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Bulletin No. 46
MARY A. STENNIS
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
IN RESPONSE to many requests from with-
in and from without the state, this bulletin
has been prepared to acquaint Florida
people, and people everywhere, with Florida
fruits and vegetables and their nutritive value
and uses in the menu.
The great variety of food from which to
choose, and the possibilities of food production
in the state, are apparent. An increased utiliza-
tion of Florida's products will come from a
better knowledge of their value as a year
Commissioner of Agriculture
Table of Contents
I. Florida's Contribution to the Food Needs of the Nation 5
II. Florida Vegetables ---------- 12
III. Florida Fruits ---------- 25
IV. Uses of Florida Fruits and Vegetables ------------- ---- ---- -. 47
1. Cocktails, Drinks, Sherbets --- 47
2. Hors d'Oeuvres -------- 50
3. Salads ------- 50
a. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables for Salads __ 50
b. Salad Dressings ------- 52
c. Salad Combinations ---- 54
d. Special Salads-Florida ---- 55
e. The Fruit and Vegetable Salad in the Menu --- 58
4. Cooked Products --- ------------- --- ----- 58
a. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective"
Value of Vegetables --- 58
b. General Recipes ------- 65
Vegetables --- --------------------------- 65
Fruits ------------------------------- 82
c. Desserts ---------- 91
d. Crystallized Fruits ----- 93
Soybean Recipes ------- 109
V. The Truth About Diet ----------11
VI. The Body Needs and Florida Menus to Meet the Needs -- 115
1. Calorie -------------124
2. Vitamin ------------------------124
3. Florida Fruits ----------134
Florida Vegetables -------- -- -134
4. Weight-Height-Age Tables ------ ------- 135
I- Florida's Contribution to the Food
Needs of the Nation
FOOD resources tend to concern any section of the country. Trans-
portation and refrigeration have reduced the distribution prob-
lem but, even today, an abundant and varied food production is
of vital interest. Through science, by means of chemical analyses and
animal feeding, we know now that at least 35 simple substances1 make
up man's optimum food supply-that is, the supply necessary to pro-
mote normal growth and to maintain health.
We know, too, that of these substances, mineral content is of great
importance. Of the ten essential minerals, for instance, calcium and
phosphorus must balance each other in proper relation. Sunshine
greatly aids not only the plants, but the animals, in the process by
which they utilize calcium and phosphorus and thus build good frame
structure. Before the sun can do its work, of course, it is essential that
the minerals be present-in the soil, in the plant and in the human
body. A deficiency of iodine has caused goiter, while a lack of phos-
phorus in some parts of the world's soil has caused great loss of live-
stock, the animals becoming bone chewers. Recent research has shown
that some copper is necessary in order that the iron may be used for
the formation of the red pigment which helps the red corpuscles to
carry oxygen to the tissues. The need for lime is recognized as
At the present time we feel fairly sure that at least six vitamins
are necessary for health. We know, too, that some of these vitamins
are water soluble, some are fat soluble, some are in one type of food
and missing in others. We have known for a long time that not one
protein alone but sixteen digestion products of proteins are needed for
body building and that a balance of several foods is required to supply
the building food material needed.
Having gone this far, we know that no one food can complete the
diet. Variety is essential. Whole wheat bread, for instance, is not vital;
cereals for breakfast are not a necessity; but a combination of foods,
with a balance of various substances, is essential to optimum health
and living. Efforts have been made to prove that the human being can
live on milk; can exist on grains; can remain alive on potatoes. Why
try to prove possible existence even for a short time? Of what use is
bare existence? Abundant life, health, is the goal. Concentrated sugar
relieves hunger quickly and so people have believed that sugar has an
enormous "food value." It is strictly for energy but, alone, it overtaxes
the system. It is habit-forming. It is minus minerals, vitamins, and
all structural material for growth and repair. In some sections meat
has been published far and wide as the most nearly perfect food and as
'Eighteen of these substances are digestive products of proteins; ten are mineral elements
(sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, and
copper); six are called vitamins-distinguished as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and G; one is sugar
glucose derived from either glucose or from cane sugar, or starches, milk, sugar, etc.
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FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
the most essential food. Meat is a good protein. It has a limited amount
of iron and vitamin G, but it is poor in calcium and has no vitamins
other than G.
The normal life history of a human being (or animal) shows that,
if born of normal parents, he will start life with vitality, and if well
cared for and well fed, will develop a sound body. Some people live
well until 80; some die at 40. Some die at 40 and are unburied until 80.
They have the privilege of a half life of ill health. Animal feeding has
shown that right feeding prolongs life and efficiency and that it
affects the rate of growth in the young, the ultimate size, the time for
old age to begin to show, the fertility and success of the mothers in
raising the young, the reproduction, and the nervous system. The
faulty diet of the animal produces physical defects such as short and
stocky form; enlarged joints, defective teeth, general runtiness, poor
quality of hair, nervousness, abnormal fear-the special symptoms
depending upon the nature of the defect. In addition to this, McCollum
and other research authorities tell us that they have seen, repeatedly,
each of the deficiency diseases appear in animals deprived of one or
another of the required food factors.
Today we still hear, however, that so long as human beings have
variety of diet, they are safe. Investigation shows that this is not
necessarily true. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, rye, peas, beans, soybeans,
potato, sweet potato, radish, turnip, beets, carrot, parsnips, do not
supply safety. Add lean meat and yet the safety is not assured. All
this list is lacking in the very important item calcium and may be very
poor in protein or deficient in vitamins. Leafy vegetables are lacking.
Milk is lacking. Both are good sources of calcium. Both are splendid
sources of protein. Milk supplies abundant protein while vegetables
supply protein in small quantities but of good quality and easily
digestible. Fruit is also missing in this list. Fruit, leafy vegetables,
and milk are all good sources of vitamins. They should largely supple-
ment even the varied diet above listed.
A cross section of the "Common American Diet of Today" has been
pictured for us by a study made by Dr. Lovell Landstrother who made
rather true records on the diets of 501 patients suffering from de-
generative diseases. Keeping in mind the nation's habit of "meat,
bread, potato and dessert" diet, with its usual accessories of butter,
cream, sugar, mayonnaise, on the one hand and the so-called "pro-
tective" diet (fruit, green vegetables, milk) on the other, he found
that 88 per cent of the calories in the total diet was supplied by non-
protective foods and 12 per cent by protective foods. Bread supplied
16 per cent and butter 17 per cent. All except 31 patients used meat;
except 107, potato; except 128, sweets; except 36, used vegetables in
some amount. Thus 88 per cent were getting a concentrated, too re-
fined and acid diet. Vitamin content was poor, except A which occurred
in butter and cream. Carbohydrates was high, calcium low. A protec-
tive diet of 70 per cent vegetables, fruit and milk, was prescribed and
substituted. The result was that all showed remarkable improvement
and 73 per cent recovered.
8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The diet of the 501 patients studied here is said to be indicative of
the American habit of eating. The diseases are in some cases of course,
due to heredity, stress of employment, environment, infection, wear
and tear, but as was shown in the response of these cases and in
thousands of others, partial protection, at least, lies in the "protective"
foods-fruits, vegetables and milk.
Our total diet, according to records made by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture of over 400 families, includes about 35 per cent wheat
flour and 14 per cent sugar. The amount of meat varies and potato
comes in for a good share. This "make-up" is poor in vitamins A, C,
D, and E, and in calcium and in other minerals. How shall we make
up the deficit? Keen competition in placing certain staple foods (as
well as "luxuries") on the market has produced confusion and com-
plications in planning the daily menu. Nutritionists who have done
the greatest scientific food research have interpreted their findings
regarding the essential diet as follows: "A quart of milk will supply
about 27 per cent of the total food intake. Two salads-raw-vegetables
or fruit each day and a generous serving of green leafy vegetables
added to the milk will make a safe plan for health. The appetite will
take care of the remainder. A decrease in the milk should mean an
increase in fruits and vegetables, always. The solution of the problem
lies then in the reduction of sugars and starches, probably meat, and
the increase in the protective foods."
What can Florida contribute to the nation's diet, to the happiness,
health and efficiency not only of Florida's people but of the nation's
population? Does she have a contribution? Does her choice place in
the nation, a chosen strip nearest the sun, a selected land with a soil
endowed richly with warmth, moisture, calcium, phosphorus and sun-
shine-a soil receptive to further soil feeding when necessary-have
any effect upon her production of "protective" food? Does the fact
that Florida receives the purifying effects of the Atlantic breezes
from the east and the mild Gulf winds from the west and south, giving
her perfect air drainage and a moist atmosphere not of the usual fog
and mist of the sea-level type but of a clearness that is seemingly re-
flected sunlight, mean that the ultra-violet rays of the sun are able to
come through more effectively in this favored land?
Tests, made by the Department of Health, Chicago, found that, due
to smoke, the ultra-violet rays of the sun were only 50 per cent effec-
tive. In tests made in Washington, D. C., with an atmosphere prac-
tically free from smoke even the winter sunlight was found effective
in successful irradiation. (Anti-rachitic Efficiency of Winter Sunlight
of Washington, D. C., Military Surgeon, LXII (1928), 592.) Colonel
Brooke in his discussion of "Influence of the Tropics in Rickets" in
Annals of Internal Medicine, II (1928), 281, says that the ideal con-
ditions of ultra-violet light are found where the sunlight is most in-
tense and where the atmosphere is free from smoke and cloudiness.
Florida is free from smokiness and Florida not only has no long rainy
season (as is true in the more tropical locations) but she has very
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 9
few successive cloudy days during the year.1 Colonel Brooke also
mentions "humidity" as a limiting factor. Does Florida have humidity?
She has moisture but very little humidity as the term is commonly
used to represent mist and fog.2 The shifting of the breezes, coming
as has been said from the Atlantic on one side and from the Gulf on
the other-mild winds of a similarity of temperature-sweeps Florida
atmosphere clean and clear, giving her sun free air passage directly to
the earth. Even through the season of most rainfall the moisture in
the atmosphere precipitates quickly, the atmosphere clears, and the
sun "comes through."
Does being nearer the sun mean anything? Florida with a latitude
of between 240 32" and 31 north, is nearer the sun than any other
state. Dr. Katherine Blunt, University of Chicago, who has recently
made a most complete summary of what science knows today of the
effect of sunlight on nutrition,3 says that in the tropics, where the
sun's rays are more direct, the intensity of the ultra-violet light is
greater, except for cloudiness. Tropical and semi-tropical light has
greater anti-rachitic power, she says, and this fact is borne out by the
smaller amount of rickets found in such locations. (American Journal
of Diseases of Children, XXXV (1928), 590. "Influence of Severe
Rickets in New Orleans and Vicinity.")
One other limiting factor remains-that of the sun's altitude, the
sun's angle, meaning its distance from the southern horizon, that which
makes a difference between summer and winter; between noon, morn-
ing or afternoon. Tisdale and Brown ("Relations of the Altitude of the
Sun to Its Anti-Rachitic Effect," Journal American Medical Associa-
tion, XCII (March 16, 1929), 860), making tests of the effectiveness
of the ultra-violet rays of the sun in the prevention of rickets have
reached the conclusion that where the minimal seasonal altitude of the
sun is above about 35 degrees the light is protective; and where the
sun's altitude is below 35 degrees rickets exist in severe form. The
minimal season altitude of the sun at 40 degrees north latitude is 26
degrees; at Glasgow, Scotland, 11 degrees (and below 35 degrees six
months); at London, England, 16 degrees (and below 35 degrees for
five months) ; in Boston, 23 degrees (and below 35 degrees for four
months); in Baltimore, 27 degrees (below 35 degrees for three
months). In Florida the minimum seasonal altitude of the sun is
always above 37 degrees, an angle at, or above, which ultra-violet
light is always effective.
The three factors limiting the effects of ultra-violet light as stated
by Dr. Blunt (namely: the fog, smoke, and dust of the atmosphere,
the distance of the sun, and the angle of the sun) having been disposed
of satisfactorily, we may, without modification, say that, as far as
'Average seasonal rainfall in Florida is as follows: winter, 3 inches per month; autumn,
4.39; summer, 6.94; and spring, 3.12.
2Fog periods in Florida: Western and extreme north Florida, 12 to 14 days during the
year, mostly between November and March; west central coast about 10 days during the
year; east coast, less than 10 days; extreme south exceedingly rare, almost never at any time
during the year.
3"Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition" (P. 135), Katherine Blunt.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
scientists know, Florida receives more of the effective ultra-violet
light of the sun than does any other location in the United States.
In simple words we may say Florida occupies the best place in the
sun-her vegetables and fruits mature and ripen in the most effective
sunshine in the United States.
What does all this sunshine mean? Scientists have, by mechanical
means, used ultra-violet rays of light in the treatment of foods and
have thereby been able to give certain foods increased health-giving
power or what is known as vitamin D. Irradiated foods have shown
good results in the better bone building, in the better use of calcium
and phosphorus taken into the body. Dr. Katherine Blunt says, "with
the limited sunshine of Northern winters, a palatable, readily avail-
able food with anti-rachitic power, the power to assist the body in the
assimilation of calcium and phosphorus is an important contribution
to national health." She refers to irradiated oil treated artificially
with this same ultra-violet light which Florida's food products receive
from her own natural sunshine, through an almost unobstructed at-
mosphere, in Nature's own dose, more generous and more effective
than that in the northern climate. Is it not at least a more pleasing
prospect to take the daily dose, not in oil (artificially treated), but in
appetizing, palatable fresh fruit and vegetables?
Since the sun plays an important part in the process of using the
calcium and phosphorus in the human body and has shown some power
even in the northern climate to give Vitamin D to a number of foods,
including vegetables, cabbage, other greens, soy beans, hay grown in
the open in summer, it seems reasonable to conclude that where the
light is more effective the storage of vitamins in vegetables and fruits
will be greater. Dr. Blunt says that "the scarcity of Vitamin D in
northern vegetables may lie partly in the relatively small amount of
ultra-violet light in the sunshine and partly in its slight penetrating
ability." Various vegetables and orange juice are listed among the foods
successfully irradiated. Plants contain the same mother substance,
ergosterol,' upon which light acts in human cells to produce Vitamin D.
Therefore if the sunlight in the proper intensity and at the proper
angle can reach the plant for a sufficient period, it is reasonable to
believe that the same good work proceeds-the storing of Vitamin D
for human use. Florida, having the year 'round advantage of all other
locations in the United States in the quality of her sunshine, furnishes
a field for unlimited research along these lines.
Artificial irradiation has been found to be effective, if properly
used, but harmfully so, if overdone. Irradiated ergosterol2 (Viosterol)
has been successfully used but also misused. The United States Public
Health Service says, "Of course we would not be understood as
1Ergosterol, the parent substance of vitamin D, is a sterol found always wherever
cholesterol occurs. It exists in largest quantities in ergot or in yeast. Phylesterol, too-the
sterol common in plants-is accompanied by ergosterol. Irradiated ergosterol, even a one per
cent solution in oil, is very potent, two and a half to ten drops being equivalent to one cup
of good grade cod liver oil.
2Viosterol, the new standard product of irradiated ergosterol, is much less concentrated
than the above-mentioned irradiated ergosterol, a dose of eight to ten drops being equivalent
to three to five teaspoons of cod liver oil. "Ultra-Violet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition,"
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
deprecating the therapeutic use of irradiated ergosterol, but would
rather call attention to the possible harm that might result from too
large doses." Foods over-irradiated have been found to be ineffective.
Equipment for artificial irradiation has been found to be not yet
dependable. There is much that is uncertain. There is a broad field of
research open for future scientists. But, in the light of what has been
done, there is the satisfaction that in Florida sunlight at least, if we
make full use of the sun food products-fruits and vegetables-there
is reason to belive protective power does exist.
Sunlight, however, is not the whole story. Fruits and vegetables
come from the soil. Plant food must come from the soil. Again calcium
and phosphorus are essential. Florida soil, in many sections, abounds
in lime. Calcium and phosphorus exist in vast stores. In fact, Florida
produces more phosphate than any other state in the Union. These two
minerals, among others, are available within the state. Florida's soils
by experiment have shown that they are easily receptive to such addi-
tional mineral food as is needed. By soil selection and by proper supple-
mentary feeding all the vegetables and fruits of the warm climate
type and many of the temperate climate type may be produced econom-
ically and successfully, and well stored with the calcium, phosphorus
and other minerals necessary in animal and human nutrition.
From January to January throughout the entire breadth and
length of the state from Pensacola to Key West, fruits and vegetables
of some type or of many types are "in season" and not only in season
but in sunshine. Not only are they in sunshine but out-of-doors in
sunshine, fully exposed and natural in their development, and in a soil
so varied and adaptable that suitable plant feeding locations are easily
available for a big variety of the known fruits and vegetables and for
many varieties not known elsewhere. With an abundant and effective
sunshine all year, a generous moisture, a soil containing mineral food'
and receptive to added mineral foods, Florida, an all-'round, all-year
agricultural possibility, has a wealth of health not only for herself
but for the country at large to whom she sends her luscious fruits and
fresh nutritious vegetables. The minerals, vitamins and roughage she
sends abroad are added to the nation's wealth, health and efficiency.
From the modest little red-haw or blueberry of northwest Florida, over
the wide range of hundreds of fruits to the gorgeous mango of the
far south; from the "first families" of the "greens" of north Florida
to the newly-rich romaine of the south there is reason to believe that
these food plants have gleaned, in the growing, the best Nature has
1"Soils of Florida," O. C. Bryan, published by the Florida State Department of
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WHY MORE VEGETABLES? GREEN, FRESH,
EGETABLES, next to milk-particularly the green, leafy vegetables
-supply the body with more mineral food than does any other
class of foods. "An edible leaf," Mr. McCollum tells us, "is
essentially a complete and nearly or quite balanced food." Animals have
subsisted for generations on the leaves of plants. Animals do not
succeed on grain, tuber, or root diet. Hogs fed largely on peanuts and
sweet potatoes have a soft oily fat and fragile bones. As hay and
forage go into the diet of the animals, the leafy green should enter
the human diet.
Vegetables are rich in calcium.-All other foods except milk are
poor in calcium. Calcium is absolutely essential for body building.
SIt must come from the soil to the plant to the human body for proper
nutrition. Leaf vegetables are also rich in other necessary minerals
as are also root vegetables. They supplement each other. But the
leafy fresh vegetable goes further than other foods-grains, tubers,
roots, meat or even fruit-in furnishing the minerals and thus keeps
the body in the proper neutral or very slightly alkaline condition.
Vegetables have a vitamin content which supplements that of
cereals, roots, and tubers and even fruits. Here again the green leafy
vegetables and the yellow types excel.
Vegetables have a contribution to make in protein-small but very
valuable in that it again supplements cereals. In fact the protein of
the green leaf helps the body to utilize the protein of cereals.
In addition to the regulation effected by the minerals contained in
vegetables there is a very definite aid rendered to the mechanical
process of digestion. Vegetables possess an amount of non-digestible
matter of water holding capacity and are thus able to maintain a
favorable consistency for elimination. The so-called "roughage" of
vegetables is non-irritating to the delicate linings of the alimentary
tract. The starchy roots also make a contribution in non-digestibles"
capable of swelling in water.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
FLORIDA VEGETABLES AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
Jerusalem artichoke is an underground tuber of the sunflower family.
It is not an artichoke and it is not from Jerusalem. It is native of the
United States and was used among the early Indians.
The tubers are elongated to round in shape. They are red and yellow to
white in color, the flesh being white. The skin is rough, with many eyes,
the general appearance being that of a potato.
The composition of this tuber is different from that of the potato,
being about 14.7 per cent sugar and 0 per cent starch. It is an agreeable
change from potato and may be cooked in a similar manner.
Asparagus is 94 per cent water, but the edible portion contains more
protein than most succulent vegetables. Its delicate flavor, its quick growth
and tender quality, its ready digestibility, make it popular in Florida
where it appears in what is still winter elsewhere.
The tender, young, white or greenish-white stems of asparagus are used
as food. Preparatory to cooking, cut off the woody base or snap off the
stems with a sharp knife. Tie the stems in neat bundles and place them
in boiling salted water for 20 minutes with the cut ends resting on the
bottom of the vessel; then drop on sides so that the heads will be sub-
merged, and cook until tender. Serve with warm butter, or on well-toasted
bread, and season with pepper and salt.
LIMA BEANS --*'*
Limas are kidney shaped flat beans. They grow well even in the hot
summer. They should be used the day they are picked if desired fresh.
Use soft water for cooking or else the lime of the hard water forms an
insoluble com"u- w otein of the bean. Combined with sweet
green corn they make a favorite well-known Indian dish known as succo-
tash, usually made by cooking the green beans from twenty to thirty
minutes and combining them with canned corn. The mixture is then tossed
into a pan containing finely chopped fried hot bacon or is seasoned with
GREEN STRING BEANS -
Green beans have shown at least as much vitamin A as head lettuce
and much more than the inner leaves of fresh cabbage. They are partic-
ularly rich in vitamin CTwhen fresh. String beans grown in Florida have
a texture more tender and a flavor more delicate than beans in climates
of slower rwt.A hey are similar to "greens" in food value when young
and tender. To prepare for cooking break off and discard the ends of the
pods; break into pieces, wash well and drop into boiling water and cook
rapidly for fifteen minutes. Allow water to evaporate. Season well with
salt and butter or with bacon. Place over a slow heat and cook 30 minutes
longer. Do not "soak" beans before cooking. This process loses flavor and
food value. Sometimes a distinction is made between string beans and snap
beans, the latter being smaller but similar in food value and method of
preparation. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Greens-Beet greens contain vitamin A and are rich in calcium. They
are somewhat like chard. When young the entire plant, including the root,
may be used as "greens." Wash thoroughly and cook from 20 to 30 minutes
in boiling salted water. Chop in fine pieces. Season with butter and cream.
Roots--The roots of beets supply some iron and phosphorus and have a
small vitamin C content. Beets coa certain amount of u -aad
stardh bu veryittle protein. They add attractiveness of color. Beets lose
muc of their nutritive material and color in cookinggand should bec ed
in the skims andwit a Iea tw -inches-ofthetp. Bon for one hour in a
largvoume ofwaterL e -e hd on. For a quick method, peel and
slice or chop finely. Add a very small amount of water and cook for 15
minutes. Add lemon juice and butter. Serve hot. Beets adapt themselves
nicely to waterless cookers. Put unpeeled beets in a saucepan with three
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
*, i? r,
Beets Brussels Sprouts
tablespoons water. Cook until tender. Peel and dress with butter, pepper
and salt. They are sweeter and of better flavor cooked by this method.
A sauce of one tablespoon vinegar, 2 tablespoons butter, 1/2 teaspoon
scraped onion, one tablespoon sugar and 1/2 teaspoon of salt may be made
to give small beets a piquant flavor. Pour over peeled beets and let stand
in a covered hot pan a few minutes.
Broccoli is a winter vegetable in Florida. It looks a little like the
cauliflower but is more hardy. It contains probably more vitamin A than
cauliflower but otherwise is similar in composition. Select when young
Brussels sprouts is a variety of cabbage, having blistered leaves and
the--stem of the plant covered with small heads of cabbage which form
the edible portion of the plant, and which are more delicate in flavor
than the cauliflower or cabbage. It is used as cabbage in the menu. It
contains more vitamin A than the white leaves of cabbage.
The breadfruit tree (40 feet high) resembles a big chestnut tree.
Breadfruit is oval shaped something like a melon. It is covered with short,
hard projections. The skin is green and is marked in small hexagons. The
stems should be cut and covered with salt and the fruit kept until it
turns brown. The fruit has a considerable amount of starch and a higher
caloric value than the banana. The ash fiber and protein are high. It is a
good source of vitamin A but has no B or C.
To prepare, put in the oven and bake. When cooked, open and season
with butter, pepper and salt. Fresh breadfruit may be cut in slices and
dried in the sun. A paste called "Mahe" is sometimes made. This ferments
and has a disagreeable odor but when cooked the paste is a good nutritious
food. The sago-like farinaceous pellets inside are often made into puddings.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The jackfruit is the largest of all tropical fruits, being sometimes
two feet long and weighing forty pounds. It grows from the trunk of the
tree. It has a hard rind which has to be cut with an axe. It is green, then
greenish-yellow and finally brown as it ripens. Inside are numerous small
cavities each with a seed surrounded by a soft brownish pulp, somewhat
suggestive of banana. It is eaten fresh or preserved. When the flesh is
boiled in fresh milk and strained off, the milk, when cold, becomes a
gelatinous consistency of blanch-mange or orange color and melon flavor.
The seeds boiled or roasted are good to eat.
This plant probably ascended from the "colwart" or collard. It stands
high as a "protective" food due to its high vitamin content of A, B and C,
and to its generous supply of calcium. It loses some vitamin C in cooking.
