous small seeds.
The huckleberry shrub is smaller and scrubby. The huckleberry is good for
pies, jellies, and drinks.
The tall growing "Rabbit-eye" blueberry, of the huckleberry family, is
the variety which has become famous commercially as the native blueberry
of Florida plantings. The black, or blue-black fruit, borne in clusters, is
1/4 to 11/16 of an inch in diameter. It ripens in late May or early June and
lasts 10 or 12 weeks. The cluster does not all ripen at one time. This pro-
longs the "season" and requires weekly pickings. The acidity varies but is
low. Sugar is about 7.5 per cent. mostly reducing sugar. It is not definitely
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
determined but possible that the acid is citric. Blueberries combine nicely
with orange juice in filling for pies. They are used alone in the fresh natural
form or with sugar and cream.
DOWNY MYRTLE (BERRY)
This berry grows on a shrub. It resembles the huckleberry but has a
thicker, richer juice. It makes a splendid jelly when 50 per cent acid
guava is added.
The dewberry, growing on a low trailing vine and ripening earlier than
the blackberry, is available for the family table early in the spring-the
last of April or first of May. In the native growth they are more highly acid
than the blackberry. For "deep pies" in early spring they have a popular
place in north Florida menus. The jelly is welcomed as one of the first
"spring jellies" in north Florida. In south Florida the Manatee dewberry
has been cultivated with splendid results.
Blackberries grow wild throughout north Florida where the wild variety
is much more popular in flavor for cooking purposes than the cultivated
types. In southern Florida the blackberry has been cultivated. The Florida
Marvel, found originally on the east coast, is a large, firm, good quality berry
but lower in sugar than some other varieties. It is a splendid breakfast fruit
served with sugar and cream. Juices, bottled in the natural form (or slightly
sweetened) and processed at a simmering temperature, contain practically
all the original food value of these various berries and to a large extent the
natural flavor. In many sections all of these berries in the wild varieties
"may be had for the picking" and the juices should be stored for the season
when other fruits are "scarce." (See Fruit Juices.) (Vol. 37, No. 2, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
Florida mulberries of some varieties bear through a period of several
months. They are used by various methods as are other berries. There are
the white, red, and black varieties. The trees grow wild or cultivated. The
fruit is very sweet, not having enough acid in the ripened stage for jelly.
The seeds are too small to be noticeable.
A loganberry of rare quality is now being grown for local use and
for market in west Florida, near Panama City. Its cultivation will no
doubt become extensive in that section of the state.
The strawberry is Florida's most valuable berry. Needing a remarkably
short period for growth and maturity, it can be grown very early in the
warm climate and shipped advantageously.
This berry, being about 90 per cent water, appears to have a small per
cent nutrients. Experiments have shown, however that the strawberry, even
when canned, is listed among those fruits having a very excellent vitamin
content. An acid flavor and sufficient pectin in the slightly unripened fruit
produces a good jelly but better known are the jam and preserves.
The elderberry grows on a shrub or bush 15 or 20 feet high. The berries
grow in clusters. They have an acid flavor and make a refreshing drink and
a good pie. They are often used as a cordial and as a coloring for other
NORTH FLORIDA GOOSEBERRY
The north Florida gooseberry grows on a low plant. It is acid and
suitable for pies.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 27
OTAHEITE GOOSEBERRY (S.)
This fruit grows on a tree in bunches like grapes not at the ends of the
limbs but along the sides. The fruit is a yellowish color, acid, and makes
a good jelly. South Florida has also a vine gooseberry.
The Pitanga or Florida cherry, another name for the Surinam cherry, is
a large, compact, bushy shrub with a green, glossy foliage which is wine
color when new. The deep crimson ripe fruit about one inch in diameter is
quite ornamental. It matures in southern Florida two or three times a
year. It flowers first in February and fruits in from five to six weeks, the
crop lasting about two weeks.
The soft, juicy, red flesh is of aromatic sub-acid flavor, pleasant in its
natural form. Before ripening there is a resinous, pungent flavor. As the
fruit ripens it turns from green to yellow, then orange and in the end a deep
scarlet. The Florida type cherry is darker and has a more distinctive flavor
not found elsewhere. Jellies, jams, and sauces made from this fruit have a
unique flavor widely popular.
Citrus fruits contain the two essentials of every diet, namely: "What
we should eat" and "What we like to eat." Minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates
are there. The joy of the most pleasing flavor of all foods is there. Osborne
and Mendel found that oranges, lemons and grapefruit contain as much
vitamin B as milk and more than grapejuice. fresh apple and pears; that
oranges and pineapples are good sources of vitamin A; that orange, lemon
and tomato are highest of all foods in vitamin C. Experiments have shown
in recent years that oranges play a big role in the building of teeth and in pre-
Dr. Percy Howe, Forsythe Dental Clinic, roston, Mass., through a series
of experiments with monkeys and Dr. M. T. Hancke of the Dental Research
Association, Chicago, through recent tests with human patients have found
oranges most valuable in the building of teeth and in the maintenance of
the health of teeth and gums. Chaney and Blunt, University of Chicago,
have shown that increased orange juice in the diet has aided in the retention
of calcium and phosphorus. They explain this efficiency on the part of the
orange as being due to the fact that the orange maintains an acidity in the
digestive tract and that it is alkaline in its residue, both conditions being
conducive to the retention of calcium and phosphorus.
Orange juice as a mid-morning lunch for school children who were already
getting milk in the home has been found to give Florida children a gain in
weight and growth greater than that given by the same amount of milk to a
similar group of children. The orange juice seems to help the child make
better use of the milk he drinks. Orange juice concentrated, dried, fresh, or
cold storage shows excellent supply of vitamin C. Orange juice is a good
source of vitamins A and B.
Refreshing, appetizing, nourishing are the citrus fruits. They supplement
milk. They give an alkaline balance. They are a mild laxative. Oranges
are best fresh and undiluted; grapefruit is best in its natural state but it is
also a success as a canned product. Lemons and limes are necessarily
diluted as a drink. Kumquats and other small citrus products are used fresh
or preserved. All citrus fruits may be used as preserves or crystallized
The kumquat, growing in bright, golden yellow clusters, is the smallest
of citrus fruits, being only one to two inches in diameter. The thin rind is
sweet and aromatic; the pulp is decidedly acid in certain varieties like the
oval fruit of the Nagami or the round Marumi but the pulp of the round
Meiwa is sweet. The fruit is eaten fresh; it is also preserved or candied
whole. It is splendid for jelly or marmalade.
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
This citrus fruit grows on a tree similar to the lemon. Fruit is oblong,
protuberant at the tip, 5 to 6 inches long, greenish-yellow in color and very
fragrant. The pulp is acid and has a juice that may be expressed and used
like lime. The rind, thick and spongy, may be candied and preserved. There
is another fruit (a melon) by the same name used in somewhat a similar way.
The shaddock is the largest and coarsest of all citrus fruits. It has a
thick rind and thick leathery septa between sections. It is suitable only for
preserving and crystallization. It is sometimes pink inside. The juice is
acid, bitter and scant.
Sour orange has a thicker peel than the common orange. It is used for
marmalades. The juice combines nicely in drinks with the sweet oranges.
The bitter-sweet has a thicker peel than the sour orange and has a loose
peel. It is used only for marmalades.
The lime is not a lemon but it is closely related to the lemon, orange.
mandarin, pomelo and shaddock. Limes are more sensitive to cold and are
therefore grown further south. Most of the limes in Florida are on the
keys south of the mainland. They are grown from seeds and therefore vary
greatly in size, shape, flavor and juice percentage. They range in size from
a medium-sized plum to a large-sized lemon. Lime juice is a good source
of vitamin C. The Tahiti, a sprout of the Persian variety, a budded variety,
has been grown on the mainland and found adaptable. It grows much larger.
The rind is smooth, thin and green to yellow. The juice is almost colorless,
good flavor, and strong acid.
West Indian lime grows on a thorny bush with rather small, light green
foliage. Fruit is fine grain, juice plentiful, pulp soft, acid strong. flavor
distinctly lime. The Palmetto Lime, a cross between West Indian and the
lemon and the Everglade Lime, a cross of West Indian with the Pomelo, are
both good limes.
Rangpur Lime is hardier than the true lime. It is said to belong to
Suntara orange group. Tree is small, thorny; foliage sparse. The fruit is
medium size, rind rough, medium in thickness, easily separated from pulp
and of irregular color; segments are easily separated; flesh is orange colored;
juice is plentiful, flavor agreeable.
The calamondin, a small round fruit growing on an ornamental hardy
shrub, is sometimes erroneously called an orange but it is very closely
associated with the lime. It combines nicely with the sweet orange in the
preparation of a.citrus drink. Lime juice is even more acid than lemon. It is
7 per cent citric acid. It also has an essential oil. Lime juice is used in
medicine. It prevents scurvy and symptoms which precede the disease. It
is used to supplement a diet necessarily short of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Lime juice makes an excellent flavoring for many of the tropical fruits, for
vegetables as well as for fish, meats, candies and desserts. It is also used
to add flavor to various jams, fruits and jellies. Lime oil extracted from
the rind is used in flavoring extracts and perfumery.
The limequat is a cross between the lime and kumquat. It has a sweet
rind and acid lime-like pulp. It is a hardy type, growing well in south cen-
tral Florida. Golden Lime
Golden Lime or Panama Orange is a small, round, thin-skinned, very
juicy fruit. It is very sour but good flavor and makes a pleasing limeade. It
is popular for marmalades, jellies and glac6 fruits.
Marsh Seedless Grapelruit
Owari Satsuma Oranges
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 29
Lime berry grows on a small bush. The fruit is edible and is like a
small, dark red cherry. It makes a jelly of good acid flavor.
Lemons in the original wild variety first found in Florida by early
settlers is good only for root stock in high, dry land. The Ponderosa is too
large to be of general commercial use, often reaching one to two pounds.
The quality and flavor, however, are good. They are quite juicy and not a
very thick skin. The regular commercial type of lemons is grown but the
tendency is to grow too large. From the rind is produced lemon oil; the
pulp, citrate of lime, citric acids and lemon flavoring. Lemon juice is one
of the best sources of vitamin C. Even on cold storage, lemons show an
excellent supply. Vitamins A and B are found in the peel and in fresh
juice. Vitamin B is also found in the dried juice.
The grapefruit is an excellent appetizer and probably contains "tonic"
properties. Some have thought the grapefruit has an alkaloid all its own
but chemists have not found it. Grapefruit juice both fresh and dried is a
good source of vitamin B and an excellent source of vitamin C, equal to that
of orange juice, lemon juice or tomato. The partitions in the fruit have a
bitter taste. Improved fruits have eliminated the objectionable bitter and
have left only the taste which lends individuality to the pomelo-that blend-
ing of sweet-bitter-sour that makes the fruit a pomelo. Those who know the
flavor best call it the "pleasing personality" of the pomelo.
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season. Florida Com-
mon and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless. Foster and Thompson are the
Oranges are divided into two main classes, the common round orange
of commerce known as "Mediterranean" and the Chinese or Mandarin or
Kid Glove variety.
King Orange-King Orange (from Burma) is a large, rough, thick loose-
skinned fruit with a reddish, very juicy pulp of best flavor.
Tangerine-Tangerines (an excellent source of vitamin C) are of two
main varieties, the flat red kind (Dancy) and a larger one, yellow in color
(Oneco), a late variety.
Tangelo-Tangelos are hybrids-crosses between tangerine and pomelo.
The tangelo has the qualities of both but is distinct from either. It is very
juicy, of a rich, tart flavor. It has almost no fiber nor rag. The Thornton is
one of the best varieties.
Satsuma-Satsumas are a hardy variety of the mandarin group, having
been grafted on the trifoliata stock, and are truly north Florida's orange.
Among the varieties of Mediterranean oranges best adapted to Florida
are the early oranges such as Parson Brown and Hamlin; mid season vari-
eties are seedlings, Pineapples, Enterprise Seedless and Jaffa; the late
varieties are Valencia and Lou Gim Gong.
The cherimoya is of the annonaceous family of fruits, the annonas being
tropical fruits composed of more or less coherent fleshy carpels or parts.
The tree is of the small spreading type. The fruit, larger than an orange,
is irregular in form and covered with small conical "bumps" or protuberances.
The skin is thin and light green in color, changing to yellow; the flesh is
white and of the melting texture. It has been called the "Masterpiece of
Nature." Many brown bean-like seeds are imbedded in the flesh. The flavor
30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
is sub-acid, delicate and suggestive of the pineapple and banana. The fruit
is purely a dessert fruit. The sugar content is very high being about 18%/
per cent. The protein and fiber are high and the acid content low.
This fruit, heart-shaped, is smooth and of a reddish brown when ripe.
It is somewhat similar to the cherimoya and sugar apple but inferior in
SUGAR APPLE (S.)
Sugar apple grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. The bush
is similar to that of the sapodilla. The skin of the fruit is yellowish green,
thick and rough. The fruit is pear shaped and the size of a man's fist. It
is really a seed pod with numerous black seeds inside. The outside or sur-
face is covered with "bumps." When the fruit is separated into carpels, of
which it is composed, each rough section has a pure white or yellow meaty
sweet and slightly acidulous pulp with the little black seed adhering. It
is a custard-like dessert fruit. It is sometimes called the sweet-sop. It is
similar to the cherimoya in composition, having a high sugar content, about
181/2 per cent, but it is less piquant in flavor. It ripens in summer and is
"in season" six months.
This fruit is closely related to the sugar apple. The tree is rarely more
than 20 feet high and grows only in the tropical section of the state. The
fruit is the largest of the annonas (4 pounds). It is 6 to 8 inches long,
rather an oval shape; a dark green color; a spiny surface. The flesh is
white, juicy and aromatic. The texture is rather cottony. The flavor is a
combination of mango and pineapple. It ripens in late spring.
The sour-sop is used for preserves, for preparation of sherbets and other
refreshing drinks. The sour-sop sherbet is considered one of the finest in
The hardy Celeste is popular throughout Florida. It is a small, brown-
ish-yellow, sweet fig. (July 1.) The Brown Turkey (July 15), white to pink
inside, is a solid fig and hardy. The Brunswick (August and September) is
a large violet-colored fig with thick, soft pulp.
Figs thrive best in sub-tropical localities but do well farther north if
protected. They are grown largely in the vicinity of the "yard." The fruit
contains a high per cent of sugar. Other nutrients are not abundant. The
texture and flavor are pleasing. The fruit is best freshly picked from the
trees. It needs no flavoring. The fig has a slight laxative effect. It is
sometimes used with sugar and cream as a breakfast fruit. It lends itself
to drying and preserving and canning. It is used in cookies, cakes and
pastes, pudding, ice cream and other desserts.
Two types of grapes have done well on their roots in Florida-the mus-
cadine and the summer grape. The former includes scuppernong, Thomas
and James. The other type has developed into what is known as "bunch"
grapes in Florida. The muscadines do not bunch and are, therefore,
tedious to gather for shipping. The scuppernong grape has a flavor when
fully ripe that is unexcelled. It is a russet color when ripe. The wild
variety is a black grape of thicker skin and more meat but less juice. Both
are splendid flavor in the fresh form and lend themselves to numerous ways
of preparation. The Thomas is a reddish purple when ripe, while the James
is purplish black. The "summer" grape (wild) grows in many of the Florida
woods. It is quite acid and has enough pectin for jelly when not quite ripe.
The flavor of wild grape jelly is a decided flavor, highly pleasing to both the
Excelsior Plums, Natural size
The Cattley Guavas
FLORIDA FRUITS AND.VEGETABLES 31
Northern and Southern palate. The color adds to the palatability. Culti-
vated bunch grapes, such as Carmen, Ellen, Scott, Armalagar, are being suc-
cessfully grown in Florida.
The many varieties, plus Florida's long season, make it possible to have
on Florida menus good table grapes from June to September.
Grapes are high in sugar, varying from 15 to 35 per cent. The organic
acids abundant in grapes act as a mild laxative and diuretic. Grape juice
can now be sterilized at about 176* F, a temperature not high enough to in-
jure the flavor or vitamin content. Fresh grapes, also grape juice, have a
fair amount of vitamin A and C as well as a very good showing in vitamin
B. (Volume 37, No. 4, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Guavas, as grown in Florida, are of two groups-the Cattley guava, red
and yellow, and the so-called Mexican guavas. The red Cattley usually
thrives wherever oranges grow well. The tree is an ornamental shrub of
glossy leaves and reaches a height of 25 feet. The fruit, one to two inches
in diameter, grows in large clusters. The purplish red skin is thin; the
sub-acid juicy flesh is white toward the center; the seeds are numerous.
The Cattley guava has an aromatic flavor. It has not the mushiness of some
other varieties. There is also a yellow Cattley guava of sulphur color and
more delicate flavor, larger than the red Cattley. Mexican guavas are larger,
being about the size of a hen egg and sometimes 3 or 4 inches long. Of the
larger guavas, there are the red, white and yellow varieties and of each of
the three there are the sweet, sub-acid and acid types. All are very prolific.
There are as many varieties of guavas as of apples. The fruit ripens in
late summer and fall and is "in season" several months. The analysis of
the common guava has shown ash and protein to rate well in comparison
with fruits in general. The sugar content is not high.
The guava, formerly known as a "jelly fruit," is now popular in the fresh,
slightly cooked, and preserved form.
GRANADILLA OR PASSION FRUIT (S.)
The granadilla is an ornamental vine fruit, oval in shape, 2 to 3 inches
long and 11/ to 2 inches thick, and deep purple in color when fully ripe.
Inside the hard shell rind is a yellow, spicy, juicy, acid pulp within which
are numerous small seeds, edible. The pulp is used in making drinks and
for flavoring sherbets and ices. It needs sugar when taken in the natural
form. The fresh fruit is served at the table and the juice is squeezed on the
The yellow fruited passion fruit is similar to the purple but is larger
and equally fine in flavor. Both fruits are used in cooking as well as in
The litchi grows on an ornamental tree. It has succeeded in the Miami
section and, with a little protection, as far north as Bradenton. The fruit
grows in clusters of 2 or 3 to 20 or more. They look a little like straw-
berries, being a deep rose when fully ripened and of the shape of the berry.
The outer covering is scaly, hard and brittle. The seed is small. The flesh
is white, translucent, firm and juicy and of sub-acid flavor similar to the
Analysis of the fruit has shown total sugar 15.3 per cent; acid, 1.16 per
cent; protein, 1.15 per cent; ash, .54 per cent; total solids, 20.92 per cent.
The fruit is picked in clusters with stems. They soon lose their pretty red
color but they keep their flavor two or three weeks. Refrigeration takes
care of them temporarily. The fresh fruit is very popular. It is both dried
and preserved for future use.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The mamey is a dooryard tree of deep rich green foliage growing as far
north as Palm Beach. The fruit is oblong or round and is 4 to 6 inches in
diameter. It has a russet surface, leathery skin, a bright yellow, juicy,
but firm, flesh of a sub-acid but pleasant flavor and a firm, close texture.
It is sometimes stewed and sometimes sliced and served fresh with sugar and
cream. Mamey preserves is popular and is similar to that made from apricot.
MAMMONCILLA OR SPANISH LIME OR HONEY BERRY (S.)
The mammoncilla grows on an erect tree 30 to 40 feet high and in clusters
like grapes. This lime looks a little like a plum. The outer covering is
thick, leathery and green. It has one large seed, the space between skin
and seed being filled by a pleasant, edible, thick juice. It is not citrus. The
pulp is a soft yellow. The flavor, in some varieties, is said to be sweet but
it is often very acid.