The flavor and digestibility of the raw material seem to rate higher than
Kilgore's Wakefield Cabbage
that of the cooked product. Cabbage and other members of the cabbage
family have some sulphur compounds which when boiled in water produce
a disagreeable odor and the volatile substance given off in the steam is
disagreeable. The container should be left open for a few minutes at least.
Young tender cababge may be steamed. It is delicious when cooked in the
water where a ham bone has been boiled. Raw cabbage lends itself to many
varieties of dishes and combinations. (See Salads.) (Bulletin 23, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
1. Chinese Cabbage (Pe-tsai)-This cabbage is made of white, close-
growing stems with green leaves. The centers are very tender and may be
used for raw salads. To cook, cut and place in boiling salted water for 30
minutes or less. Season with butter and lemon juice.
2. Cauliflower-Cauliflower and broccoli are about the only flowers
used as vegetables. Cauliflower is considered as a cabbage, but it is milder
in flavor and possibly more easily digested. It has a high water holding
capacity. It is a good source of calcium, having nearly twice as much as
any other vegetable. It is expensive.
The principle of cooking is the same as for cabbage. Soak it upside
down in salt (mild) water to kill insects hiding there. (Bulletin 23, Florida
State Department of Agriculture.)
3. Rape-Rape, sometimes called Portuguese Cabbage, is used in the
very young tender stage for greens. It is cooked in boiling water about 30
minutes. Grated cocoanut or tomato catsup make a good seasoning.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Improved Pekin Celery Cabbage
4. Kohl-Rabi-Kohl-Rabi has from one to three times as much phos-
phorus, calcium, and protein as have beets and carrots-it also has as
Kohl-Rabi or turnip cabbage has the stem or bulb, the edible portion
of the plant, largely above the ground. The smaller bulbs are less tough
and fibrous than the larger ones. To prepare, cut the leaves and bulbs in
small pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water 15 minutes. Then add the
leaves and cook another 30 minutes. Slice the bulbs. Arrange the greens
around the edge of the plate and the bulb slices in the center. Use melted
The carrot, rich in an essential oil that gives it a strong odor or flavor,
sometimes objectionable, has, on the other hand, a yellow pigment (taste-
less and odorless) that gives it a beautiful color always desirable in plan-
ning a menu.
Carrots are about 12 per cent solid matter, about half of which is sugar.
The outer layer contains pectin. Young carrots possess greater caloric
value than old carrots, the latter having a tendency to become woody.
Calcium and vitamins A, B and C are well stored in carrots. The indi-
gestible carbohydrates, pectin, etc., are a mechanical aid in digestion and
elimination. Recent experiments show that the peel contains more vitamin
B than the flesh. Grated, young, raw carrots easily include the peel and
are more attractive in flavor than the cooked product. Because of the rich
coloring and the pectin content, carrots are combined with pineapple and
some other fruits, lacking in pectin, in the making of marmalades. (Bul-
letin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Cassava is a starchy root or underground stem. There are two kinds,
bitter and sweet. The plant is 4 to 6 feet high. The roots containing the
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
starch sometimes grow to be 4 feet long and about 2 inches in diameter.
These roots are of pure white solid tissue harder and drier than potato.
They have a reddish bark easily removed. The sweet varieties the natives
in the tropics peel and cook. They make a thin cake from the meal. It is
"Cassava bread." McCollum tells us that cassava and other tropical roots
contain ergosterol which after it has been taken into the body becomes
activated by the ultra-violet light of the nearby sun. Thus vitamin D is
produced. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Celery is a winter crop in Florida where, on fewer acres, more celery
is produced than in any other state. The enlarged succulent stalk of the
basal leaves is the edible portion. Celery salt is ground celery seed and is
highly prized for flavoring soups and salads. Celery leaves (green) have
vitamin A, the stalks have some A and are good in vitamin B. A very
small quantity of essential oil gives celery its taste. Celery may nearly
always be obtained even when other fresh vegetables are scarce. It often
gives variety to an otherwise "soft" and concentrated menu. Since this is
true it should really not be cooked except as a flavor and then only
slightly cooked so that it will afford a good "crunchy feel" and something
to chew, something with which to give the teeth proper exercise. The
outside leaves and tougher portions may be used in soups, sauces, stews,
omelets or cooked dressings. (Volume 36, No. 2, Florida State Department
of Agriculture, "Celery Growing in Florida.")
Swiss Chard Celery
Swiss chard, a variety of beet which, instead of a root, has thick, broad
leaves growing on a large succulent stem. The outside leaves may be re-
moved and used and the plant left to grow. Chard is a good source of vita-
min A and calcium. It should be cooked in a small amount of water. Stir
until the leaves settle in the water.
Corn is a cereal, but in its fresh green state deserves mention in this
list. To prepare, place in boiling salted water for 10-12 minutes. Serve hot
with butter. Be careful not to overcook. Yellow corn probably is a richer
source of vitamin A than is white corn.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Collards belong on the non-heading thick-leaf vegetables growing on
one stalk. Both cooked and raw they are excellent in vitamin A. They are
also a source of vitamins B and C. They are a good winter vegetable and
are improved with cool mornings and light frosts. In colder climates the
leaves form loose heads but in Florida they do not head. Leaves may be
broken from the stems and the plant left to continue to grow through
The cucumber is about 96 per cent water. It lends freshness and
crispness to the meal. It grows very rapidly in Florida, is tender and
appetizing even when large in size. Fresh in salads is the best form of
preparation. It may be brined, then treated with boiling vinegar with or
without sugar or spices. "Dill pickles" are usually large cucumbers flav-
ored with dill seeds. As an appetizer to vary a diet, cucumbers supply a
cool, palatable relish. To cook, peel, slice in quarters lengthwise and put
into boiling water and boil five minutes, or steam. Season with butter,
pepper, and salt. Turn heat low, cover closely. Cook 30 minutes. A prickly
variety, small in size, is the Gherkin, particularly good for pickling.
(Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
This plant has a greenish-white stem with a rosette of curly light-
green leaves which make an attractive garnish for salads or cooked dish-
the curly type for salads, and the broad-leaf type for cooking. It has a
bitter flavor which some call a "tonic." The bleached leaves are more
crisp and tender. It is best served with a French dressing or oil and lemon
juice. Sometimes a bit of hot bacon grease, instead of oil, is added to the
lemon juice for seasoning.
Egg plant has a low food value. It may be fried, baked or steamed. It
adds bulk, variety and interest to the diet. It forms a good basis for
Garlic resembles onion sets in appearance but has a white papery outer
shell. Remove the outer covering and slice through. It is very strong in
flavor. Use very sparingly.
Lettuce is particularly known for its
vitamin, the green raw leaves being
excellent in A and C and good in B
r and E. Its mineral salts are abundant.
Some people have thought that let-
tuce has a medicinal virtue due to a
small quantity of sleep inducing sub-
stance called lactucarium. This is
found more in the stem, however.
Others have thought that the iron is
particularly valuable in that it is in
original form, chemically confined in
lthe chlorophyl. Lettuce does not have
as much iron as spinach and turnip
Greens. It lends itself most agreeably
to the making of salads. It is usually
Florida Head Lettuce eaten raw and is therefore not de-
pleted in food value.
Escarole is a large non-heading curly lettuce growing on one stalk. It
is listed as excellent in vitamin A and is of a rich green color. The outer
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
as well as the inner leaves should be eaten. To prepare for salad chill
way of serving is to
tie the outer leaves
together and drop
them into hot soup
S for 5 minutes. Re-
move the lettuce,
taking care to re-
tain its shape, and
Sn squeeze dry. Cut in
inch lengths and
serve hot, capped
with grated cheese,
or chop fine and
At, serve with melted
butter and a little
e t vo lettuce is delicious
served wilted with
bacon, or cooked as
Water cress consists of long tender stems having small lobed leaves.
It is used in salads or cooked like "greens." It is an excellent source of
vitamins A and C. It should be grown in good water-water that is fit to
drink. Para cress grows in extreme south Florida and is known as tooth-
ache plant. It presumably has some narcotic quality. It is used in salads.
Recent research made by Mendel and Vickery Laboratory Physiological
Chemistry, finds water cress leaves notably "rich in vitamin A; compar-
able with other vegetables in dietary factors formerly called vitamin B;
more potent than lettuce in vitamin E." (Jour. Home Economics, July,
Mint consists of small green leaves with an aromatic flavor. It may
be chopped fine or used whole to flavor fruit cocktails, salads or jelly.
It is convenient to make a mint sauce by mixing it with sugar and vinegar
or with sugar and lemon juice. It
~ sometimes is used with peas and new
potatoes and to flavor chutney and
Mustard has green crumpled leaves
which should be crisp and a vivid
*- green. To prepare, cut crosswise
Smfinely and boil in a little water for
five minutes. Season with butter, salt
and pepper. Cover and cook slowly 30
The Chinese mustard is a hot
weather green whereas the common
mustard is of agreeable flavor only in
--_ cool weather. The Chinese variety has
Mint a half pungent flavor very agreeable.
This is a quick growing thick leaf green plant, rich in vitamin A.
20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The thick-leaved, large-leaved variety will grow in Florida but has not
been used to any great extent. It is used in salads and in cooking.
The okra plant is similar to the cotton plant. It is a dry weather
fruiting plant and thrives through the hot, dry season when other vege-
tables are scarce. It grows easily nearly all over the state and bears well
over a period of several weeks.
The fruit is a small green pod and is best selected when young and
tender. It has a vitamin B content. The flavor is most pleasing in soups.
The mucilaginous consistency is a means of thickening soup. The texture
of full grown okra is to some palates not agreeable but if the pods are
selected early and lightly boiled or steamed so as not to break the skins
the effect is good and usually successful. Okra with tomatoes (gumbo) is
a delightful dish, the tomato lending the acid flavor and the okra thick-
ening the tomato to a pleasing consistency. (Bulletin 23, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
Onions, raw, are good sources of vitamin C. Onions have been ranked
with oranges, lemons, tomatoes and raw cabbage in richness in vitamin
C. Osborne and Mendel rank onions with about the same vegetables and
fruits as source of vitamin B. Onions contain from 10 to 15 per cent
nutrients. Bermudas, shallots and leeks and other green onions grow
abundantly in Florida. The mineral value and the "nerve tonic" idea have
probably been over-rated but there seems to be no doubt about the laxa-
tive effect of onions. They are classed as thick-leaf vegetables.
Green or immature onions are long, slender, white stalks having tubular
green leaves. To prepare for the table, remove the green tops, and serve
raw as a relish in salad, or chop and use in stews or "combination" dishes.
The Spanish or Bermuda onion is a spherical-shaped or flattened bulb
having a dead, shriveled stem and a dry, tan-colored, papery outer husk.
To prepare for the table, peel from the root up, place in rapidly boiling
water and cook for 5 minutes. Let the water evaporate, and season the
vegetable with butter, salt and pepper. Cover closely and steam for 30
minutes. To bake, place for 5 minutes in rapidly boiling salted water, then
remove, and put under meat to be roasted. (Selected.) (Extension Bulletin
9, Hawaii Experiment Station.)
Pickling or Portuguese onions are small, round, partly mature bulbs
which are sold in bunches. Owing to their flavor, they are especially fine
for pickling whole in vinegar, or for use in stews and salads. To pickle
select very fresh onions and peel them from the root up, taking care to
keep the bulb whole and round. While peeling, drop into a salt solution
made by dissolving 2 tablespoons of salt in 2 cups of cold water to prevent
discoloration and softening. When ready to pickle (this may be done im-
mediately if desired), dry on a cheesecloth and drop into a hot sterilized
bottle, adding boiling hot vinegar to cover. To prepare the vinegar for 4
pounds of small onions, boil 2 cups of malt vinegar with 1 tablespoon of
salt, 1 dozen peppercorns, 6 allspices, 3 bay leaves, and 6 small red peppers.
Seal the bottled onions and keep them in a dark place. (Selected.) (Exten-
sion Bulletin 9, Hawaii Experiment Station.)
Chives are milder and more tender than onions. They are grown for
the leaves and are useful in salads, soups, and stews.
Shallots are small clustered bulbs which resemble partly mature cook -
ing onions, but have fine, slender leaves. To cook, remove the tops anld
steam the bulbs. Serve with butter. The delicate nutty flavor of shallots
is very pleasing.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 21
Parsley consists of sprays of bright green, finely curled dissected
leaves. It is used for soups, stews, sauces and to garnish salads, or cooked
vegetables. It gives attractive color.
The parsnip is a winter vegetable. It has more starch, more sugar than
the carrot and turnip. It also has a generous amount of pectin and
cellulose. To prepare, peel thickly, cook one hour in water to cover. Mash
and season with milk, pepper and salt, or mash with finely chopped
Peas and beans are used as food both in the green and in the dry stage.
They have a high protein content. In the dry stage they contain a high
percentage of protein but do not take the place of meat due to the fact
that the proteins of legumes are not the only proteins needed in body
building and repair. These vegetables also furnish a fair amount of iron
and phosphorus and some calcium. They, although high in protein, are
alkaline in reaction. Fresh green peas or fresh cowpeas have good supply
of vitamins A, B and C. Dried leaves and peas may be counted upon for
vitamin B. Green peas (English peas) are a winter crop in Florida while
the cowpeas, lady-peas and black-eyed peas flourish during the summer
The field pea is a Southern dish. Experiments made by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture (Farmer's Bulletin 318) as to the nutritional
value of the field pea shows that it compares favorably with other legumes.
Long and general use on Southern tables proves its satisfactory food value.
The lady-pea was found more digestible than the kidney bean, 83 per cent
of the protein and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates being digested. The
sugar crowder and lady are popular. The bush conch is a popular Florida
table pea. (Bulletin 23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
PIGEON PEA (S.)
This pea grows on a tall, woody, half-hardy shrub that yields heavily.
The unripe pea is used for the English pea and has been pronounced a
good starting point for a tropical green pea.
Red peppers or long "hot" peppers are tapering pods which are first
green, then red when matured. They are used in pickles, chutney, sauces,
for seasoning. The juice is very strong and should be used sparingly.
These peppers are easily cured or dried in the sun.
Sweet peppers in Florida sometimes bear as long as 6 or 8 months in
the year. Pimentos are smooth, have a thick, juicy flesh and are sweeter
than the other types. They are better for canning. Tests of canned pimen-
tos made by MacLeod, Nutrition Laboratory, Columbia (Journal Home
Economics, July, 1930), showed a vitamin C content equal to that of
The bell pepper is hardier than the pimento but has a good flavor and
color. "Stuffed peppers" is a favorite Southern dish. Peppers for salads
should be well crisped. Peppers for canning should be placed in a hot
(not warm) oven for loosening the peel. (Bulletin 23, page 29, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The potato is a modified stem, an enlargement for storing starch. It
shows in an analysis some potash, a small amount of iron, calcium, and
phosphorus. Both white and sweet potatoes show vitamin C content and
the sweet potato (the yellow variety) shows a greater vitamin A content.
Both potatoes contain very little cellulose. They yield an alkaline ash and
are cheap sources of vitamin C which occurs more often in the "luxuries."
They help to balance the acid residue of meat.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Very young potatoes and old potatoes (ready to sprout) have less starch
and more sugar than well grown but still fresh potatoes. The average
potato (mature) has 75 per cent water, 20 per cent starch, and about
one-eighth that much protein, and a relatively large amount of ash as
compared with other vegetables. The more moist potatoes have a greater
proportion of protein while the mealy potato has more starch. Experi-
mental cooking of the potato has shown that in boiling (peeled) 8.2 per
cent of the protein is lost when the potatoes are plunged directly into
boiling water, 25 per cent when they are soaked beforehand, and 15.8 per
cent when they are placed in cold water and brought to a boil. When
boiled in the jackets they lose only one per cent of the protein and only
three per cent of the mineral. Baking potatoes loses almost none of the
nutrients. (Bulletin No. 3, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Many varieties of sweet potatoes flourish in Florida soils. Usually the
moist sweeter potato goes on the local market while the dry mealy article
is sent to the Northerner who likes it better. The sweet variety has from
6 to 8 per cent sugar and therefore a higher caloric value than the white
potato. The sugar increases while the starch decreases during storage.
The protein percentage is possibly a little less in the sweet potato. Peanuts
are a splendid supplement and are combined in many interesting ways
with the sweet potato. (See Recipes.)
Canning factories are now taking care of the small potatoes not suit-
able for shipping and are supplying localities not able to purchase the
fresh potato all year. Recently canneries in Florida have begun also to can
the white potato too small to ship. Now a vegetable dinner with potato
is being placed in one can for the market.
The "Porto Rico," rich in color, moist in texture, sweet in flavor, and the
Nancy Hall, with a creamy pink yellow flesh, are two of the more popular
varieties among Southern people. The Triumph and Big Stem Jersey, dry
and mealy in texture, are more popular among Northern people who are
more accustomed to the white potato and who like the drier type. Various
yam varieties are splendid for home use but are rather tender and easily
bruised in handling. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agri-
This is not a sweet potato. It is a larger tuber than the sweet potato
and not so sweet. When it grows to unusual size it is tougher and coarser
than the sweet potato. It keeps more easily than the potato. In the lower
part of the state it remains in the ground from year to year without
replanting. Negroes use it for bread. They "dig" it as they need it from
day to day.
The dasheen is an underground corm or tuber in which the plant stores
starch. The leaves are similar to "Elephant Ear." It is similar to the white
potato but has less water and more starch and protein. It has a nutty
flavor when cooked by boiling or baking, that suggested boiled chestnuts.
It is served with drawn butter. It bakes nicely. The dasheen makes a suc-
cessful fluted "crisp" to be eaten with the fingers like potato chips.
Dasheen leaves are also used as greens. They should be selected when
young and tender. (Bulletin 31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Plantain has the appearance of a very large coarse banana. It is not
edible raw but is a good source of vitamins A and B in the cooked stage.
It should be cooked slowly. Before it is ripe it may be sliced very thin
and cooked like potato chips. It may also be baked or boiled. It is akin
to the sweet potato in taste and texture when cooked. Lemon juice and
butter add to the flavor.
Radish greens are the tops of the little radish roots and are suitable
to combine with other varieties of spring or winter "greens." The roots
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 23
re peppery in flavor, attractive for salads, and are easily and quickly
own in early spring. Radishes are a source of vitamins B and C and
he greens carry A.
Salsify or oyster plant consists of long brown roots. It grows wild or
ay be cultivated. To prepare, scrape and cut into one-inch pieces. Drop
nto boiling water and let boil 5 minutes; then place in a creamy white
auce and boil 30 minutes. To fry cut in 2-or 3-inch lengths, dip in flavor,
hen in egg and crumbs and fry in deep fat. The food has a delicate flavor
which suggests oysters. Select young.
Spinach has slender, succulent stems having small leaves. It has a
highly alkaline residue in the process of digestion. It is rich in iron and in
vitamins A, B and C. According to Sherman it has as much vitamin A as
an equal weight of egg yolk or butter. It needs only a few minutes high
temperature in cooking and therefore maintains its rich vitamin content.
It is better steamed than boiled. Lemon juice helps the flavor. Add butter.
NEW ZEALAND SPINACH
This vegetable is not related to the ordinary spinach. It is a hot
weather grower and forms a good substitute for spinach during the season
when spinach does not thrive. It is cooked as "greens" and is popular
often among people who do not like
1. Winter Squash-Winter squash
may be seeded and peeled thinly and
steamed, mashed and served with
butter, salt and pepper. Or it may
be steamed in slices for serving. By
placing a towel on the steamer rack,
the squash on the towel, and another
cloth over the food, the extra mois-
ture is absorbed and the squash is a
nice, tender consistency, yet firm and
2. Chinese Squash Chinese
squash or melon is a light green color.
It has a whitish, fuzzy appearance
when young. It is round or slightly
elongated. The rind is like a water-
melon. The meat, about 2 inches
thick, is white, as are also the seed.
The flavor is mild. It forms a good
Casserole lining for squab or chicken.
S3. Hubbard Squash- H u b b a r d
squash or pumpkin is oval-shaped,
greenish- yellow and has a good
amount of vitamin A. Without re-
moving the peel place in the oven and
/ bake slowly 45 minutes. Cut into neat
./ pieces. Serve in the skin.
4. Summer Squash Summer
New Zealand Spinach squash is a light green, oval shape.
Serve like Chinese squash. Yellow
squash is said to have more vitamin A than the white variety. (Bulletin
23, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
5. Chayote-The chayote grows on a climbing vine. The fruit is pear-
shaped more or less and varies in size and color as well as shape. It has
one big seed. Like squash, and is better cut into slices for serving and
steamed only until tender. Chayote in the raw state has only a fair amount
of vitamin A and seemingly no vitamin B or C.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
To prepare for cooking, peel, slice or dice. This squash may be cream
fried in butter, made into fritters, salads or pickles. A sauce may be mad
by boiling or steaming and mashing the fruit and adding the juice of th
flowers of the roselle (a beautiful red). When sugar is added a goo
dessert is the result.
The chayote will thrive when other vegetables are usually scarce. Whe
once established it continues to grow year after year.
The tomato is in season in some localities almost the year 'round i
Florida. It is one of the most common, yet most valuable, of Florid
vegetables. It is the vegetable richest in vitamins, particularly in vitamin
C, the one most lacking in the American diet. Tomato juice should b
a part of the diet of everybody, beginning with the babies of only a few
weeks of age. Orange juice and tomato juice, easily taken, are splendid
supplements of deficient diets. They are "fool proof" in nutritional value
Fresh or canned tomatoes add variety, color, food value (both mineral an
vitamin), flavor, and pleasure to any menu. (Bulletin 23, State Departmen
The plum tomato is a small oval-shaped tomato varying from yellow
to red. It is good for cooking purposes, particularly for preserves.
Turnip greens are the tops of the common turnip. They are usually
rich in iron and calcium. They are a valuable source of vitamins A, B and
C. They should be selected young and tender and cooked quickly. The
liquor in which they are cooked should be used for soups. Bacon adds a
splendid flavor to turnip greens. These greens are not easily hurt by frost
and light freezes. They are hardy and should be grown all winter.
Root turnips are good in vitamins B and C and the yellow turnips
probably contain vitamin A. They have a spicy, pungent taste (due to an
essential oil) and, when combined with the turnip greens and slices of
cured bacon and hot corn muffins, they form a favorite fall meal in the
South. It is said that the juices of tomatoes and turnip greens have had a
big place in the list of protective foods in the southern climate. (Bulletin
31, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Swedish Turnip (Rutabaga)-The rutabaga has a denser yellow flesh
and takes longer to mature than the white turnip. The roots can stand
longer summer heat without becoming woody or acrid. The yellow turnip
surpasses the white in its vitamin A content and it also contains more
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
WHY MORE FRUITS? FRESH FRUITS?
RUITS have a very decided nutritive value. Although people, in
some climates, consider fruit a mere luxury, it is well known
that in tropical climates many natives practically live on fruits.
any people, on the other hand, use fruit as a medicine due largely to
ts hygienic value rather than to its food value. According to Farmers
ulletin No. 293, U. S. Department of Agriculture, a study of the diets
f 400 families in the United States showed that 4.4 per cent of the
otal food material and 3.7 per cent of the total carbohydrates used are
rom fruit. As to digestibility, it is estimated that 80 per cent of the
rotein, 97 per cent of the fat, and 95 per cent of the carbohydrates
in fruits are digested. It is not the purpose of this bulletin to compare
a vegetable diet with a meat diet but in the light of various experi-
ment station records it seems safe to say that a fruit and nut diet,
plus a liberal amount of cereal and vegetables and eggs with a limited
amount of meat, makes a more attractive variety of adequate food of
less bulk and of less cost than does the usual meat, potato and sugar
A wise use of fruit is certainly beneficial if the particular needs of
the system are considered. The organic acids of the fruit, which in-
crease the flow of saliva and indirectly of gastric juice, aid digestion.
These acids increase the secretions of the liver, pancreas, and of the
mucous linings of the intestines. They serve, also, to keep the upper
intestinal contents free from harmful bacteria. Fruits help to keep the
fluids and tissues of the body in neutral or slightly alkaline conditions
by supplying minerals, especially calcium, phosphorus and iron and
in this way they help to overcome the acid reaction of the meat, egg
and starch foods. Vitamins, particularly vitamin C (usually absent in
foods other than fresh fruits such as citrus, tomatoes and fresh un-
cooked leaves and very important in the building and preservation of
teeth) are generously supplied. An appetite is stimulated both by the
vitamins in fresh fruit and by the attractive flavor and appearance.
Ripe fruit, poor in protein, furnishes a small proportion of building
and energy foods. A very large and expensive amount of fruit would
be necessary to furnish as much protein as a small package of peas,
beans or cereals. Nevertheless, fruits are necessary and should be used
From the standpoint of calories (energy value), ripe fruits supply
mainly sugar. In nearly all fruits the ripening process changes starch
to sugar, partially at least. Sugar, supplied in nature's own form as in
fruits, grains and milk is much more easily and naturally used than
Berries have been found, in so far as they have been studied,
similar in their dietary qualities to other fruits. Strawberries have
shown a certain protective effect from scruvy in guinea pigs and are
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
CITRUS AND HEALTH
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
therefore rated as a good supply of vitamin C. Melons are classed with
fruits in their dietary properties and have the same organic acids.
They are not so rich in minerals and vitamins but they reveal many
of the general fruit qualifications. Nuts have, in some way, possibly
because of their attractive flavor, been compared with fruits as to
dietary properties. They are, however, in this respect more similar
to proteins and fats among the richest of foods. Because of their
concentrations, they should be taken in small quantities as compared
Not purely from a standpoint of nutritive value but because of their
aid in the mechanical process of elimination and in the promotion of a
hygienic intestinal condition, fruits are essential. Almost all other
foods have been refined, or softened until only fruits and vegetables
remain as our dependable supply of roughage so necessary in the
digestive machinery. Other foods, for the most part, have been cooked,
while fruit, because of its pleasing flavor and texture, survives as
our fresh raw food, natural in its hygienic effects.
Therefore, in the promotion of greater consumption of fruit lies
at least the partial solution of the problem of an adequate supply of
minerals, organic acids, vitamins, and roughage essential to the well-
being of animals, particularly of human beings.
Now in progress is an experiment that is showing striking results
of what citrus fruit will do for teeth when taken in sufficient quantity.
M. T. Hancke, Dental Research Association, Chicago, and of the 0. S. A.
Sprague Institute, University of Chicago, made careful records of 191
dental patients, only 17 of whom were free from trench mouth and
pyorrhea, and found that of the 17, 16 had diets containing sufficient
vitamin C. Of the 174 affected, not one was getting enough vitamin C
(the scurvy-preventive). Of the 174 patients, 94 were lacking in
Vitamin C, only; all other vitamins were being supplied.
Accurate records were made of 104 of the patients and the following
diet recommended: a pint to a quart of milk daily, plenty of meat,
fresh vegetables and fruits, one or two eggs, a part of a head of lettuce
and THE JUICE OF HALF A LEMON AND A PINT OF ORANGE
Fifteen of the people failed to carry out direction and admitted
the fact. Not one of the fifteen showed improvement. Eighty-five gave
perfect cooperation and 85 made very evident improvement and many
became cured in the period of less than eight months. Of 60 who had
active progressive decay, all remained free from it for the period of
the eight months' experiment. Unfilled cavities did not increase.
The diet prescribed other than citrus fruit juice is the usual diet
required for normal nutrition. Other people have prescribed citrus
fruit for the health of the teeth but this test is different in that it
calls for greater quantity and the results reveal with what effects.
The experiment is being continued for further truth.
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FRUIT ZONES IN FLORIDA
Zone III-North Florida and Gulf Coast. This zone extends as far south
as St. Augustine, Palatka, Gainesville.
Mulberry, pears, persimmons, plums, peaches, satsuma, orange, loquats,
limequats, kumquats, calamondin, figs, quince, huckleberry, pomegranate,
bunch grapes, muscadine, blackberries, dewberries, strawberries, blue-
berries, melons, haws.
Zone IV-Central Florida. This zone lies below Zone III and reaches,
roughly speaking, from Vero southwest to Moore Haven, north to Daven-
port and Lakeland, and southwest to Bradenton. Some locations south of
this are also included.
Avocado, mulberry, citrus, pears, peaches, persimmons, loquats, guavas,
surinam cherry, fig, pomegranate, dewberries, blackberries, bunch grapes,
Zone V-South Florida.
Avocado, mulberry, mango, grapefruit, citrus, loquat, sapodillas, tama-
rind, rose apple, surinam cherry, guava, papaya, granadilla, carissa, pine-
NOTE-The above information as to fruit zones is according to Hume
in "Gardening in the Lower South." Other fruits marked (S.) are grown
only in the southern end of the state. A few others are marked (N.), indi-
cating north Florida.
FLORIDA FRUITS AVAILABLE FOR HOME USE
The avocado grows on a scraggly evergreen tree which blooms in March
and April and fruits from July to January, depending on variety. Size,
shape, color, and quality vary greatly. The size varies from 16 to 29 ounces.
The skin is about one-sixteenth of an inch thick, very firm and tough.
The firm, greenish-yellow flesh or buttery texture and nutty flavor makes
one-half of the weight. One large seed in the center slips out easily, leaving
just space for a salad filling or dressing of lime juice and a little salt.
There are three races-Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian. The
Mexican, varying from 3 to 15 ounces, is hardiest and ripens from June
to October. The color ranges from green to purple. The crushed leaves
have an anise scent. The oil content is very high. The Mexican is thin-
skinned and rather suited to local use. The Guatemalan is fairly hardy;
the skin is thick, hard and granular; the fruit, green to dark purple in
color, is of splendid quality; the period of maturity is October to June.
The West Indian avocado, grown only below Palm Beach and Fort Myers,
is the commercial avocado of south Florida. It will stand but little frost.
It is large, smooth and leathery skinned, of high quality, and ripens in late
summer. The skin measures from one-sixteenth to one-sixty-fourth of an
The avocado shows high percentage of solids, especially soluble solids
due, in part, to oil which passes through linen filter. The caloric value is
more than twice that of any other fresh fruit. Protein and ash rate high
for fruit. There is a small amount of water and a high fat content. The
acid is very low. The avocado is a good source of vitamins A and B. Protein
and fat percentages in the avocado rank higher than that of any other
Analysis of the West Indian avocado (seedlings) made by Jennie Tilt
and May Winfield, Florida State College, Nutrition Research Laboratory,
showed an average of 1.14 per cent for protein, 6.82 per cent for carbo-
hydrate, 1.17 per cent for crude fiber, 1.02 per cent for ash.1 The results
obtained showed the West Indian avocado somewhat higher in moisture
and lower in fat and protein than the Mexican and Guatemalan races.
The avocado is most palatable uncooked. It is often served on the half-
shell, the flesh being scooped out with a spoon. It makes a nice, buttery
spread for toast or crackers.
It is commonly served as a salad with salt and lime juice or salt and
lemon juice. Some prefer orange or pineapple juice. Because of the buttery
'The average moisture content found in mature fruits was 83.02 per cent and average
fat content of West Indian (seedlings) was 8.09 per cent.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
consistency of the fruit and oil dressing is too rich for avocado. Catsup,
celery, nuts, onions are not good combinations for avocado. They destroy
or conceal the delicate flavor. In its native land the avocado is much eaten
by the Indians. They break it open, sprinkle on a little salt and scoop out
the pulp with corn cake called tortillas. Cooking or canning lessens the
attractiveness as well as the flavor of the fruit. (Bulletin 24, Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
The banana plant grows well only in South Florida. The Cavendish,
brownish in color when fully ripe, is a dwarf variety bearing dense bunches
of small fruit of very high quality. The Hart variety, taller, is also a good
home use banana of fine flavor and texture.
This fruit, formerly considered "indigestible," has come into its own.
The ripe banana is high in protein and also high in sugar content (about
20 per cent), being highest in the baking variety. The mineral content is
not quite so high as the average avocado but is quite above the average
for fruits. The indigestible factor in the banana, recent research shows,
disappears with the complete ripening of the fruit, the stage at which it
shows numerous brownish spots. Whether it be due to the fact that the
tannin becomes imprisoned in the ripened stage and therefore harmless,
or to the fact that the raw starch nearly all turns to sugar in the ripening
process, or to the effect on the pectose, the fact remains true that cooking
or ripening renders the banana easily digestible and suitable for adults,
children and even babies. L. Von Meysenburg, M.D., Tulane University,
"In feeding of the normal baby, banana is of value in supplementing
the diet, aiding constipation and often stimulating the appetite. It may
be given as early as the fourth month but must be thoroughly ripe and
"The banana is a good source of the pellagra-preventive factor.
Through many experiments it has been found that, in scurvy or in symp-
toms leading to scurvy, the banana is curative. It is palatable and
Banana supplements milk by supplying more vitamin C and carbohy-
drates needed by the child. It combines nicely in salads with citrus juices
which give it an added acid flavor. About half an inch from each end
should be removed as should also the "strings." Florida bananas have a
finer texture and flavor than imported bananas. (Vol. 35, Bulletin No. 4,
Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Wild berries in north Florida include May-haw (red) and a Red-haw
(red), ripening in the late summer; the huckleberry, blueberry, dewberries,
blackberries, mulberries and youngberries.
The haws are small seedy berries growing wild on a shrub. They are
best known for their use in making jelly of a wonderfully distinctive flavor
and rich coloring. Some people have called the red-haw north Florida's
Huckleberries are different from Florida blueberries in that they
contain the large seeds whereas the blueberry has many inconspicuous
small seeds. The huckleberry shrub is smaller and scrubby. The huckle-
berry is good for pies, jellies and drinks.
The tall growing "Rabbit-eye" blueberry, of the huckleberry family, is
the variety which has become famous commercially as the native blueberry
of Florida plantings. The black, or blue-black fruit, borne in clusters,
is 1/4 to 11/16 of an inch in diameter. It ripens in late May or early June
and lasts 10 or 12 weeks. The cluster does not all ripen at one time. This
prolongs the "season" and requires weekly pickings. The acidity varies
but is low. Sugar is about 7.5 per cent, mostly reducing sugar. It is not
definitely determined but possible that the acid is citric. Blueberries
combine nicely with orange juice in filling for pies. They are used alone
in the fresh natural form or with sugar and cream.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Downy Myrtle (Berry)
This berry grows on a shrub. It resembles the huckleberry but has a
thicker, richer juice. It makes a splendid jelly when 50 per cent acid guava
The dewberry, growing on a low trailing vine and ripening earlier than
the blackberry, is available for the family table early in the spring-the
last of April or first of May. In the native growth they are more highly
acid than the blackberry. For "deep pies" in early spring they have a
popular place in north Florida menus. The jelly is welcomed as one of the
first "spring jellies" in north Florida. In south Florida the Manatee dew-
berry has been cultivated with splendid results.
Blackberries grow wild throughout north Florida where the wild variety
is much more popular in flavor for cooking purposes than the cultivated
types. In southern Florida the blackberry has been cultivated. The Florida
Marvel, found originally on the east coast, is a large, firm, good quality
berry but lower in sugar than some other varieties. It is a splendid break-
fast fruit served with sugar and cream. Juices, bottled in the natural form
(or slightly sweetened) and processed at a simmering temperature, contain
practically all the original food value of these various berries and to a
large extent the natural flavor. In many sections all of these berries in the
wild varieties "may be had for the picking" and the juices should be
stored for the season when other fruits are "scarce." (See Fruit Juices.)
(Vol. 37, No. 2, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Florida mulberries of some varieties bear through a period of several
months. They are used by various methods as are other berries. There
are the white, red and black varieties. The trees grow wild or cultivated.
The fruit is very sweet, not having enough acid in the ripened stage for
jelly. The seeds are too small to be noticeable.
A loganberry of rare quality is now being grown for local use and for
market in west Florida, near Panama City. Its cultivation will no doubt
become extensive in that section of the state.
The strawberry is Florida's most valuable berry. Needing a remarkably
short period for growth and maturity, it can be grown very early in the
warm climate and shipped advantageously.
This berry, being about 90 per cent water, appears to have a small
per cent nutrients. Experiments have shown, however, that the strawberry,
even when canned, is listed among those fruits having a very excellent
vitamin content. An acid flavor and sufficient pectin in the slightly un-
ripened fruit produces a good jelly but better known are the jam and
The elderberry grows on a shrub or bush 15 or 20 feet high. The berries
grow in clusters. They have an acid flavor and make a refreshing drink
and a good pie. They are often used as a cordial and as a coloring for
North Florida Gooseberry
The north Florida gooseberry grows on a low plant. It is acid and
suitable for pies.
Otaheite Gooseberry (S.)
This fruit grows on a tree in bunches like grapes not at the ends of
the limbs but along the sides. The fruit is a yellowish color, acid, and
makes a good jelly. South Florida has also a vine gooseberry.
The Pitanga or Florida cherry, another name for the Surinam cherry,
is a large, compact, bushy shrub with a green, glossy foliage which is wine
color when new. The deep crimson ripe fruit, about one inch in diameter,
is quite ornamental. It matures in southern Florida two or three times a
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
year. It flowers first in February and fruits in from five to six weeks, the
crop lasting about two weeks.
The soft, juicy, red flesh is of aromatic sub-acid flavor, pleasant in its
natural form. Before ripening there is a resinous, pungent flavor. As the
fruit ripens it turns from green to yellow, then orange and in the end a
deep scarlet. The Florida type cherry is darker and has a more distinctive
flavor not found elsewhere. Jellies, jams, and sauces made from this fruit
have a unique flavor widely popular.
Citrus fruits contain the two essentials of every diet, namely: "What we
should eat" and "what we like to eat." Minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates
are there. The joy of the most pleasing flavor of all foods is there. Osborne
and Mendel found that oranges, lemons and grapefruit contain as much
vitamin B as milk and more than grapejuice, fresh apples and pears; that
oranges and pineapple are good sources of vitamin A; that oranges, lemon
and tomato are highest of all foods in vitamin C. Experiments have shown
in recent years that oranges play a big role in the building of teeth and
in preventing decay.
Dr. Percy Howe, Forsythe Dental Clinic, Boston, Mass., through a series
of experiments with monkeys, and Dr. M. T. Hancke of the Dental Re-
search Association, Chicago, through recent tests with human patients,
have found oranges most valuable in the building of teeth and in the
maintenance of the health of teeth and gums. Chaney and Blunt, Univer-
sity of Chicago, have shown that increased orange juice in the diet has
aided in the retention of calcium and phosphorus. They explain this
efficiency on the part of the orange as being due to the fact that the
orange maintains an acidity in the digestive tract and that it is alkaline
in its residue, both conditions being conducive to the retention of calcium
Orange juice as a mid-morning lunch for school children who were
already getting a generous amount of milk in the home has been found
to give Florida children a gain in weight and growth greater than that
given by the same amount of milk to a similar group of children. The
orange juice seems to help the child make better use of the milk he drinks
and to give him a normal appetite. Orange juice concentrated, dried, fresh,
or cold storage shows excellent supply of vitamin C. Orange juice is a
good source of vitamin A and B.
Refreshing, appetizing, nourishing are the citrus fruits. They supple-
ment milk. They give an alkaline balance. They are a mild laxative.
Oranges are best fresh and undiluted; grapefruit is best in its natural
state but it is also a success as a canned product. Lemons and limes are
necessarily diluted as a drink. Kumquats and other small citrus products
are used fresh or preserved. All citrus fruits may be used as preserves or
The kumquat, growing in bright, golden yellow clusters, is the smallest
of citrus fruits, being only one to two inches in diameter. The thin rind
is sweet and aromatic; the pulp is decidedly acid in certain varieties like
the oval fruit of the Nagami or the round Marumi but the pulp of the
round Meiwa is sweet. The fruit is eaten fresh; it is also preserved or
candied whole. It is splendid for jelly or marmalade.
This citrus fruit grows on a tree similar to the lemon. Fruit is oblong,
protuberant at the tip, 5 to 6 inches long, greenish-yellow in color and
very fragrant. The pulp is acid and has a juice that may be expressed
and used like lime. The rind, thick and spongy, may be candied and
preserved. There is another fruit (a melon) by the same name used in
somewhat a similar way.
The shaddock is the largest and coarsest of all citrus fruits. It has a
thick rind and thick leathery septa between sections. It is suitable only
for preserving and crystallization. It is sometimes pink inside. The juice
is acid, bitter and scant.
LoIKEUr3 ItK LiKE -T p: I 0 % iSaP M:S I M%%Afflr I-HOL AL- a 2 w 0
t~i~m ie r nnik c r- r _- AV
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Sour orange has a thicker peel than the common orange. It is used
for marmalades. The juice combines nicely in drinks with the sweet
The bitter-sweet has a thicker peel than the sour orange and has a
loose peel. It is used only for marmalades.
The lime is not a lemon but it is closely related to the lemon, orange,
mandarin, pomelo and shaddock. Limes are more sensitive to cold and are
therefore grown farther south. Most of the limes in Florida are on the
keys south of the mainland. They are grown from seeds and therefore
vary greatly in size, shape, flavor and juice percentage. They range in
size from a medium-sized plum to a large-sized lemon. Lime juice is a
good source of vitamin C. The Tahiti, a sprout of the Persian variety, a
budded variety, has been grown on the mainland and found adaptable. It
grows much larger. The rind is smooth, thin and green to yellow. The
juice is almost colorless, good flavor, and strong acid.
West Indian lime grows on a thorny bush with rather small, light green
foliage. Fruit is fine grain, juice plentiful, pulp soft, acid strong, flavor
distinctly lime. The Palmetto Lime, a cross between West Indian and the
lemon; and the Everglade Lime, a cross of West Indian with the Pomelo,
are both good limes.
Rangpur lime is hardier than the true lime. It is said to belong to
Suntara orange group. Tree is small, thorny; foliage sparse. The fruit is
medium size, rind rough, medium in thickness, easily separated from pulp
and of irregular color; segments are easily separated; flesh is orange color;
juice is plentiful, flavor agreeable.
The calamondin, a small round fruit growing on an ornamental hardy
shrub, is sometimes erroneously called an orange but is is very closely
associated with the lime. It combines nicely with the sweet orange in the
preparation of a citrus drink. Lime juice is even more acid than lemon.
It is 7 per cent citric acid. It also has an essential oil. Lime juice is used
in medicine. It prevents scurvy and symptoms which precede the disease.
It is used to supplement a diet necessarily short of fresh fruits and
vegetables. Lime juice makes an excellent flavoring for many of the
tropical fruits, for vegetables as well as for fish, meats, candies and
desserts. It is also used to add flavor to various jams, fruits and jellies.
Lime oil extracted from the rind is used in flavoring extracts and per-
The limequat is a cross between the lime and kumquat. It has a sweet
rind and acid lime-like pulp. It is a hardy type, growing well in south
Golden Lime or Panama Orange is a small, round, thin-skinned, very
juicy fruit. It is very sour but good flavor and makes a pleasing limeade.
It is popular for marmalades, jellies and glace fruits.
Lime berry grows on a small bush. The fruit is edible and is like a
small, dark red cherry. It makes a jelly of good acid flavor.
Lemons in the original wild variety first found in Florida by early
settlers are good only for root stock in high, dry land. The Ponderosa is
too large to be of general commercial use, often reaching one to two
pounds. The quality and flavor, however, are good. They are quite juicy
and not a very thick skin. The regular commercial type of lemons is
grown but the tendency is to grow too large. From the rind is produced
lemon oil; the pulp, citrate of lime, citric acids and lemon flavoring. Lemon
juice is one of the best sources of vitamin C. Even in cold storage, lemons
show an excellent supply. Vitamins A and B are found in the peel and in
fresh juice. Vitamin B is also found in the dried juice.
The grapefruit is an excellent appetizer and probably contains "tonic"
properties. Some have thought the grapefruit has an alkaloid all its own
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
but chemists have not found it. Grapefruit juice both fresh and dried i
a good source of vitamin B and an excellent source of vitamin C, equa
to that of orange juice, lemon juice or tomato. The partitions in the frui
have a bitter taste. Improved fruits have eliminated the objectionable
bitter and have left only the taste which lends individually to the pomel
-that blending of sweet-bitter-sour that makes the fruit a pomelo. Thos
who know the flavor best call it the "pleasing personality" of the pomelo
The early varieties of grapefruit are Duncan; mid-season, Florid
Common and Walters; and late, Marsh Seedless. Foster and Thompso
are the pink-fleshed varieties.
Oranges are divided into two main classes, the common round orange
of commerce known as "Mediterranean" and the Chinese or Mandarin or
Kid Glove variety.
King Orange-King Orange (from Burma) is a large, rough, thick
loose-skinned fruit with a reddish, very juicy pulp of best flavor.
Tangerine-Tangerines (an excellent source of vitamin C) are of two
main varieties, the flat red kind (Dancy) and a larger one, yellow in
color (Oneco), a late variety.
Tangelo-Tangelos are hybrids-crosses between tangerine and pomelo.
The tangelo has the qualities of both but is distinct from either. It is very
juicy, of a rich, tart flavor. It has almost no fiber nor rag. The Thornton
is one of the best varieties.
Satsuma-Satsumas are a hardy variety of the mandarin group. having
been grafted on the trifoliata stock and are truly north Florida's oranges.
Among the varieties of Mediterranean oranges best adapted to Florida
are the early oranges such as Parson Brown and Hamlin; mid-season
varieties are seedlings, Pineapples, Enterprise Seedless and Jaffa; the
late varieties are Valencia and Lou Gim Gong.
The cherimoya is of the annonaceous family of fruits, the annonas
being tropical fruits composed of more or less coherent fleshy carpels or
parts. The tree is of the small spreading type. The fruit, larger than an
orange, is irregular in form and covered with small conical "bumps" or
protuberances. The skin is thin and light green in color, changing to
yellow; the flesh is white and of the melting texture. It has been called
the "Masterpiece of Nature." Many brown bean-like seeds are imbedded in
the flesh. The flavor is sub-acid, delicate and suggestive of the pineapple
and banana. The fruit is purely a dessert fruit. The sugar content is very
high being about 18/4 per cent. The protein and fiber are high and the
acid content low.
This fruit, heart-shaped, is smooth and of a reddish brown when ripe.
It is somewhat similar to the cherimoya and sugar apple but inferior in
SUGAR APPLE (S.)
Sugar apple grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. The brush
is similar to that of the sapodilla. The skin of the fruit is yellowish green,
thick and rough. The fruit is pear shaped and the size of a man's fist.
It is really a seed pod with numerous black seeds inside. The outside or
surface is covered with "bumps." When the fruit is separated into carpels,
of which it is composed, each rough section has a pure white or yellow
meaty sweet and slightly aciduous pulp with the little black seed adhering.
It is a custard-like dessert fruit. It is sometimes called the sweet-sop. It is
similar to the cherimoya in composition, having a high sugar content,
about 181/2 per cent, but it is less piquant in flavor. It ripens in summer
and is "in season" six months.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 35
This fruit is closely related to the sugar apple. The tree is rarely more
than 20 feet high and grows only in the tropical section of the state. The
fruit is the largest of the annonas (4 pounds). It is 6 to 8 inches long,
rather an oval shape; a dark green color; a spiny surface. The flesh is
white, juicy and aromatic. The texture is rather cottony. The flavor is a
combination of mango and pineapple. It ripens in late spring.
The sour-sop is used for preserves, for preparations of sherbets and
other refreshing drinks. The sour-sop sherbet is considered one of the
finest in the world.
The hardy Celeste is popular throughout Florida. It is a small,
brownish-yellow, sweet fig (July 1). The Brown Turkey (July 15), white to
pink inside, is a solid fig and hardy. The Brunswick (August and Sep-
tember) is a large violet-colored fig with thick, soft pulp.
Figs thrive best in sub-tropical localities but do well farther north if
protected. They are grown largely in the vicinity of the "yard." The fruit
contains a high per cent of sugar. Other nutrients are not abundant. The
texture and flavor are pleasing. The fruit is best freshly picked from the
trees. It needs no flavoring. The fig has a slight laxative effect. It is
sometimes used with sugar and cream as a breakfast fruit. It lends itself
to drying and preserving and canning. It is best used in cookies, cakes
and pastes, pudding, ice cream and other desserts.
Two types of grapes have done well on their roots in Florida-the
muscadine and the summer grape. The former includes scuppernong,
Thomas and James. The other type has developed into what is known as
"bunch" grapes in Florida. The muscadines do not bunch and are, there-
ore, tedious to gather for shipping. The scuppernong grape has a flavor
when fully ripe that is unexcelled. It is a russet color when ripe. The wild
variety is a black grape of thicker skin and more meat but less juice.
oth are splendid flavor in the fresh form and lend themselves to
Florida's Bunch Grapes
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
numerous ways of preparation. The Thomas is a reddish purple when ripe,
while the James is purplish black. The "summer" grape (wild) grows in
many of the Florida woods. It is quite acid and has enough pectin for
jelly when not quite ripe. The flavor of wild grape jelly is a decided
flavor, highly pleasing to both the Northern and Southern palate. The
color adds to the palatability. Cultivated bunch grapes, such as Carmen,
Ellen, Scott, Armalagar, are being successfully grown in Florida.