The mango tree is evergreen. Seedlings grow quite large but budded
trees are smaller. Leaves are sometimes 10 to 12 inches long. The fruit
grows on a long pendulous stem. It varies greatly in size from a small
plum to 4 or 5 pounds in weight. It varies in shape from long, slender, to
oval to round. The skin is smooth and from yellow to a deep yellow or
apricot to a crimson. Some are only green. The aroma is spicy as is the
flavor. The flesh, yellow to orange, is juicy and in the best sorts entirely
free from fiber. It "melts in the mouth." The flavor is its own. It sug-
gests an apricot and a pineapple but it is neither. It is mango-rich, luscious,
acid, spicy. It is there, then it's gone-all gone-too soon. The seed is
large, oval, flattened and contains a white kernel.
An analysis shows no starch apparent. The sugar content is high, vary-
ing from 11 to 20 per cent. Protein is higher than is usual in fruits. The
acidity varies. The unripe fruit has very decided acidity. The ripe fruit is
considered a laxative; the unripe, an astringent. The mango is a good source
of vitamin C.
Both green and ripe products are used. The ripe fruit is eaten fresh as
salad or dessert. Both kinds make splendid pies and are used in curries
and sauces. The green or partly ripened pulp has considerable pectin and
is good for preserves and jellies. It is sometimes boiled, strained, mixed
with milk and sugar as a custard. The spicy sauces known as chutney are
made of mangoes. The mango is used like the peach in canning. The budded
type are the best texture for this purpose. The Haden and Mulgoba are
popular types for eating fresh while the Sandersha is a type that lends itself
to cooking. (Bulletin No. 20, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
The papaya, interestingly known as the tree-melon, in its best varieties,
such as the Blue-Stem (Perfect Flowered), easily takes its place with the
best of melons as to flavor and attractiveness. The tree has a straight,
slender, spongy, leafless trunk which grows to a height of 15 to 25 feet and
then spreads into an umbrella-like tuft. The seedling quickly comes to the
fruiting stage during the first year. Just below the "spread" the tree-melons
cluster-sometimes as many as 20 or 30 of a size of 8 to 10 inches in length
and weighing as much as 15 pounds. The fruit is smooth, slightly ribbed
and cylindrical in shape. As it ripens the skin turns from green to an
orange yellow, while the sweet juicy pulp one to two inches in thickness be-
comes a deep yellow. Inside is a cavity filled with small, rough, dark
peppercorn-like seeds which are enclosed in a thin mesh and slip out easily.
So rapidly does the plant fruit that oftentimes green fruit, ripe fruit, buds
and flowers are on the tree at the same time. Three complete crops may be
grown oK the best varieties in four years. The fruit begins to ripen in nine
months and ripe fruit may be gathered from this tree covering a period of
seven months. The papaya thrives in southern Florida and perhaps has
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 33
reached its best on the east coast near Vero Beach where it has been grown
for home and commercial purposes and has also been preserved and jellied
in combination with the unexcelled citrus fruit of that same section.
The papaya is a valuable source of vitamins A and C. Even in the
green stage it shows almost no trace of starch and no tannin. The ash and
protein are low as compared with the banana but they are quite constant.
Sugar increases as the fruit ripens. The papaya contains a milky juice in
which an active principle known as papain is present. It resembles animal
pepsin in its digestive action.
As a breakfast fruit this tree-melon rivals even the honey-dew. The
juicy pulp has a texture and a flavor its own, that starts the day "right" as
well as "different." In south Florida where papayas grow and ripen in
months of continual sunshine they make a valuable contribution to the diet
of mankind. In a half ripened or green stage they may be cooked like squash,
or, sweetened, they may be made into pies. The ripened pulp likes a dash of
lime juice growing nearby but as "a first" for breakfast or as "a last" num-
ber for a dinner it stands alone easily and successfully. In fact, whether they
be down in the hammocks, along the canals or in a "set" grove they look just
like the pictures and tickle the human palate for a taste. And later when
after a night in the refrigerator they appear at breakfast in gorgeous orange
yellow slices, or at lunch on a bed of green, garnished with a slice of lemon or
lime, the "picture" becomes a most effective appetizer. Truly the lowly
melon has been lifted up and glorified! The fruit has been successfully shipped
to New York and California. (Bulletin No. 32, Florida State Department of
The Spanish or Honey type is used in north Florida and the Chinese or
"Peento" group of peaches has been grown successfully in south Florida.
The peach, depending upon the variety, has a fairly high sugar content
although it is about 85 to 90 per cent water. There is no appreciable amount
of starch at any time but an increase in sugar upon ripening. Fresh peaches
show a good content of vitamins A and C. By soil selection and adaptation
of variety, Florida has learned to supply herself to some extent with peaches.
The Pineapple and Hood pears are the most desirable Florida pears as
to color, texture and uniformity. The Kieffer is adapted to north Florida.
Pears are low in acid and need little sugar. Lemon or lime combine nicely
with pear products. In the fresh form a fully ripened pear needs no addi-
tions. Raw fresh pears show some vitamin B and C. For canning or for
cooking, gather pears when fully grown but not entirely ripened. Keep in a
dark, cool room for a few days for ripening. This process gives a finer
grain texture and possibly a better flavor than the tree ripening process.
When peeled, pears turn brown quickly, due to the action of an enzyme. A
dilute saline solution (2 tablespoons salt to a gallon of water) prevents the
The native persimmon, one to one and a half inches in diameter, grows
almost all over the upper half of the state. It is highly stocked with tannin
before the fully ripened stage but, when ripe, it is a very popular fruit, having
a sugar content of about 15 per cent.
This fruit is the cultivated persimmon used in Florida. It is much larger
than the native fruit, ranging in size from two to four inches in diameter.
The color varies from a light yellow to a deep reddish orange. The shape is,
Note-The papaya (fresh leaves and stem) contains an enzyme (papain) which
aids in the digestion of proteins. The natives of tropical islands use its juice to make
meat tender in the cooking process. They wrap their fowls in its leaves or hang them
overnight in the trees. Mothers, it is said, eat the papayas during lactation period to
increase the milk supply for their babies.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
in some varieties, that of an apple flattened at the ends, and in others more
of a pear shape with a pointed apex. The flesh is light yellow to dark accord-
ing to variety.
The light flesh variety is good to eat only when fully ripe due to the
fact that the pulp contains tannin. As the fruit fully ripens the tannin
crystallizes and does not dissolve in the mouth. The dark flesh type has a
pulp that is crisp, meaty like an apple and is edible before maturity. The
sugar content in the ripe fruit is the highest of all common fruits-14 to
20 per cent-and is in the form of dextrose.
According to recent research by Jennie Tilt and Rebecca B. Hubbell.
Nutrition Research Laboratory, Florida State College, seven varieties of
Japanese persimmons show a range in average moisture content from 76.27
(Zengi) to 81.71 per cent (Tamopan) ; reducing sugar 11.55 per cent (Tsuru)
to 17.39 (Zengi) ; protein .43 per cent (Tane Nashi) to .87 per cent (Okami) ;
ash from .3 per cent (Tamopan) to .58 percent (Tsuru) ; fiber from .11 per
cent (Fuyugaki) to .49 per cent (Triumph). Tests were also made for
vitamin B complex and the Tane Nashi, the fruit used, was found to be a
very poor source of vitamin B complex.
The varieties most used are the Tane Nashi and the Fuyugaki. The
former is round in shape with a pointed apex. It is from 3 to 31 inches
long and nearly as broad. The skin is light yellow, shading to a bright, deep,
yellowish-red as it ripens. The yellow flesh is astringent until the ripening
period in August and September. The Fuyugaki, slightly flattened, deep red
in color, is not astringent and can be peeled and eaten before it is fully ripe.
Persimmons are best used in the fresh form and are sweet enough for
desserts. The pulp has been successfully used, however, in pies, sauces, and
puddings as well as in ice creams. For pies, the non-astringent type is used
when not fully ripe.
Pineapple grows on a low, ragged plant with sword-like leaves. It
perpetuates itself by lijos (scions) which grow out of the base of the plant
near the ground and are called coronas. Pineapples from Fort Pierce south
in Florida grow well in the open; in the other parts of south Florida they
grow under slats. This is one of the most valuable of foods from a physio-
logical standpoint. It contains a proteolytic enzyme called bromelin which
is closely related to trypsin. This ferment changes albuminous matter into
peptones and proteoses and acts in acid, alkaline or neutral media. The
flavor and odor of pineapples is due to the essential oils and ethers present
in very small quantities. Pineapples should be allowed to stand on the
plants until practically ripe. They lose little of their delicious flavor or of
their food value in canning. They are rich both in fresh and canned form
in vitamins A, B and C. (Vol. 37, No. 3, "Pineapple Culture," Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
Florida has a number of varieties of wild plums that still flourish.
especially in north Florida. They are quite acid before ripening and make
an excellent jelly, jam or butter at the half-ripened stage. Wild plum
products have rare flavor and color that makes them most suitable to serve
with meats or chicken.
Excelsior-Japanese plums crossed with some of Florida's native plums
have given a few hybrids that are of splendid variety such as the "Excelsior"
a wine-colored fruit with a firm yellow-red pulp of excellent quality and
sub-acid flavor. The skin is thin and tough and neither bitter nor astringent.
McRae (Hybrid)-The fruit is a reddish yellow, has a juicy, yellow,
sub-acid, firm flesh with an aromatic flavor.
Terrell (Hybrid)-This large plum, 2 inches in diameter is wine-colored
when fully ripe and has a greenish-yellow, meaty, slightly sub-acid flesh of
excellent flavor and texture.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 35
The loquat grows on a small ornamental tree that branches two or three
feet from the ground to form a dense crown. The white flowers are fragrant
and ornamental. The fruit in loose clusters, are round or oval, one to three
inches long, pale yellow to a beautiful orange in color, and downy on the
surface. The skin is like that of a peach only a little tougher; the flesh is
firm and meaty in some and "melting in the mouth" of other varieties and is
a white to deep orange color, juicy and of a "sprightly" sub-acid flavor. It
is most commonly used as a fresh fruit but it may be stewed or jellied.
Loquat pie made from partly ripened fruit flavors of cherry pie. The seeds
are removed before cooking. Unripe, the fruit is decidedly acid. The ripe
fruit is sweet.
This fruit is a plum something like the loquat. It is yellow, egg-shaped,
about one to one and a half inches in length and better than the loquat.
CARISSA OR NATAL PLUM (S.)
The carissa grows on an ornamental thorny shrub. The scarlet fruit
one to two inches long and ovoid or egg shape, ripens mostly in summer
but continues to appear through other seasons. As the fruit ripens it be-
comes a rich, dark red outside and inside. It exudes, when cut, a milky sub-
stance. This little plum is good for jellies and marmalades. Carissa sauce
The pomegranate grows on a bush 15 to 20 feet high. The fruit is
globular, the size of an orange or larger. It has a smooth. leathery skin
which ranges from a yellow to a beautiful red in color. It is made up inside
into several cells, each filled with many sided grains each of which is a trans-
parent vesicle containing red juicy pulp and a seed. The flavor is sub-acid.
Another variety (Purple-seeded) has an acid pulp. The fruit is very re-
freshing. It is used to prepare a cooling drink and to make jellies and
The quince tree is a small, stiff, upright, little tree of hard-wood. The
quince is one of the oldest known fruits. It has been less cultivated and is
still hard and sour until cooked. The flavor of the cooked quince, however, is
so agreeable that it is most popular as a jelly, marmalade or flavor for
other fruits. The quince is of a firm texture and is, therefore, used for pre-
serving. The Chinese quince is a very much improved type.
Rhubarb (according to Hume) is not particularly adapted to Florida's
warm climate, but in recent years in south Florida it has been grown in early
spring for home use and for local markets. "Immigrants" hail it with delight
and pronounce it "good." Then it is good-tender, acid, appetizing-and
makes just as good pies or sauce as if it were grown "north." The variety and
season must of course be considered but the flavor is all there. Rhubarb has a
medicinal value in that it is a laxative.
* The roselle plant resembles the okra and the cotton plant. It is often
called the jelly okra. The edible portion is the bright red calyx, low in
sugar (1%) and high in acid (3%). The only food value lies in the fine
red color and the pleasant acid flavor-two rather valuable qualities. The
calyces, if picked as soon as fully grown, make excellent ades, sauces, jelly
or jam which are used in Florida to take the place that cranberries fill in
A plentiful supply of pectin and a generous acidity, combined with a
cherry red color, give a wonderful jelly product equal to red currant or
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
cranberry. For jelly, only % of a pound of sugar (11/% cups) is needed for
a pint of juice, secured by cooking and straining the fruit. Even after the
seeds have ripened in the capsules the fruit may be used for jelly. The
fruit may be dried without losing its jelly-making capacity. The young,
tender shoots have been used successfully in jelly making and for "greens."
(U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin 307.)
The sapodilla is a stately evergreen tree of 50 or more feet in height
and grows well from Palm Beach south and up as far as the Manatee river
on the west coast. The bark contains a milky latex called chicle, interesting
commercially as a basis for chewing gum.
The fruit, round or oval in shape and from 2 to 3/2 inches in diameter,
looks like a potato, the thin skin being a rusty brown and slightly scurfy.
The seeds, 10 or 12, slip out easily. Yellow brown, translucent, soft, sweet,
and of delicious flavor is the ripened flesh. Unripened, however, the tannin
and chicle are unpleasant. Some one has called the flavor of the ripe fruit
"pear with brown sugar." Others have said, "it is maple syrup." It has
about 14 per cent sugar. The odor is fragrant. There is a vitamin content
of A and C.
The sapodilla is first of all a dessert fruit. It is used in the plain form
and in sherbets.
MAMMEE SAPOTE (S.)
(Or Marmalade Plum)
This fruit grows on a tree (60 feet in height) of abundant light green
foliage. The fruit is oval, 3 to 6 inches long. The skin is a russet brown,
thick and woody. The flesh is firm and of a finely granular texture. The
color is yellowish brown with a tinge of red, rather a rich saffron. There is
in the center a large, hard, black and shiny seed which comes out as easily
as the avocado seed. The flesh is rich and lacks acidity. It is similar to
that of the sweet potato when cooked. Improperly ripened or inferior
sapote has a squash-like flavor. In Havana it is used in sherbet and as
a filler in guava cheese. In Central America the large seed is roasted and
used to mix with cocoa in making chocolate. The sapote is best in its fresh,
natural form. It has been used as a rich preserve. It has been called a
WHITE SAPOTE (S.)
The white sapote is now grown in Florida and while it belongs to the
soft sweet fruits of the tropics it is liked by many Northerners. The fruit
has a thin membranous skin, yellowish green and a yellow sweet melting
flesh. It shows 20 per cent sugar. It is eaten fresh.
GREEN SAPOTE (S.)
The green sapote has a flavor similar to the sapota but more delicate.
It is also of finer and smoother texture. The skin is thin, the flesh is darker
but melting, sweet and juicy. The fruit is usually eaten fresh. There is also
the sapote of the black variety.
STAR APPLE (S.)
The star apple is a door yard tree and looks "like an evergreen peach."
The leaves are a glossy green above a satiny brown underneath. Star apple
fruit is round or oblate, something like an apple, and is from 2 to 4 inches
in diameter. It is sometimes purple, sometimes a light green. When cut
crosswise it shows a star-shaped interior. The flesh is in 8 segments in
which the seed are imbedded. It is sweet and pleasantly flavored. Just
under the skin is a layer of soft, somewhat granulous flesh and not very
juicy. Inside this is a whitish flesh. Both are sweet-no acid at all. The
fruit is usually eaten fresh. P. W. Reasoner described a dish called
"matrimony." It is prepared by scooping out the inside pulp of the star
apple and adding to it a glass of sour orange juice.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 37
The tree looks like a scraggly. neglected orange. The fruit, on the out-
side, looks like a green orange and is about 3 inches in diameter. The out-
side is a hard shell. The pulp is rich, custard-like, about the consistency of
a ripe banana, and has an aromatic flavor. The seed contains strychnine.
The tamarind fruit (Indian Date) is a pod of a leguminous tree of
ornamental small leaf foliage. The beans inside the pod are surrounded by
a dark, pasty material, the edible portion of the fruit. This pulp has a
sweetish-sour rather spicy flavor. Analysis shows 15 per cent acid (mostly
tartaric) and over 40 per cent of reducing sugar. In fact it contains more
acid than the sourest fruit and more sugar than the sweetest fruit. The
taste, however, is distinctly sour.
Tamarinds are therefore used to make cooling sub-acid beverages.
especially for invalids. The fruit is official in the pharmacopoeia as a laxative
and refrigerant. Tamarind paste is a mixture of the pulp and about 75 per
cent sugar. Mixing an ounce of tamarind pulp with 1% pints of warm milk
a nourishing beverage called tamarind whey is made. Young pods are some-
times cooked with rice and fish. The roasted seeds are said to be superior in
flavor and valuable as a food product. Dried tamarind has a small amount of
In Key West the people pack tamarind in jars and cover with sugar
sirup to keep on hand during the "off" season. They use the paste for making
drinks when the fresh supply is exhausted.
The leaves contain an acid and furnish a dye stuff, also a quickly drying
oil for paints.
CAROB BEAN (S.)
The Carob Bean or Locust Bean is sometimes used for stock feed. The
ripe seeds are surrounded by a sweet mucilaginous mass used more as a
confection than a food. The dried pod yields more than 50 per cent sugar.
Miscellaneous Sub-Tropical and Tropical Fruits
The abiu resembles the canistel in growth and foliage but it has a light
yellow fruit with white flesh. The skin is thick and tough. In flavor the
pulp resembles the sapodilla but is a different texture.
This fruit is a curious looking little capsule about three inches long and
triangular in shape, and yellow and red in color. It contains three seeds
with a whitish flesh at the base of each which resembles the brain of a
small animal and which is firm, oily. and nutty in flavor. It is cooked with
fish to give it an added flavor. Green or overripe akees should not be eaten
at all. Fresh ripe akees are good food.
The cacao ripens in June and in December and is limited to Monroe
county. It resembles a short, thick cucumber 5 to 6 inches long and 3 inches
thick. The pulp is pink to white, sweet, slightly acid. The rind is smooth,
thick, tough, and tasteless. The seeds or beans (20 to 40) are dried for
market. They give an oil that acts as an anodyne.
COCOA PLUM (S.)
Cocoa plum is a small, edible, plum-like fruit, with a large seed, and has a
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
(1) Prickly Pear (S.), Indian Fig
The spiny fruit of 1 to 2 inches in length is pear shaped and red in color.
It contains vitamin C. It is about 12 per cent sugar and about 85 per cent
(2) Cereus (S.)
Cereus fruit is oval, scarlet, 41/2 inches in diameter. It also has vitamin
C and 10 to 12 per cent sugar and 80 to 85 per cent water.
TI-ES OR CANISTEL OR VEGETABLE EGG
The canistel or ti-es (egg fruit) tree, a handsome bright green color, is
a dooryard tree and grows well on the keys and as far north as Palm Beach.
The fruit is round to oval and pointed at the apex. It is 2 to 4 inches long.
The fruit ripens in summer. The membranous skin is yellow while the soft
mealy flesh is a bright orange or egg shade. The flavor is rich and very
sweet and the fruit is best fresh. When mature, it is best to take it from
the tree and allow it to ripen in the house for three or four days.