The many varieties, plus Florida's long season, make it possible to have
on Florida menus good table grapes from June to September.
Grapes are high in sugar, varying from 15 to 35 per cent. The organic
acids abundant in grapes act as a mild laxative and diuretic. Grape juice
can now be sterilized at about 176 F, a temperature not high enough to
injure the flavor or vitamin content. Fresh grapes, also grapejuice, have a
fair amount of vitamins A and C as well as a very good showing in
vitamin B. (Volume 37, No. 4, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
Guavas, as grown in Florida, are of two groups-the Cattley guava, red
and yellow, and the so-called Mexican guava. The red Cattley usually
thrives wherever oranges grow well. The tree is an ornamental shrub of
glossy leaves and reaches a height of 25 feet. The fruit, one to two inches
in diameter, grows in large clusters. The purplish-red skin is thin; the
sub-acid juicy flesh is white toward the center; the seeds are numerous.
The Cattley guava has an aromatic flavor. It has not the mushiness of
some other varieties. There is also a yellow Cattley guava of sulphur color
and more delicate flavor, larger than the red Cattley. Mexican guavas
are larger, being about the size of a hen egg and sometimes 3 or 4 inches
long. Of the larger guavas there are the red, white and yellow varieties
and of each of the three there are the sweet, sub-acid and acid types.
All are very prolific.
There are as many varieties of guavas as of apples. The fruit ripens in
late summer and fall and is "in season" several months. The analysis of
the common guava has shown ash and protein to rate well in comparison
with fruits in general. The sugar content is not high.
The guava, formerly known as a "jelly fruit," is now popular in the
fresh, slightly cooked, and preserved forms.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 37
GRANADILLA OR PASSION FRUIT (S.)
The granadilla is an ornamental vine fruit, oval in shape, 2 to 3 inches
long and 11/4 to 2 inches thick, and deep purple in color when fully ripe.
Inside the hard shell rind, is a yellow, spicy, juicy, acid pulp within which
are numerous small seeds, edible. The pulp is used in making drinks and
for flavoring sherbets and ices. It needs sugar when taken in the natural
form. The fresh fruit is served at the table and the juice is squeezed on
The yellow fruited passion fruit is similar to the purple but is larger
and equally fine in flavor. Both fruits are used in cooking, as well as in
The litchi grows on an ornamental tree. It has succeeded in the Miami
section and, with a little protection, as far north as Bradenton. The fruit
grows in clusters of 2 or 3 to 20 or more. They look a little like straw-
berries, being a deep rose when fully ripened and of the shape of the
berry. The outer covering is scaly, hard and brittle. The seed is small. The
flesh is white, translucent, firm and juicy and of sub-acid flavor similar
to the muscat grape.
Analysis of the fruit has shown total sugar, 15.3 per cent; acid, 1.16 per
cent; protein, 1.15 per cent; ash, .54 per cent; total solids, 20.92 per cent.
The fruit is picked in clusters with stems. They soon lose their pretty
red color but they keep their flavor two or three weeks. Refrigeration
takes care of them temporarily. The fresh fruit is very popular. It is both
dried and preserved for future use.
The mamey is a dooryard tree of deep rich green foliage growing as
far north as Palm Beach. The fruit is oblong or round and is 4 to 6 inches
in diameter. It has a russet surface, leathery skin, a bright yellow, juicy,
but firm, flesh of a sub-acid but pleasant flavor and a firm, close texture.
It is sometimes stewed and sometimes sliced and served fresh with sugar
and cream. Mamey preserves is popular and is similar to that made from
MAMMONCILLA OR SPANISH LIME OR HONEY BERRY (S.)
The mammoncilla grows on an erect tree 30 to 40 feet high and in
clusters like grapes. This lime looks a little like a plum. The outer covering
is thick, leathery and green. It has one large seed, the space between skin
and seed being filled by a pleasant, edible, thick juice. It is not citrus. The
pulp is a soft yellow. The flavor, in some varieties, is said to be sweet but
it is often very acid.
The mango tree is evergreen. Seedlings grow quite large but budded
trees are smaller. Leaves are sometimes 10 to 20 inches long. The fruit
grows on a long pendulous stem. It varies greatly in size from a small
plum to 4 or 5 pounds in weight. It varies in shape from long, slender, to
oval or round. The skin is smooth and from yellow to a deep yellow or
apricot to a crimson. Some are only green. The aroma is spicy as is the
flavor. The flesh, yellow to orange, is juicy and in the best sorts entirely
free from fiber. It "melts in the mouth." The flavor is its own. It suggests
an apricot and a pineapple but it is neither. It is mango-rich, luscious,
acid, spicy. It is there, then it's gone-all gone-too soon. The seed is
large, oval, flattened and contains a white kernel.
An analysis shows no starch apparent. The sugar content is high,
varying from 11 to 20 per cent. Protein is higher than is usual in fruits.
The acidity varies. The unripe fruit has very decided acidity. The ripe
fruit is considered a laxative; the unripe, an astringent. The mango is
a good source of vitamin C.
Both green and ripe products are used. The ripe fruit is eaten fresh as
salad or dessert. Both kinds make splendid pies and are used in curries
and sauces. The green or partly ripened pulp has considerable pectin and
is good for preserves and jellies. It is sometimes boiled, strained, mixed
with milk and sugar as a custard. The spicy sauces known as chutney
38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
are made of mangoes. The mango is used like the peach in canning. The
budded type is the best texture for this purpose. The Haden and Mulgoba
are popular types for eating fresh while the Sandersha is a type that
lends itself to cooking. (Bulletin No. 20, Florida State Department of
The papaya, interestingly known as the tree-melon, in its best varieties,
easily takes its place with the best of melons as to flavor and attractive-
ness. The tree has a straight, slender, spongy, leafless trunk which spreads
into an umbrella-like tuft. The seedling quickly comes to the fruiting
stage during the first year. Just below the "spread" the tree-melons cluster
-sometimes as many as 20 to 30 of a size 8 to 10 inches in length and
sometimes weighing as much as 15 pounds. The fruit is smooth, slightly
ribbed and cylindrical in shape. As it ripens the skin turns from green to
an orange yellow, while the sweet juicy pulp one to two inches in thickness
sf f. -.- ? ;
I ,~ .'r~c,
Blue Stemmed Papayas
Bred and grown by Scott U. Stambaugh, Vero Beach, Fla.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 39
becomes a deep yellow. Inside is a cavity filled with small, rough, dark pep-
percorn-like seeds which are enclosed in a thin mesh and slip out easily.
So rapidly does the plant fruit that oftentimes green fruit, ripe fruit, buds
and flowers are on the tree at the same time. The fruit begins to ripen in
nine months. The crop is continuous through the bearing life of the tree
when the weather is favorable. The papaya thrives in southern Florida
where it has been grown for home and commercial purposes.
The papaya is a valuable source of vitamins A and C. Even in the
green stage it shows almost no trace of starch and no tannin. The ash
and protein are low as compared with the banana but they are quite
constant. Sugar increases as the fruit ripens. The papaya contains a milky
juice in which an active principal known as papain is present. It resembles
animal pepsin in its digestive action.
As a breakfast fruit this tree-melon rivals even the honey-dew. The
juicy pulp has a texture and flavor its own, that starts the day "right" as
well as "different." In south Florida where papayas grow and ripen in
months of continual sunshine they make a valuable contribution to the
diet of mankind. In a half ripened or green stage they may be cooked like
squash, or, sweetened, they may be made into pies. The ripened pulp likes
a dash of lime juice growing nearby but as "a first" for breakfast or as a
"last" number for dinner it stands alone easily and successfully. In fact,
whether they be down in the hammocks, along the canals or in a "set"
grove they look just like the pictures and tickle the human palate for a
taste. And later when after a night in the refrigerator they appear at
breakfast in gorgeous orange yellow slices, or at lunch on a bed of green,
garnished with a slice of lemon or lime, the "picture" becomes a most
effective appetizer. Truly the lowly melon has been lifted up and glorified!
The fruit has been successfully shipped to New York and California.
(Bulletin No. 32, Florida State Department of Agriculture.)
The Spanish or Honey type used in north Florida and the Chinese or
"Peento" group of peaches has been grown successfully in south Florida.
The peach, depending upon the variety, has a fairly high sugar content
although it is about 85 to 90 per cent water. There is no appreciable
amount of starch at any time but an increase in sugar upon ripening.
Fresh peaches show a good content of vitamins A and C. By soil selection
and adaptation of variety, Florida has learned to supply herself to some
extent with peaches.
The Pineapple and Hood pears are the most desirable Florida pears
as to color, texture and uniformity. The Kieffer is adapted to north
Florida. Pears are low in acid and need little sugar. Lemon or lime combine
nicely with pear products. In the fresh form a fully ripened pear needs no
additions. Raw fresh pears show some vitamins B and C. For canning or
for cooking, gather pears when fully grown but not entirely ripened. Keep
in a dark, cool room for a few days for ripening. This process gives a finer
grain texture and possibly a better flavor than the tree ripening process.
When peeled, pears turn brown quickly, due to the action of an enzyme.
A dilute saline solution (2 tablespoons salt to a gallon of water) prevents
The native persimmon, one to one and a half inches in diameter, grows
almost all over the upper half of the state. It is highly stocked with tannin
before the fully ripened stage but, when ripe, it is a very popular fruit,
having a sugar content of about 15 per cent.
NOTE-The papaya (fresh leaves and stem) contains an enzyme (papain) which aids in
the digestion of proteins. The natives of tropical islands use its juice to make meat tender
in the cooking process. They wrap their fowls in its leaves or hang them overnight in the
trees. Mothers, it is said eat papayas during lactation period to increase the milk supply
for their babies.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
This fruit is the cultivated persimmon used in Florida. It is much larger
than the native fruit, ranging in size from two to four inches in diameter.
The color varies from a light yellow to a deep reddish orange. The shape
is, in some varieties, that of an apple flattened at the ends, and in others
more of a pear shape with a pointed apex. The flesh is light yellow to dark
according to variety.
The light flesh variety is good to eat only when fully ripe due to the
fact that the pulp contains tannin. As the fruit fully ripens the tannin
crystallizes and does not dissolve in the mouth. The dark flesh type has a
pulp that is crisp, meaty like an apple and is edible before maturity. The
sugar content in the ripe fruit is the highest of all common fruits-14 to
20 per cent-and is in the form of dextrose.
According to recent research by Jennie Tilt and Rebecca B. Hubbell,
Nutrition Research Laboratory, Florida State College, seven varieties of
Japanese persimmons show a range in average moisture content from
76.27 (Zengi) to 81.71 per cent (Tamopan); reducing sugar 11.55 per cent
(Tsuru) to 17.38 (Zengi); protein .43 per cent (Tane Nashi) to .87 per cent
(Okami); ash from .3 per cent (Tampopan) to .58 per cent (Tsuru); fiber
from .11 per cent (Fuyugaki) to .49 per cent (Triumph). Tests were also
made for vitamin B complex and the Tane Nashi, the fruit used, was found
to be a very poor source of vitamin B complex.
The varieties most used are the Tane Nashi and the Fuyugaki. The
former is round in shape with a pointed apex. It is from 3 to 31/4 inches
long and nearly as broad. The skin is light yellow, shading to a bright,
deep, yellowish-red as it ripens. The yellow flesh is astringent until the
ripening period in August and September. The Fuyugaki, slightly flattened,
deep red in color, is not astringent and can be peeled and eaten before it
is fully ripe.
Persimmons are best used in the fresh form and are sweet enough for
desserts. The pulp has been successfully used, however, in pies, sauces, and
puddings as well as in ice creams. For pies, the non-astringent type is used
when not fully ripe.
Pineapple grows on a low, ragged plant with sword-like leaves. It per-
petuates itself by lijos (scions) which grow out of the base of the plant
near the ground and are called coronas. Pineapples from Fort Pierce south
in Florida grow well in the open; in other parts of south Florida they grow
under slats. This is one of the most valuable of foods from a physiological
standpoint. It contains a protelytic enzyme called bromelin which is closely
related to trypsin. This ferment changes albuminous matter into peptones
and proteoses and acts in acid, alkaline or neutral media. The flavor and
odor of pineapples is due to the essential oils and ethers present in very
small quantities. Pineapples should be allowed to stand on the plants until
practically ripe. They lose little of their delicious flavor or of their food
value in canning. They are rich, both in fresh and canned form, in vita-
mins A, B, and C. (Vol. 37, No. 3, "Pineapple Culture," Florida State
Department of Agriculture.)
Florida has a number of varieties of wild plums that still flourish,
especially in north Florida. They are quite acid before ripening and make
an excellent jelly, jam or butter at the half-ripened stage. Wild plum
products have rare flavor and color that makes them most suitable to
serve with meats or chicken.
Excelsior-Japanese plums crossed with some of Florida's native plums
have given a few hybrids that are of splendid variety such as the "Ex-
celsior," a wine-colored fruit with a firm yellow-red pulp of excellent
quality and sub-acid flavor. The skin is thin and tough and neither bitter
McRae (Hybrid)-The fruit is a reddish yellow, has a juicy, yellow,
sub-acid, firm flesh with an aromatic flavor.
Terrell (Hybrid)-This large plum, 2 inches in diameter, is wine-
colored when fully ripe and has a greenish-yellow, meaty, slightly sub-acid
flesh of excellent flavor and texture.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 41
The loquat grows on a small ornamental tree that branches two or
three feet from the ground to form a dense crown. The white flowers are
fragrant and ornamental. The fruit in loose clusters, is round or oval, one
to three inches long, pale yellow to a beautiful orange in color, and downy
on the surface. The skin is like that of a peach only a little tougher; the
flesh is firm and meaty in some and "melting in the mouth" of other
varieties and is a white to a deep orange color, juicy and of a "sprightly"
sub-acid flavor. It is most commonly used as a fresh fruit but it may be
stewed or jellied. Loquat pie made from partly ripened fruit favors of
cherry pie. The seeds are removed before cooking. Unripe, the fruit is
decidedly acid. The ripe fruit is sweet.
This fruit is a plum something like the loquat. It is yellow, egg-shaped,
about one to one and a half inches in length and better than the loquat.
CARISSA OR NATAL PLUM (S.)
The carissa grows on an ornamental thorny shrub. The scarlet fruit,
one to two inches long and ovoid or egg shape, ripens mostly in summer
but continues to appear through other seasons. As the fruit ripens it be-
comes a rich, dark red outside and inside. It exudes, when cut, a milk
substance. This little plum is good for jellies and marmalades. Carissa
sauce resembles cranberries.
The pomegranate grows on a bush 15 to 20 feet high. The fruit is
globular, the size of an orange or larger. It has a smooth, leathery skin
which ranges from a yellow to a beautiful red in color. It is made up inside
into several cells, each filled with many sided grains each of which is a
transparent vesicle containing red juicy pulp and a seed. The flavor is sub-
acid. Another variety (Purple-seeded) has an acid pulp. The fruit is very
refreshing. It is used to prepare a cooling drink and to make jellies and
The quince tree is a small, stiff, upright, little tree of hard-wood. The
quince is one of the oldest known fruits. It has been less cultivated and is
still hard and sour until cooked. The flavor of the cooked quince, however,
is so agreeable that it is most popular as a jelly, marmalade or flavor for
other fruits. The quince is of a firm texture and is, therefore, used for
preserving. The Chinese quince is a very much improved type.
Rhubarb (according to Hume) is not particularly adapted to Florida's
warm climate, but in recent years in south Florida it has been grown in
early spring for home use and for local markets. "Immigrants" hail it
with delight and pronounce it "good." Then it is good-tender, acid, ap-
petizing-and makes just as good pies or sauce as if it were grown "north."
The variety and season must of course be considered but the flavor is all
there. Rhubarb has a medicinal value in that it is a laxative.
The roselle plant resembles the okra and the cotton plant. It is often
called the jelly okra. The edible portion is the bright red calyx, low in
sugar (1%) and high in acid (3%). The only food value lies in the fine
red color and the pleasant acid flavor-two rather valuable qualities. The
calyces, if picked as soon as fully grown, make excellent ades, sauces, jelly
or jam which are used in Florida to take the place that cranberries fill in
A plentiful supply of pectin and a generous acidity, combined with a
cherry red color, give a wonderful jelly product equal to red currant or
cranberry. For jelly, one % of a pound of sugar (11/2 cups) is needed for a
pint of juice, secured by cooking and straining the fruit. Even after the
42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
seeds have ripened in the capsules the fruit may be used for jelly. The
fruit may be dried without losing its jelly-making capacity. The young,
tender shoots have been used successfully in jelly making and for "greens."
(U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin 307.)
The sapodilla is a stately evergreen tree of 50 or more feet in height
and grows well from Palm Beach south and up as far as the Manatee river
on the west coast. The bark contains a milky latex called chicle, interesting
commercially as the basis for chewing gum.
The fruit, round or oval in shape and from 2 to 31/2 inches in diameter,
looks like a potato, the thin skin being a rusty brown and slightly scurfy.
The seeds, 10 or 12, slip out easily. Yellow brown, translucent, soft, sweet,
and of delicious flavor is the ripened flesh. Unripened, however, the tannin
and chicle are unpleasant. Someone has called the flavor of the ripe fruit
"pear with brown sugar." Others have said, "it is maple syrup." It has
about 14 per cent sugar. The odor is fragrant. There is a vitamin content
of A and C.
MAMMEE SAPOTE (S.)
(Or Marmalade Plum)
This fruit grows on a tree (60 feet in height) of abundant light green
foliage. The fruit is oval, 3 to 6 inches long. The skin is a russet brown,
thick and woody. The flesh is firm and of a finely granular texture. The
color is yellowish brown with a tinge of red, rather a rich saffron. There
is in the center a large, hard, black and shiny seed which comes out as
easily as the avocado seed. The flesh is rich and lacks acidity. It is similar
to that of the sweet potato when cooked. Improperly ripened or inferior
sapote has a squash-like flavor. In Havana it is used in sherbet and as a
filler in guava cheese. In Central America the large seed is roasted and
used to mix with cocoa in making chocolate. The sapote is best in its
fresh, natural form. It has been used as a rich preserve. It has been called
a "natural marmalade."
WHITE SAPOTE (S.)
The white sapote is now grown in Florida and while it belongs to the
soft sweet fruits of the tropics it is liked by many Northerners. The fruit
has a thin membranous skin, yellowish green and a yellow sweet melting
flesh. It shows 20 per cent sugar. It is eaten fresh.
GREEN SAPOTE (S.)
The green sapote has a flavor similar to the sapota but more delicate,
it is also of finer and smoother texture. The skin is thin, the flesh is darker
but melting, sweet and juicy. The fruit is usually eaten fresh. There is also
the sapote of the black variety.
STAR APPLE (S.)
The star apple is a dooryard tree and looks "like an evergreen peach."
The leaves are a glossy green above a satiny brown underneath. Star apple
fruit is round or oblate, something like an apple, and is from 2 to 4 inches
in diameter. It is sometimes purple, sometimes a light green. When cut
crosswise it shows a star-shaped interior. The flesh is in 8 segments in
which the seed are imbedded. It is sweet and pleasantly flavored. Just
under the skin is a layer of soft, somewhat granulous flesh and not very
juicy. Inside this is a whitish flesh. Both are sweet-no acid at all. The
fruit is usually eaten fresh. P. W. Reasoner described a dish called "matri-
mony." It is prepared by scooping out the inside pulp of the star apple
and adding it to a glass of sour orange juice.
The tree looks like a scraggly, neglected orange. The fruit, on the
outside, looks like a green orange and is about 3 inches in diameter. The
outside is a hard shell. The pulp is rich, custard-like, about the consistency
of a ripe banana, and has an aromatic flavor. The seeds contain strychnine.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The tamarind fruit (Indian Date) is a pod of a leguminous tree of orna-
mental small leaf foliage. The beans inside the pod are surrounded by a
dark, pasty material, the edible portion of the fruit. This pulp has a
sweetish-sour rather spicy flavor. Analysis shows 15 per cent acid (mostly
tartaric) and over 40 per cent of reducing sugar. In fact it contains more
acid than the sourest fruit and more sugar than the sweetest fruit. The
taste, however, is distinctly sour.
Tamarinds are therefore used to make cooling, sub-acid beverages,
especially for invalids. The fruit is official in the pharmacopoeia as a
laxative and refrigerant. Tamarind paste is a mixture of the pulp and
about 75 per cent sugar. Mixing an ounce of tamarind pulp with 11/2 pints
of warm milk a nourishing beverage called tamarind whey is made. Young
pods are sometimes cooked with rice and fish. The roasted seeds are said
to be superior in flavor and valuable as a food product. Dried tamarind
has a small amount of vitamin C.
In Key West the people pack tamarind in jars and cover with sugar
sirup to keep on hand during the "off" season. They use the paste for
making drinks when the fresh supply is exhausted.
The leaves contain an acid and furnish a dye stuff, also a quickly
drying oil for paints.
CAROB BEAN (S.)
The Carob Bean or Locust Bean is sometimes used for stock feed. The
ripe seeds are surrounded by a sweet mucilaginous mass used more as a
confection than a food. The dried pod yields more than 50 per cent sugar.
Miscellaneous Sub-Tropical and Tropical Fruits
The abiu resembles the canistel in growth and foliage but it has a light
yellow fruit with white flesh. The skin is thick and tough. In flavor the
pulp resembles the sapodilla but is a different texture.
This fruit is a curious looking little capsule about three inches long and
triangular in shape, and yellow and red in color. It contains three seeds
with a whitish flesh at the base of each which resembles the brain of a
small animal and which is firm, oily, and nutty in flavor. It is cooked with
fish to give it an added flavor. Green or over-ripe akees should not be
eaten at all. Fresh ripe akees are good food.
The cacao ripens in June and in December and is limited to Monroe
county. It resembles a short, thick cucumber 5 to 6 inches long and 3
inches thick. The pulp is pink to white, sweet, slightly acid. The rind is
smooth, thick, tough and tasteless. The seeds or beans (20 to 40) are dried
for market. They give an oil that acts as an anodyne.
COCOA PLUM (S.)
Cocoa plum is a small, edible, plum-like fruit, with a large seed, and
has a cocoanut flavor.
(1) Prickly Pear (S.), Indian Fig
The spiny fruit of 1 to 2 inches in length is pear shaped and red in
color. It contains vitamin C. It is about 12 per cent sugar and about 85 per
(2) Cereus (S.)
Cereus fruit is oval, scarlet, 41/2 inches in diameter. It also has vitamin
C and 10 to 12 per cent sugar and 80 to 85 per cent water.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TI-ES OR CANISTEL OR VEGETABLE EGG
The canistel or ti-es (egg fruit) tree, a handsome bright green color,
is a dooryard tree and grows well on the keys and as far north as Palm
Beach. The fruit is round to oval and pointed at the apex. It is 2 to 4
inches long. The fruit ripens in summer. The membranous skin is yellow
while the soft mealy flesh is a bright orange or egg shade. The flavor is
rich and very sweet and the fruit is best fresh. When mature, it is best to
take it from the tree and allow it to ripen in the house for three or four
The carambola, growing on a small handsome tree about 30 feet high,
is a bright yellow to golden brown oval shaped fruit 3 to 5 inches long,
having 3, 4 or 5 longitudinal ribs and showing a star shape when cut
crosswise. The pulp is astringent when green and acid when ripe. It has a
fruity flavor and the odor of a quince. When slightly unripe it is used in
jelly or pickles.
The ilama is said to be the best of the annonaceous fruits. It is smaller,
reaching not more than one and one-half pounds. Pale green varieties
have white flesh; the pink kinds have rose pink. Green varieties are sweet;
the pink are acid. The fruit is used fresh like the sugar-apple. They
ripen in summer. The season is short. The ilama belongs to the low lands
and is more suited to south Florida than is the cherimoya.
POND APPLE (S.)
This fruit is sometimes called custard apple. It is no good as a fruit.
The Pitaya is produced by a climbing cactus which bears night-
blooming flowers. The fruit, about 2 to 3 inches in diameter, is crimson in
color and strawberry in flavor. The flesh is white, juicy and seedy. It is
used in making cooling drinks and sherbets or in the natural form.
ROSE APPLE (S.)
The rose apple grows on an ornamental plant. The fruit smells like a
rose, is crisp and juicy. It is the color of apricot. It is round or oval and
one or two inches long. The rose apple may be preserved or crystallized.
SATIN FRUIT (S.)
Satin fruit grows on a small tree whose leaves are glossy green on top
and a burnished brown underneath. The purple fruit is about an inch and
a half long and has a sub-acid flavor.
The umkokolo or kei apple grows on a vigorous, rich green, thorny
shrub that flowers in spring and ripens in August to October. The fruit is
nearly round, one inch in diameter and of a bright golden yellow color.