The carambola, growing on a small handsome tree about 30 feet high,
is a bright yellow to golden brown oval shaped fruit 3 to 5 inches long,
having 3, 4 or 5 longitudinal ribs and showing a star shape when cut cross-
wise. The pulp is astringent when green and acid when ripe. It has a
fruity flavor and the odor of a quince. When slightly unripe it is used in
jelly or pickles.
The ilama is said to be the best of the annonaceous fruits. It is smaller,
reaching not more than one and one-half pounds. Pale green varieties have
white flesh; the pink kinds have rose pink. Green varieties are sweet; the
pink are acid. The fruit is used fresh like the sugar-apple. They ripen in
summer. The season is short. The llama belong to the low lands and is
more suited to south Florida than is the cherimoya. ,
POND APPLE (S.)
This fruit is sometimes called custard apple. It is no good as a fruit.
The pitaya is produced by a climbing cactus which bears night-blooming
flowers. The fruit, about 2 or 3 inches in diameter, is crimson in color and
strawberry in flavor. The flesh is white, juicy and seedy. It is used in
making cooling drinks and sherbets or in the natural form.
ROSE APPLE (S.)
The rose apple grows on an ornamental plant. The fruit smells like a
rose, is crisp and juicy. It is the color of apricot. It is round or oval and
one or two inches long. The rose apple may be preserved or crystallized.
SATIN FRUIT (S.)
Satin fruit grows on a small tree whose leaves are glossy green on top
and a burnished brown underneath. The purple fruit is about an inch and
a half long and has a sub-acid flavor.
The umkokolo or kei -apple grows on a vigorous, rich green, thorny
shrub that flowers in spring and ripens in August to October. The fruit is
nearly round, one inch in diameter and of a bright golden yellow color. The
yellow, juicy pulp having an aromatic flavor of a high acid test when unripe,
makes a splendid jelly.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
WILD FIG (S.)
Wild fig trees, gigantic trees with green wax-like leaves, have small
edible figs the size of a pea or larger.
The bilimbi, similar to the carambola, is cylindrical, five angled, 2 to
4 inches long, greenish yellow in color, soft and juicy in texture. It is more
acid than the carambola. It is used as a pickle or as a relish with meat
HORSERADISH TREE (S.)
The roots of this tree, when ground, have the odor and flavor of the
herb horseradish. The leaves are used in curries.
This fruit resembles grapes and grows on the body of the tree which
grows to a height of 60 feet. The juice makes an excellent drink or jelly.
The jujube is a small spiny tree about 20 feet high and very prolific.
The fruit is about the size of a date. It has a brown thin skin and a sweet
white flesh of mealy texture inclosing a hard two-celled seed. It ranks high
(about 211/2 per cent) sugar. The fresh fruit (best varieties) is good to eat
in natural form. Dried it resembles the date in form and flavor. It may
be boiled with rice, stewed or baked, made into bread as raisins, boiled in
honey and sugar as a glacd product. It is used commercially as a flavoring
for confections. Chinese varieties, Yu, Mu Shing Hong, and the Lang are
best, according to Popenoe.
(Ceylon Gooseberry, Aberia Gardnerii)
This fruit grows on a shrub similar to though more slender and less
vigorous than the umkokolo. It is maroon in color and has a velvety sur-
face. The pulp, sweet and luscious, resembles in flavor the English goose-
berry. It is a better fruit than the umkokolo and makes a fine jelly or
preserve. The season is winter.
MONISTERA DELICIOSA (S.)
Monistera Deliciosa is the fruit of a monster vine-like plant that has a
bloom similar to a lily and an openwork leaf. The vine has many air roots.
It also sends down tubes deep into the ground to get water. The fruit itself
resembles in shape a very large ear of corn. The big plump kernels, juicy
and sweet, are in a case that is edible. The arrangement is like that of
"corn on the cob." The color is green. The fruit stands straight on the
vine until ripe. It then turns down. The flavor is a combination ripe
banana and fresh strawberry with just a little of the snap of pineapple.
It may be eaten plain or with sugar and cream.
PARA GUAVA (S.)
The Para guava, not strictly a guava but horticulturally classed with
the guava because of its similarity, is a sulphur yellow fruit, oval or round,
and 2 to 3 inches long. The soft whitish pulp, acid but pleasant in flavor,
has a few seeds larger in size than the true guava. It has little of the
musky aroma of the guava.
The cashew grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. This is a
fruit and a nut combined. It is a small oddly shaped yellow fruit 2 or 3
inches long of pyramidal form and bears at its distol end the nut or seed.
The flesh part of the fruit is called the cashew apple. This arrangement
of the seed outside the pulp is most unusual. The nut or seed, about one
and one-half inches in length, is kidney shaped and is inclosed in a grayish
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
brown cellular coat that contains an essential oil which, when cooked, has a
burning effect upon the skin. It is roasted before it is eaten. The skin of
the apple, very thin and easily broken, is a bright yellow or flame scarlet.
The flesh is soft, juicy, acid and a light yellow color and has a pungent
aroma. It is used as a preserve or jam of highly pleasing quality and also
as a drink. The nut, when roasted, has a chestnut flavor. The meat is of
fine texture and good quality. A nutritious oil similar to almond oil may
The imbu looks somewhat like a green Gage plum. Oval shaped, it is
one and one-half inches long and greenish yellow in color. It grows wild
and is very productive. The fruit makes a splendid jelly. The skin is
thicker than that of a plum and tough. The flavor of the soft juicy flesh is
akin to a sweet orange when ripe but is acid when not fully ripe.
The ambarella is a straight, tall, stiff tree which in some countries grows
as high as 60 feet and with leaves 12 inches long but not so large in Florida.
The fruit, some two inches long, oval in shape, is a pretty orange yellow.
The skin is something like that of the mango but tougher. The flesh is firm,
juicy and pale yellow, of a sub-acid flavor and sometimes resinous. The
queer looking seed is covered with bristles which hold the flesh tightly. The
cluster (of 2 to 10) hang on long stems. They ripen in winter and are not
quite so good a flavor as the imbu. The sugar content is about 10% per cent.
There is very little fiber. Much depends upon variety. The best do not
compare with the mango but rank very well as a wild fruit.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
IV-Uses of Florida Fruits and
1. COCKTAILS, SHERBETS AND DRINKS
Cut papaya in dice and serve in glasses with orange, lemon or lime juice,
and little sugar and chipped ice.
Mix four cups papaya pulp with two cups sugar and juice of three
lemons and freeze.
Fill half a small cantaloupe (chilled) with sliced peaches. In the center
filled with seeded grapes, blueberries or blackberries. Sprinkle freely with
lemon and orange juice combined or with slightly sweetened lemon juice.
To crushed peaches add one can grapefruit hearts (cut in small pieces).
Sweeten to taste and freeze.
ORANGE JUICE COCKTAIL
4 small oranges % cup strawberries
Few grains salt % cup crushed pineapple
1 teaspoonful lemon juice Sugar to taste
Cut a thin slice from the tops of oranges. Remove pulp and juice. Add
strawberries, lemon juice and sugar to pulp and juice of oranges. Fill peel
and set on ice and leave until thoroughly cold. Serve in glasses surrounded
with crushed ice.
Place 4 tablespoonfuls of fresh peaches in cocktail glasses. Add 4
tablespoonfuls of grape, pineapple or any berry juice. Sprinkle with nut
meats. Fill dish with shaved ice. Serve.
1 cup sugar 1 pint grape juice
%/2 cup water 2 cups crushed pineapple
% cup lemon juice Lemon or orange slices
%/ cup orange juice
Cook sugar and water 5 minutes. Cool. Add fruit juices and pineapple.
Serve with plenty of ice and garnish with slices of lemon or orange.
ORANGE FRUIT CUP
% cup orange juice % cup orange pieces
2 tablespoons lemon juice % cup diced pineapple
2 tablespoons pineapple syrup % cup of one of the following
Sugar fruits: White grapes, straw-
berries, peaches, pears, canta-
Combine fruit juices and sweeten to taste, keeping rather tart. Add
mixed fruits. Place on ice. Serve very cold in cocktail or sherbet glasses.
Garnish each serving with Surinam cherry, strawberry, carissa cut in half,
or loquat slices. Use mint if fruits are not in season.
Oranges should have all membrane removed. If grapes are used, seeds
should be removed. If strawberries are used, cut in half. Peaches or pears,
if used, should be diced; cherries should be stoned; cantaloupe or bananas
should be cut in balls or small sections.
42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soak 4 tablespoonfuls of gelatine in 1 cupful of grape juice for 10
minutes, then heat over hot water until dissolved; cool and add % cupful
of shredded orange and 1/ cupful of shredded pineapple. Beat 1 pint of
cream until stiff and add % cupful of sugar. Beat the whites of 2 eggs until
stiff and dry and add 1/3 cupful of sugar. Combine the two mixtures and
beat into gelatine, pour into cold individual molds and place on ice until
ready to serve. Turn out on a slice of pineapple and garnish with whipped
SHRIMP AND PINEAPPLE COCKTAIL -
1 cup cooked shrimp Mayonnaise dressing
(fresh or canned) Lemon juice
2 cups canned pineapple tidbits
If shrimps are large, cut them in halves. Sprinkle with lemon juice and
chill thoroughly. Drain and chill pineapple. Combine shrimps and pine-
apple and mix with well-seasoned mayonnaise dressing. Serve in sherbet
or cocktail glasses.
LIME COCKTAIL SAUCE FOR SHELL-FISH
1 tablespoon prepared horseradish 6 tablespoons lime juice
3 tablespoons tomato catsup 1/ teaspoon tabasco sauce
1 teaspoon salt Oysters or clams
Mix sauce ingredients thoroughly and pour over oysters or clams ar-
ranged in cocktail glasses.
Sauce may be served in baskets made from lemon rinds, the fish being
served on the half shell. Serve very cold.
% cup lemon juice Few grains salt
4 cup orange juice Cracked ice
14 cup grapefruit juice Mint sprigs
%, cup of sugar dissolved in water
Combine fruit juices, sugar, salt and water. Pour over cracked ice in
cocktail glasses and serve garnished with mint sprigs.
ICED ORANGE APPETIZER
2 tablespoons gelatine % cup sugar
4 tablespoons cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice or lime
3 cups orange juice 1 cup orange pulp
Combine gelatine and cold water. Heat 1 cup of the orange juice over
hot water. Add gelatine and sugar. Stir until dissolved. Cool. Add rest
of fruit juices. Chill several hours. Stir occasionally. Add orange pieces.
Serve ice cold as first course. Garnish with mint sprigs.
GRAPE JUICE LIMEADE
Juice of 5 limes 3 cups of water
1 cup of sugar 2 cups grape juice
Place ice in pitcher. Add sugar and water; stir thoroughly. Add grape
juice and last the lime. Let stand several minutes before serving.
LIME JUICE COCKTAIL \
4 tablespoonfuls of lime juice 2/3 cupful of ginger ale
2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice Crushed ice
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar sirup
Place ingredients in cocktail shaker; shake, and pour over crushed ice in
four cocktail glasses. Serve.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 43
3 teaspoonfuls of tea Cloves
2 cupfuls of boiling water Loaf sugar
1 lime Sprigs of mint
Make the tea in teapot or with tea ball; let stand for several minutes;
then serve, placing in each cup a slice of lime pierced with a clove. Add a
cherry and serve sugar separately in such quantities as may be desired.
To keep limes for several weeks: Select clean, sound fruit, picked with
stem buttons on. Place in air tight fruit jars. Lime juice extracted,
strained after it settles, may be filled into jars, corked and kept for several
(For cold drinks, ice cream, sauce, etc.)
2 dozen ripe limes 1/2 cupful of water
1 pound of cube sugar
Wash the limes thoroughly in cold water and dry. Rub the sugar
vigorously all over the lime until it loses its color. Squeeze the juice on
the sugar, add water; then bring almost to a boil and strain. For cold drinks,
place 2 tablespoonfuls of the sirup in a tumbler with crushed ice and fill with
LIME WITH FISH
Squeeze juice of two limes over fish when ready to bake. Add more lime
juice while fish are baking, if desired. Garnish with parsley and slice of
lime. Serve fish with sauce.
Ripe tomatoes (red) should be slightly heated and pressed to obtain
pulp with juice. A dilver or sieve may be used for home use with cold
tomatoes. The juice loses its attractiveness without the pulp.
FRUIT PUNCH FOR A CROWD7
2 quarts sugar 1 quart grape juice
1 quart water 1 quart of pineapple (grated)
2 quarts tea, weak Ice water
1 quart lemon juice 1 cup strawberry slices
1 quart orange juice 2 cups fancy orange slices
Make syrup of sugar and 1 quart water. Make tea infusion by pouring
2 quarts (8 cups) boiling water over 5 tablespoons tea. Cool. Combine
sirup, tea, fruit juices and water. Add strawberry slices and orange slices,
which may be cut in fancy shapes or simply halved or quartered.
Punch may be strained before adding strawberry and orange slices, but
this will lessen quantity made. Less water may be used and punch poured
over block of ice in punch bowl. When strawberries are out of season,
the strawberry slices may be replaced by another cup of orange slices. Recipe
may be halved or quartered to serve a smaller group.
1 egg yolk 14 cup thin cream
% cup orange juice Sugar if desired
Beat egg yolk until light, add orange juice and blend thoroughly. Pour
into glass and stir in cream. Sweeten to taste. Serve at once.
FRUIT JUICE PUNCH
Sweeten milk with sugar and add two tablespoonfuls or more of any of
the fruit juices-lime, grape, loganberry, pineapple, grapefruit. Beat well
before serving, and add a beaten egg white and a dash of nutmeg or cinna-
mon, or a dab of whipped cream for each glass.
44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Juice of 1 to 2 lemons
1 pint milk
Beat juice of lemons and milk together with a whirl type beater or put
in a glass jar and shake well. Serve immediately.
This is a substitute for buttermilk and makes a healthful drink tolerated
by weak digestions. It must be mixed each time served, as curd and whey
of milk will separate if allowed to stand. More or less lemon juice may be
added, depending upon sourness desired for drink.
6 tablespoons milk 2 tablespoons sugar
1/2 cup cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 egg Grated nutmeg
Combine milk, water, egg and sugar. Beat thoroughly, pour in lemon
juice and mix vigorously. Serve in a large glass topped with a grating of
ORANGE CREAM PUNCH
To two cupfuls of whole milk and two cupfuls of thin cream add two
teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, one cupful of orange juice and sugar to taste.
Fold in the beaten whites of four eggs and serve at once. This is best if
served very cold, provided the children are willing to sip it slowly. Any
fruit juice may be substituted for the orange juice, but the lemon juice is
usually required to bring out the flavor.
2. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HORS D'(EUVRES
Orange sections rolled in toasted cocoanut.
Orange sections spread apart like a flower and center with fruit,
mayonnaise and nuts.
Berries and small pear halves. Roll in chopped mint.
Pineapple sections. Roll in crushed nuts.
Banana sections. Marinate in lemon or lime or sour orange juice. Roll
Lemon baskets: Fill with salted pecans and candied kumquats.
Papaya marinated with lime juice. Serve in slices.
Curled celery. Radish roses. Small yellow or red tomatoes stuffed with
celery and snappy cheese.
A. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables for Salads
1. Select tender greens in the early morning. Cut off roots, remove
2. Keep them in a cool place in a closed vessel or closely wrapped in
paper or a paper bag. Sprinkle the lettuce head lightly and place in a paper
3. Wash leaves thoroughly in two or three waters. Watercress and
lettuce need careful attention. Green insects often infest them. Lift the
leaves out of one water into the other.
4. Crisp the greens in very cold water for 1/2 hour or less. Acid (vinegar
or lemon) added to the water for crisping destroys insects. Salt wilts greens.
5. Drain, spread on a towel or place in a covered dish and set in a cool
place until serving time. Shake dry.
6. Cut out the stem end or core of head lettuce, about one inch, and let
cold water run into the opening. Turn the head right side up to drain. The
leaves will separate readily and be crisp and dry for serving.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
7. To make a nest of lettuce, use leaves of different sizes, beginning with
larger leaves and fitting into them one or two smaller leaves, keeping the
leaves cupped and the stem ends together.
8. To shred leaves roll them into a firm roll. Shred with a silver or
stainless'steel knife or with scissors. Shredding should be done just before
9. Shred cabbage fine with a long, thin knife. Crisp in cold water; drain.
10. To keep parsley, sprinkle it with cold water, put it in a tight fruit
jar, and keep it in a cool place.
11. Combine a "green" salad with dressing just before serving.
Oranges or Grapefruit
1. To section oranges or grapefruit, cut a thick layer off the top and one
off the bottom of the fruit and then cut off sections of peel from the sides,
cutting deep enough to remove all white membrane and to leave the fruit
exposed. With a sharp knife cut out each section separately.
2. To peel grapefruit, let it stand in hot water five to ten minutes, and
then cool. Tomatoes
1. To peel tomatoes:
a. Draw over the surface of each tomato the edge of a knife. Peel.
b. Place tomatoes in a colander. Dip them in boiling water. Cool.
2. In cutting tomatoes, section them into quarters, sixths or eights,
cutting not quite through, or slice in generous thick slices.
1. Wash with a stiff brush.
2. To curl celery, cut stalks in 3 or 4 inch lengths. Feather the ends
and place in acid water (2 tbs. vinegar or lemon to 1 cup water) for 20
Grind young carrots with finest cutter of the grinder or grate.
Leaving one inch of stem, peel half way down to stem and leave radishes
in very cold water to crisp. Drain.
Peel under water and from the root upward.
To break or crush, place nuts in a paper bag and roll with rolling pin.
Add nuts last before serving the salad.
To whip cream, use Dover egg beater in deep bowl. Make wrapping
paper cover by slashing and slipping over egg beater handle to fit bowl. Be
sure cream and bowl are well chilled.
To whip evaporated cream, place can in cold water. Bring to a boil and
boil for a few minutes. Cool quickly or place in the refrigerator to get very
cold. Whip in small quantities.
B. Salad Dressings
1. All salads are grouped under four main needs. Others are variations:
(Cream may be added.)
(Cream may be added.)
46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. Remove spoon or fork from salad dressing. Use an enamel or bright
aluminum pan for cooking.
3. Use all of egg instead of two yolks if desired.
4. Lemon juice may be replaced by the juice of the calamondin, sour
orange or lime, and any one of these juices with a little salt (and possibly a
little sugar) may be used alone as a dressing for Florida salads.
(Makes 2% cups)
1 egg yolk 2 tablespoons sour orange or lemon
% teaspoon salt juice
2 cups salad oil
Stir egg yolk, salt and 1 tablespoon lemon juice until well mixed. Beat
in oil, slowly at first until 4 cup is added, using a whirl type beater. Then
add oil more rapidly. When dressing becomes thick, add remaining lemon
juice and proceed with remainder of oil.
For sharper, thinner dressing, add 2 extra tablespoons lemon juice just
(Makes about 1 1/3 cups)
To 1 cup mayonnaise add 1/3 cup whipped cream and % tablespoon
lemon juice. This is an excellent fruit salad dressing.
To 1 cup of mayonnaise add 3 tablespoons finely chopped pickles and 1
tablespoon chopped parsley.
Add (instead of sugar) a small amount of tupelo, palmetto or orange
THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING
To one cup of mayonnaise add:
1 cup of Chili sauce 2 tablespoons chopped pepper or
1/2 cup chopped celery pimento
2 tablespoons chopped or scraped
Add whipped cream or beaten egg whites (if desired).
Chopped red or green pimento. Avocado pulp, tomato catsup or paste,
a little red jelly, a hard cooked egg yolk, or beet juice may be added to give
color. FRENCH DRESSING
Use a tightly closed jar for mixing large amounts. Keep in refrigerator
until ready to use. RECIPES
(Makes about cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice % teaspoon paprika
6 tablespoons salad oil 1/4 teaspoon salt
Stir or shake thoroughly before serving.
FRENCH HONEY DRESSING
To French dressing add 2 tablespoons strained honey. Serve on fruit
FRENCH FRUIT DRESSING
(Makes about % cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice % teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons orange juice % tablespoon sugar or honey
4 tablespoons oil
Mix all ingredients thoroughly.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
To French dressing add gradually 2 tablespoons of some cheese of piquant
flavor as Roquefort or snappy cheese which has been rubbed to a cream.
Blend until smooth.
OTHER VARIATIONS FOR PLAIN FRENCH DRESSING
1. Add % tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 teaspoon pimento.
2. Use calamondin juice instead of lemon.
3. Add 1 teaspoon mustard, 1/2 teaspoon onion juice, 1 tablespoon Wor-
4. Add chopped onion, bell pepper, celery, (Parisian).
5. Add 2 tablespoons Surinam, roselle or carissa jelly.
6. Add 2 tablespoons horseradish (grated).
7. Add 2 tablespoons peanut butter before shaking.
8. Add one grated egg yolk.
1 cup thick cream, sweet or sour 1 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons lemon juice 14 teaspoon paprika
1 to 2 tablespoons sugar
1. Beat the cream with an egg beater until smooth, thick and light.
2. Mix the other ingredients together and gradually add the cream,
beating all the while.
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING, NO. 1
2 whole eggs, juice of 11/% lemons, 1% cup honey or thick sirup from
spiced peaches or pears; or 1 cup fruit juice sweetened or thin sirup from
canned fruit, few grains paprika, few grains salt.
1. Beat the egg slightly, combine with honey and lemon juice, and add
paprika and salt. Cook in a double boiler until thick.
2. Cool and fold in 1 cup whipped cream (sweet or sour) or less thin
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING NO. 2
2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg or two yolks
2 tablespoons lemon juice Whipped cream
Beat the eggs. Add the sugar and lemon juice.
Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens.
Cool. Add the whipped cream.
(Makes 1% cups)
2 eggs /, teaspoon paprika
4 tablespoons flour 11 cups cold water or milk
2 tablespoons sugar 1/3 cup lemon juice
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter
Beat eggs slightly. Stir in all dry ingredients. Add water. Cook in
saucepan till thickened, stirring constantly. Add butter and lemon juice.
This is a salad dressing without oil and is liked especially by children.
C. Salad Combinations
1. Vegetable Salads
Various combinations may be made of cooked and raw vegetables but the
real vegetable salad serves to add fresh uncooked food in its natural state.
1. Combination :
Radishes. pepper, onion, tomato, cucumber on lettuce or greens.
2. Tomatoes with celery and pepper.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Chopped cabbage with green peppers and peanuts, cream dressing
or a mayonnaise with cream added.
Sliced, firm, crisp pear or apple adds to the flavor.
4. Cabbage, pineapple and pecans.
5. Cabbage, carrot, celery and peanuts. Omit celery and use fig pre-
serves if desired. French dressing; or to the dressing add peanut
6. Tomato-top with sour cream dressing sprinkled with parsley.
Garnish with strips of green pepper.
7. Any salad green, young and tender, combines with a dressing made
of hot bacon fat, lemon juice and grated hard cooked egg.
2. Fruit Salads
1. Grapefruit, celery, red or green sweet pepper, French dressing.
2. Grapefruit, celery, pecans or crushed peanuts, French dressing.
3. Grapefruit sections arranged overlapping in a circle on lettuce. Use
French dressing or Parisian dressing.
4. Grapefruit or pineapple, 1 cup orange cubes, 1/3 cup crystallized citrus
fruit, 3 tablespoons pecans, fruit salad dressing.
5. Grapefruit (one), oranges (two), lettuce, avocado (cubes), alternate
sections of oranges or grapefruit, in circle on lettuce. Place avocado cubes
in center. French dressing.
6. Orange sections arranged in circle on lettuce. Strawberries heaped
in center. Fruit or cream dressing.
7. Orange cubes heaped into and around a guava cup. Top with straw-
berries or Surinam cherries. Fruit dressing.
8. Sliced orange with crystallized or fresh fig, pecan nuts.
9. Orange sections circled around a mold of carissa or Surinam cherry
jelly garnished with a sprig of mint.
10. Orange and pineapple cubes with strawberries. Fruit dressing.
11. Orange sections rolled in cocoanut arranged on green leaves. Gar-
nish with Surinam cherries or with preserved or crystallized carissa.
12. Orange sections cut in pieces. Florida Amalga grapes (seeded),
crushed peanuts or pecans.
13. Grapefruit, orange, tangerine sections with occasional cubes of pine-
apple or Florida banana with a sprinkle of lemon juice.
14. Satsuma sections with preserved figs, pecans, pomegranate juice.
Avocado and tomato or tomato jelly with nuts.
15. Avocado, celery and grapefruit.
16. Guava cups stuffed with strawberries, or with congealed guava pulp
and pecans. Use cream dressing (sweetened). (Marinate cup with lemon
to prevent darkening.)
17. Guava, celery, cheese, with fruit dressing.
18. Guava, pineapple, pecans, crystallized fig.
19. Mango (non-fibrous type, such as Haden) with juice of lemon, lime,
passion fruit, or sour-sop.
20. Tangerine lobes, ground pecans served with fruit dressing.
21. Banana marinated in lemon or sour orange juice, crushed peanuts,
ripe strawberries, fruit dressing.
22. Halves of peach, pear or guava, center filled with cheese, topped
with carissa or Surinam cherry.
23. Carissa (halves), slices of crystallized kumquat rolled in cocoanut.
24. Pineapple, celery, nuts.
25. Sliced pineapple filled and heaped with strawberries. Cream dressing.
26. Pineapple, seeded grapes, loquats or carissas (halved) with or with-
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
SPECIAL GARNISHES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
1. Green or red peppers, strips or small pieces.
2. Surinam cherry, carissa plum, any number of crystallized citrus
fruits (kumquats being especially appropriate).
3. Natural color jellies of carissa, roselle, Surniam cherry, tamarind,
May haw, fall haw, guava, wild grape and many other Florida fruits.
SETTINGS FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Curled celery, endive, Romaine, curly lettuce, spinach, beet greens, "ten-
der greens," kale, young mustard, water cress, mint, parsley, lemon, kum-
quat, fresh tender cucumber strips or rings, mild-flavored onions, nastur-
tiums, pineapple shells, orange or other citrus cups furnish a wonderful
variety of salad "settings." Numerous tropical, sub-tropical, and hardier
fruits furnish acid and sub-acid juices for marinating or for adding the
last dash to a salad that makes it "different." Florida colors in fruits-red,
yellow, orange, green, with all the intervening shades make for a strong
appeal to the esthetic sense.
SPECIAL MARINADES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Orange, lemon, lime, calamondin, sour orange juices make excellent
marinades. Two parts juice to one part oil with salt to taste is the usual
measure. Some fruits call for juice only. Chopped mint, parsley, pimento
strips or paprika add color. Fruit juice as a marinade adds not only a
flavor but food value.
D. Special Salads-Florida
Tomato With Avocado Dressing
Fresh tomato peeled and cored, and stuffed with celery. Use avocado
dressing made by mashing smoothly avocado pulp into lemon or lime juice
and adding a little salt. Pour over tomato. Serve on lettuce.
Avocado With Tomato Dressing
Half fresh avocado, peeled and seeded. Peel and mash fresh tomato and
run through potato ricer. Season with a suggestion of tabasco. Fill cavity
Peel and remove the seeds of litchi and stuff with half of a Florida
pecan. Serve with mayonnaise on lettuce.
Fruit Salad in Orange Cups
Three large oranges, 2 slices pineapple, diced; 12 marshmallows,
quartered; 1/3 cup broken nut meats, 2/3 cup strawberries, halved, lettuce.
Cut oranges in two, remove pulp carefully, leaving shell clean. Mix pine-
apple, marshmallows, nuts and strawberries with orange pulp. Fill orange
cups, cover with cream mayonnaise and garnish with nuts. Serve on lettuce.
Combine grapefruit pulp with Florida grapes stuffed with pecans;
squeeze orange juice over the mixture and serve in half grapefruit hull on
bed of endive. Top salad with mayonnaise (with cream).
Endive With Bacon Dressing, or Wilted Salad
Endive (or other greens) shredded. Serve with a dressing of hot bacon
on fat. lemon juice and grated egg. Garnish with crisp strips of bacon.
Shredded green peppers may be added.
Grated fresh cocoanut on hearts of lettuce served with hot French
50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Shred and chill 1/ small head cabbage and one white onion. Mix with
half that amount of chopped celery. Dust on a little paprika. Dress with
a French dressing, dashed with Worcestershire sauce. Serve in a nest of
endive. Top with cubes or small slices of tomato.
Mammee Sapote Salad
Cut in half, remove seed. Add a lemon, French dressing or lemon juice,
adding a few drops from a sour-sop. Serve on lettuce.
Shred a fresh sweet pineapple. Combine with seeded grapes and place
on a nest of lettuce. Dress with mayonnaise (with cream) and top with
halves of carissas.
Ponce de Leon Salad
Scoop out a little of the top heart of a Florida artichoke. Fill with a
French dressing combined with chopped pimento, parsley, finely. minced
celery, and the mashed pulp of artichokes. Serve with a thin cheese sand-
wich or wafer as a course of a luncheon.
Bananas and Strawberry
Make a banana boat. Combine pulp with halved strawberries and fill
the boat. Use a slightly sweetened lemon dressing. Serve the banana or
strawberry leaves. Serve with toasted cheese crackers and Russian tea as a
Split kumquats in half lengthwise. Add seeded carissas in halves. Place
a little lemon jelly in cups, fill nearly full with fruit and cover with jelly
just as it begins to congeal. Set in refrigerator over night. Serve on lettuce
with a cream mayonnaise mixed with crushed pecans.
Slice loquats and kumquats thin. Add seeded grapes and toasted grated
cocoanut. Serve on lettuce with mayonnaise.
Combine orange cubes, grated fresh cocoanut, cubed pineapple. Serve
with a sweetened fruit dressing.
Marinate guava cups in lemon juice. Fill with grated cocoanut and
orange. Serve with cream mayonnaise in a lettuce nest.
Fill a small half of avocado with a clear tomato jelly. Drop in a few
pieces of green pepper when the tomato begin to jell. Curl lettuce leaf
around each end of pear just before serving.
Cut fruit in half. Sprinkle with lemon or lime juice. Serve on lettuce,
water cress, or other green or garnish with mint.
Florida Banana Salad
Sprinkle the fruit with lemon or lime juice. Roll in crushed peanuts.
Serve on lettuce. Garnish with strawberries (with stems).
Fruit Salad Mold
Cube one grapefruit, two oranges, and one pineapple. Add four sliced
kumquats and % cup seeded Surinam cherries. When the mold begins to
set add fruit and allow to become firm. Serve in slices on lettuce with
mayonnaise (with cream). If cherries are not available use grapes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 51
Fill halves of satsumas with orange meat, mold with shredded pineapple
and crushed pecans. Serve on lettuce with a small crystallized fig on each
Cut off two inches of fruit to make a cup; mix the pulp with sliced
strawberries and pecans and fill the cups. Use fruit dressing. Top with a
2 slices pineapple French dressing
1 pineapple orange with peel Cream cheese.
1 head romaine
Lay half slices pineapple and orange alternately on romaine. Garnish
with ball of cream cheese. Serve with French dressing.
Slice pineapple 3 pecans
Slice orange Crystallized ginger
3 figs (preserved) Cream mayonnaise
Place a slice of orange (with peel) on romaine and on top place a ring
of green pimento. Cut figs at blossom end and press out sirup. Stuff with
crystallized ginger, nuts and small pieces of orange. Place figs in pepper
ring. Garnish with mayonnaise, top with pecan half or pepper chip. On
each of four sides place orange slices quartered.
1 envelope gelatine (2 tablespoons) 1 cup pineapple cubes
1/2 cup cold water 1/2 cup sugar
/2 cup mild vinegar 1 pimento, chopped fine
1 cup boiling water 1 teaspoon salt
Juice of 1 lemon 1 cup finely shredded cabbage
1 cup celery (cut in small pieces)
1. Add vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and salt to gelatine soaked in cold
water and dissolve in boiling water and cooled.
2. Strain and when the mixture begins to set, add remaining ingredients.
Turn into a mold and chill.
3. Serve on lettuce leaves with salad dressing.
E. The Fruit and Vegetable Salad in the Menu
1. The dressing is related to the salad. Use a combination dressing with
plain salad; use a plain dressing with a combined salad. Use fruit salad
dressing with fruit salads.
2. If the meal is heavy use a simple acid salad.
3. Cheese combines well with fruit or vegetables for a main dish salad.
4. Avoid repeating the main ingredient of a salad in the meal.
6. Get the habit of making the fruit or raw vegetable salad the im-
7. Remember that the salad is to be fresh, raw, chilled or crisp and at-
tractive. Make it a habit.
4. COOKED PRODUCTS
A. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective" Value
The common American diet has been found to contain the fol-
1. Abundance of starch, sugar and fat.
2. Adequate protein if selected properly.
3. A possible lack of vitamins, minerals and roughage.
52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Since the factors lacking are easily and surely supplied by
vegetables, fruits and milk, it seems best to concentrate on these
three groups of food in any plan of nutrition. For this reason, too,
it is particularly important that we know how to preserve the min-
erals, roughage and vitamins in the fruits, vegetables and milk
while preparing them for the family table. If we ate all of these
sun-grown, soil-fed products in sufficient quantity in the fresh,
natural state and without cooking, there would be no nutrition
problem. That, however, would not be recommended by the most
enthusiastic nutritionists. The appetite would probably not call for
the quantity needed. Cooking is therefore a necessary process of
Since Florida's fruits and vegetables may be produced in abun-
dance year in and year out in the sunshine and soil of the out-of-
doors, the remaining problem is the conservation of the food value
in the fruits and vegetables. Losses in the various kinds of storage
and transportation are important from a nutritional viewpoint but
the problem to be discussed here is that of the conservation in cook-
ing. Food conservation is an ancient subject of interest but food
value conservation belongs to the modern time.
During the past "to cook it done" has been the idea. "Water
or no water," "top on or top off" has not been in the thinking.
The flavor or taste was added in the "seasoning." Texture was
simply sacrificed. Then roughage began to count; vitamins (water
soluble) became prominent; minerals were recognized as important
and they too were being stolen away by the water. Then the cook-
ing of fruits and vegetables became a scientific process and not just
a disagreeable task.
Fresh fruit is affected largely, as are vegetables, as to its min-
erals, vitamins, and roughage. Therefore the discussion at this
point is limited to vegetables.
EFFECT OF HEAT ON VEGETABLES-COLOR
Children and grown-ups eat because they "like it," not because
they should; because "it's good," not because "it's good for you."
Attractiveness in preparation usually creates the demand. With
vegetables, one of the main points of attractiveness is natural color.
What is color? How is it lost? How can we retain it?
There are four color pigments in vegetables which give the
natural vegetable coloring. These substances change with the action
of heat, acid, and alkalis and thus change the color of the products.
It is interesting to know about them.
Green (Chlorophyll)-Green vegetables, such as spinach, chard,
string beans (green), green cabbage, turnip greens, carry this color-
ing matter or pigment which is slightly soluble in water as is shown
in the cooking. Heat turns this pigment brown when there is acid
present. All vegetables contain at least a trace of acid, but this
acid will disappear in steam if the cover is left off the cooking vessel,
and nearly all of it will go during the first fifteen minutes. If a
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
steamer is being used the color may be improved by letting the
steam escape at the end of fifteen minutes. An open kettle cooking
retains better color. An alkali has the opposite effect on the
"green" from that produced by the acid. A small pinch of soda
has a tendency to destroy part of the vitamins and break down the
fiber to a state of mush. Avoid soda. For palatability and attrac-
tiveness, then, cook "greens" by the open kettle quick method.
Spinach cooks quickly, and does not lose its color. Steaming does
not therefore detract.
Red (Anthocyanins)-Beets and red cabbage contain red pig-
ment. It is very soluble in water. Alkali turns the red vegetables
brown; acid turns them redder. A teaspoon of vinegar to a pint of
water helps to retain color in cooking beets or red cabbage.
Colorless (Flavone)-Onions, turnips, celery and white cabbage
have this pigment which is colorless until heated in the presence
of alkali. Then it turns yellow. Overcooking has the same effect
in onions and in cabbage.
Yellow (Carotinoid) -Carrots, squash, pumpkin and rutabaga
carry this pigment, which is only slightly soluble in water and is not
affected by acid or alkali. Because it is stable we need not, from
the point of color, consider the cooking.
Cooking softens the fiber, breaking down the natural texture.
The problem is to make the product tender yet as natural as possible
in texture. Spinach and okra and many other vegetables are much
disliked when overcooked. Select them tender and cook them
quickly is the best plan. Again avoid the habit of adding soda to
make them tender.
To improve the flavor, to "season," is sometimes given as a
reason for cooking vegetables instead of serving them raw. Really
uncooked vegetables (mildly flavored ones) are more palatable than
cooked ones and the problem is to retain the natural flavor. A few
of the "strong juice" vegetables are improved with cooking, but
over-cooking, even of onions and cabbage, ruins the flavor and (in
case of the latter) the digestibility. To preserve flavor, cook vege-
tables in the skin, whole, and quickly and serve at once. Potato
(sweet or white), squash, pumpkin, apple, beans and other products
are better when baked.
We study tables of food value of vegetables and plan our meals.
We cook the vegetables one way or another and continue to figure
the food value the same. There is a big difference between cooked
and uncooked vegetables from the viewpoint of minerals and vita-
mins. Experiments have shown that possibly from 40 to 50 per
cent of the minerals and as great proportion of some vitamins
dissolve into the water or are lost in cooking. Some of the minerals,
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
at least, are in the water and should not be thrown away. Extensive
experiments on many kinds of vegetables have shown that particu-
larly cabbage, onions, and celery lose more in minerals than do other
vegetables. For this reason it is a wise plan to eat raw cabbage
and celery. Steamed or steam-pressured vegetables lose less calcium
than do boiled vegetables. However, greens and spinach do not
lose their minerals so easily in cooking as do some others.
Phosphorus, in onions, rutabagas, and leafy vegetables, "leaks
out" in cooking. Parsnips, cauliflower, and potatoes are valuable
in phosphorus. Don't lose it. Bake the potatoes in their skins.
Beet greens, turnip greens and cabbage rank high in iron. The
iron leaks easily, the exposed surface being great. Save the water.
Vitamin B and C are soluble in water. By saving the water we
save B, but C seems to be lost in the process. It seems probable
that cabbage and tomatoes do not lose their C to any great extent
in quick cooking. At the usual temperature there is probably only
a slight loss of vitamins A and D. Vitamin E seems to be remark-
ably stable. Vitamin C abounds in citrus and tomatoes. They need
THE EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF COOKING
I. Baking a vegetable in the skin preserves the food value in
minerals and vitamins A and B.