The yellow, juicy pulp having an aromatic flavor of a high acid test when
unripe, makes a splendid jelly.
WILD FIG (S.)
Wild fig trees, gigantic trees with green wax-like leaves, have small
edible figs the size of a pea or larger.
The bilimbi, similar to the carambola, is cylindrical, five angled, 2 to 4
inches long, greenish yellow in color, soft and juicy in texture. It is more
acid than the carambola. It is used as a pickle or as a relish with mear
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 45
HORSERADISH TREE (S.)
The roots of this tree, when ground, have the odor and flavor of the
herb horseradish. The leaves are used in curries.
This fruit resembles grapes and grows on the body of the tree which
grows to a height of 60 feet. The juice makes an excellent drink or jelly.
The jujube is a small spiny tree about 20 feet high and very prolific.
The fruit is about the size of a date. It has a brown thin skin and a sweet
white flesh of mealy texture inclosing a hard two-celled seed. It ranks
high (about 211/2 per cent) in sugar. The fresh fruit (best varieties) is good
to eat in natural form. Dried it resembles the date in form and flavor.
It may be boiled with rice, stewed or baked, made into bread as raisins,
boiled in honey and sugar as a glace product. It is used commercially as a
flavoring for confections. Chinese varieties, Yu, Mu Shing Hong, and the
Lang, are best, according to Popenoe.
(Ceylon Gooseberry, Abertia Gardnerii)
This fruit grows on a shrub similar to, though more slender and less
vigorous than the umkokolo. It is maroon in color and has a velvety sur-
face. The pulp, sweet and luscious, resembles in flavor the English goose-
berry. It is a better fruit than the umkokolo and makes a fine jelly or
preserve. The season is winter.
MONISTERA DELICIOSA (S.)
Monistera Deliciosa is the fruit of a monster vine-like plant that has a
bloom similar to a lily and an openwork leaf. The vine has many air roots.
It also sends down tubes deep into the ground to get water. The fruit itself
resembles in shape a very large ear of corn. The big plump kernels, juicy
and sweet, are in a case that is edible. The arrangement is like that of
"corn on the cob." The color is green. The fruit stands straight on the
vine until ripe. It then turns down. The flavor is a combination ripe
banana and fresh strawberry with just a little of the snap of pineapple.
It may be eaten plain or with sugar and cream.
PARA GUAVA (S.)
The para guava, not strictly a guava but horticulturally classed with
the guava because of its similarity, is a sulphur yellow fruit, oval or round,
and 2 to 3 inches long. The soft whitish pulp, acid but pleasant in flavor,
has a few seeds larger in size than the true guava. It has little of the
musky aroma of the guava.
The cashew grows south of Palm Beach and Punta Gorda. This is a
fruit and a nut combined. It is a small, oddly-shaped yellow fruit 2 or 3
inches long of pyramidal form and bears at its distal end the nut or seed.
The flesh part of the fruit is called the cashew apple. This arrangement
of the seed outside the pulp is most unusual. The nut or seed, about one
and one-half inches in length, is kidney shaped and is enclosed in a
grayish brown cellular coat that contains an essential oil which, when
cooked, has a burning effect on the skin. It is roasted before it is eaten.
The skin of the apple, very thin and easily broken, is a bright yellow or
flame scarlet. The flesh is soft, juicy, acid and a light yellow color and
has a pungent aroma. It is used as a preserve or jam of highly pleasing
quality and also as a drink. The nut, when roasted, has a chestnut flavor.
The meat is of fine texture and good quality. A nutritious oil similar to
almond oil may be expressed.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The imbu looks somewhat like a green Gage plum. Oval shaped, it is
one and one-half inches long and greenish yellow in color. It grows wild
and is very productive. The fruit makes a splendid jelly. The skin is thicker
than that of a plum and tough. The flavor of the soft juicy flesh is akin
to a sweet orange when ripe but is acid when not fully ripe.
The ambarella is a straight, tall, stiff tree which in some countries grows
as high as 60 feet and with leaves 12 inches long but not so large in Florida.
The fruit, some two inches long, oval in shape, is a pretty orange yellow.
The skin is something like that of the mango but tougher. The flesh is
firm, juicy and pale yellow, of a sub-acid flavor and sometimes resinous.
The queer looking seed is covered with bristles which hold the flesh tightly.
The clusters (of 2 to 10) hang on long stems. They ripen in winter and are
not quite so good a flavor as the imbu. The sugar content is about 10 /2
per cent. There is very little fiber. Much depends upon variety. The best
do not compare with the mango but rank very well as a wild fruit.
Cut large cucumbers in eighths lengthwise; let stand in ice water over
night. Pack into hot, sterilized jars, filling center of each jar with 2 pieces
of celery and 6 pickling onions.
Combine 1 quart vinegar, 1% cup salt, and 1 cup sugar; bring to boiling;
fill jars and seal.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
IV-Uses of Florida Fruits
1. COCKTAILS, SHERBETS AND DRINKS
cut papaya in dice and serve in glasses with orange, lemon or lime
juice, and a little sugar and chipped ice.
Mix four cups papaya pulp with two cups sugar and juice of three
lemons and freeze. Add a little sugar if desired.
Fill half a small cantaloupe (chilled) with sliced peaches. In the center
fill with seeded grapes, blueberries or blackberries. Sprinkle freely with
lemon and orange juice combined or with slightly sweetened lemon juice.
To crushed peaches add one can grapefruit hearts (cut in small pieces).
Sweeten to taste and freeze.
ORANGE JUICE COCKTAIL
4 small oranges /2 cup strawberries
Few grains salt 1/2 cup crushed pineapple
1 teasponful lemon juice Sugar to taste
Cut a thin slice from the tops of oranges. Remove pulp and juice. Add
strawberries, lemon juice and sugar to pulp and juice of oranges. Fill peel
and set on ice and leave until thoroughly cold. Serve in glasses surrounded
with crushed ice.
Place 4 tablespoonfuls of fresh peaches in cocktail gla-ses. Add 4 table-
spoonfuls of grape, pineapple or any berry juice. Sprinkle with nut meats.
Fill dish with shaved ice. Serve.
1 cup sugar 1 pint grape juice
1/2 cup water 2 cups crushed pineapple
1/2 cup lemon juice Lemon or orange slices
cup orange juice
Cook sugar and water 5 minutes. Cool. Add fruit juices and pineapple.
Serve with plenty ice and garnish with slices of lemon or orange.
ORANGE FRUIT CUP
1, cup orange juice % cup diced pineapple
2 tablespoons lemon juice': '3/ cup of one of the following
2 tablespoons pineapple syr.up fruits: White grapes, straw-
Sugar berries, peaches, pears, can-
3/ cup orange pieces taloupes, bananas.
Combine fruit juices and sweeten to taste, keeping rather tart. Add
mixed fruits. Place on ice. Serve very cold in cocktail or sherbet glasses.
Garnish each serving with Surinam cherry, strawberry, carissa cut in half,
or loquat slices. Use mint if fruits are not in season.
Oranges should have all membrane removed. If grapes are used, seeds
should be removed. If strawberries are used, cut in half. Peaches or pears,
if used, should be diced; cherries should be stoned; cantaloupe or bananas
should be cut in balls or small sections.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soak 4 tablespoonfuls of gelatin in 1 cupful of grape juice for 10
minutes, then heat over hot water until dissolved; cool and add /2 cupful
of shredded orange and /2 cupful of shredded pineapple. Beat 1 pint of
cream until stiff and add /2 cupful of sugar. Beat the whites of 2 eggs
until stiff and dry and add 1/3 cupful of sugar. Combine the two mixtures
and beat into gelatin, pour into cold individual molds and place on ice
until ready to serve. Turn out on a slice of pineapple and garnish with
SHRIMP AND PINEAPPLE COCKTAIL
1 cup cooked shrimp (fresh or Mayonnaise dressing
canned) Lemon juice
2 cups canned pineapple tidbits
If shrimp are large, cut them in halves. Sprinkle with lemon juice and
chill thoroughly. Drain and chill pineapple. Combine shrimp and pineapple
and mix with well-seasoned mayonnaise dressing. Serve in sherbet or cock-
LIME COCKTAIL SAUCE FOR SHELL-FISH
1 tablespoon prepared horse- 6 tablespoons lime juice
radish 1/4 teaspoon tabasco sauce
3 tablespoons tomato catsup Oysters or clams
1 teaspoon salt
Mix sauce ingredients thoroughly and pour over oysters or clams
arranged in cocktail glasses.
Sauce may be served in baskets made from lemon rinds, the fish being
served on the half shell. Serve very cold.
1/4 cup lemon juice Few grains salt
14 cup grapefruit juice Cracked ice
1/4 cup orange juice Mint sprigs
1/4 cup sugar dissolved in water
Combine fruit juices, sugar, salt and water. Pour over cracked ice in
cocktail glasses and serve garnished with mint sprigs.
ICED ORANGE APPETIZER
2 tablespoons gelatin % cup sugar
4 tablespoons cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice or lime
3 cups orange juice 1 cup- orange pulp-
Combine gelatin and cold water. Heat 1 cup of the orange juice over
hot water. Add gelatin and sugar. Stir until dissolved. Cool. Add rest of
fruit juices. Chill several hours. Stir occasionally. Add orange pieces. Serve
ice cold as first course. Garnish with mint sprigs.
GRAPE JUICE LIMEADE
Juice of 5 limes 3 cups of water
1 cup sugar 2 cups grape juice
Place ice in pitcher. Add sugar and water; stir thoroughly. Add grape
juice and last the lime. Let stand several minutes before serving.
LIME JUICE COCKTAIL
4 tablespoonfuls of lime juice 2/3 cupful of ginger ale
2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice Crushed ice
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar syrup
Place ingredients in cocktail shaker; shake, and pour over crushed ice
in four cocktail glasses. Serve.
Florida Fruit Special
Escarole, Florida's Loose Lettuce.
Pink Grapefruit with Strawberries.
French with Fruit Juice or French cream dressing.
Lettuce Leaves with Cucumber and Pepper Rings, Radish Roses,
and Tomato Quarters.
Mound of Shredded Cabbage and Grated Carrot. marinated.
French or Mayonnaise.
Note: This salad with a drink and bread and butter constitutes "a
tMain luncheon dish)
Florida Lettuce with sprigs of Watercress.
Avocado with Tomato Pulp dressing, with Lime slices.
Fresh Florida Relish
Leaves of Head Lettuce with Water Cress and Celery, Slices of
Onions, Green Pepper Rings, and thinly sliced fresh Winter
Cucumbers, and Radish Roses.
Tart French Dressing.
`ibi~h' ~-R~F 40
Florida Dessert Salad
Lettuce leaves with Water Cress.
Whole Preserved Figs, drained and stuffed with Cream or
Note: Fresh Florida Sugar Figs should be used when in season.
Fruited Pineapple Halves
Escarole with Water Cress garnished with Hillsborough
Halved Pineapple with top on.
Pineapple Tidbits, Celery, Tangerine Cubes, Peach Slices,
Strawberry Halves and Native Blackberries, garnished with
French with Fruit Juice or Fruit Cream Dressing.
Florida Citrus Appetizer
Orange Juice-Fresh, Frozen or Canned
Florida Citrus Ensemble
Iced Grapefruit half
Preserved Minted Orange
Guava Shells Florida Pears Marmalade
Papaya Preserved Canned
Cubes Calamondins Loquats
(All color photograph arrangements by BARBARA CLENDINEN, TAMPA)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
3 teaspoonfuls of tea Cloves
2 cupfuls of boiling water Loaf sugar
1 lime Sprigs of mint
Make the tea in teapot or with tea ball; let stand for several minutes;
then serve, placing in each cup a slice of lime pierced with a clove. Add a
cherry and serve sugar separately in such quantities as may be desired.
To keep limes for several weeks: Select clean, sound fruit, picked with
stem buttons on. Place in air tight fruit jars. Lime juice extracted, strain
after it settles, may be filled into jars, corked and kept for several months.
(For cold drinks, ice cream, sauce, etc.)
1/2 cupful of water 2 dozen ripe limes
1 pound of cube sugar
Wash the limes thoroughly in cold water and dry. Rub the sugar
vigorously all over the lime until it loses its color. Squeeze the juice on the
sugar, add water; then bring almost to a boil and strain. For cold drinks,
place 2 tablespoonfuls of the syrup in a tumbler with crushed ice and fill
with plain water.
LIME WITH FISH
Squeeze juice of two limes over fish when ready to bake. Add more lime
juice while fish are baking, if desired. Garnish with parsley and slice of
lime. Serve fish with sauce.
Ripe tomatoes (red) should be slightly heated and pressed to obtain
pulp with juice. A dilver or sieve may be used for home use with cold
tomatoes. The juice loses its attractiveness without the pulp.
FRUIT PUNCH FOR A CROWD
2 quarts sugar 1 quart grape juice
1 quart water 1 quart of pineapple (grated)
2 quarts tea, weak Ice water
1 quart lemon juice 1 cup strawberry slices
1 quart orange juice 2 cups fancy orange slices
Make syrup of sugar and 1 quart water. Make tea infusion by pouring
2 quarts (8 cups) boiling water over 5 tablespoons tea. Cool. Combine
syrup, tea, fruit juices and water. Add strawberry slices and orange slices,
which may be cut in fancy shapes or simply halved or quartered.
Punch may be strained before adding strawberry and orange slices,
but this will lessen quantity made. Less water may be used and punch
poured over block of ice in punch bowl. When strawberries are out of
season, the strawberry slices may be replaced by another cup of orange
slices. Recipe may be halved or quartered to serve a smaller group.
1 egg yolk 4 cup thin cream
3 cup orange juice Sugar if desired
Beat egg yolk until light, add orange juice and blend thoroughly. Pour
into glass and stir in cream. Sweeten to taste. Serve at once.
FRUIT JUICE PUNCH
Sweeten milk with sugar and add two tablespoonfuls or more of any of
the fruit juices-lime, grape, loganberry, pineapple, grapefruit. Beat well
before serving, and add a beaten egg white and a dash of nutmeg or cin-
namon, or a dab of whipped cream for each glass.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Juice of 1 to 2 lemons
1 pint milk
Beat juice of lemons and milk together with a whirl type beater or put
in a glass jar and shake well. Serve immediately.
This is a substitute for buttermilk and makes a healthful drink tolerated
by weak digestions. It must be mixed each time served, as curd and whey
of milk will separate if allowed to stand. More or less lemon juice may be
added, depending upon sourness desired for drink.
6 tablespoons milk 2 tablespoons sugar
12 cup cold water 2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 egg Grated nutmeg
Combine milk, water, egg and sugar. Beat thoroughly, pour in lemon
juice and mix vigorously. Serve in a large glass topped with a grating of
ORANGE CREAM PUNCH
To two cupfuls of whole milk and two cupfuls of thin cream add two
teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, one cupful of orange juice and sugar to taste.
Fold in the beaten whites of four eggs and serve at once. This is best if
served very cold, provided the children are willing to sip it slowly. Any
fruit juice may be substituted for the orange juice, but the lemon juice is
usually required to bring cut the flavor.
2. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES HOURS D'OEUVRES
Orange sections rolled in toasted cocoanut.
Orange sections spread apart like a flower and center with fruit, may-
onnaise and nuts.
Berries and small pear halves. Roll in chopped mint.
Pineapple sections. Roll in crushed nuts.
Banana sections. Marinate in lemon or lime or sour orange juice. Roll
Lemon baskets: Fill with salted pecans and candied kumquats.
Papaya marinated with lime juice. Serve in slices.
Curled celery. Radish roses. Small yellow or red tomatoes stuffed with
celery and snappy cheese.
A. Preparation of Fruits and Vegetables for Salads
1. Select tender greens in the early morning. Cut off roots, remove
2. Keep them in a cool place in a closed vessel or closely wrapped in
paper or a paper bag. Sprinkle the lettuce head lightly and place in a paper
3. Wash leaves thoroughly in two or three waters. Watercress and
lettuce need careful attention. Green insects often infest them. Lift the
leaves out of one water into the other.
4. Crisp the greens in very cold water for hour or less. Acid (vinegar
or lemon) added to the water for crisping destroys insects. Salt wilts
5. Drain, spread on a towel or place in a covered dish and set in a cool
place until serving time. Shake dry.
6. Cut out the stem end or core of head lettuce, about one inch, and
let cold water run into the opening. Turn the head right side up to drain.
The leaves will separate readily and be crisp and dry for serving.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 51
7. To make a nest of lettuce,
use leaves of different sizes, be-
binning with larger leaves and fit-
Sting into them one or two smaller
'\ leaves, keeping the leaves cupped
-, and the stem ends together.
f- :- t 8. To shred leaves roll them
into a firm roll. Shred with a silver
or stainless steel knife or with
scissors. Shredding should be done
just before combining.
9. Shred cabbage fine with a
S1 long, thin knife. Crisp in cold
7 10. To keep parsley, sprinkle
it with cold water, put it in a tight
r f fruit jar, and keep it in a cool
11. Combine a "green" salad
with dressing just before serving.
/ I Oranges or Grapefruit
/ 1. To section oranges or grape-
/'i ^ ": fruit, cut a thick layer off the top
J^--o I+ and then cut off sections of peel
,. .from the sides, cutting deep
,^ enough to remove all white mem-
: :. brane and to leave the fruit ex-
\ posed. With a sharp knife cut out
each section separately.
Water Cress 2. To peel grapefruit, let it
stand in hot water 5 to 10 minutes,
and then cool.
1. To peel tomatoes:
a. Draw over the surface of each tomato the edge of a knife. Peel.
b. Place tomatoes in a colander. Dip them in boiling water. Cool.
2. In cutting tomatoes, section them into quarters, sixths or eighths,
cutting not quite through, or slice in generous thick slices.
1. Wash with a stiff brush.
2. To curl celery, cut stalks in 3- or 4-inch lengths. Feather the ends
and place in acid water (2 tablespoonfuls vinegar or lemon to 1 cup water)
for 20 minutes.
Grind young carrots with finest cutter of the grinder or grate.
Leaving one inch of stem, peel half way down to stem and leave radishes
in very cold water to crisp. Drain.
Peel under water and from the root upward.
To break or crush, place nuts in a paper bag and roll with rolling pin.
Add nuts last before serving the salad.
To whip cream, use Dover egg beater in deep bowl. Make wrapping
paper cover by slashing and slipping over egg beater handle to fit bowl.
Be sure cream and bowl are well chilled.
To whip evaporated cream, place can in cold water. Bring to a boil and
boil for a few minutes. Cool quickly or place in the refrigerator to get
very cold. Whip in small quantities.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
B. Salad Dressings
1. All salads are grouped under four main needs. Others are variations:
(Cream may be added.)
(Cream may be added.)
2. Remove spoon or fork from salad dressing. Use an enamel or bright
aluminum pan for cooking.
3. Use all of eggs instead of two yolks if desired.
4. Lemon juice may be replaced by the juice of the calamondin, sour
orange or lime, and any one of these juices with a little salt (and possibly
a little sugar) may be used alone as a dressing for Florida salads.
(Makes 21/4 cups)
2 tablespoons sour orange or /2 teaspoon salt
lemon juice 2 cups salad oil
1 egg yolk
Stir egg yolk, salt and 1 tablespoon lemon juice until well mixed. Beat
in oil, slowly at first until 1/4 cup is added, using a whirl type beater. Then
add oil more rapidly. When dressing becomes thick, add remaining lemon
juice and proceed with remainder of oil.
For sharper, thinner dressing, add 2 extra tablespoons lemon juice just
(Makes about 1 1/3 cups)
To 1 cup mayonnaise add 1/3 cup whipped cream and 3/% tablespoon
lemon juice. This is an excellent fruit salad dressing.
To 1 cup of mayonnaise add 3 tablespoons finely chopped pickles and
1 tablespoon chopped parsley.
Add (instead of sugar) a small amount of tupelo, palmetto or orange
THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING
To one cup of mayonnaise add:
2 tablespoons chopped pepper 1/2 cup Chili sauce
or pimento /2 cup chopped celery
2 tablespoons chopped or scraped
Add whipped cream or beaten egg whites (if desired).
Chopped red or green pimento, avocado pulp, tomato catsup or paste,
little red jelly, a hard cooked egg yolk, or beet juice may be added to give
Use a tightly closed jar for mixing large amounts. Keep in refrigerate
until ready to use.
(Makes about /2 cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice 1/4 teaspoon paprika
6 tablespoons salad oil 1/4 teaspoon salt
Stir or shake thoroughly before serving.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 53
FRENCH HONEY DRESSING
To French dressing add 2 tablespoons strained honey. Serve on fruit
FRENCH FRUIT DRESSING
(Makes about 1/2 cup)
3 tablespoons lemon juice /4 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons orange juice /2 teaspoon sugar or honey
4 tablespoons oil Mix all ingredients thoroughly
To French dressing add gradually 2 tablespoons of some cheese of
piquant flavor as Roquefort or snappy cheese which has been rubbed to a
cream. Blend until smooth.
OTHER VARIATIONS FOR PLAIN FRENCH DRESSING
1. Add /2 tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 teaspoon pimento.
2. Use calamondin juice instead of lemon.
3. Add 1 teaspoon mustard, 1/2 teaspoon onion juice, 1 tablespoon
4. Add chopped onion, bell pepper, celery, (Parisian).
5. Add 2 tablespoons Surinam, roselle or carissa jelly.
6. Add 2 tablespoons horseradish (grated).
7. Add 2 tablespoons peanut butter before shaking.
8. Add one grated egg yolk.
1 cup thick cream, sweet or sour 1 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons lemon juice 4 teaspoon paprika
1 to 2 tablespoons sugar
1. Beat the cream with an egg beater until smooth, thick and light.
2. Mix the other ingredients together and gradually add the cream,
beating all the while.
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING NO. 1
Two whole eggs, juice of 11/2 lemons, 1/2 cup honey or thick syrup from
spiced peaches or pears; or 1/2 cup fruit juice sweetened or thin syrup from
Cook until sirup is thick and fruit is clear. Three slices of canned pine-
1. Beat the egg slightly, combine with honey and lemon juice, and add
paprika and salt. Cook in a double boiler until thick.
2. Cool and fold in 1 cup whipped cream (sweet or sour) or less thin
FRENCH SALAD DRESSING NO. 2
2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg or two yolks
2 tablespoons lemon juice Whipped cream
Beat the eggs. Add the sugar and lemon juice.
Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens.
Cool. Add the whipped cream.
(Makes 1/4 cups)
2 eggs 1/4 teaspoon paprika
4 tablespoons flour 1 /4 cups cold water or milk
2 tablespoon sugar 1/3 cup lemon juice
1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon butter
Beat the eggs slightly. Stir in all dry ingredients. Add water. Cook in
saucepan 'til thickened, stirring constantly. Add butter and lemon juice.
This is a salad dressing without oil and is liked especially by children.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
C. Salad Combinations
1. Vegetable Salads
Various combinations may be made of cooked and raw vegetables bu
the real vegetable salad serves to add fresh uncooked food in its natural
Radishes, pepper, onion, tomato, cucumber on lettuce or greens.
2. Tomatoes with celery and pepper.
Chopped cabbage with green peppers and peanuts, cream dressing
or a mayonnaise with cream added.
Sliced, firm, crisp pear or apple adds to the flavor.
4. Cabbage, pineapple and pecans.
5. Cabbage, carrot, celery and peanuts. Omit celery and use fig pre-
serves if desired. French dressing; or to the dressing add peanut butter.
6. Tomato-top with sour cream dressing sprinkled with parsley.
Garnish with strips of green pepper.
7. Any salad green, young and tender, combines with a dressing made
of hot bacon fat, lemon juice and grated hard cooked egg.
2. Fruit Salads
1. Grapefruit, celery, red or green sweet pepper, French dressing.
2. Grapefruit, celery, pecans or crushed peanuts, French dressing.
3. Grapefruit sections arranged overlapping in a circle on lettuce. Use
French dressing or Persian dressing.
4. Grapefruit or pineapple, 1 cup orange cubes, 1/3 cup crystallized
citrus fruit, 3 tablespoons pecans, fruit salad dressing.
5. Grapefruit (one), oranges (two), lettuce, avocado (cubes), alternate
sections of oranges or grapefruit, in circle on lettuce. Place avocado cubes
in center. French dressing.
6. Orange sections arranged in circle on lettuce. Strawberries heaped
in center. Fruit or cream dressing.
7. Orange cubes heaped into and around a guava cup. Top with
strawberries or Surinam cherries. Fruit dressing.
8. Sliced orange with crystallized or fresh fig, pecan nuts.
9. Orange sections circle around a mold of carissa or Surinam cherry
jelly garnished with sprig of mint.