1. Vegetables with high enough water content and small
exposed surface, bake well. Beets, carrots, onions, parsnips,
potatoes (Irish or sweet), squash, pumpkin, turnips, are
good for baking.
2. Baking requires extra time and fuel.
II. Steaming is the next best method of saving food value.
1. Beets, carrots, parsnips, potato, squash and pumpkin
2. Green vegetables may be steamed but are not so at-
tractive in color as are the open cooked "greens."
3. Steaming is more economical than baking as several
vegetables may be steamed at once.
III. Steam Pressure comes third in taking care of food value.
1. Vegetables which require long time cooking are used
in this method.
IV. Boiling in the Skin is rated as the fourth in methods.
1. If vegetables must be peeled, boil whole.
2. If vegetables must be cut, cut lengthwise, not cross-
wise, to save food value. Boiling in a large amount of
water loses more minerals and vitamins than boiling in small
amount. Vegetables retain flavor, texture, and food value
when put on in boiling water rather than cold. Again,
practically all of the minerals lost may be found in the
cooking water, so do not feed the sink.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
"Waterless Cooking" is comparatively new. The cooker is
usually heavy aluminum, a good heat distributor. The bottom is
very thick and prevents burning. The cooker may be set on the
back part of a range or on a gas or oil flame. The cover fits tightly.
Heat should be regulated to prevent steam escape. The cover is
not removed during cooking since the method is to cook the vege-
tables in their own juices. Of course, strong vegetables like cab-
bage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, turnips and onions are better
when they lose some of their flavor in cooking. Green vegetables
become brown due to certain acids which cannot escape in a tightly
closed vessel. Vegetables like potatoes (sweet and Irish) and squash
and such other vegetables as are suitable for baking are suitable
for waterless cooking.
SELECTION OF VEGETABLES
1. Select usually the medium sized vegetables. Many Florida
products, however, grow very quickly to a size above the average
and retain their fresh tender texture and food value.
2. Select for firmness, crispness, and weight for size.
PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES FOR COOKING
1. Remove insects (if necessary) by placing the vegetable (up-
side down if headed) in water to which salt or vinegar has been
2. Wash vegetables thoroughly, using a brush. Scrape, peel,
or shell after cleaning if necessary. Remember that vegetables cut
crosswise lose more nutrients in cooking than vegetables cut length-
3. If it is necessary to prepare mild vegetables some time be-
fore cooking, add water to cover. When ready to cook, remove
vegetables, bring water in which they have been covered to a boil,
and replace vegetables in this same water. Vegetables cut up and
covered keep nicely in a hydrator in the refrigerator. A pan with
a perforated lid serves as a substitute.
Select the method best suited to the vegetables to be cooked,
taking into consideration whether texture, color, flavor summed up
in attractiveness is the main item (and it sometimes is) or whether
minerals and vitamins are in this particular case of more importance.
Sometimes it is best to coax the appetite or desire for the cooked
food and to supply the minerals and vitamins in fresh uncooked
foods such as milk and fresh fruits and vegetables or their juices.
Use common sense and a knowledge of the food habits of the family.
1. In boiling, put all vegetables into quickly boiling water
which has been boiling long enough to drive out the air. Bring
the water to a boil again as quickly as possible.
2. Start the cooking with the lid partially or entirely removed.
Shove the lid off for the first three minutes of boiling of strongly
56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
flavored or of green or yellow vegetables. This gives acids and
gases time to escape and leaves better flavor, color and desirability.
3. Add one teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. Add salt early
in the cooking to increase color (except in red or white vegetables).
4. Use only enough water to cover mildly flavored vegetables.
Let the water cook down. Do not drain. This process applies to
peas, celery, string beans, lima beans.
5. Vegetables of stronger flavor (onions, cabbage, Brussels
sprouts, cauliflower, turnips) should boil rapidly in larger amounts
of water with open top.
6. Cook vegetables until done-no longer. Overcooking de-
stroys color, flavor, vitamins, digestibility, nutrients. Time de-
pends upon age and tenderness of vegetables. Remove from heat
as soon as tender, serve quickly with butter, with cream, with milk
and butter, with white sauce or with strips of browned bacon.
7. Add no soda in cooking vegetables. It destroys vitamins,
flavor, and texture.
8. To follow the waterless or heavy covered aluminum sauce-
pan method, proceed as follows:
a. Select mild flavored vegetables. Add no water, cover pan
and set it over low heat. If steam escapes, lower heat.
b. For "stronger" vegetables, add a small amount of boiling
water. Leave uncovered a few minutes. Cover. Use low heat.
9. To steam vegetables-
Select vegetables that are white, yellow or red in color (beets,
wax beans, squash, potato). Spinach and some very tender greens
may be steamed. For mild vegetables choose an inset pan not per-
forated in bottom and lower sides but so adjusted that the steam gets
to the food.
For strong vegetables use a perforated pan or rack for self-
draining. Allow the steam to escape some in the beginning. Place
water in the bottom of the steamer. If vegetables are steamed on a
perforated rack the water in the bottom will be good for soups and
10. To bake vegetables leave them in rather large pieces. Cut
lengthwise in quarters-carrots, parsnips, turnips. Leave onions
whole. Use a baking dish or pan. Salt, cover bottom of pan with
boiling water. Cover dish or pan tightly and place in oven. In
case of strong vegetables, lift the lid during first few minutes of
cooking. Use heat high enough to let water boil-about 350 degrees.
As vegetables begin to get tender, remove the cover if a fairly dry
product is desired. To butter the products wait until almost all
the water has evaporated. Leave the lid off and turn the heat up
slightly and continue the baking until slightly brown if necessary.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
B. General Recipes-Vegetables
COMMON VEGETABLE DISHES
Au Gratin-Au gratin is a French term meaning covered with crumbs.
Prepare cooked vegetables as for scalloping but-cover the top with buttered
crumbs before browning. Sprinkle cheese over the top if desired but cheese
is not essential to an au gratin dish.
Baked-Wash the vegetable and place on a pan or rack in a moderate
oven. Cook until tender. Most vegetables are baked whole but squash is
usually cut in pieces for serving before being baked.
Boiled-Wash the vegetable and cook it in the skin, or pared, whole or
in pieces, in boiling water until just tender. The water should be boiling
when the vegetable is put in and should boil continuously but not very
rapidly in order not to break the vegetable. Serve with salt, pepper, and
butter, or prepare in other ways such as creamed, au gratin, croquettes,
Buttered-Heat the boiled or steamed vegetable in butter or pour melted
butter over the hot cooked vegetable.
Creamed-Combine the cooked vegetable whole or in pieces with white
sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetables to one cup of white
sauce. For moist vegetables, such as carrots, turnips or onions, use medium
white sauce. For dry vegetables, like potatoes, use thin white sauce.
Cream Soups-Combine a mashed or strained cooked vegetable with
thin white sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetable to two
cups of sauce.
Croquettes-Combine a mashed or finely diced cooked vegetable with
thick white sauce. Shape into individual servings of the desired form, roll
in crumbs, in beaten egg, and in crumbs again, and fry in deep fat.
Curried-Add curry powder to white sauce and prepare as for creamed
Scalloped (cooked)-Cut cooked vegetables or a combination of vege-
tables in slices or pieces, combine with white sauce as for creamed vegetable,
put into a buttered baking dish, and brown in the oven.
Scalloped (raw)-Put a layer of the sliced raw vegetable in the bottom
of a buttered baking dish, sprinkle with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot
with butter. Repeat the layers until the dish is full and pour over the top
just enough milk to be seen through the top layer. Bake in a moderate oven
until the vegetable is tender.
Prepare as directed under description. Cook 30 to 40 minutes in boiling
salted soft water. Remove, drain. Serve with drawn butter or cream. The
leaves are drawn out separately and only the fleshy ends are eaten.
Wash and pare and cook one quart of artichokes in boiling salt water
until soft. Add 1 cup butter, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 teaspoons salt,
and a few grains cayenne. Cook 3 minutes and serve hot.
Prepare and cook as boiled artichoke until slightly undone. Fill with
chopped chicken mixed with bread crumbs seasoned with cream, butter, egg,
salt and pepper. Sprinkle with grated cheese just before removing from oven.
58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Artichokes, French Style
4 lb. salt pork 3 medium artichokes
4 lb. mushrooms 1/3 lb. boiled ham
1 tb. oil %4 cup butter
Onion and a little bouillon Bread crumbs-parsley-shallot
Remove the outer leaves of the artichokes and cut the points with the
scissors. Blanch in boiling salt water. Season with pepper, onion and bouquet.
Drain and lift the caps, remove the heart and replace it with dressing made
of the pork and ham, little tender leaves, mushrooms and bread soaked in
bouillon, shallot cooked white in butter, parsley, pepper, all chopped fine and
mixed well. Add beaten egg and mix thoroughly. Put the artichoke in shal-
low pan with the oil and butter and bouillon. Cook in the oven ten minutes.
Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will snap. The end
of the stalk may be cut in pieces and cooked until tender and served as
creamed or scalloped asparagus or used as a puree in stock or cream soups.
To avoid overcooking the tips, after scraping off any tiny leaves, wash
the asparagus, cut it into equal lengths, discard the tough portions, tie it
in bunches with a soft string, and cook it standing upright in a deep sauce-
pan. The water should come about two-thirds of the way to the tips, which
should be cooked by the steam alone. Cook until tender but not soft. As
with most green vegetables, asparagus is better slightly undercooked than
overcooked. Serve the asparagus in long or short pieces, on buttered toast
with melted butter or a cream sauce.
2 cups milk 2 bunches (about 1 quart) of as-
2 tablespoons butter paragus
2 tablespoons flour 2 eggs, yolks
Salt and pepper 1 cup buttered bread crumbs
Make a thin white sauce and add the cooked asparagus. Add the beaten
yolks and turn the mixture into buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered
crumbs and brown in a moderate oven (350o-400 F.).
Buttered Crumbs-To each cup of ground crumbs, use 3 tablespoons of
butter or other fat. Melt the fat, add the crumbs, remove them from the
heat and mix them thoroughly until each crumb is coated with fat. This
mixture browns easily and gives a delicious flavor to a creamed dish.
1 cup asparagus puree 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups hot mashed potatoes 1/2 cup fine dry bread crumbs
Mix the asparagus, potato, salt and beaten egg thoroughly. On a well-
greased baking sheet, shape the mixture into small circular forms with a
hollow center. Brush the entire surface with melted butter, sprinkle lightly
with bread crumbs, and set in a hot oven (400-450 F.) until thoroughly
heated and golden brown. With a broad spatula or pancake turner lift the
shells to a hot platter. Fill them with diced creamed chicken or mushrooms.
Serve at once. BANANA
Banana may be used in any number of dessert combinations with eggs,
milk, sugar and starch. It is best baked simply with the addition of lemon
or orange juiceand a little salt. There is enough fat and also of sugar with-
out the use of more.
Cook young lima beans in BOILING salted water until tender, allowing
water to cook quite low. Moisten well with thin cream or butter, salt and
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 59
2 cups fresh corn 2 tablespoons butter
1 cup lima beans Salt, pepper.
1 cup milk
Boil beans until tender. Add corn and cook 10 minutes. Add milk, but-
ter, salt and pepper. Cook 3 minutes longer.
Creole Lima Beans
1% cups dried lima beans 1 small onion
2 tablespoons butter or other 1% tablespoons flour
cooking fat 1 cup canned or stewed tomato
2 tablespoons chopped green 1 teaspoon sugar
pepper teaspoon salt
Soak the beans overnight and cook until tender. Heat the butter and
cook the chopped pepper and onion in it for a few minutes. Add flour and
blend thoroughly. Add the tomato gradually and cook until thickened, stir-
ring constantly. Add seasoning, pour over the beans and cook 15 minutes.
Lima Beans, French Style
1 cup dried lima beans teaspoon salt
1% cups milk 2 egg yolks
4 tablespoons butter
Soak beans overnight and cook until almost done, using no more water
than the beans will absorb. Add milk, butter and salt, and finish cooking.
Just before serving stir in the beaten egg yolks and cook until slightly
Select tender beans. String well. Drop into boiling salted water and
cook until tender, being careful to see that the water evaporates as the beans
are done. Brown strips of bacon in a pan. Add bacon and drippings to beans
and allow them to cook a few minutes longer until well seasoned.
Succotash (String Beans)
Cook beans as for boiling and add in proportion of one cup of each
grated corn and stewed tomato and cook until well combined (about ten
Leave on the skin, end of the root, and 2 inches of the stem. Wash
the beets and boil them until they are tender. Take them from the boiling
water and drop into cold water. Slip off the skin, cut the beets in thin
slices or dice them. Heat them with salt, pepper and butter and serve at
VARIATION-To each pint of hot buttered beets add from 1 to 2 table-
spoons of vinegar or lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and 1 tablespoon of
minced green pepper.
Examine the leaves carefully, rejecting all bruised or dark portions.
Do not separate the roots from the leaves. Wash thoroughly in many
waters. Add only enough boiling water to keep the beets from burning, and
boil until tender, from 20 to 30 minutes. Drain off the water, cut off the
ends of the roots and peel the beets. Chop the greens slightly and season
with butter, salt and pepper.
Cook as for buttered beets. Mix 1 cup sugar and 1 tablespoon corn-
starch. Add cup vinegar and let boil 5 minutes. Add beets and let stand
on back of range 30 minutes. Just before serving add 2 tablespoons butter.
60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Cook in boiling salted water about 20 minutes or until tender. Drain.
Add butter or cream.
Brussels Sprouts With Celery
Chop 1 quart sprouts as above. Chop celery, 11/2 cups, and cook two
minutes in 3 tablespoons butter. Add 2 tablespoons flour and pour on
gradually 1% cups scalded milk. Bring to a boil. Add sprouts, season with
salt and pepper, and, as soon as heated, serve.
BROCCOLI (SEE CAULIFLOWER)
Chop or shred cabbage and cook in uncovered vessel in boiling salted
water. Cabbage may be overcooked very easily. Remove as soon as tender.
Add butter or cream. Cabbage is of fine flavor when boiled in water in
which ham (especially a ham bone) has been boiled.
Cabbage being among the "strong" vegetables is cooked in a generous
amount of water and with the top open for at least fifteen minutes. Season
with ham or with butter, salt and pepper. Cook only until tender.
2 cups mashed potatoes Salt and pepper
1 medium-sized onion Celery salt
1 green pepper or pimento Cabbage leaves
1 cup cold cooked meat, ground or Boiling water or stock
chopped Sage to taste
Combine the vegetables, meat and seasonings, and shape the mixture
into small rolls. Roll each of these in a wilted cabbage leaf (wilted by
placing in boiling water for 5 minutes) and place them in a greased baking
dish. Add sufficient boiling water or stock to cover them about halfway.
Cover and bake in a moderate oven until the cabbage leaves are tender.
Use raw or cooked. This cabbage requires even less cooking than com-
mon cabbage. The inside leaves are better uncooked. (See Salads.)
Remove the green and imperfect leaves from the cauliflower and place
it top downward in a dish of cold salted water to draw out the dust and
other impurities. Leave whole or break into flowers, boil until tender in a
large amount of water and serve with salt, pepper and butter.
Cauliflower, French Style
1 cauliflower 4 tablespoons flour
2 quarts water 3/8 pound sorrel or endive
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons cream
5 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Boil the cauliflower for twenty minutes in the salt water. Cook the
finely chopped sorrel for ten minutes. Make a white sauce of the flour and
part of the butter and the juice of the vegetables.
Put the cauliflower through a sieve-return to the soup-add the white
sauce and, just before serving, add the well-mixed egg yolk and cream.
1 large cauliflower 4 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour 3 tablespoons cream
1 cup milk 8 eggs
Cook the cauliflower until tender in boiling salt water, drain well; rub
through a sieve.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 61
Make a cream sauce with the flour, butter, cream and milk. Mix with
the cauliflower and add the egg yolks and lastly fold in the stiffly beaten
whites. Put in a buttered mold, set in water-cook covered for at least 1
hour. Ten minutes before serving, remove the cover and brown. Turn it
out of the mold and serve with tomato sauce. (French Selected.)
Cauliflower Au Gratin
1 medium-sized cauliflower Salt and paprika
1%/2 cups thin white sauce Buttered crumbs
2/3 cup cheese
When the white sauce is smooth, add the cheese, the salt and the paprika,
and pour the sauce over the cooked cauliflower. Turn the mixture into a
buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Brown in a moderate
oven (350-400o F.) from 15 to 20 minutes.
Cauliflower With Cheese Sauce
1 medium-sized cauliflower 4 tablespoons grated cheese
1/2 cups thin white sauce Salt and paprika
Add the cheese to the smooth white sauce and pour it over the cooked
cauliflower just before serving.
Select small bulbs having crisp new leaves. Cut leaves and bulbs in
small pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water for 15 minutes, then add leaves
and cook an additional 30 minutes. Slice the bulb, arrange the greens
around the edge of the dish and place the slices in the center. Season with
Cook rape according to other tender greens by the open kettle boiling
method. Cook quickly. CARROTS
Wash and scrape young carrots. Boil or steam until tender. Add but-
ter, pepper, salt to taste. Add cream sauce if desired or use only butter.
Carrots may be boiled with meat. They may be used whole for garnish,
around the meat platter.
1 pint milk 1 tablespoon onion juice
1 cup cooked carrot, pressed 1 tablespoon minced parsley,
through a strainer celery, or celery salt
2 tablespoons butter
Heat the milk, combine the other ingredients, heat them, and add them
to the heated milk.
4 carrots 1 cup cooked rice
1/3 cup ground boiled ham 1 tablespoon butter
1 teaspoon celery salt Buttered bread crumbs.
Scrub the carrots and cook them until tender. Remove the skins, cut off
the root end, and split the carrots in half lengthwise. Combine the other
ingredients and mix thoroughly. Pile the stuffing on the carrot halves,
sprinkle with the buttered crumbs, and brown in a moderate oven.
1 cup carrots, boiled and mashed 2 eggs
1 tablespoon minced onion Salt and paprika
1 cup medium white sauce
Add the carrot, the onion and the seasoning to the white sauce, then add
the beaten egg yolks. Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff. Fold
them lightly into the first mixture, and turn this into a buttered baking dish.
Set the dish in a pan of hot water and bake the souffle in a moderate oven
(350-400 F.) for 30 minutes. Serve it at once.
62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Carrots and Peas
Boil whole. Cut in cubes. Combine with equal quantity of cooked green
peas. Season with butter or light cream, salt and pepper.
2 cups carrots cut into thin 2 tablespoons butter
strips 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
2 teaspoons chopped onion Salt and pepper
Boil carrots ten minutes and drain. Melt butter, add onion and cook
five minutes. Then add carrots and salt and pepper to season. Stir gently
until well blended. Pile in hot dish and sprinkle with parsley.
Creamed Carrots With Peanut Butter
6 carrots 1 cup white sauce (medium) 1 tablespoon peanut butter
Dice the carrots and cook until soft. Make white sauce, adding to it the
peanut butter. Pour over the carrots and serve hot.
1 quart carrots, ground 1 pint vinegar
1 cup celery, chopped fine % cup sugar
1 large red or green pepper, 2 teaspoons salt
chopped % teaspoon paprika.
1 medium sized onion, chopped
Cook carrot until tender. Chop celery and other ingredients very fine.
Combine ingredients and cook until mixture is clear.
RED PART YELLOW PART
2 pounds of sweet Spanish pimento 1 pint of small carrots, sliced
or No. 1 cans of pimento Cook until tender
1 pound of sugar pint of gingered watermelon
Juice of 4 lemons rind
2 hot peppers
Red Part-Place sweet peppers in a hot oven, blister and peel. Chop
sweet and hot pepper together, add sugar and lemon juice, and let stand in
an enameled vessel or crock for 5 hours. Drain off the liquor and allow it
to simmer for ten minutes. Pour it over the peppers again and let stand
for 2 hours. Simmer the liquor again for fifteen minutes, allowing the
peppers to remain in while simmering.
Yellow Part-Use one pint of sliced carrots (cooked) and one-half pint
gingered watermelon rind chopped or cut into small, uniform pieces.
Packing-A ten-ounce jar is an attractive package for this product. In
packing, place the heavier color-red-at the bottom in a one-inch layer;
then place a one-inch layer of yellow. Continue in this manner until the jar
is nearly filled. Combine the liquors and boil five minutes, strain, and pour
over the contents. Paddle to remove air bubbles. Cap, clamp, and process
for ten minutes.
6 carrots (medium size) % cup water
2/3 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons butter
Clean and cook whole carrots in small amount of salt water. Make a
sirup of the brown sugar, water and butter. Place cooked carrots in sirup
in a heavy frying pan. Baste carrots until they have a rich glaze. Serve
with roast meat.
Carrot and Apple Pie
1 cup grated carrots 1 cup grated pineapple
1 cup diced tart apples % cup water
1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon butter
1/3 cup raisins Nutmeg and vanilla
Cook carrot, apple, pineapple together. Make sirup of sugar and water.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 63
Add raisins and cook until tender and plump. Combine all and cook the
mixture, with the exception of the butter and the seasoning, until it is thick
and clear. Remove from heat. Beat in one egg. add butter and seasoning.
Turn it into a crust that has been baked, and cover it with meringue. Bake
it in a slow oven for 25 minutes.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
6 carrots, medium size 1 lemon, juice and grated rind
3 oranges Sugar
Dice the carrots and cook them until they are tender, in as little water
as possible. Cut the oranges and the lemon in small pieces. Measure the
carrot and fruit, and add 2/3 as much sugar. Simmer the mixture until it
is clear. Turn it into jelly glasses, and when it is cold, seal it with paraffin.
Grated carrot Cocoanut
Pineapple Whipped cream
2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk 1 tablespoon melted butter
14 cup fine bread crumbs 11 cups grated raw carrot
Beat eggs slightly and add remaining ingredients. Turn into greased
custard cups. place in steamer basket, set over boiling water, cover and cook
until the custard is firm, about 30 minutes. Unmold and serve as a vegetable
or with cheese or egg sauce as a main course at luncheon or supper.
One level cup grated cassava, /2 cup milk, 1% cups sugar, 1 egg. 1 tea-
spoon salt, 41/ cups water, 1 tablespoon butter, flavor with nutmeg. Bake 1
The coarse outside stalks may be used for cooking, reserving the tender
hearts for salads, sandwiches, and eating raw.
1 cup medium white sauce 2 cups cooked celery, cut in
1 tablespoon finely minced onion pieces
Salt and pepper 3 tablespoons grated cheese
Buttered bread crumbs
Put the celery into a greased baking dish. Add the cheese to the white
sauce, flavored with onion, and pour it over the celery. Cover with the but-
tered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until golden brown.
1 pint celery, cut into 1-inch 2 tablespoons butter
pieces 1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper
Cook the celery until tender. Make a medium white sauce of the celery
water, milk, flour and butter. Add the cooked celery to the white sauce and
season to taste with salt and pepper.
Celery (chopped) may be added to an oyster omelet or scrambled egg
and oyster combination. It should be cooked only partially and should be
crisp. It gives a nice "crunchy feel" to an otherwise soft dish.
The best recipe for celery is as follows: Clean well. Crisp. Serve.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 quarts celery or six bunches 1 quart onions
3 quarts cabbage or 2 large heads
Chop and cover with salt water for two days. Drain well and put on
1% qts. vinegar 4 cups brown sugar
4 pound mustard 1 tablespoon flour
1 tablespoon turmeric powder
Boil twenty minutes then add three well-beaten eggs, before taking from
heat. Add more salt and sugar if needed.
American Chop Suey
1 pound round steak ground 1 large bunch celery
1 cup raw rice 1 pint tomatoes
1 green pepper (cut fine) 1 can mushrooms may be
1 large onion added
Brown meat slightly in small quantity of fat, add all other ingredients
which have been cut. Cook until vegetables are tender.
CHILI CON CARNE
One pound hamburger, one-half can pimentos, cut fine; two large onions.
cut fine; one cup diced celery, one teaspoon sugar, one pint tomatoes, one
package spaghetti, cooked in boiling salted water. When spaghetti is tender,
drain off water; add hamburger, celery, tomatoes, pimentos, onions, sugar.
Cook slowly until meat is done. Add salt and pepper to taste.
4 cupfuls finely diced celery 1% teaspoonfuls salt
3 large potatoes diced 1/8 teaspoonful pepper
1 medium sized onion, chopped 1 quart milk
2 tablespoonfuls flour 2 hard cooked eggs
Melt the fat in a kettle. Then add the chopped onion, celery and pota-
toes. Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until the celery and
potatoes are tender. Then add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat well and
thicken with the flour which has been rubbed smooth in two tablespoonfuls
of water. Just before serving add the hard-cooked eggs chopped. Serve
Cook like spinach in a small amount of water. Stir until it settles in
the water. COLLARDS
Select tender leaves after frost (if in frost section). Cook until tender
in a generous amount of water to evaporate as the greens become quite
tender. Season with cured bacon or ham hock. Usually the meat (with
bone) is placed in cold water and allowed to come to a boil and cook for a
while before the greens are added. Add salt to taste after greens have
cooked for a while. Chop fine. Serve with a sour relish or pickle.
(On the cob)
Select sound ears of green corn. Husk and silk. Cook immediately in
boiling salted water 10 to 12 minutes. Serve at once with butter.
(See Lima Beans)
1 pint shelled lima beans 3 tablespoons butter
3 cups green corn Salt and pepper
Cook the beans until tender in just enough water to cover them. Add
the corn and cook for 15 minutes longer. Season with butter, salt, and
pepper, and serve. The succotash may be made from canned corn and beans.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 65
VEGETABLE SOUP MIXTURE
(Canned for out-of-season.)
This should be made in the proportion of one-half tomato pulp, one-fourth
corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra, with seasoning added. One
slice of onion should be added to each No. 2 can. The tomatoes should be
heated, rubbed through a sieve, and cooked down to about the consistency
of ketchup before measuring; then the corn, okra, onion, and seasoning
should be added and cooked until the corn and okra are about three-fourths
done. Then pack into cans and process one hour at boiling or 25 minutes
at 10 pounds steam pressure.
CORN AND TOMATO CHOWDER
2 cups canned corn 1 cup milk
1 cup canned or ripe tomatoes 1 cup grated cheese
2 cups diced celery cup chopped pimentos
1 quart cold water 3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter 2 teaspoons salt
Place corn, tomatoes, diced celery, and one teaspoonful salt in a kettle
and cover with cold water. Boil hour. Melt fat and add flour gradually.
Then add the cold milk, stirring constantly. Add the vegetable mixture
gradually to the white sauce; add seasonings. Add to the chowder and grated
cheese and pimentos, chopped fine. Stir until cheese is melted. Serve piping
hot. A cream soup may be made, if desired, by straining out the vegetables
before adding the white sauce. Serve six to eight.
To two cups grated or chopped corn add two eggs, slightly beaten, 2
tablespoons melted butter and one pint scalded milk; turn into buttered
baking dish and bake in slow oven.
Build a camp fire and allow to burn to a bed of coals and hot ashes.
Place ears of green corn in husks (all except outermost leaves) in hot ashes
with coals. Cook until tender. Serve immediately with butter and salt.
American Indians packed the ears of corn in clay and roasted them.
Southern corn meal (home ground) contains more of the food value and
natural flavor of the original product than does the finely "bolted" meal.
It is, therefore, a very popular food product. Any corn meal dish requires
thorough cooking and a high temperature to bring out the nutty flavor and
to thoroughly cook the starch. Because the corn dishes are used so exten-
sively with vegetables in the South, the following recipes are given:
Corn Muffins or Bread Sticks
2 cups meal 2 cups butter milk
1 teaspoon salt 2 eggs
teaspoon soda 3 tablespoons lard
1 teaspoon baking powder or bacon grease or butter
Mix all ingredients. Add one tablespoonful cane sirup if desired. Add
melted lard last. Pour into hot greased muffin rings or iron breadstick
molds. Cook in very hot oven 30 minutes.
Corn Meal Batter Bread
Use same recipe for muffins. Combine. Pour into hot. greased skillet
and cook in hot oven from 30 to 40 minutes, depending upon thickness of loaf.
Corn meal-water-salt. Place iron or aluminum griddle over heat.
Grease well and allow to get piping hot. Pour hot water over corn meal and
66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
salt and mix thoroughly. Place on hot griddle and pat out to "fit." When
the hoecake is well browned, turn on a plate or on your hand, if experienced.
After turning, cover so as to hold some of the steam. When both sides are
well browned, allow to cook more slowly until well done.
Corn dodger is made like hoecake except a little butter or lard is added.
It is formed into small pones about three inches long and dropped into the
quickly boiling water in the vessels where turnip greens, peas, or collards are
cooking. About twenty minutes or more should be allowed for cooking.
They are served with the vegetable. In this way the cooking water is pre-
served in the menu. A most tasty article of food is the corn dodger.
5 cups milk 1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup corn meal 1 teaspoon ginger
2 cup molasses
Cook milk and meal in a double boiler for twenty minutes; add molasses,
salt and ginger; pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake two hours in a
slow oven; serve with cream.
Corn Meal and Fig Pudding
1 cup corn meal 1 cup finely chopped figs
1 cup molasses 2 eggs
6 cups milk (or 4 of milk 1 teaspoon salt
and 2 of cream)
Cook the corn meal with four cups of milk in a double boiler for twenty
minutes; add the figs and salt. When the mixture is cool, add the eggs well
beaten. Pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake in a moderate oven for
three hours or more. When partly cooked, add the remainder of the milk
without stirring the pudding. Fig preserves may be substituted for the dried
figs. Drain the figs from sirup and slightly dry in the oven before using.
Cucumbers should be served raw. See Relishes and Pickles. They may
be steamed and buttered like squash.
2 small eggplants Salt and pepper
% cup oil % tablespoon flour
1% tablespoon butter 1 tablespoon water
1% pounds tomatoes Bouquet powder
Peel the eggplants and cut into 1/2 inch slices, sprinkle lightly with salt,
and let stand covered with a cloth. After 1 hour, drain and dry them care-
fully. Brown in the oil and drain.
For the other part prepare a tomato sauce by cooking the tomatoes and
onions, cut into pieces, with the butter, salt, pepper and bouquet; cook until
thick and strain.
Put the eggplant in a pan with alternate layers of tomato sauce. Put bits
of butter on top and bake for twenty minutes.
Slice and pare the eggplant. Place the slices in a buttered baking dish,
add salt and bits of butter and sprinkle generously with grated cheese. Cover
with sliced tomatoes, add salt, pepper and butter. Bake in a moderate oven
until the eggplant is tender, from 30 to 45 minutes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Peel the eggplant and cut it into one-half inch slices. Sprinkle each
slice with salt. Pile the slices in a bowl and place a plate on top to weight
them down slightly. Let stand for two hours. The salt will draw out any
disagreeable flavor. Wipe each slice dry, dip it in crumbs, in beaten egg, and
in crumbs again, and sautd slowly in hot fat.
Slice the eggplant, but do not pare it. Sautd the slices in butter, bacon
fat, or drippings. Arrange the slices in a baking dish in layers with a
sprinkling of cheese between layers. When the dish is about three-fourths
full, cover the eggplant with a medium white sauce. Cover the top with but-
tered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until brown.
Endive is used largely for salads. A wilted salad is made by using hot
bacon grease instead of oil in the dressing. This adds a good flavor. Sliced
or grated hard cooked egg combines nicely as to color and food combination.
Endive should be chopped fine. Boiled salad dressing may be added to bacon.
Escarole, Romaine, water cress, lettuce (green) may be prepared in the
same way or may be used as cooked "greens."
4 heads chicory (curly endive) 3 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon meat broth or cream 1/3 cup croutons
1 tablespoon butter
Wash the salad thoroughly and cook in boiling salted water without
covering. When they are tender, drain and rinse and chop fine. Put in a
pan with the butter, salt, pepper, stock or cream and heat through. Decorate
the dish in which they are served with croutons of bread browned in butter.
Leeks, spinach, mustard, kale, radish, turnip greens may be used in any
of the recipes for greens. Examine all greens and wash them carefully,
discarding any wilted or yellow leaves. Leave the roots on for the first
washing as this makes the greens easier to handle; then cut them off to
allow a more thorough cleansing. Wash in at least 3 waters, lifting the
greens out of the pan before emptying the water so that the sand and other
impurities will be left in the bottom of the pan.
Greens may be cooked quickly in a large amount of water or for a slightly
longer time in a small amount of water. Cook until just tender and no
longer. Serve with salt, pepper, and butter, or season with bacon while
cooking. Hard cooked eggs may always be used with any of these "greens."
Okra is used in a number of combination dishes with tomatoes, corn or
lima beans. It is often cooked with field peas by dropping the tender pods
into the vessel with the peas when they are nearly cooked. The steam from
the peas will cook the okra. The combination with a few slices of fresh
tomato or sweet green peppers makes a splendid vegetable plate. Plain,
steamed, or boiled okra should be whole and unbroken.
The real Creole gumbo is made as follows: Wash one-half gallon of
okra pods, dry on a towel; cut off ends of pods, and slice. Put one-third
cup of lard and two tablespoons of minced onion into a kettle and fry a
young chicken, previously jointed, until a golden brown. Remove chicken,
add the sliced okra and one small chopped tomato. Fry until no more
"strings" come from the okra. Then put the chicken in and salt and pepper
to taste. Add one quart of boiling water. Cook three-fourths hour. Serve
in soup plates with a portion of boiled rice in each plate. When chicken
cannot be secured, use ham.
68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bermuda onions are mild flavored. Place onions under water to peel.
Boil in plenty of water, drain, and again cover with boiling salted water.
Cook until soft but not broken. Drain. Add a little milk or cream. Cook
a few minutes. Season with butter.
After boiling 15 minutes small silverskin onions, drain and dry. Melt
3 tablespoons butter, add 2 tablespoons sugar and onions and cook until
browned. An asbestos mat is needed under the vessel during the last few
LEEKS OR GREEN ONIONS
Leeks Au Gratin
12 leeks 1 cup grated cheese
6 potatoes Buttered bread crumbs
1 cup medium white sauce Salt and pepper
Cook the leeks in boiling water until tender. Boil, pare, and slice the
potatoes. Arrange the vegetables in alternate layers in a buttered baking
dish and pour the white sauce over them. Add the cheese, the buttered
bread crumbs, and the seasoning, and bake for 15 minutes in a moderate
Onions Au Gratin
6 medium-sized onions Salt and pepper
14 cup grated cheese Stock or hot water
Y2 cup toasted bread crumbs 2 tablespoons melted butter
Boil the onions until slightly tender and remove the centers with an
apple corer. Fill the cavities with the cheese and crumbs mixed together.
Place the onions in a baking dish. Add % cup of the stock in which onions
were boiled, salt and pepper, dot with butter, and bake in a moderate oven
until brown. Scalloped Onions and Peanuts
Cut the onions in quarters; cook them in salted boiling water until
tender. Add salt just before the cooking is completed. Drain them and
save the.broth for soup. Butter a baking dish. Put into it a layer of onions,
and sprinkle over them some ground peanuts; add another layer of onions
and peanuts. Pour over all the cream. Cover the top with buttered crumbs
and brown the dish in the oven. Any vegetable may be scalloped in this
way. Cheese may be used in place of peanuts if desired, or grated cheese
may be combined with the cream.
Cook medium-sized onions in boiling salted water for 15 minutes. Drain,
and remove the centers, leaving a shell about one-half inch thick. Make a
stuffing of equal parts of chopped cold meat and bread crumbs or rice.
Moisten the mixture with stock or tomato juice and season with salt and
pepper. Fill the onion shells with the mixture and put them in the oven
to brown for 15 minutes. PARSNIPS
The simplest method of cooking parsnips is to wash them clean, boil
them, and then scrape off the skin. Slice or chop them coarsely and season
with salt and butter. Breaded Parsnips
Boil rather large parsnips until tender, and scrape off their skins. Cut
the parsnips crosswise in slices about one-third inch thick. Season the slices
with salt and pepper. Dip each slice in beaten egg and then in fine bread
crumbs. Fry in deep fat, drain on soft paper, and serve as a border for
meat platter. PEAS
Cook in boiling salted water until tender, allowing water to evaporate.
Add milk, butter, pepper and salt to season.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 69
Field peas require longer period of cooking.
Scalloped Cow Peas
1 cup dried cow peas 1 tablespoon sugar
1 cup uncooked rice 1/4 cup chopped onion
11/ cups canned or stewed 1 tablespoon butter
tomatoes Salt, pepper
Soak the peas over night and cook until almost done, using no more
water than the peas will absorb. Add the remaining ingredients and continue
cooking until the peas and rice are tender.
Green Peas (Little Peas), French Style
1 lb. peas 1 head of lettuce
Some young onions A sprig of parsley
6 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Sautd the peas in a pan with the butter. Add the lettuce, which has
been washed and tied in a bunch, onions, parsley, salt, pepper and little
sugar. Shake the pan until well mixed. Add a cup water, cover and cook
on a slow fire 1 hours. A little before serving remove the parsley: add
the rest of the butter and an egg yolk.
Peppers, used largely for raw salads, relishes and decorations, have be-
come popular as stuffed dishes. They add a delightful flavor to the dressing
and make new dishes of "left-overs."
6 medium sized green peppers 1 cup canned tomatoes
2 medium slices or 11/ lb. 1/ cup cracker crumbs
smoked ham 1 very small onion
2 eggs Few sprigs parsley
% teaspoon salt
Simmer ham in 1 cup boiling water 5 minutes. Drain, reserving the
liquid. Put the ham through a meat chopper; mix with the tomatoes,
cracker crumbs and the eggs well beaten. Chop the onion and parsley
very fine and add to the mixture. Wash the peppers and remove the seeds.
Fill the pepper shells with the mixture and place them in shallow baking
dish surrounded by the water in which the ham was simmered.
Sweet potato develops the best flavor when baked. Wash well. grease
with butter or bacon and bake in covered pan inside oven. The skin when
brown cracks and allows steam to escape. Split through center or break
into halves crosswise and butter. Serve hot. A good sweet potato needs
no extra "trimmings."
Potatoes Baked on Half Shell
Bake potatoes, cut lengthwise, remove contents, mash, season with sugar
and butter and salt. (Peanuts or pecans may be added.) Place in potato
shells, cover with marshmallows and brown.