10. Orange and pineapple cubes with strawberries. French dressing.
11. Orange sections rolled in cocoanut arranged on green leaves. Gar-
nish with Surinam cherries or with preserved or crystallized carissa.
12. Orange sections cut in pieces. Florida Amalga grapes (seeded),
crushed peanuts or pecans.
13. Grapefruit, orange, tangerine sections with occasional cubes of
pineapple or Florida banana with a sprinkle of lemon juice.
14. Satsuma section with preserved figs, pecans, pomegranate juice.
Avocado and tomato or tomato jelly with nuts.
15. Avocado, celery and grapefruit.
16. Guava cups stuffed with strawberries or with congealed guava pulp
and pecans. Use cream dressing (sweetened). (Marinate cup with lemon
to prevent darkening.)
17. Guava, celery, cheese with fruit dressing.
18. Guava, pineapple, pecans, crystallized fig.
19. Mango (non-fibrous type, such as Haden) with juice of lemon, lime,
passion fruit, or sour-sop.
20. Tangerine lobes, ground pecans served with fruit dressing.
21. Banana marinated in lemon or sour orange juice, crushed peanuts,
ripe strawberries, fruit dressing.
22. Halves of peach, pear or guava, center filled with cheese, topped
with carissa or Surinam cherry.
23. Carissa (halves), slices of crystallized kumquat rolled in cocoanut.
24. Pineapple, celery, nuts.
25. Sliced pineapple filled and heaped with strawberries. Cream
26. Pineapple, seeded grapes, loquats or carissas (halved) with or
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
SPECIAL GARNISHES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
1. Green or red peppers, strips or small pieces.
2. Surinam cherry, carissa plum, any number of crystallized citrus
fruits (kumquats being especially appropriate).
3. Natural color jellies of carissa, roselle, Surinam cherry, tamarind,
May haw, fall haw, guava, wild grape and many other Florida fruits.
SETTINGS FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Curled celery, endive, Romaine, curly lettuce, spinach, beet greens,
"tender greens," kale, young mustard, water cress, mint, parsley, lemon,
kumquat, fresh tender cucumber strips or rings, mild-flavored onions,
nasturtiums, pineapple shells, orange or other citrus cups furnish a won-
"i, ^"'.*. _
Romaine-White Paris Cos Lettuce
erful variety of salad "settings." Numerous tropical, sub-tropical, and
ardier fruits furnish acid and sub-acid juices for marinating or for
dding the last dash to a salad that makes it "different." Florida colors
n fruits-red, yellow, orange, green, with all the intervening shades, make
for a strong appeal to the esthetic sense.
SPECIAL MARINADES FOR FLORIDA SALADS
Orange, lemon, lime, calamondin, sour orange juices make excellent
arinades. Two parts juice to one part oil with salt to taste is the usual
measure. Some fruits call for juice only. Chopped mint, parsley, pimento
trips or paprika add color. Fruit juice as a marinade adds not only a
flavor but food value.
D. Special Salads-Florida
Tomato With Avocado Dressing
Fresh tomato peeled and cored, and stuffed with celery. Use avocado
dressing made by mashing smoothly avocado pulp into lemon or lime
uice and adding a little salt. Pour over tomato. Serve on lettuce.
Avocado With Tomato Dressing
Half fresh avocado, peeled and seeded. Peel and mash fresh tomato
nd run through potato ricer. Season with a suggestion of tabasco. Fill
navity with dressing.
56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Peel and remove the seeds of litchi and stuff with a half of a Florida
pecan. Serve with mayonnaise on lettuce.
Fruit Salad in Orange Cups
Three large oranges, 2 slices pineapple, diced, 12 marshmallows, quar-
tered, 1/3 cup broken nut meats, 2/3 cup strawberries, halved, lettuce.
Cut oranges into two, remove pulp carefully, leaving shells clean. Mix
pineapple, marshmallows, nuts and strawberries with orange pulp. Fill
orange cups, cover with cream mayonnaise and garnish with nuts. Serve
Combine grapefruit pulp with Florida grapes, stuffed with pecans;
squeeze orange juice over the mixture and serve in half grapefruit hull
on bed of endive. Top salad with mayonnaise (with cream).
Endive With Bacon Dressing, or Wilted Salad
Endive (or other greens) shredded. Serve with a dressing of hot bacon
or fat, lemon juice and grated egg. Garnish with crisp strips of bacon.
Shredded green peppers may be added.
Grated fresh cocoanut on hearts of lettuce served with hot French
Shred and chill 1/2 small head cabbage and one white onion. Mix with
half that amount of chopped celery. Dust on a little paprika. Dress with
a French dressing, dashed with Worcestershire sauce. Serve in a nest of
endive. Top with cubes or small slices of tomato.
Mammee Sapote Salad
Cut in half, remove seed. Add a lemon, French dressing or lemon juice,
adding a few drops from a sour-sop. Serve on lettuce.
Shred a fresh sweet pineapple. Combine with seeded grapes and place
on a nest of lettuce. Dress with mayonnaise (with cream) and top with
halves of carissas.
Ponce de Leon Salad
Scoop out a little of the top heart of a Florida artichoke. Fill with a
French dressing combined with chopped pimento, parsley, finely minced
celery, and the mashed pulp of artichokes. Serve with a thin cheese sand-
wich or wafer as a course of a luncheon.
Banana and Strawberry
Make a banana boat. Combine pulp with halved strawberries and fill
the boat. Use a slightly sweetened lemon dressing. Serve the banana on
strawberry leaves. Serve with toasted cheese crackers and Russian tea
as a luncheon.
Split kumquats in half lengthwise. Add seeded carissas in halves. Place
a little lemon jelly in cups, fill nearly full with fruit and cover with jelly
just as it begins to congeal. Set in refrigerator over night. Serve on lettuce
with a cream mayonnaise mixed with crushed pecans.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 57
Slice loquats and kumquats thin. Add seeded grapes and toasted grated
cocoanut. Serve on lettuce with mayonnaise.
Combine orange cubes, grated fresh cocoanut, cubed pineapple. Serve
with a sweetened fruit dressing.
Marinate guava cups in lemon juice. Fill with grated cocoanut and
orange. Serve with cream mayonnaise in a lettuce nest.
Fill a small half of avocado with a clear tomato jelly. Drop in a few
pieces of green pepper when the tomato begins to jell. Curl lettuce leaf
around each end of pear just before serving.
Cut fruit in half. Sprinkle with lemon or lime juice. Serve on lettuce,
water cress, or other green or garnish with mint.
Florida Banana Salad
Sprinkle the fruit with lemon or lime juice. Roll in crushed peanuts.
Serve on lettuce. Garnish with strawberries (with stems).
Fruit Salad Mold
Cube one grapefruit, two oranges, and one pineapple. Add four sliced
kumquats and V2 cup seeded Surinam cherries. When the mold begins to
set add fruit and allow to become firm. Serve in slices on lettuce with
mayonnaise (with cream). If cherries are not available use grapes.
Fill halves of satsumas with orange meat, mold with shredded pine-
apple and crushed pecans. Serve on lettuce with a small crystallized fig
on each side.
Cut off two inches of fruit to make a cup; mix the pulp with sliced
strawberries and pecans and fill the cups. Use fruit dressing. Top with a
2 slices pineapple French dressing
1 pineapple orange with peel Cream cheese
1 head romaine
Lay half slices pineapple and orange alternately on romaine. Garnish
with ball of cream cheese. Serve with French dressing.
Slice pineapple 3 pecans
Slice orange Crystallized ginger
3 figs (preserved) Cream mayonnaise
Place a slice of orange (with peel) on romaine and on top place a ring
of green pimento. Cut figs at blossom end and press out syrup. Stuff with
crystallized ginger, nuts and small pieces of orange. Place figs in pepper
ring. Garnish with mayonnaise, top with pecan half or pepper chip. On
each of four sides place orange slices quartered.
53 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
1 envelope gelatine (2 table- 1 cup pineapple cubes
spoons) 1/2 cup sugar
'2 cup cold water 1 pimento chopped fine
1 cup mild vinegar 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup boiling water 1 cup finely shredded cabbage
Juice of 1 lemon
1 cup celery (cut in small pieces)
1. Add vinegar, lemon juice, sugar and salt to gelatine soaked in cold
water, and dissolve in boiling water and cool.
2. Strain and when the mixture begins to set, add remaining ingred-
ients. Turn into a mold and chill.
3. Serve on lettuce leaves with salad dressing.
E. The Fruit and Vegetables Salad in the Menu
1. The dressing is related to the salad. Use a combination dressing
with plain salad; use a plain dressing with a combined salad. Use fruit
salad dressing with fruit salads.
2. If the meal is heavy use a simple acid salad.
3. Cheese combines well with fruit or vegetables for a main dish salad.
4. Avoid repeating the main ingredients of a salad in the meal.
5. Get the habit of making the fruit or raw vegetable salad the im-
6. Remember that the salad is to be fresh, raw, chilled or crisp and
attractive. Make it a habit.
4. COOKED PRODUCTS
A. Preserving the "Preventive and Protective" Value
The common American diet has been found to contain the fol-
1. Abundance of starch, sugar and fat.
2. Adequate protein, if selected properly.
3. A possible lack of vitamins, minerals and roughage.
Since the factors lacking are easily and surely supplied by
vegetables, fruits and milk, it seems best to concentrate on these three
groups of food in any plan of nutrition. For this reason, too, it is
particularly important that we know how to preserve the minerals,
roughage and vitamins in the fruits, vegetables and milk while pre-
paring them for the family table. If we ate all of these sun-grown,
soil-fed products in sufficient quantity in the fresh, natural state and
without cooking, there would be no nutrition problem. That, however,
would not be recommended by the most enthusiastic nutritionists.
The appetite would probably not call for the quantity needed. Cooking
is therefore a necessary process of preparation.
Since Florida's fruit and vegetables may be produced in abundance
year in and year out in the sunshine and soil of the out-of-doors, the
remaining problem is the conservation of the food value in the fruits
and vegetables. Losses in the various kinds of storage and transporta-
tion are important from a nutritional viewpoint but the problem to be
discussed here is that of the conservation in cooking. Food conserva-
tion is an ancient subject of interest but food value conservation
belongs to the modern time.
During the past "to cook it done" has been the idea. "Water or no
water," "top on or top off" has not been in the thinking. The flavor
or taste has been added in the "seasoning." Texture has been simply
sacrificed. Then roughage began to count; vitamins (water soluble)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 59
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
became prominent; minerals were recognized as important and they
too were being stolen away by the water. Then the cooking of fruits
and vegetables became a scientific process and not just a disagreeable
Fresh fruit in the cooking is affected largely, as are vegetables,
as to the minerals, vitamins, and roughage. Therefore the discussion
at this point is limited to vegetables.
EFFECT OF HEAT ON VEGETABLES-COLOR
Children and grown-ups eat because they "like it," not because
they should; because "it's good," not because "it's good for you."
Attractiveness in preparation usually creates the demand. With vege-
tables, one of the main points of attractiveness is natural color. What
is color? How is it lost? How can we retain it?
There are four color pigments in vegetables which give the natural
vegetable coloring. These substances change with the action of heat,
acid, and alkalis and thus change the color of the products. It is
interesting to know about them.
Green (Chlorophyll) -Green vegetables, such as spinach, chard,
string beans (green), green cabbage, turnip greens, carry this coloring
matter or pigment which is slightly soluble in water as is shown in the
cooking. Heat turns this pigment brown when there is acid present.
All vegetables contain at least a trace of acid, but this acid will dis-
appear in steam if the cover is left off the cooking vessel, and nearly
all of it will go during the first fifteen minutes. If a steamer is being
used the color may be improved by letting the steam escape at the end
of fifteen minutes. An open kettle cooking retains better color. An
alkali has the opposite effect on the "green" from that produced by
the acid. A small pinch of soda has a tendency to destroy part of the
vitamins and break down the fiber to a state of mush. Avoid soda.
For palatability and attractiveness, then, cook "greens" by the open
kettle quick method. Spinach cooks quickly, and does not lose its color.
Steaming does not therefore detract.
Red (Anthocyanins) -Beets and red cabbage contain red pigment.
It is very soluble in water. Alkali turns the red vegetables brown;
acid turns them redder. A teaspoon of vinegar to a pint of water helps
to retain color in cooking beets or red cabbage.
Colorless (Flavone)-Onions, turnips, celery and white cabbage
have this pigment which is colorless until heated in the presence of
alkali. Then it turns yellow. Overcooking has the same effect in onions
and in cabbage.
Yellow (Carotinoid) -Carrots, squash, pumpkin and rutabaga
carry this pigment, which is only slightly soluble in water and is not
affected by acid or alkali. Because it is stable we need not, from the
point of color, consider the cooking.
Cooking softens the fiber, breaking down the natural texture. The
problem is to make the product tender yet as natural as possible in
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
texture. Spinach and okra and many other vegetables are much dis-
liked when overcooked. Select them tender and cook them quickly is the
best plan. Again avoid the habit of adding soda to make them tender.
To improve the flavor, to "season," is sometimes given as a reason
for cooking vegetables instead of serving them raw. Really uncooked
vegetables (mild flavored ones) are more palatable than cooked ones
and the problem is to retain the natural flavor. A few of the "strong
juice" vegetables are improved with cooking, but over-cooking, even
of onions and cabbage, ruins the flavor and (in case of the latter) the
digestibility. To preserve flavor, cook vegetables in the skin, whole,
and quickly and serve at once. Potato (sweet or white), squash,
pumpkin, apple, beans and other products are better when baked.
We study tables of food value of vegetables and plan our meals.
We cook the vegetables one way or another and continue to figure the
food value the same. There is a big difference between cooked and un-
cooked vegetables from the viewpoint of minerals and vitamins. Ex-
periments have shown that possibly from 40 to 50 per cent of the
minerals and as great proportion of some vitamins dissolve into the
water or are lost in cooking. Some of the minerals, at least, are in the
water and should not be thrown away. Extensive experiments on many
kinds of vegetables have shown that particularly cabbage, onions, and
celery lose more in minerals than do other vegetables. For this reason
it is a wise plan to eat raw cabbage and celery. Steamed vegetables
lose less calcium than do boiled vegetables. However, greens and spinach
do not lose their minerals so easily in cooking as do some others.
Phosphorus, in onions, rutabagas, and leafy vegetables, "leaks out"
in cooking. Parsnips, cauliflower, and potatoes are valuable in phos-
phorus. Don't lose it. Bake the potatoes in their skins.
Beet greens, turnip greens and cabbage rank high in iron. The
iron leaks easily, the exposed surface being great. Save the water.
Vitamins B and C are soluble in water. By saving the water we have
B but C seems to be lost in the process. It seems probable that cabbage
and tomatoes do not lose their C to any great extent in quick cooking.
At the usual temperature there is probably only a slight loss of vita-
mins A and D. Vitamin E seems to be remarkably stable. Vitamin C
abounds in citrus and tomatoes. They need no cooking.
THE EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF COOKING
I. Baking a vegetable in the skin preserves the food value in
minerals and vitamins A and B.
1. Vegetables with high enough water content and small ex-
posed surfaces, bake well. Beets, carrots, onions, parsnips,
potatoes (Irish or sweet), squash, pumpkin, turnips, are good
2. Baking requires extra time and fuel.
II. Steaming is the next best method of saving food value.
1. Beets, carrots, parsnips, potato, squash and pumpkin
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. Green vegetables may be steamed but are not so attractive
in color as are the open cooked "greens."
3. Steaming is more economical than baking as several
vegetables may be steamed at once.
III. Steam Pressure comes third in taking care of food value.
1. Vegetables which require long time cooking are used in
IV. Boiling in the Skin is rated as the fourth in methods.
1. If vegetables must be peeled, boil whole.
2. If vegetables must be cut, cut lengthwise, not crosswise,
to save food value. Boiling in a large amount of water loses
more minerals and vitamins than boiling in small amount.
Vegetables retain flavor, texture, and food value when put on
in boiling water rather than cold. Again, practically all of the
mineral lost may be found in the cooking water, so do not feed
"Waterless Cooking" is comparatively new. The cooker is usually
heavy aluminum, a good heat distributor. The bottom is very thick
and prevents burning. The cooker may be set on the back part of the
range or on a gas or oil flame. The cover fits tightly. Heat should be
regulated to prevent steam escape. The cover is not removed during
cooking since the method is to cook the vegetables in their own juices.
Florida's Fresh Vegetables for Soup
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Of course, strong vegetables like cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauli-
flower, turnips and onions are better when they lose some of their
flavor in cooking. Green vegetables become brown due to certain acids
which cannot escape in a tightly closed vessel. Vegetables like potatoes
(sweet and Irish) and squash and such other vegetables are as suitable
for baking are suitable for waterless cooking.
SELECTION OF VEGETABLES
1. Select usually the medium sized vegetables. Many Florida
products, however, grow very quickly to a size above the average and
retain their fresh tender texture and food value.
2. Select for firmness, crispness, and weight for size.
PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES FOR COOKING
1. Remove insects (if necessary) by placing the vegetable (upside
down if headed) in water to which salt or vinegar has been added.
2. Wash vegetables thoroughly, using a brush. Scrape, peel, or
shell after cleaning if necessary. Remember that vegetables cut cross-
wise lose more nutrients in cooking than vegetables cut lengthwise.
3. If it is necessary to prepare mild vegetables some time before
cooking, add water to cover. When ready to cook, remove vegetables,
bring water in which they have been covered to a boil and replace
vegetables in this same water. Vegetables cut up and covered keep
nicely in a hydrator in the refrigerator. A pan with a perforated lid
serves as a substitute.
Select the method best suited to the vegetable to be cooked taking
into consideration whether texture, color, flavor summed up in attrac-
tiveness is the main item (and it sometimes is) or whether minerals
and vitamins are in this particular case of more importance. Some-
times it is best to coax the appetite or desire for the cooked food and
to supply the minerals and vitamins in fresh uncooked foods such as
milk and fresh fruits and vegetables or their juices. Use common sense
and a knowledge of the food habits of the family.
1. In boiling, put all vegetables into quickly boiling water which
has been boiling long enough to drive out the air. Bring the water to
a boil again as quickly as possible.
2. Start the cooking with the lid partially or entirely removed.
Shove the lid off for the first three minutes of boiling of strongly
flavored or of green or yellow vegetables. This gives acids and gases
time to escape and leaves better flavor, color and desirability.
3. Add one teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. Add salt early in
the cooking to increase color (except in red or white vegetables).
4. Use only enough water to cover mildly flavored vegetables. Let
the water cook down. Do not drain. This process applies to peas, celery,
string beans, lima beans.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
5. Vegetables of stronger flavor (onions, cabbage, Brussels
sprouts, cauliflower, turnips) should boil rapidly in large amounts of
water with open top.
6. Cook vegetables until done-no longer. Over-cooking destroys
color, flavor, vitamins, digestibility, nutrients. Time depends upon age
and tenderness of vegetables. Remove from heat as soon as tender,
serve quickly with butter, with cream, with milk and butter, with white
sauce or with strips of browned bacon.
7. Add no soda in cooking vegetables. It destroys vitamins, flavor
8. To follow the waterless or heavy covered aluminum saucepan
method, proceed as follows:
a. Select mild flavored vegetables. Add no water, cover pan and
set it over low heat. If steam escapes, lower heat.
b. For "stronger" vegetables, add a small amount of boiling
water. Leave uncovered a few minutes. Cover. Use low heat.
9. To steam vegetables-
Select vegetables that are white, yellow or red in color (beets, wax
beans, squash, potato). Spinach and some very tender greens may be
steamed. For mild vegetables, choose an inset pan not perforated in
bottom and lower sides but so adjusted that the steam gets to the food.
For strong vegetables use a perforated pan or rack for self-drain-
ing. Allow the steam to escape some in the beginning. Place water in
the bottom of the steamer. If vegetables are steamed on a perforated
rack the water in the bottom will be good for soups and gravies.
10. To bake vegetables leave them in rather large pieces. Cut
lengthwise in quarters-carrots, parsnips, turnips. Leave onions whole.
Use a baking dish or pan. Salt, cover bottom of pan with boiling water.
Cover dish or pan tightly and place in oven. In case of strong vege-
tables, lift the lid during the first few minutes of cooking. Use heat
high enough to let the water boil-about 350 degrees. As vegetables
begin to get tender, remove the cover if a fairly dry product is desired.
To butter the products wait until almost all the water has evaporated.
Leave the lid off and turn the heat up slightly and continue the baking
until slightly brown if necessary.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
B. General Recipes-Vegetables
COMMON VEGETABLE DISHES
Au Gratin-Au gratin is a French term meaning covered with crumbs.
Prepare cooked vegetables as for scalloping but cover the top with buttered
crumbs before browning. Sprinkle cheese over the top if desired but cheese
is not essential to an au gratin dish.
Baked-Wash the vegetables and place on a pan or rack in a moderate
oven. Cook until tender. Most vegetables are baked whole but squash is
usually cut in pieces for serving before baked.
Boiled-Wash the vegetable and cook it in the skin, or pared, whole or
in pieces, in boiling water until just tender. The water should be boiling
when the vegetable is put in and should boil continuously but not very
rapidly in order not to break the vegetable. Serve with salt, pepper, and
butter, or prepare in other ways such as creamed, au gratin, croquettes,
Buttered-Heat the boiled or steamed vegetable in butter or pour melted
butter over the hot cooked vegetable.
Creamed-Combine the cooked vegetable whole or in pieces with white
sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetables to one cup of white
sauce. For moist vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, or onions, use medium
white sauce. For dry vegetables, like potatoes, use thin white sauce.
Cream Soups-Combine a mashed or strained cooked vegetable with
thin white sauce. The usual proportions are one cup of vegetables to two
cups of sauce.
Croquettes-Combine a mashed or finely diced cooked vegetable with
thick white sauce. Shape into individual servings of the desired form, roll
in crumbs, in beaten egg, and in crumbs again, and fry in deep fat.
Curried-Add curry powder to white sauce and prepare as for creamed
Scalloped (cooked)-Cut cooked vegetables or a combination of vege-
tables in slices or pieces, combine with white sauce as for creamed vege-
table, put into a buttered baking dish, and brown in the oven.
Scalloped (raw)-Put a layer of the sliced raw vegetable in the bottom
of a buttered baking dish, sprinkle with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot
with butter. Repeat the layers until the dish is full and pour over the top
just enough milk to be seen through the top layer. Bake in a moderate
oven until the vegetable is tender.
Wash and pare and cook one quart of artichokes in boiling salt water
until soft. Add 1/4 cup butter, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 teaspoons salt,
and a few grains cayenne. Cook 3 minutes and serve hot.
Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will snap. The end
of the stalk may be cut in pieces and cooked until tender and served as
creamed or scalloped asparagus or used as a puree in stock or cream soups.
To avoid overcooking the tips, after scraping off any tiny leaves, wash
the asparagus, cut it into equal lengths, discard the tough portions, tie
it in bunches with a soft string, and cook it standing upright in a deep
saucepan. The water should come about two-thirds of the way to the
tips, which should be cooked by the steam alone. Cook until tender but
not soft. As with most green vegetables, asparagus is better slightly under-
cooked than overcooked. Serve the asparagus in long or short pieces, on
buttered toast with melted butter or cream sauce.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 cups milk Salt and pepper
2 tablespoons butter 2 eggs, yolk
2 tablespoons flour 1 cup buttered bread crumbs
2 bunches (about 1 quart) of
Make a thin white sauce and add the cooked asparagus. Add the beaten
yolks and turn the mixture into buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered
crumbs and brown in a moderate oven (350-450 F.).
Buttered Crumbs-To each cup of ground crumbs, use 3 tablespoons of
butter or other fat. Melt the fat, add the crumbs, remove them from the
heat and mix them thoroughly until each crumb is covered with fat. This
mixture browns easily and gives a delicious flavor to a creamed dish.
1 cup asparagus puree 1 teaspoon salt
2 cups hot mashed potatoes V2 cup fine dry bread crumbs
Mix the asparagus, potato, salt and beaten egg thoroughly. On a well-
greased baking sheet, shape the mixture into small circular forms with a
hollow center. Brush the entire surface with melted butter, sprinkle with
bread crumbs and set in a hot oven (400-450 F.) until thoroughly heated
and golden brown. With a broad spatula or pancake turned lift the shells
into a hot platter. Fill them with diced cream chicken or mushrooms. Serve
Banana may be used in any number of dessert combinations with eggs,
milk, sugar and starch. It is best baked simply with the addition of lemon
or orange juice and a little salt. There is enough fat and also of sugar
without the use of more.
Cook young lima beans in BOILING salted water until tender, allowing
water to cook quite low. Moisten well with thin cream or butter, salt and
2 cups fresh corn 2 tablespoons butter
1 cup lima beans Salt, pepper
V2 cup milk
Boil beans until tender. Add corn and cook 10 minutes. Add milk,
butter, salt and pepper. Cook 3 minutes longer.