Sweet Potato and Peanut Croquettes
1 cup mashed sweet potato 14 teaspoon salt
1 cup finely ground parched Cayenne pepper
peanuts or pecans 1 tablespoon flour
1 egg Bread crumbs
Combine the ingredients, and shape the mixture into croquettes. Roll
them in bread crumbs, beaten egg, and crumbs again. Fry them in deep fat.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1 quart grated raw sweet 1 cup milk
potatoes '1 cup flour
1 egg /2 teaspoon nutmeg
% cup cane sirup 1 teaspoon cinnamon
3 tablespoons butter, melted % teaspoon salt
Sift together the dry ingredients. Combine these with the remaining
ingredients. Put the mixture in a baking dish and bake it in a slow oven
about two and one-half hours, or until done, stirring occasionally during the
first of the cooking. During the last thirty minutes, discontinue the stirring
and allow the pone to brown. Many people prefer to serve the dish cold
with milk or cream. When cold it can be sliced. It is very frequently
served hot, as a vegetable.-Sarah W. Partridge.
Sweet Potato Tournado
Select potatoes about two inches in diameter. Cook them in boiling
water until tender. Peel and cut in pieces two inches long. Around each
piece wrap a thin slice of bacon and fasten with toothpick. Place on a pan
in a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. Serve with parsley garnish.
Breaded Sweet Potatoes
Peel boiled sweet potatoes and cut them in lengthwise slices. Dip the
slices in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain on soft
paper. Serve hot.
4 medium potatoes 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup water 1% cup sugar
4 cup butter 1 cup vinegar or lemon juice
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Cut uncooked sweet potato into slices, then strips about 1/3 inch thick.
Place in a baking dish. Add butter and sprinkle with sugar. Pour on water.
Dash with cinnamon. Add vinegar. Bake until sugar and butter are can-
died and the potatoes are well cooked. Lemon juice may be substituted for
This old-fashioned method of cooking sweet potatoes develops their
finest flavor and one unapproached through any other method. Select and
wash smooth, uniform potatoes of medium size. Make a bed of them in
the hot ashes of a burning fire. Cover well with the ashes, over this bank
glowing coals. Roast the potatoes until soft throughout. When soft, remove
from the ashes, peel and serve. They should be eaten hot with butter. This
method is especially adapted to the open fireplace or to camp cookery and is
frequently used at the time of sirup and sugar making on the farm when the
hot ashes and glowing coals at the entrance of the furnace suggest it. It may
be practiced on a wood stove, utilizing the hot ashes in the ash pan as a bed
for the potatoes and covering them with a layer of glowing coals.-Sarah W.
White potatoes are more generally used as bread. Baked and boiled in
the jackets are the best methods. Butter, milk, cream or cheese add the
needed flavor and seasoning. Parsley, a contrasting color, adds attractive-
ness as well as flavor to the potato.
Potato, with a starch content of 18 to 20 per cent, is usually "mealy" when
cooked. Mealy potatoes are best for baking, boiling or deep frying. Potatoes,
containing more protein and less starch are "waxy" and better for salad,
scalloping and creaming because they retain their shape. A light, sandy soil
usually produces a larger starch content than heavy soil. Both young
potatoes and stored potatoes have more cellulose in proportion to starch
than have fresh matured potatoes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 71
Select potatoes of uniform size; scrub them with vegetable brush; place
them on a grate or in a pan in a hot oven and bake them for 45 minutes, or
until they are tender. If they are overcooked, they will be soggy rather
than mealy. Crack or pierce the skin as soon as the potatoes are done to
let out the steam which otherwise will condense and make the potatoes soggy.
Drop well-washed potatoes into boiling salted water. Cook them, with
the cover of the kettle ajar, just until they are tender, about 20 to 30
minutes. Drain off the water immediately, cover them with a cloth which
will absorb the moisture, and place them where they will keep warm. Over-
cooking and standing in water makes a soggy, unpalatable potato.
Prepare the potatoes as for boiling, place them in a steamer, cover them
tight, and steam them for about 30 minutes, or until just tender. Remove
the skins and serve the potato at once.
Cut baked potatoes in half; remove the pulp and mash it; add enough
hot milk to make it the consistency of mashed potatoes, and season it with
salt. Fill the cases with this mixture; dot the top with butter; brush them
with milk and bake the stuffed potatoes for 8 to 10 minutes in a hot oven or
long enough to brown them on top. Potatoes may be stuffed in the morning
and heated for the noon or evening meal.
Variations-To the mashed potatoes, before the cases are filled, may be
added any one or a combination of the following:
Beaten white of egg (1 egg to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Grated cheese (/2 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped meat (1 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped parsley (1 tablespoon to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
SALSIFY OR OYSTER PLANT
Creamed Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil salsify until tender, drain, and combine it with medium white sauce.
Serve with tiny meat balls or little sausages.
Scalloped Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil the salsify until tender. Cut it in slices one-half inch thick. Put a
layer of buttered crumbs in the bottom of a buttered baking dish, cover with
a layer of the slices of salsify, and add salt and pepper. Continue with
alternate layers of crumbs and salsify until the dish is full, covering the top
with crumbs. Add enough hot milk to moisten. Bake in a moderate oven
until the crumbs are well browned.
Spinach and Bacon
2 pounds spinach Pepper
Salt 6 slices bacon
Prepare and cook spinach (steam in small amount of water or in
waterless cooker). When tender, chop, season and add the bacon which has
been cut in small pieces and cooked until crisp. A small amount of lemon
juice may be added if desired.
Variations-The bacon may be omitted and % cup of butter added just
before serving. For creamed spinach add / cup of cream and 1 tablespoon
of butter to the drained, chopped spinach and place the mixture on thin
slices of crisp toast. Garnish the top with grated, hard-cooked egg or sliced
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COMBINATION VEGETABLE RECIPES
16 eggs 2 pounds green peas
1 pound diced carrots 1 pound baby limas
1 pound diced potatoes Mayonnaise, egg, oil, and
1 pound green beans lemon juice
Boil the vegetables, tied in cheesecloth, in boiling salted water. Cook the
eggs at simmering temperature until they are hard; shell, cut off the pointed
end, remove the yolk and fill with mayonnaise. Run the yolk through a ricer
and garnish the edge. of a plate with this. Then put the eggs, filled with
mayonnaise, inside of this. Fill the center of the dish with vegetables well
marinated with the mayonnaise in the center, keeping each variety separate.
1 rabbit (2 wild rabbits or % cup vinegar-flour
large chicken) 2 shallots or green onions
1/_ pound mushrooms 1 pound tomatoes, bouquet garni
4 small onions % cup bouillon
3 tablespoons butter 4 tablespoons oil
Cut the rabbit into pieces, brown with oil, remove the rabbit and brown
the onions and mushrooms and shallot; sprinkle with flour, add bouillon and
vinegar, salt, pepper and rabbit, cover and cook slowly until tender.
One-quarter of an hour before serving add a sauce made from the toma-
toes, bouquet and butter.
C. General Recipes-Fruits
AVOCADO (SEE SALADS)
Mash the avocado, season with salt and lemon or lime juice and spread
on hot toast and call"it "Avocaded Toast."
Butter the soup with avocado. Dice the avocado and add to the soup
just before serving.
NOTE-Mayonnaise, cheese, nuts, butter are not needed when avocado
is used. Use your own taste about other combinations. The avocado always
needs salt and lime or lemon juice. It is a concentrated food, very rich in
oil, nearly 18 per cent, and needs bread or other bulky food.
The fruits in many sections require additional pectin to produce jelly.
Fortunately Florida has an abundant supply of pectin in citrus fruits.
It may be prepared for convenience as follows:
One-fourth pound white part of orange peel, % pint water, 2 tablespoons
Cut or grate the yellow from orange peel. Pass white peel through a
food chopper. Weigh, add lemon juice, mix, allow to stand 1 hour. Add 1%
pints water. Let stand 1 hour. Boil gently 10 minutes. Cover, let cool, place
in flannel jelly bag. Press to remove juice. Drain juice through a clean bag.
The Pectin Test
To give the pectin test, pour 1 teaspoonful of jelly stock into clean cup.
Pour into cup a teaspoon of grain alcohol (or denatured alcohol). Gently
shake. Pour into a spoon. If the pectin shows a solid clot use one measure
of sugar to one measure of juice. If it is not so solid use less sugar.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
CITRUS FRUIT SPECIALS
Sour Orange Preserves
Grate the yellow from the peel. Cut the oranges in halves. Put four
oranges into five quarts of water and boil 20 minutes. Change to fresh water
and boil 15 minutes. Change and boil 10 minutes. Change again and boil
8 minutes. Drain and boil in syrup of one part sugar and two parts water
until fruit is transparent. When sirup cooks to desired consistency, pour
over fruit packed into sterilized jars and process 10 minutes. Seal.
Sour Orange Marmalade
1 pound peeled sour orange 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup jelly
2 pints water stock or less according to
1/3 of peel pectin test
Preparation of Peel-Wash fruit, remove peel, keeping 1/3 cup of thin
slices. Leave some white on skins. Place in kettle. Add water 4 times'
weight of peel. Boil 10 minutes. Drain. Repeat 3 times, each time boiling
5 minutes. Continue until peel is very tender and all bitter taste removed.
Preparation of Jelly Stock-Weigh peeled fruit; cut into small pieces
and, for each pound of orange, add 2 pints of water. Boil until thoroughly
disintegrated. Drain in flannel jelly bag and press.
Making Marmalade-Pour juice into a kettle; add peel and bring to a
boil. Make pectin test and add sugar as needed. Heat and strain through
clean jelly bag. Boil until the jellying point is reached. Add peel.
1 pound peeled fruit 1 pound sugar (based on pectin
2 pints water test)
One-third of peel.
This marmalade follows same directions as for sour oranges.
Combination Marmalade-Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon
2 oranges (pulp and peel) 1 grapefruit (pulp)
1 lemon (pulp)
Wash fruit. Grate yellow from oranges. Use white peel. Peel grape-
fruit and lemon and discard peel. Run fruit and orange peel through a
chopper. Add 3 times the bulk of water. Boil 15 minutes and let stand over
night. Boil 10 minutes and let stand again. When cold, measure pint for
pint of sugar. Cook rapidly to jelly stage, 222* F. One cup grated pineapple,
previously boiled, may be added.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
3 cups carrots 2 oranges
% teaspoon salt 3 lemons
4 cups sugar 1 cup water
Wash and scrape carrots and run through a food chopper. Boil until ten-
der. Drain. Wash and peel oranges; chop one-half; strip the other. Boil
strips until tender. Pour sugar over hot ground carrots. Let melt. Add
water, lemon juice, orange pulp (cut in small pieces) and orange peel. Cook
until sirup is thick and fruit is clear. Three slices of canned pineapple may
be used instead of orange.
2 cups grapefruit pulp 2 cups sugar
2 cups orange pulp Peel from one orange
% cup pecan meats (chopped)
% cup grated pineapple
Preparation-To chopped peel add 1 cup water and boil 10 minutes.
Cover. Let cool. (If fresh pineapple is used be sure to boil as it contains
an enzyme that prevents the action of pectin unless the pineapple has reached
boiling point.) Mix fruit pulp and orange peel; boil 20 minutes; add sugar.
When dissolved, add pineapple. Cook to the jelly test. Add nuts. Pour
into sterilized glasses and seal.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1 pound kumquats % pound sugar 3 cups water
Wash kumquats with soap and water. Sprinkle with soda (1 tablespoon
soda to 1 quart kumquats) and pour on boiling water and let stand 10 min-
utes. Pour off water. Rinse in 3 waters. Slit kumquats 1,4 inch in side,
cutting seed cells. Place in kettle with water to cover. Boil 15 minutes.
Repeat boiling process until fruit is tender. Drop kumquats into boiling
sugar solution made by adding % pounds sugar to 3 cups water. Boil to
222*. Pack in jars. Strain sirup over fruit. Seal while hot. The fruit may
be allowed to "plump" in the vessel covered for 25 minutes.
Cook kumquat skins in water (changing 2 or 3 times if necessary) until
.tender. Drain. Chop in meat chopper. Combine juice and peel, adding %
cup of sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil to jellying point.
Remove the membranous skin or rag from the orange peel. Put through
a food chopper. Add twice its weight in water and 2 tablespoons lemon juice
for each cup of water. Let stand one hour and add same amount of water as
first taken. Boil 3 minutes, cover, allow to cool. Press through a jelly bag.
Keep one-half ground peel to add later to boiling juice. Test for pectin and
add as much sugar as the test shows is needed. Use 1 cup juice to one cup
sugar if there is solid clot. Bring to a boil. Add 1/2 of the ground peel and
cook to 222 F.
Fresh figs are best when first picked.
Serve ripe, peeled or unpeeled figs, with or without cream. No sugar
Select firm, sound, mature but not fully ripe figs.
1 pound figs 1 pound sugar 4 cups water
Sort over and weigh. Wash dust from figs by placing in wire baskets,
or colander, and dipping in and out of boiling water. Add sugar in propor-
tion of 1 pound to 1 pound of figs. Four cups of water. Cook, without
stirring, to 224 degrees. Allow to stand, covered, over night to "plump."
Pack figs in sterilized jars. Fill to overflowing with sirup heated to boiling
point. Partially seal and simmer 15 minutes for pints.
Lemon sliced through the peel may be added just before processing.
Spices or ginger may be added but the real flavor of the fig is pleasing.
Sweet Spiced Figs
5 pints figs 1 stick cinnamon
1 pint water 1 teaspoon spice
1 cup vinegar 1 teaspoon mace
1 pint sugar
Wash and dip figs as for preserving. Place in boiling water for a few
minutes and add sugar, vinegar and spices. Cook to 222* or 2240, or until
the figs are clear. Let stand over night. Pack and process 30 minutes at
simmering temperature or 15 minutes at boiling point.
To 1 quart of broken figs and the juice and pulp of 2 lemons add 2
cups sugar and cook until right consistency for conserve. Add 2/3 cup pecan
meats. Remove from heat. Pack and process 15 minutes at simmering.
NOTE-Grated lemon rind adds to the flavor.
Grapefruit with Kumquats
Blue-Stem Full-flowered Papaya. Second Year
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
This is made from the broken figs or over-ripe stock. Clip off stems,
run through a coarse food grinder. Measure. Place in heavy aluminum ket-
tle and cook until thickened. Add 1/2 measure of sugar to one measure of
fig pulp and cook to 2210 F. Pack in hot jars, seal and process by boiling
Select and pulp ripe grapes. Heat the pulp with the juice and put them
through a colander to remove the seeds. Add to the pulp and juice half a
pound of sugar for every pound of fresh fruit. Cook the mixture until it is
3 pounds grapes 1 pound sugar pound finely ground pecans
Use sound, ripe grapes. Weigh and pulp them. Proceed as for spiced
grapes to remove the seeds. Grind the hulls in a meat grinder or chop them
as fine as possible, and then soften. Combine the hulls and pulps and add
for every three pounds of fruit, one pound of sugar. Use the grated peel
of one lemon. Cook until thick and tender. Then add one-half pound of
ground pecan meats. Remove from the fire. Pack in small containers and
process for fifteen minutes.
(From Farmers' Bulletin 859)
After weighing the grapes, separate the skins and pulps. Then place
the hulls in a closed vessel, adding half pint of water for each 6 pounds of
fresh fruit. Cook until the hulls are quite tender. When this point is
reached, the added water will have mostly evaporated, unless the vessel has
been very tightly closed. While softening the hulls, heat the pulps and juice
in another vessel until the pulps break down enough to liberate the seeds.
Put the seedless pulps and softened hulls together when cool. After com-
bining hulls and pulps, for every five pounds of fresh fruit used, add the
2 pounds sugar 1% ounces ground cloves
2 ounces ground cinnamon pint vinegar
Then boil the mixture over a slow fire until a little thick. If 5 pounds
of fruit are used this will require about an hour's boiling.
Since the flavor of the spices predominates, the variety factor is of less
importance than in other products. Some people prefer a special product
made as above, but with the vinegar, the cloves, and half the sugar omitted.
Wash, stem and crush grapes. Heat to simmering point, until the fruit
is sufficiently softened, stirring the fruit well as it is heating. Turn into
jelly bag. Drain and squeeze. Add one cup sugar to one gallon juice. Heat
to slightly below the boiling point and seal in fruit jars. Process quarts 30
minutes at simmering temperature.
1 bunch fresh mint Juice of 5 lemons
1 level cup sugar cup water
2 pints grape juice 1 pint grapefruit juice
Remove mint leaves. Reserve tips for garnish. Place leaves with lemon
juice, sugar and water. Let stand 30 minutes, strain, add grape juice and
grapefruit juice. Pour over a large block of ice and serve in glasses with
reserved mint leaves and slices of lemon.
76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 cups grape juice 3 cups cold milk
'4 cup lemon juice 2 egg whites
1 cup sugar
Scald the grape juice, add sugar and stir until sugar is dissolved. Cool,
add lemon juice and set aside until cold. Then stir into milk. Add stiffly
beaten whites of eggs. Freeze.
4 pounds grapes 1 tablespoon ground cinnaman
2 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon ground allspice
% pint vinegar 1 tablespoon cloves
tablespoon salt tablespoon pepper
Wash and stem the grapes and steam them over water until soft. Put
through a colander, discarding only the skins and seed. Add the spices, sugar,
salt and vinegar, and let simmer for fifteen minutes. Put in sterilized bottles,
process ten minutes and seal.
NOTE-Whole spices tied in a cloth while cooking will give a lighter
color, but not so good flavor. The acid varieties of grapes are preferred for
catsup. Frosted Grape Jelly
Soak half a box of gelatine in half a cup of cold water until soft; set
this in an outer vessel of boiling water until the gelatine is entirely dissolved.
Stir into it one cup sugar, and when all are well blended and smoothed, add
two cupfuls of grape juice. Strain into a bowl upon the beaten whites of two
eggs and turn into a mold. Then whipped whites will rise to the surface of
the jelly and produce a frosted effect. Leave the jelly on the ice or in a very
cold place until firm and serve with whipped cream about it.
Use ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a pan with water enough to half cover.
The pulp may or may not be cut from the seed (the latter makes a smoother
marmalade). When tender, rub through a granite colander. Add a cup of
sugar to each quart of pulp, and boil thirty minutes. Seal at once.
Select fruit just showing color. Peel and cut in sections. In making the
sirup, allow, for each pound of sliced fruit 1 pound of granulated sugar and
4 of water. Boil the sugar and water together, add fruit and cook until clear.
Let stand until cold. Boil down to 2220 and let stand until cold. Pack and
process for 15 minutes. Seal.
The Mulgoba is one of the best mangoes for preserving.
1 lb. peeled mangoes, cut in 3 oz. green ginger sliced (may
small pieces substitute root ginger
1 pt. vinegar or 1 pt. grape- broken and put in spice
fruit juice and 1 pt. bag)
vinegar % lb. brown sugar
lb. currants 1 tablespoon salt
lb. raisins or 1 lb. raisins tablespoon white mustard
(if currants are omitted) seed
% lb. blanched almonds cup chopped onions
1 cup chopped sweet peppers
1 oz. chillies or hot peppers
To the vinegar add sugar and bring to a boil. Add the spices, chopped
vegetables, mangoes, nuts, raisins and salt, bring to a boil and boil for 30
minutes. Pack while at boiling point in sterilized jars and seal.
Mangoes just beginning to color are best selected.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 77
Select before the fruit shows color, or at initial stage. Peel, slice in
convenient pieces, immerse in medium sirup for 1 to 2 minutes. Pack in
jars, boil sirup to 218 F. and strain over fruit. Process 16 to 20 minutes
at boiling. (Medium sirup, 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water.)
Mango Ice Cream
Use plain ice cream custard, made by any favorite recipe, as a basis.
To each quart, add one pint of ripe mango pulp and freeze.
Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves and remove the seed. Fill the
cavity with ice cream (plain vanilla is best), and serve at once.
Mango for pies, sauces and butters. Select mature but unripe mangoes
and use in recipes for green apples. Sweeten according to taste.
Select the melon at a mature but unripe stage. Boil or steam and add
a little lime juice. This makes a delicious French sauce. The unripe fruit
may be used like any other melon in pickles or preserves. It combines nicely
with other fruits for marmalades and jellies. It is very good for sherbets.
As a breakfast food it needs no additions. As a dessert it is perfect.
Cut mature but unripe papaya in halves lengthwise. Add a little sugar
and orange, lime or lemon juice; or a little cinnamon in place of the juice.
Bake 20 minutes and serve immediately on taking from the oven.
Make sirup of sugar and vinegar and water. Add a few whole cloves
and peppercorns and half-ripe papaya cut into small pieces. Boil until tender.
Ginger or lemon may be added.
1 cup sugar 1 cup vinegar
2 cups water 3 cups papaya
To 1% cups papaya pulp add juice 1 lemon, 1 cup sugar, and beat into
2 stiffly whipped whites of eggs. Cook. Serve with whipped cream.
Take ripe papaya-peel, seed, cut in small pieces-slightly cover with
water, cook until tender. Put through fruit press. To each cup of pulp add
% cup of sugar, juice from one lemon, cook to 222* F. Pack in jars. Pro-
cess 15 minutes. Lime in Papaya Butter
To every 2 cups ripe mashed papaya add Y cup lime juice and 1 cup
Peaches are canned in a thin sirup in halves or whole for desserts and
salads, and in pieces for pies and other cooked dishes.
Sweet Pickled Peaches
6 pounds peaches 4 ounces stick cinnamon
6 cups water 2 pounds whole cloves
2 cups vinegar Ginger root
6 cups sugar
Select firm clingstone peaches. Peel and drop into sirup of sugar, water
and vinegar, boiled together. Cook to 2210. Pack. Cover with boiling hot
sirup and process 20 minutes at simmering.
78 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
3 lbs. peeled, sliced, cling- 2 pounds sugar
stone peaches 3 peach kernels
6 cups water
Bring sugar and water to a boil, add peaches. Cook to 222*. Let
"plump" over night. Pack in sterilized containers, seal and process, or pack
Wash 4 quarts ripe peaches throughly. Cut in pieces and put through
dilver. To each pint of pulp add 1 cup of sugar. Cook until of the desired
consistency. Pour into sterilized jars and process 15 minutes.
1 dozen ripe peaches 1 pound raisins
1 red pepper 1 cup sugar
1 hot pepper % tablespoon ginger
1 green pepper % tablespoon cinnamon
1/2 pound raisins 1/2 tablespoon spice
3 onions (mild) % tablespoon celery seed.
% cup acid fruit juice Salt
2 quarts vinegar
Combine ingredients and cook until the mixture is quite thick and clear.
Pack hot, seal and process 15 minutes at simmering.
2 dozen peaches, chopped 6 cups sugar
1 pineapple or 1 pint can 2 lemons (juice and rind)
Cook peaches thick before adding other ingredients. Cook entire mixture
until quite thick.
Two cups of pecan meats may be added while mixture is boiling hot.
Pack, seal, process 5 minutes. A conserve may be made by using ripe peaches
and shredded pineapple. The addition of seedless raisins or of shredded fig
preserves adds to the interest and lessens the amount of sugar needed.
Lemon will give an additional flavor.
Peel from stem to blossom, placing immediately in weak salt solution
(2 tablespoons to a gallon). Cut into halves and remove cores. Cook 5 to
10 minutes in sirup of one part sugar to two parts water. Pack into quart
jars and process 20 minutes, depending upon tenderness of fruit. If lemon
or ginger flavor is desired, add while cooking.
1 pound pears % pound sugar 3 cups water
Cut pears in halves and core; place in sirup of sugar and water and cook
to 2240 F. Allow to stand until plump. Pack and process 20 minutes. Whole
cloves, slices of lemon or ginger may be added.
3 pounds firm pears 1 tablespoon ginger
4 cups sugar A few whole cloves
3 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon spices (whole)
5 cups water A stick of cinnamon
Peel pears lengthwise and leave whole. Make sirup of vinegar, water
and sugar; tie the spice in small pieces of cheesecloth, and add to the
sirup. When this mixture begins to simmer, add the pears and lemon rind
and bring to 222. Cool and let stand. The next morning, drain off the sirup
and bring the sirup to boiling point. Pack fruit in jars, garnish with cinna-
mon, cover with the sirup, seal and process quarts for 15 minutes at 180
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 79
Core firm, medium-sized pears. Place in covered baking dish, sprinkle
with brown sugar. Add stick of cinnamon. Allow enough water to cover
bottom of pan. When tender, remove pears to glass dish, cook down sirup
and pour over pears. Serve hot or cold.
PINEAPPLE (SEE SALADS)
Pineapple, because of its enzymes, combines nicely with meats or omelets.
Broiled ham or small sausages are often served on slices of pineapple or with
a sauce made of shredded pineapple.
7 eggs 1% tablespoons fat
1 teaspoon salt 1 cups crushed canned
3 tablespoons milk or cream pineapple
% cup grated cheese
Separate eggs; beat yolks for one minute; then add salt, milk or cream,
and cheese and continue beating until well mixed. Melt fat in frying or
omelet pan, turning pan so melted fat goes well up on the sides. Beat
whites of eggs until stiff and fold in the yolk and cheese mixture. Pour
into the pan and cook over low heat until nicely browned on the underside.
Then place in a slow oven for about three minutes to dry off top. Mean-
while put the undrained pineapple into a saucepan and boil until thick,
about ten minutes. When omelet is done, make a cut about one and one-half
inches long on either end of the fold line; then pour pineapple on one-half
of the omelet, fold and slide onto platter.
Pineapple Luncheon Sandwiches
1 cup finely diced cooked ham 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 cup crushed canned pineapple, 2 tablespoons pineapple juice
drained 1 beaten egg.
2 tablespoons milk or water
Mix first four ingredients together well and spread between slices of
buttered bread. Dip each side of the prepared sandwiches in the beaten egg
which has been combined with milk; saut6 until golden brown on both sides.
Serve at once. Pineapple and Rhubarb Marmalade
NOTE-If fresh pineapple is used in any of these recipes for marmalades,
remember to bring to a boil before combining with other fruits.
3 lbs. pink rhubarb 4 cups sugar
3 cups pineapple pieces Juice and grated rind 1 lemon
Rhubarb need not be peeled if young and tender. Wash, and cut into
inch pieces. Drain pineapple. Combine rhubarb, pineapple, sugar and lemon.
Cook slowly until thick and clear. Fill jelly glasses and cover with paraffin.
2 cups crushed canned pineapple, 1/3 cup of sugar
undrained Jui.ce and rind of 1 lemon
%/ cup pineapple juice or water 1 tablespoon cornstarch
Heat pineapple, pineapple juice, grated lemon rind and lemon juice until
boiling. Combine cornstarch and sugar and add to pineapple sauce, stirring
constantly. Cook until thickened, and serve hot.
1 quart strawberries 1 orange
1 pint 'spiced grapes Sugar
2 cups pineapple pieces
Wash and hull berries. Drain grapes. Drain pineapple from juice.
Slice orange very thin or put through food chopper. Combine fruit, weigh,
and add an equal weight of sugar. Cook slowly until mixture thickens when
a little is tested on a cold plate. Pour into hot glasses and cover with melted
paraffin. This is a delicious preserve to serve with cream cheese and crackers.
80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Pineapple With Orange Sections
1 slice fresh pineapple Orange sections
Chill pineapple and orange. Peel orange with a sharp knife, cutting
through the white inner skin. Remove sections, keeping in as large pieces as
possible. When ready to serve, lay slices of pineapple on individual plates,
put a small mound of powdered sugar in the center and arrange orange
sections around pineapple slices, making a complete circle. Serve cold.
4 cups shredded pineapple Strawberry jam
12 marshmallows Whipped cream
In each dessert glass put a layer of shredded pineapple, then 2 marsh-
mallows, cut in pieces with scissors dipped in cold water. Next a layer of
jam, another layer of shredded pineapple. Top with whipped cream,
sweetened and flavored. Sprinkle with chopped nuts or cocoanut.
1 pound berries % pound sugar
Select large, firm fruit. Wash, cap, getting the pithy center if possible.
Place berries in aluminum or porcelain vessel. Add sugar. Handle vessel
over flame so that the juice reaches the sugar and dissolves to form a sirup
or let stand over night. Place vessel over flame and bring to boil and boil
8 minutes. Cover and set aside until fruit is plump and cool. Cook to de-
sired consistency. Pack and seal.
Wash, cap and crush ripe strawberries. To each pound of fruit add %
pound of sugar. Stir constantly and cook to 222 F. or until desired con-
1 pound fruit %4 pint water % pound sugar
Wash, scald, peel and seed fruit. Make a sirup of sugar and water.
Add fruit and cook to 226 F. Put in hot sterilized containers. Seal and
process 15 minutes.
1 pound fruit % pound sugar 1/2 pint water
Prepare as for preserves. Put through food chopper. Mix sugar and
water. Add fruit and cook to about 225%1/2 F. or jellying point. Seal.
Use equal measures of fruit and water and cook until tender, about 10
minutes. Sweeten to taste. Allow to come again to' boiling point. It is not
necessary to strain the product.
Grapefruit juice, in canning, includes the "hearts." Grapefruit hearts
are now known throughout the country. Prepare as for salads, removing
the hearts whole. Pack tightly into pint jars in which has been placed 2
tablespoons sugar. Process 35 minutes, 180.
Extract juice in such way as to exclude oil of the peel or the bitterness
of the rag. Bring juice to 165 or 1700 in open vessel.' Fill into bottles
boiling hot. Cap quickly. Process in water at 1800 F. for 30 minutes.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Sweet orange juice keeps its flavor better in canning when combined
with sour citrus juice in proportion of 4 to 1. Lime, lemon, calamondin,
Seville or sour orange may be used. Use sugar in proportion of 2 cups sugar
to one gallon juice mixture. Bottle and process at 165' F. for 30 minutes.
OTHER FRUIT JUICES
Ripe grapes, plums, berries produce valuable fruit juices. Bring fruit to
simmering temperature. Remove juice, strain through a heavy cloth. Sweeten
slightly, about 1 cup sugar to a gallon of juice. Strain again if a clear juice
is desired. Seal hot and process at about 1800 F. Fruit jars may be used
for keeping juices for home use. If bottles are used, cork tightly, process and
seal with wax afterwards, or use a bottle capper.
Fruits Containing Pectin for Jelly-Citrus fruits, partially ripened
grapes, blackberries, dewberries, huckleberries, quinces, guavas, crab-
apple, May haws, plums, pomegranate, roselle.
Fruits Lacking in Pectin-Strawberries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb.
Fruits Lacking Acid for Jelly-Pears, quince, sugar apple, sapodilla,
Tropical Fruits for Jelly-Tamarind (red), satin fruit (red), pitanga
(red), mulberry (dark), guava, carambola, Persian lime, pomegranate,
Cattley guava, jaboticaba, umkokolo, ketembilla (English gooseberry).
D. A Few Florida Fruit Desserts
Numerous of the sweet, sub-acid and acid fruits lend themselves easily
to desserts. The sapote, the sapodilla, sugar apple, the mango, papaya, in the
natural form, are desserts. The sour-sop, the lime, the pomegranate, the
tamarind, the passion flower lend a delightful flavor to sherbets. The juicy
fruits, berries, citrus, plums and grapes are adaptable in hundreds of methods.
The melons, guavas, peaches, pears, figs, greatly increase the list. The rich
Florida coloring in fruits gives wonderful possibilities in attractiveness.
Since many vegetables must be cooked, fruits remain the sure means of
getting Nature's fresh natural food with the vitamins, mineral, organic acids
and laxative properties. Therefore, it is important that fruits be used fresh.
They are also used to flavor and make attractive other less interesting foods.
The best known Florida dessert-that is the dessert most nearly a Florida
6 oranges cup sugar 3 cups fresh grated cocoanut
Peel and slice pulp of oranges. Grate cocoanut. Place a layer of orange
pulp in a large bowl. Sprinkle a little sugar and add a layer of cocoanut,
then another layer of orange, a sprinkle of sugar, and over all pour cocoanut
juice and free orange juice. Add a final covering of grated cocoanut. Leave
in refrigerator until next day and serve.
2 cups sugar 2 cups orange juice
3 cups water 1 cup lemon juice
Boil sugar and water 10 minutes. Cool, add fruit juices. Freeze to a
(Makes about 1% quarts)
3 cups sugar % cup lemon juice
1 quart water 2 egg whites
Boil sugar and water together for 5 minutes to make sirup. Add lemon
juice, cool and freeze to a mush. Add stifly beaten egg whites and finish
82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Y cup orange juice 1 cup any one of the following
cup lemon juice fruits: Crushed strawber-
2% cups sugar ries, crushed peaches,
1 quart milk mashed bananas, guavas,
Add more sugar, if needed.
Mix and freeze. If mixture curdles it will freeze smooth again.
ORANGE ICE CREAM
3 cups orange juice 1 cup thick cream
1 cup sugar 2 cups thin cream or milk
Mix orange juice and sugar thoroughly. Add cream or cream and milk
and freeze. Or add just thin cream or milk, freeze to a mush; add whipped
cream and continue freezing.
ORANGE CREAM CUSTARD
2 eggs 2 cups milk
1 cup sugar teaspoon vanilla
2 teaspoons flour 5 tablespoons sugar
1/8 teaspoon salt 4 oranges
Beat egg yolks, add Y cup sugar, flour and salt and mix thoroughly.
Add milk and cook in double boiler until thick enough to coat spoon. Cool,
add vanilla and turn into serving dish containing peeled and sliced oranges.
Beat egg whites with 5 tablespoons sugar. Heap on top of custard and serve.
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM
1 tablespoon granulated gelatine cup sugar
% cup cold water Sprinkling salt
1 cup orange juice and pulp 1 cup cream
1 tablespoon lime juice
Soak gelatine in cold water for 5 minutes and dissolve by standing cup
containing mixture in hot water. Add to orange juice and pulp. Add lime
juice, sugar and salt. When it begins to jelly fold in whipped cream; turn
into cold mold to become firm.
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM PIE
Make orange Bavarian cream as given in recipe, pouring into baked pastry
shell. Chill till firm. Top with additional whipped cream if desired.
LEMON FLUFF PIE
3 eggs 3 tablespoons hot water
1/3 cup lemon juice % teaspoon salt
Grated rind 1 lemon 1 cup sugar
Beat yolks of eggs very light. Add lemon juice and grated rind, hot
water, salt and cup sugar. Cook in double boiler until thick. Add
cup sugar to stiffly beaten egg whites and fold into cooked mixture. Fill
baked pie shell and brown in moderate oven.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
This recipe is recommended as a simple and inexpensive cake, but a very
1 lb. seeded raisins 2 teaspoons salt
1 lb. currants 2 teaspoons baking powder
1 lb. sliced citron 2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 lb. sliced orange peel 2 teaspoons mace
(crystallized) 1 teaspoon nutmeg
1 cup chopped crystallized fig 1 teaspoon allspice
1 lb. pecan meats teaspoon cloves
4 cups (1 lb.) flour 1 lb. butter or other fat
4 cups (11/2 lbs.) brown sugar cup cider or other fruit juice
1 dozen eggs
Prepare the fruit and nuts according to the general directions. Mix
the flour, salt, baking powder and spices; sift about half of this mixture
over the fruit and mix with the finger tips.
Cream the fat; add the sugar gradually, then the beaten eggs. Stir in the
flour alternately with the fruit juice. Add the floured fruit and nuts. Bake
according to general directions.
Weight of baked cakes: About 12 pounds.
D. Crystallized Fruits
Directions for crystallizing fruit when it is desired to keep the fruit for
a long period of time:
1. Preparation of Fruit-All citrus fruits should be of a bright color,
without blemish and with thick peel. Grapefruit, lemon, oranges and limes
must be grated sufficiently to break the oil cells. The bitter in the peel is
removed by putting the peel on in cold water, letting it come to a boil, and
then by draining off, changing the water and starting over each time with
cold water. The number of changes depends on the individual taste. The
peel should be tender before it goes into the sirup.
Kumquats-Wash, treat with a hot soda bath (one tablespoon of soda
to one pound of fruit). Cover with boiling water. Let stand until cool.
Wash in clear water. Make a small slit in the sides of the kumquats, cut-
ing through the seed cells. Cover with water, then cook until tender before
putting into the sirup.
Pineapples-Peel, cut in one-half inch slices, core and boil until tender.
Fig, Watermelon Rind and Other Fruits-Treat as you would in prepar-
ing for preserves.
Quick Method for Immediate Consumption
Make a thin sirup, 2 parts water, 1 part sugar, (sufficient to cover the
fruit after the sirup is cooked down). Put fruit on and cook until clear.
Cook down to 220 F. first day. Let stand in this sirup for at least 24 hours.
Then cook to 2260 F. Let stand in this sirup until next day. Then cook to
228 F.; take out, shape and put in sun to dry. When partially dry roll in
granulated sugar and put back in sun or in a good place to dry.
Continued Method for Marketing
To make a marketable product when the fruit is cooked to 226* F. put
in jars and process for 15 minutes. Seal and keep this preserve until you
are ready to crystallize it. To finish product make a 222 F. sirup and put the
drained fruit into the sirup and cook to 226 F. Drain, shape and place in
sun to dry. When partially dry roll in granulated sugar. This method will
take longer to dry, but the product will keep much longer.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Coloring and flavoring may be used, but it cheapens the product and
causes the fruit to lose its identity if overdone. Eight drops of any standard
vegetable coloring to the pound of sugar put into the sirup is sufficient to give
a delicate shade to the finished product. If flavorings are used, add to the
product the last five minutes of cooking.
For pineapple, whole limes, etc., preserve in 2350 F. sirup and finish in
a 2500 F. sirup. As soon as the desired temperature is reached, remove from
fire and stir until moderately cool. Remove the fruit, which will be coated
in fondant, and dry.
GRAPEFRUIT PEEL STRIPS
1 lb. grapefruit peel 6 tablespoons liquid 3 fruit juice
1 lb. sugar p 3 water
Preparation of Peel-Select bright fruit with a thick peel. Wash care-
fully. Grate lightly on an ordinary grater to break the oil cells. Cut this
peel into strips that are 4 to % inch in width; or into small shapes. To
remove the bitter, place in pan of cold water and let come to a boil. Change
water as many times as necessary, starting each time in cold water. When
fruit is tender, drain and weigh.
For each pound of peel add 1 pound of sugar and 6 tablespoons of
liquid; cook until the sirup is absorbed. Remove from the fire and roll in
granulated sugar and lay on platter to dry.
Finishing Point-If cooking is continued for too long a period of time
and evaporation carried too far, the product will be hard and unattractive.
The point at which the product is finished may be determined by rolling a
piece of the fruit, when it has become transparent, in granulated sugar.
If, after a few minutes, the fruit stiffens enough to retain its shape, it is
sufficiently cooked. A strip of the peel is preferred to the small shapes in
making this test.
NOTE-If it is desired to give a variety in appearance to the finished
product, the peel may be cut into small attractive shapes, before being boiled.
Vegetable coloring may be added to the sirup in which the peel is crys-
tallized. Mint, ginger or other flavoring may be blended with the grapefruit
flavor by adding to the sirup.