Creole Lima Beans
11/2 cups dried lima beans 1 small onion
2 tablespoons butter or other 1/2 tablespoons flour
cooking fat 1 teaspoon sugar
2 tablespoons chopped green %/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup canned or stewed tomato
Soak the beans overnight and cook until tender. Heat the butter and
cook the chopped pepper and onion in it for a few minutes. Add flour
and blend throughly. Add the tomato gradually and cook until thickened,
stirring constantly. Add seasoning, pour over the beans and cook 15
Lima Beans, French Style
1 cup dried lima beans teaspoon salt
1/2 cups milk 2 egg yolks
4 tablespoon butter
Soak the beans overnight and cook until almost done, using no more
water than the beans will absorb. Add milk, butter and salt, and finish
cooking. Just before serving stir in the beaten egg yolks and cook until
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Select tender beans. String well. Drop into boiling salted water and
cook until tender, being careful to see that the water evaporates as the
beans are done. Brown strips of bacon in a pan. Add bacon and drippings
to beans and allow them to cook a few minutes longer until well seasoned.
Succotash (String Beans)
Cook beans as for boiling and add in proportion of one cup of each
grated corn and stewed tomato and cook until well combined (about ten
Leave on the skin, end of the root, and 2 inches of the stem. Wash the
beets and boil them until they are tender. Take them from the boiling
water and drop into cold water. Slip off the skin, cut the beets in thin
slices or dice them. Heat them with salt, pepper and butter and serve at
VARIATION-To each pint of hot buttered beets add from 1 to 2
tablespoons of vinegar or lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of sugar, and 1 table-
spoon of minced green pepper.
Examine the leaves carefully, rejecting all bruised or dark portions.
Do not separate the roots from the leaves. Wash thoroughly in many
waters. Add only enough boiling water to keep the beets from burning,
and boil until tender, from 20 to 30 minutes. Drain off the water, cut off
the ends of the roots and peel the beets. Chop the greens slightly and
season with butter, salt and pepper.
Cook as for buttered beets. Mix 1/2 cup sugar and /2 tablespoon corn-
starch. Add 1/2 cup vinegar and let boil 5 minutes. Add beets and let stand
on back of range 30 minutes. Just before serving add 2 tablespoons butter.
Cook in boiling salted water about 20 minutes or until tender. Drain.
Add butter or cream.
Brussels Sprouts with Celery
Chop 1 quart sprouts as above. Chop celery, 11/2 cups and cook two
minutes in 3 tablespoons butter. Add 2 tablespoons flour and pour on
gradually 11/2 cups scalded milk. Bring to a boil. Add sprouts, season with
salt and pepper, and, as soon as heated, serve.
To preserve the attractive texture and flower of the broccoli, arrange
with "heads up" in a vessel. Steam in salted water for a few minutes with
the vessel open to preserve the green color. Cook until tender. Season with
butter or bacon fat or with a combination of butter and bacon.
Chop or shred cabbage and cook in uncovered vessel in boiling salted
water. Cabbage may be overcooked very easily. Remove as soon as tender.
Add butter or cream. Cabbage is of fine flavor when boiled in water in
which ham (especially a ham bone) has been boiled.
Cabbage being among the "strong" vegetables is cooked in a generous
amount of water and with the top open for at least fifteen minutes.
Season with ham or with butter, salt and pepper. Cook only until tender.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 cups mashed potatoes Celery Salt
1 medium-sized onion Cabbage leaves
1 green pepper or pimento Boiling water or stock
Salt and pepper Sage to taste
1 cup cold cooked meat, ground
Combine the vegetables, meat and seasonings, and shape the mixture
into small rolls. Roll each of these in a wilted cabbage leaf (wilted by
placing in boiling water for 5 minutes) and place them in a greased baking
dish. Add sufficient boiling water or stock to cover them about halfway.
Cover and bake in a moderate oven until the cabbage leaves are tender.
Use raw or cooked. This cabbage requires even less cooking than com-
mon cabbage. The inside leaves are better uncooked. (See Salads.)
Remove the green and imperfect leaves from the cauliflower and place
it top downward in a dish of cold salted water to draw out the dust and
other impurities. Leave whole or break into flowers, boil until tender in a
large amount of water and serve with salt, pepper and butter.
Cauliflower, French Style
1 cauliflower 4 tablespoons flour
2 quarts water %3 pound sorrel or endive
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons cream
5 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Boil the cauliflower for twenty minutes in the salt water. Cook the
finely chopped sorrel for ten minutes. Make a white sauce of the flour
and part of the butter and the juice of the vegetables.
Put the cauliflower through a sieve-return to the soup-add the white
sauce and, just before serving, add the well-mixed egg yolk and cream.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
1 large cauliflower 4 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour 3 tablespoons cream
1 cup milk 8 eggs
Cook the cauliflower until tender in boiling salt water, drain well; rub
through a sieve.
Make a cream sauce with the flour, butter, cream and milk. Mix with
the cauliflower and add the egg yolks and lastly fold in the stiffly beaten
whites. Put in a buttered mold, set in water-cook covered for at least 1
hour. Ten minutes before serving, remove the cover and brown. Turn it
out of the mold and serve with tomato sauce. (French Selected.)
Cauliflower Au Gratin
1 medium-sized cauliflower Salt and paprika
11/2 cups thin white sauce Buttered crumbs
2/3 cup cheese
When the white sauce is smooth, add the cheese, the salt and the
paprika, and pour the sauce over the cooked cauliflower. Turn the mixture
into a buttered baking dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Brown in a
moderate oven (350O-400 F.) from 15 to 20 minutes.
Cauliflower with Cheese Sauce
1 medium-sized cauliflower 4 tablespoons grated cheese
11/2 cups thin white sauce Salt and paprika
Add the cheese to the smooth white sauce and pour it over the cooked
cauliflower just before serving.
Select small bulbs having crisp new leaves. Cut leaves and bulbs in
small pieces. Boil the bulb in salted water for 15 minutes, then add leaves
and cook an additional 30 minutes. Slice the bulb, arrange the green
around the edge of the dish and place the slices in the center. Season
with melted butter.
Cook rape according to other tender greens by the open kettle boiling
method. Cook quickly.
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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Wash and scrape young carrots. Boil or steam until tender. Add butter,
pepper, salt to taste. Add cream sauce if desired or use only butter.
Carrots may be boiled with meat. They may be used whole for garnish,
around the meat platter.
1 pint milk 1 tablespoon onion juice
1 cup cooked carrot, pressed 1 tablespoon minced parsley,
through a strainer celery or celery salt
2 tablespoons butter
Heat the milk, combine the other ingredients, heat them, and add them
to the heated milk.
4 carrots 1 cup cooked rice
1/3 cup ground boiled ham 1 tablespoon butter
/4 teaspoon celery salt Buttered bread crumbs
Scrub the carrots and cook them until tender. Remove the skins, cut
off the root end, and split the carrots in half lengthwise. Combine the
other ingredients and mix thoroughly. Pile the stuffing on the carrot
halves, sprinkle with the buttered crumbs, and brown in a moderate oven.
1 cup carrots, boiled and mashed 2 eggs
1 tablespoon minced onion Salt and paprika
1 cup medium white sauce
Add the carrot, the onion and the seasoning to the white sauce, then
add the beaten egg yolks. Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff.
Fold them lightly into the first mixture, and turn this into a buttered
baking dish. Set the dish in a pan of hot water and bake the souffle in a
moderate oven (3500-4000 F.) for 30 minutes. Serve it at once.
Carrots and Peas
Boil whole. Cut in cubes. Combine with equal quantity of cooked green
peas. Season with butter or light cream, salt and pepper.
2 cups carrots cut into thin strips 2 tablespoons butter
2 teaspoons chopped onion 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Salt and pepper
Boil carrots ten minutes and drain. Melt butter, add onion and cook
five .minutes. Then add carrots and salt and pepper to season. Stir gently
until well blended. Pile in hot dish and sprinkle with parsley.
Creamed Carrots with Peanut Butter
6 carrots 1 tablespoon peanut butter
1 cup white sauce (medium)
Dice the carrots and cook until soft. Make white sauce, adding to it
the peanut butter. Pour over the carrots and serve hot.
1 quart carrots, ground 1 pint vinegar
1 cup celery, chopped fine /2 cup sugar
1 large red or green pepper, 2 teaspoons salt
chopped '/2 teaspoon paprika
1 medium sized onion, chopped
Cook carrot until tender. Chop celery and other ingredients very fine.
Combine ingredients and cook until mixture is clear.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 71
RED PART YELLOW PART
2 pounds of sweet Spanish pimen- 1 pint of small carrots, sliced.
to or No. 1 cans of pimento Cook until tender.
1 pound of sugar 1/2 pint of gingered watermelon
Juice of 4 lemons rind
2 hot peppers
Red Part-Place sweet peppers in a hot oven, blister and peel. Chop
sweet and hot pepper together, add sugar and lemon juice, and let stand
in an enameled vessel or crock for 5 hours. Drain off the liquor and allow
it to simmer for tenminutes. Pour it over the peppers again and let stand
for 2 hours. Simmer the liquor again for fifteen minutes, allowing the
peppers to remain in while simmering.
Yellow Part-Use one pint of sliced carrots (cooked) and one-half pint
gingered watermelon rind chopped or cut into small uniform pieces.
Packing-A ten-ounce jar
is an attractive package for
this product. In packing, .
place the heavier color-red
-at the bottom in a one-
inch layer; then place a one-
inch layer of yellow. Con-
tinue in this manner until
the jar is nearly filled. Com-
bine the liquors and boil five
minutes, strain, and pour
over the contents. Paddle to
remove air bubbles. Cap,
clamp, and process for ten
6 carrots (medium size)
2/3 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup water __
2 tablespoons butter
Clean and cook whole
carrots in small amount of /
salt water. Make a sirup of
the brown sugar, water and
butter. Place cooked carrots
in sirup in a heavy frying
pan. Baste carrots until they
have a rich glaze. Serve with
Carrot and Apple Pie
1 cup grated carrots
1 cup diced tart apples
1 cup sugar
1/3 cup raisins
1 cup grated pineapple
1 tablespoon butter Chantenay Carrots
1/2 cup water
Nutmeg and vanilla
Cook carrot, apple, pineapple together. Make sirup of sugar and water.
Add raisins and cook until tender and plump. Combine all and cook the
mixture, with the exception of the butter and seasoning, until it is thick
and clear. Remove from heat. Beat in one egg, add butter and seasoning.
Turn it into a crust that has been baked, and cover it with meringue.
Bake it in a slow oven for 25 minutes..
Grated carrot Whipped cream
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
6 carrots, medium size 1 lemon, juice and grated rind
3 oranges Sugar
Dice the carrots and cook them until they are tender, in as little water
as possible. Cut the oranges and the lemon in small pieces. Measure the
carrot and fruit, and add 2/3 as much sugar. Simmer the mixture until
it is clear. Turn it into jelly glasses, and when it is cold, seal it with
2 eggs teaspoon salt
1/2 cup milk 1 tablespoon melted butter
4 cup fine bread crumbs 1 / cups grated raw carrot
Beat eggs slightly and add remaining ingredients. Turn into greased
custard cups, place in steamer basket, set over boiling water, cover and
cook until the custard is firm, about 30 minutes. Unmold and serve as a
vegetable or with cheese or egg sauce as a main course at luncheon or
One level cup grated cassava, /2 cup milk, 134 cups sugar, 1 egg, 1
teaspoon salt, 41/2 cups water, 1 tablespoon butter, flavor with nutmeg.
Bake 1 hour.
The coarse outside stalks may be used for cooking, reserving the tender
hearts for salads, sandwiches, and eating raw.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
2 cups cooked celery, cut in pieces 3 tablespoons grated cheese
1 cup medium white sauce Buttered bread crumbs
1 tablespoon finely minced onion Salt and pepper
Put the celery into a greased baking dish. Add the cheese to the white
sauce, flavored with onion, and pour it over the celery. Cover with the
buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until golden brown.
1 pint celery, cut into 1-inch 2 tablespoons butter
pieces 1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons flour Salt and pepper
Cook the celery until tender. Make a medium white sauce of the celery
water, milk, flour and butter. Add the cooked celery to the white sauce
and season to taste with salt and pepper.
Celery (chopped) may be added to an oyster omelet or scrambled egg
and oyster combination. It should be cooked only partially and should be
crisp. It gives a nice "crunchy feel" to an otherwise soft dish.
The best recipe for celery is as follows: Clean well. Crisp. Serve.
2 quarts celery or six bunches 1 quart onions
3 quarts cabbage or 2 large heads
Chop and cover with salt water for two days. Drain well and put on
11/2 quarts vinegar 4 cups brown sugar
1/4 pound mustard 1 tablespoon flour
1 tablespoon tumeric powder
Boil twenty minutes, then add three well-beaten eggs before taking
from heat. Add more salt and sugar if needed.
American Chop Suey
1 pound round steak ground 1 large bunch celery
1 cup raw rice 1 pint tomatoes
1 green pepper (cut fine) 1 can mushrooms may be added
1 large onion
Brown meat slightly in small quantity of fat, add all other ingredients
which have been cut. Cook until vegetables are tender.
CHILI CON CARNE
One pound hamburger, one-half can pimentos, cut fine; two large
onions, cut fine; one cup diced celery, one teaspoon sugar, one pint
tomatoes, one package spaghetti, cooked in boiling salted water.-When
spaghetti is tender, drain off water; add hamburger, celery, tomatoes,
pimentos, onions, sugar. Cook slowly until meat is done. Add salt and
pepper to taste.
4 cupfuls finely diced celery 11/2 teaspoonfuls salt
3 large potatoes, diced 1/8 teaspoon pepper
1 medium sized onion, chopped 1 quart milk
2 tablespoons flour 2 hard cooked eggs
Melt the fat in a kettle. Then add the chopped onion, celery and pota-
toes. Cover with boiling water and simmer gently until the celery and
potatoes are tender. Then add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat well and
thicken with the flour which has been rubbed smooth in two tablespoonfuls
of water. Just before serving add the hard-cooked eggs chopped. Serve
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Cook like spinach in a small amount of water. Stir until it settles in
Select tender leaves after frost (if in frost section). Cook until tender
in a generous amount of water to evaporate as the greens become quite
tender. Season with cured bacon or ham hock. Usually the meat (with
bone) is placed in cold water and allowed to come to a boil and cook for
a while before the greens are added. Add salt to taste after greens have
cooked for a while. Chop fine. Serve with a sour relish or pickle.
(On the cob)
Select sound ears of green corn. Husk and silk. Cook immediately in
boiling salted water 10 to 12 minutes. Serve at once with butter.
(See Lima Beans)
1 pint shelled lima beans 3 tablespoons butter
3 cups green corn Salt and pepper
Cook the beans until tender in just enough water to cover them. Add
the corn and cook for 15 minutes longer. Season with butter, salt and
pepper, and serve. The succotash may be made from canned corn and
VEGETABLE SOUP MIXTURE
(Canned for out-of-season)
This should be made in the proportion of one-half tomato pulp, one-
fourth corn or tiny lima beans, and one-fourth okra, with seasoning added.
One slice of onion should be added to each No. 2 can. The tomatoes should
be heated, rubbed through a sieve, and cooked down to about the consis-
tency of ketchup before measuring; then the corn, okra, onion and
seasoning should be added and cooked until the corn and okra are about
three-fourths done. Then pack into cans and process one hour at boiling,
or 25 minutes at 10 pounds steam pressure.
CORN AND TOMATO CHOWDER
2 cups canned corn 1 cup milk
1 cup canned or ripe tomatoes 1/2 cup grated cheese
2 cups diced celery 1/2 cup chopped pimentos
1 quart cold water 3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons butter 2 teaspoons salt
Place corn, tomatoes, diced celery, and one teaspoonful salt in a kettle
and cover with cold water. Boil 2 hour. Melt fat and add flour gradually.
Then add the cold milk, stirring constantly. Add the vegetable mixture
gradually to the white sauce; add seasonings. Add to the chowder the
grated cheese and pimentos, chopped fine. Stir until cheese is melted.
Serve piping hot. A cream soup may be made, if desired, by straining out
the vegetables before adding the white sauce. Serves six to eight.
To two cups grated or chopped corn add two eggs, slightly beaten, 2
tablespoons melted butter and one pint scalded milk; turn into buttered
baking dish and bake in a slow oven.
Build a camp fire and allow to burn to a bed of coals and hot ashes.
Place ears of green corn in husks (all except outermost leaves) in hot
ashes with coals. Cook until tender. Serve immediately with butter and
salt. American Indians packed the ears of corn in clay and roasted them.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 75
Southern corn meal (home ground) contains more of the food value
and natural flavor of the original product than does the finely "bolted"
meal. It is, therefore, a very popular food product. Any corn meal dish
requires thorough cooking and a high temperature to bring out the nutty
flavor and to thoroughly cook the starch. Because the corn dishes are
used so extensively with vegetables in the South, the following recipes are
Corn Muffins or Breadsticks
2 cups meal 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt 2 cups buttermilk
/2 teaspoon soda 2 eggs
3 tablespoon lard or bacon grease
Mix all ingredients. Add one tablespoon cane sirup if desired. Add
melted lard last. Pour into hot greased muffin rings or iron breakstick
molds. Cook in very hot oven 30 minutes.
Corn Meal Batter Bread
Use same recipe for muffins. Combine. Pour into hot, greased skillet
and cook in hot oven from 30 to 40 minutes, depending upon thickness
Corn meal-water-salt. Place iron or aluminum griddle over heat.
Grease well and allow to get piping hot. Pour hot water over corn meal and
salt and mix thoroughly. Place on hot griddle and pat out to "fit." When
the hoecake is well browned, turn on a plate or on your hand, if ex-
perienced. After turning cover so as to hold some of the steam. When
both sides are well browned, allow to cook more slowly until well done.
Corn dodger is made like hoecake except a little butter or lard is added.
It is formed into small pones about three inches long and dropped into the
quickly boiling water in the vessels where turnip greens, peas, or collards
are cooking. About twenty minutes or more should .be allowed for cooking.
They are served with the vegetable. In this way the cooking water is
preserved in the menu. A most tasty article of food is the corn dodger.
5 cups milk 1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup corn meal 1 teaspoon ginger
/2 cup molasses
Cook milk and meal in a double boiler for twenty minutes; add
molasses, salt and ginger; pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake two
hours in a slow oven; serve with cream.
Corn Meal and Fig Pudding
1 cup corn meal 1 cup finely chopped figs
1 cup molasses 2 eggs
6 cups milk (or 4 of milk and 2 1 teaspoon salt
Cook the corn meal with four cups of milk in a double boiler for twenty
minutes; add the figs and salt. When the mixture is cool, add the eggs
well beaten. Pour into a buttered pudding dish and bake in a moderate
oven for three hours or more. When partly cooked, add the remainder of
the milk without stirring the pudding. Fig preserves may be substituted
for the dried figs. Drain the figs from sirup and slightly dry in the oven
Cucumbers should be served raw. See Relishes and Pickles. They may
be steamed and buttered like squash.
76 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 small eggplants Salt and pepper
1/4 cup oil 1/2 tablespoon flour
1/2 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon water
11/2 pounds tomatoes Bouquet powder
Peel the eggplants and cut into /2-inch slices, sprinkle lightly with
salt, and let stand covered with a cloth. After 1 hour, drain and dry them
carefully. Brown in the oil and drain.
For the other part prepare a tomato sauce by cooking the tomatoes
and onions, cut into pieces, with the butter, salt, pepper and bouquet;
cook until thick and strain.
Put the eggplant in a pan with alternate layers of tomato sauce. Put
bits of butter on top and bake for twenty minutes.
Slice and pare the eggplant. Place the slices in a buttered baking dish,
add salt and bits of butter and sprinkle generously with grated cheese.
Cover with sliced tomatoes, add salt, pepper and butter. Bake in a mod-
erate oven until the eggplant is tender, from 30 to 45 minutes.
Peel the eggplant and cut it into one-half inch slices. Sprinkle each
slice with salt. Pile the slices in a bowl and place a plate on top to weight
them down slightly. Let stand for two hours. The salt will draw out any
disagreeable flavor. Wipe each slice dry, dip it in crumbs, in beaten egg,
and in crumbs again and saute slowly in hot fat.
Slice the eggplant, but do not pare it. Saute the slices in butter, bacon
fat or drippings. Arrange the slices in a baking dish in layers with a
sprinkling of cheese between layers. When the dish is about three-fourths
full, cover the egg plant with a medium white sauce. Cover the top with
buttered crumbs and bake in a moderate oven until brown.
Endive is used largely for salads. A wilted salad is made by using hot
bacon grease instead of oil in the dressing. This adds a good flavor. Sliced
or grated hard cooked egg combines nicely as to color and food combina-
tions. Endive should be chopped fine. Boiled salad dressing may be added
to the bacon. Escarole, Romaine, water cress, lettuce (green) may be
prepared in the same way or may be used as cooked "greens."
a. 4 heads chicory (curly endive)
e1 tablespoon meat broth or
a 1 tablespoon butter
:3 / 3% tablespoons butter
--= ~1/3 cup croutons
A t ."- Wash the endive thoroughly
e '. and cook in boiling salted water
Sw '- i. without covering. When it is
tender, drain and rinse and chop
S, fine. Put in a pan with the but-
.,- ter, salt, pepper, stock or cream
and heat through. Decorate the
dish in which it is served with
croutons of bread browned in
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Curly Mustard Green Mustard
Leeks, spinach, mustard, kale, radish, turnip greens may be used in any
of the recipes for greens. Examine all greens and wash them carefully,
discarding any wilted or yellow leaves. Leave the roots on for the first
washing as this makes the greens easier to handle; then cut them off to
allow a more thorough cleansing. Wash in at least 3 waters, lifting the
greens out of the pan before emptying the water so that the sand and
other impurities will be left in the bottom of the pan.
Greens may be cooked quickly in a large amount of water or for a
slightly longer time in a small amount of water. Cook until just tender and
no longer. Serve with salt, pepper, and butter or season with bacon while
cooking. Hard cooked eggs may always be used with any of these "greens."
Okra is used in a number of combination dishes with tomatoes, corn
or lima beans. It is often cooked with field peas by dropping the tender
pods into the vessel with the peas when they are nearly cooked. The steam
from the peas will cook the okra. The combination, with a few slices of
fresh tomato or sweet green peppers, makes a splendid vegetable plate.
Plain, steamed or boiled okra should be whole and unbroken.
The real Creole gumbo is made as follows: Wash one-half gallon of
okra pods, dry on a towel; cut off ends of pods, and slice. Put one-third
cup of lard and two tablespoons of minced onion into a kettle and fry
a young chicken, previously jointed, until a golden brown. Remove chicken,
add the sliced okra and one small chopped tomato. Pry until no more
"strings" come from the okra. Then put the chicken in and salt and pepper
to taste. Add one quart of boiling water. Cook three-fourths hour. Serve
in soup plates with a portion of boiled rice in each plate. When chicken
cannot be secured, use ham.
Bermuda onions are mild flavored. Place onions under water to peel.
Boil in plenty of water, drain, and again cover with boiling salted water.
Cook until soft but not broken. Drain. Add a little milk or cream. Cook a
few minutes. Season with butter.
ter boiling 15 mina mutes small silverskin onions, drain and dry. Melt
3 tablespoons butter add 2 tablespoons sugar and onions and cook until
browned. An asbestos mat is needed under r t vessel during last few
I -2d A __ -I- -.L L I __ -1 -1 -__ -3 __ 'V- -1 ----- -- Is I
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
LEEKS OR GREEN ONIONS
Leeks Au Gratin
12 leeks 1 cup grated cheese
6 potatoes Buttered bread crumbs
1 cup medium white sauce Salt and pepper
Cook the leeks in boiling water until tender. Boil, pare, and slice the
potatoes. Arrange the vegetables in alternate layers in a buttered baking
dish and pour the white sauce over them. Add the cheese, the buttered
bread crumbs, and the seasoning, and bake for 15 minutes in a moderate
Onions Au Gratin
6 medium-sized onions Salt and pepper
14 cup grated cheese Stock or hot water
1/2 cup toasted bread crumbs 2 tablespoons melted butter
Boil the onions until slightly tender and remove the centers with an
apple corer. Fill the cavities with the cheese and crumbs mixed together.
Place the onions in a baking dish. Add 1/2 cup of the stock in which onions
were boiled, salt and pepper, dot with butter, and bake in a moderate oven
Scalloped Onions and Peanuts
Cut the onions in quarters; cook them in salted boiling water until
tender. Add salt just before the cooking is completed. Drain them and
save the broth for soup. Butter a baking dish. Put into it a layer of onions,
and sprinkle over them some ground peanuts, add another layer of onions
and peanuts. Pour over all the cream. Cover the top with buttered crumbs
and brown the dish in the oven. Any vegetable may be scalloped in this
way. Cheese may be used in place of peanuts if desired, or grated cheese
may be combined with the cream.
Cook medium-sized onions in boiling salted water for 15 minutes.
Drain, and remove the centers, leaving a shell about one-half inch thick.
Make a stuffing of equal parts of chopped cold meat and bread crumbs or
rice. Moisten the mixture with stock or tomato juice and season with salt
and pepper. Fill the onion shells with the mixture and put them in the
oven to brown for 15 minutes.
The simplest method of cooking parsnips is to wash them clean, boil
them, and then scrape off the skin. Slice or chop them coarsely and season
with salt and butter.
Boil rather large parsnips until tender, and scrape off their skin. Cut
the parsnips crosswise in slices about one-third inch thick. Season the
slices with salt and pepper. Dip each slice in beaten egg and then in fine
bread crumbs. Fry in deep fat, drain on soft paper, and serve as a border
for meat platter.
Cook in boiling salted water until tender, allowing water to evaporate.
Add milk, butter, pepper and salt to season.
Scalloped Cow Peas
1 cup dried cow peas 1 tablespoon sugar
/2 cup uncooked rice 1 tablespoon butter
'/4 cup chopped onion Salt, pepper
11/2 cups canned or stewed
Soak the peas overnight and cook until almost done, using no more
water than the peas will absorb. Add the remaining ingredients and
continue cooking until the peas and rice are tender.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Pigeon Peas with Rice Puerto Rican Style
1 cup dry pigeon peas soaked 1 sliced onion and a small quan-
overnight (or 2 cups green- tity of garlic
shelled pigeon peas) 1 bunch chopped Chinese parsley
1 pound lean pork cut into 1 cup tomato sauce
small pieces Water added to facilitate boiling
/2 cup salad oil or shortening
For seasoning, salt, bay leaves, black pepper and cumin seed to suit
Boil mixture over slow fire for at least two hours or until thoroughly
Pigeon Pea Stew
1 cup dry pigeon peas soaked 1 sliced onion
overnight (or 2 cups green- 1 sliced potato plus stew
shelled pigeon peas) vegetables
1 pound pork cut into small 1 cup milk
pieces 2 pats butter
/2 cup rice
For seasoning, /2 bottle catsup, salt and pepper.
Add water to facilitate boiling and let it simmer over slow fire for at
least two hours, or until thoroughly cooked.
The above recipe will serve as well with kidney beans (Maui Red), lima
beans, navy beans or soy beans. The soy bean recipes that are being cir-
culated at the present time may very well be changed to any one of the
At this time the housewife should try things out for herself and in
that way will learn that a great many crops may be utilized which have
been more or less neglected in our peace-time economy.
Field peas require a longer period for cooking.
Green Peas (Little Peas), French Style
1 pound peas 1 head lettuce
Some young onions A sprig of parsley
6 tablespoons butter 1 egg yolk
Saute the peas in a pan with the butter. Add the lettuce, which has
been washed and tied in a bunch, onions, parsley, salt, pepper and little
sugar. Shake the pan until well mixed. Add a cup of water; cover and
cook over a slow fire 11/2 hours. A little before serving remove the parsley;
add the rest of the butter and an egg yolk.
Peppers, used largely for raw salads, relishes and decorations, have
become popular as stuffed dishes. They add a delightful flavor to the
dressing and make new dishes of "left-overs."
6 medium sized green peppers 1 cup canned tomatoes
2 medium slices or 1 /2 lb. smoked /2 cup cracker crumbs
ham 1 very small onion
2 eggs Few sprigs parsley
1/2 teaspoon salt
Simmer ham in 1 cup boiling water 5 minutes. Drain, reserving the
liquid. Put the ham through a meat chopper; mix with the tomatoes,
cracker crumbs and eggs well beaten. Chop the onion and parsley very
fine and add to the mixture. Wash the peppers and remove the seeds.
Fill the pepper shells with the mixture and place them in shallow baking
dish surrounded by the water in which the ham was simmered.
Sweet potato develops the best flavor when baked. Wash well, grease
with butter or bacon and bake in covered pan inside oven. The skin when
brown cracks and allows steam to escape. Split through center or break
into halves crosswise and butter. Serve hot. A GOOD sweet potato needs
no extra "trimmings."
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Potatoes Baked on Half Shell
Bake potatoes, cut lengthwise, remove contents, mash, season with
sugar and butter and salt. (Peanuts or pecans may be added). Place in
potato shells, cover with marshmallows and brown.
Sweet Potato and Peanut Croquettes
1 cup mashed sweet potato 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 egg Cayenne pepper
1 tablespoon flour Bread crumbs
1 cup finely ground parched
peanuts or pecans
Combine the ingredients, and shape the mixture into croquettes. Roll
them in bread crumbs, beaten egg, and crumbs again. Fry them in deep
1 quart grated raw sweet /4 cup cane sirup
potatoes /2 cup flour
1 egg 1 teaspoon nutmeg
3 tablespoon butter, melted 3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Sift together the dry ingredients. Combine these with the remaining
ingredients. Put the mixture into a baking dish and bake it in a slow oven
about two and one-half hours, or until done, stirring occasionally during
the first of the cooking. During the last thirty minutes, discontinue the
stirring and allow the pone to brown. Many people prefer to serve the dish
cold with milk or cream. When cold it can be sliced. It is frequently served
hot, as a vegetable.-Sarah W. Partridge.
Sweet Potato Tournado
Select potatoes about two inches in diameter. Cook them in boiling
water until tender. Peel and cut in pieces two inches long. Around each
piece wrap a thin slice of bacon and fasten with toothpick. Place on a pan
in a hot oven until the bacon is crisp. Serve with parsley garnish.
Breaded Sweet Potatoes
Peel boiled sweet potatoes and cut them in lengthwise slices. Dip the
slices in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain on soft
paper. Serve hot.
4 medium potatoes 1/4 cup butter
1 cup water 1/2 cups sugar
1 teaspoon salt /4 cup vinegar or lemon juice
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Cut uncooked sweet potato into slices, then strips about 1/3 inch thick.
Place in a baking dish. Add butter and sprinkle with sugar. Pour on water.
Dash with cinnamon. Add vinegar. Bake until sugar and butter are candied
and the potatoes are well cooked. Lemon juice may be substituted for
This old-fashioned method of cooking sweet potatoes develops their
finest flavor and one unapproached through any other method. Select
and wash smooth, uniform potatoes of medium size. Make a bed of them
in the hot ashes of a burning fire. Cover well with the ashes, over this
bank glowing coals. Roast the potatoes until soft throughout. When soft,
remove from the ashes, peel and serve. They should be eaten hot with
butter. This method is especially adapted to the open fireplace or to camp
cookery and is frequently used at the time of sirup and sugar making on
the farm when the hot ashes and glowing coals at the entrance of the
furnace suggest it. It may be practiced on a wood stove, utilizing the hot
ashes in the ash pan as a bed for the potatoes and covering them with a
layer of glowing coals.-Sarah W. Partridge.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 81
White potatoes are more generally used as bread. Baked and boiled in
the jackets are the best methods. Butter, milk, cream or cheese add the
needed flavor and seasoning. Parsley, a contrasting color, adds attractive-
ness as well as flavor to the potato.
Potato, with a starch content of 18 to 20 per cent, is usually "mealy"
when cooked. Mealy potatoes are best for baking, boiling or deep frying.
Potatoes, containing more protein and less starch are "waxy" and better
for salads, scalloping and creaming because they retain their shape. A
light, sandy soil usually produces a larger starch content than heavy soil.
Both young potatoes and stored potatoes have more cellulose in proportion
to starch than have fresh matured potatoes.
Select potatoes of uniform size; scrub them with vegetable brush; place
them on a grate or in a pan in a hot oven and bake them for 45 minutes,
or until they are tender. If they are overcooked, they will be soggy rather
than mealy. Crack or pierce the skin as soon as the potatoes are done to
let out the steam which otherwise will condense and make the potatoes
Drop well-washed potatoes into boiling salted water. Cook them, with
the cover of the kettle ajar, just until they are tender, about 20 to 30
minutes. Drain off the water immediately, cover them with a cloth which
will absorb the moisture, and place them where they will keep warm.
Overcooking and standing in water makes a soggy, unpalatable potato.
Prepare the potatoes as for boiling, place them in a steamer, cover
them tight, and steam them for about 30 minutes, or until just tender.
Remove the skins and serve the potatoes at once.
Cut baked potatoes in half; remove the pulp and mash it; and add
enough hot milk to make it the consistency of mashed potatoes, and
season it with salt. Fill the cases with this mixture; dot the top with
butter; brush them with milk and bake the stuffed potatoes for 8 or 10
minutes in a hot oven or long enough to brown them on top. Potatoes may
be stuffed in the morning and heated for the noon or evening meal.
Variations-To the mashed potatoes, before the cases are filled, may
be added any one or a combination of the following:
Beaten white of egg (1 egg to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Grated cheese (1/2 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped meat (1/2 cup to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
Chopped parsley (1 tablespoon to 3 medium-sized potatoes).
SALSIFY OR OYSTER PLANT
Creamed Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil salsify until tender, drain, and combine it with medium white
sauce. Serve with tiny meat balls or little sausages.
Scalloped Salsify or Oyster Plant
Boil the salsify until tender. Cut it in slices one-half inch thick. Put
a layer of buttered crumbs in the bottom of a buttered baking dish, cover
with a layer of the slices of salsify, and add salt and pepper. Continue
with alternate layers of the crumbs and salsify until the dish is full,
covering the top with crumbs. Add enough hot milk to moisten. Bake in a
moderate oven until the crumbs are well browned.
82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Spinach and Bacon
2 pounds spinach Pepper
SSalt 6 slices bacon
Prepare and cook spinach (steam
in small amount of water or in water-
less cooker). When tender, chop,
S season and add the bacon which has
been cut in small pieces and cooked
until crisp. A small amount of lemon
juice may be added if desired.
SVariations The bacon may be
,- ,r'1 omitted and /4 cup of butter added
( t just before serving. For creamed
-. spinach add 1/4 cup cream and 1
tablespoon of butter to the drained,
chopped spinach and place the mix-
Tendergreen ture on thin slices of crisp toast.
Japanese Mustard Spinach Garnish the top with grated, hard-
cooked egg or sliced egg.
COMBINATION VEGETABLE RECIPES
16 eggs 1 pound green beans
1 pound diced carrots 2 pounds green peas
1 pound diced potatoes 1 pound baby limas
Mayonnaise, egg, oil, and
Boil the vegetables, tied in cheesecloth, in boiling salted water. Cook
the eggs at simmering temperature until they are hard; shell, cut off the
pointed end, remove the yolk and fill with mayonnaise. Run the yolk
through a ricer and garnish the edge of a plate with this. Then put the
eggs, filled with mayonnaise, inside of this. Fill the center of the dish
with vegetables well marinated with the mayonnaise in the center, keeping
each variety separate.-(French Selected.)
1 rabbit (2 wild rabbits or large 3/% cup vinegar-flour
chicken 2 shallots or green onions
/2 pound mushrooms 1 pound tomatoes, bouquet
4 small onions garnish
3 tablespoons butter 3 cup bouillon
4 tablespoon oil
Cut the rabbit into pieces, brown with oil, remove the rabbit and brown
the onions and mushrooms and shallot; sprinkle with flour, add bouillon
and vinegar, salt, pepper and rabbit, cover and cook slowly until tender.
One-quarter of an hour before serving add a sauce made from the
tomatoes, bouquet and butter.
B. General Recipes-Fruits
AVOCADO (SEE SALADS)
Mash the avocado, season with salt and lemon or lime juice and spread
on hot toast and call it "Avocadoed Toast."
Butter the soup with avocado. Dice the avocado and add to the soup
just before serving.
NOTE-Mayonnaise, cheese, nuts, butter are not needed when avocado
is used. Use your own taste about other combinations. The avocado always
needs salt and lime or lemon juice. It is a concentrated food, very rich in
oil, nearly 18 per cent, and needs bread or other bulky food.
The fruits in many sections require additional pectin to produce jelly.
Fortunately Florida has an abundant supply of pectin in citrus fruits.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
It may be prepared for convenience as follows:
One-fourth pound white part of orange peel, 1/2 pint water, 2 table-
spoons lemon juice.
Cut or grate the yellow from the orange peel. Pass white peel through
a food chopper. Weigh, add lemon juice, mix, allow to stand 1 hour. Add
11/4 pints water. Let stand 1 hour. Boil gently 10 minutes. Cover, let cool,
place in flannel jelly bag. Press to remove juice. Drain juice through a
The Pectin Test
To give the pectin test, pour 1 tablespoon of jelly stock into clean cup.
Pour into cup a teaspoon of grain alcohol (or denatured alcohol). Gently
shake. Pour into a spoon. If the pectin shows a solid clot use one measure
of sugar to one measure of juice. If it is not so solid use less sugar.
CITRUS FRUIT SPECIALS
Sour Orange Preserves
Grate the yellow from the peel. Cut the oranges in halves. Put four
oranges into five quarts of water and boil 20 minutes. Change to fresh
water and boil 15 minutes. Change and boil 10 minutes. Change again
and boil 8 minutes. Drain and boil in sirup of one part sugar and two
parts water until fruit is transparent. When sirup cooks to desired con-
sistency, pour over fruit packed into sterilized jars and process 10 minutes.
Sour Orange Marmalade
1 pound peeled sour orange 1 cup sugar to 1 cup jelly stock
2 pints water or less according to pectin
1/3 of peel test
Preparation of Peel-Wash fruit, remove peel, keeping 1/3 and slicing
in thin slices. Leave some white on skins. Place in kettle. Add water 4
times weight of peel. Boil 10 minutes. Drain. Repeat 3 times, each time
boiling 5 minutes. Continue until peel is very tender and all bitter taste
Preparation of Jelly Stock-Weigh peeled fruit; cut into small pieces
and, for each pound of orange, add 2 pints of water. Boil until thoroughly
disintegrated. Drain in flannel jelly bag and press.
Making Marmalade-Pour juice into a kettle; add peel and bring to a
boil. Make pectin test and add sugar as needed. Boil until the jellying
point is reached.
1 pound peeled fruit 2 pints water
1 pound sugar (based on pectin One-third of peel
This marmalade follows same directions as for sour oranges.
Combination Marmalade-Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon
2 oranges (pulp and peel) 1 grapefruit (pulp)
1 lemon (pulp)
Wash fruit. Grate yellow from oranges. Use white peel. Peel grapefruit
and lemon and discard peel. Run fruit and orange peel through a chopper.
Add 3 times the bulk of water. Boil 15 minutes and let stand over night.
Boil 10 minutes and let stand again. When cold, measure pint for pint of
sugar. Cook rapidly to jelly stage, 2220 F. One cup grated pineapple,
previously boiled, may be added.
Orange and Carrot Marmalade
3 cups carrots 2 oranges
'/2 teaspoon salt 3 lemons
4 cups sugar 1 cup water
Wash and scrape carrots and run through a food chopper. Boil until
tender. Drain. Wash and peel oranges; chop one-half; strip the other.
Boil strips until tender. Pour sugar over hot ground carrots. Let melt. Add
water, lemon juice, orange pulp (cut in small pieces) and orange peel.
Cook until sirup is thick and fruit is clear. Three slices of canned pine-
apple may be used instead of orange.
2 cups grapefruit pulp 2 cup grated pineapple
2 cups orange pulp 2 cups sugar
3/4 cup pecan meats Peel from 1 orange (chopped)
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Preparation-To chopped peel add 1 cup water and boil 10 minutes.
Cover. Let cool. (If fresh pineapple is used be sure to boil as it contains
an enzyme that prevents the action of pectin unless the pineapple has
reached boiling point.) Mix fruit pulp and orange peel; boil 20 minutes;
add sugar. When dissolved, add pineapple. Cook to the jelly test. Add
nuts. Pour into sterilized glasses and seal.
1 pound kumquats 3 cups water
3/ pound sugar
Wash kumquats with soap and water. Sprinkle with soda (a tablespoon
soda to 1 quart kumquats) and pour on boiling water and let stand 10
minutes. Pour off water. Rinse in 3 waters. Slit kumquats 1/4 inch in
cutting seed cells. Place in kettle with water to cover. Boil 15 minutes.
Repeat boiling process until fruit is tender. Drop kumquats into boiling
sugar solution by adding 3/ pound sugar to 3 cups water. Boil to 222.
Pack in jars. Strain sirup over fruit. Seal while hot. The fruit may be
allowed to "plump" in the vessel covered for 25 minutes.
Cook kumquat skins in water (changing 2 or 3 times if necessary)
until tender. Drain. Chop in meat chopper. Combine juice and peel, adding
% cup of sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil to jellying point.
Remove the membranous skin or rag from the orange peel. Put through
a food chopper. Add twice its weight in water and 2 tablespoons lemon
juice for each cup of water. Let stand one hour and add same amount
of water as first taken. Boil 3 minutes, cover, allow to cool. Press through
a jelly bag. Keep one-half ground peel to add later to boiling juice. Test
for pectin and add as much sugar as the test shows is needed. Use 1 cup
juice to one cup sugar if there is solid clot. Bring to a boil. Add %/2 of the
ground peel and cook to 2220 F.
Fresh figs are best when first picked.
Serve ripe, peeled or unpeeled figs, with or without cream. No sugar
Select firm, sound, mature but not wholly ripe figs.
1 pound figs 4 cups water
1 pound sugar
Sort over and weigh. Wash dust from figs by placing in wire basket,
or colander, and dipping in and out of boiling water. Add sugar in pro-
portion of 1 pound to 1 pound of figs. Four cups of water. Cook, without
stirring to 224 degrees. Allow to stand, covered, over night, to "plump."
Pack figs in sterilized jars. Fill to overflowing with sirup heated to boiling
point. Partially seal and simmer 15 minutes for pints.
Lemon sliced through the peel may be added just before processing.
Spices or ginger may be added but the real flavor of the fig is pleasing.
Sweet Spiced Figs
5 pints figs 1 stick cinnamon
1 pint water 1 teaspoon spice
1 cup vinegar 1 teaspoon mace
1 pint sugar
Wash and dip figs as for preserving. Place in boiling water for a few
minutes and add sugar, vinegar and spices. Cook to 222 or 224, or until
the figs are clear. Let stand over night. Pack and process 30 minutes at
simmering temperature or 15 minutes at boiling point.
To 1 quart of broken figs and the juice and pulp of 2 lemons add 2
cups sugar and cook until right consistency for conserve. Add 2/3 cup pecan
meats. Remove from heat. Pack and process 15 minutes at simmering.
NOTE-Grated lemon rind adds to the flavor.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
This is made from the broken figs or over-ripe stock. Clip off stems,
run through a coarse food grinder. Measure. Place in heavy aluminum
kettle and cook until thickened. Add /2 measure of sugar to one measure
of fig pulp and cook to 2210 F. Pack in hot jars, seal and process by
boiling 5 minutes.
Select and pulp ripe grapes. Heat the pulp with the juice and put them
through a colander to remove the seeds. Add to the pulp and juice half
a pound of sugar for every pound of fresh fruit. Cook the mixture until
it is a jelly.
3 pounds grapes 1/2 pound finely ground pecans
1 pound sugar
Use sound, ripe grapes. Weigh and pulp them. Proceed as for spiced
grapes to remove the seeds. Grind the hulls in a meat grinder or chop
them as fine as possible, and then soften. Combine the hulls and pulps
and add for every three pounds of fruit, one pound of sugar. Use the
grated peel of one lemon. Cook until thick and tender. Then add one-
half pound of ground pecan meats. Remove from the fire. Pack in small
containers and process for fifteen minutes.
(From Farmers' Bulletin 859)
After weighing the grapes, separate the skins and pulps. Then place
the hulls in a closed vessel, adding half a pint of water for each 6 pounds
of fresh fruit. Cook until the hulls are quite tender. When this point is
reached, the added water will have mostly evaporated, unless the vessel
has been very tightly closed. While softening the hulls, heat the pulps
and juice in another vessel until the pulps break down enough to liberate
the seeds. Put the seedless pulps and softened hulls together when cool.
After combining hulls and pulps, for every five pounds of fresh fruit used,
add the following:
2 /2 pounds sugar 11/2 ounces ground cloves
2 ounces ground cinnamon 1/2 pint vinegar
Then boil the mixture over a slow fire until a little thick. If 5 pounds
of fruit are used this will require about an hour's boiling.
Since the flavor of the spices predominates, the variety factor is of less
importance than in other products. Some people prefer a special product
made as above, but with the vinegar, the cloves, and half the sugar omitted.
Wash, stem and crush grapes. Heat to simmering point, until the fruit
is sufficiently softened, stirring the fruit well as it is heating. Turn into
jelly bag. Drain and squeeze. Add one cup sugar to one gallon juice. Heat
to slightly below the boiling point and seal in fruit jars. Process quarts 30
minutes at simmering temperature.
1 bunch fresh mint Juice of 5 lemons
1 level cup sugar 1/2 cup water
2 pints grape juice 1 pint grapefruit juice
Remove mint-leaves. Reserve tips for garnish. Place leaves with lemon
juice, sugar and water. Let stand 30 minutes, strain, add grape juice and
grapefruit juice. Pour over a large block of ice and serve in glasses with
reserved mint leaves and slices of lemon.
2 cups grape juice 3 cups cold milk
1/4 cup lemon juice 2 egg whites
1 cup sugar
Scald the grape juice, add sugar and stir until sugar is dissolved. Cool,
add lemon juice and set aside until cold. Then stir into milk. Add stiffly
beaten whites of eggs.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
4 pounds grapes 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon
2 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon ground allspice
% pint vinegar 1 tablespoon cloves
1/2 tablespoon salt /2 tablespoon pepper
Wash and stem the grapes and steam them over water until soft. Put
through a colander, discarding only the skins and seeds. Add the spices,
sugar, salt and vinegar, and let simmer for fifteen minutes. Put in steril-
ized bottles, process ten minutes and seal.
NOTE-Whole spices tied in a cloth while cooking will give a lighter
color, but not so good flavor. The acid varieties of grapes are preferred for
Frosted Grape Jelly
Soak half a box of gelatine in half a cup of cold water until soft; set
this in an outer vessel of boiling water until the gelatine is entirely dis-
solved. Stir into it one cup sugar, and when all are well blended and
smoothed, add two cupfuls of grape juice. Strain into a bowl upon the
beaten whites of two eggs and turn into a mold. Then whipped whites will
rise to the surface of the jelly and produce a frosted effect. Leave the
jelly on the ice or in a very cold place until firm and serve with whipped
cream about it.
Use ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a pan with water enough to half cover.
The pulp may or may not be cut from the seed (the latter makes a
smoother marmalade). When tender, rub through a granite colander. Add
a cup of sugar to each quart of pulp, and boil thirty minutes. Seal at once.
A. P. Livingston, Homestead, Fla.)
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Select fruit just showing color. Peel and cut in sections. In making the
sirup, allow, for each pound of sliced fruit, 1 pound of granulated sugar
and 4 cups of water. Boil the sugar and water together, add fruit and cook
until clear. Let stand until cold. Boil down to 2220 and let stand until cold.
Pack and process for 15 minutes. Seal.
The Mulgoba is one of the best mangoes for preserving.
1 lb. peeled mangoes, cut in small 3 oz. green ginger sliced (may
pieces substitute root ginger broken
1 pt. vinegar or 1/2 pt. grapefruit and put in spice bag)
juice and pt. vinegar 1 tablespoon salt
/2 lb. currants /2 tablespoon white mustard seed
1/2 lb. raisins or 1 lb. raisins (if /2 cup chopped onions
currants are omitted) 1/2 cup chopped sweet peppers
1/4 lb. blanched almonds 1 oz. chillies or hot peppers
% lb. brown sugar
To the vinegar add sugar and bring to a boil. Add the spices, chopped
vegetables, mangoes, nuts, raisins and salt, bring to a boil and boil for 30
minutes. Pack while at boiling point in sterilized jars and seal.
Mangoes just beginning to color are best selected.
Select before the fruit shows color, or at initial stage. Peel, slice in con-
venient pieces, immerse in medium sirup for 1 to 2 minutes. Pack in jars,
boil sirup to 218 F. and strain over fruit. Process 16 to 20 minutes at boil-
ing. (Medium sirup, 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water.)
Mango Ice Cream
Use plain ice cream custard, made by any favorite recipe, as a basis.
To each quart, add one pint of ripe mango pulp and freeze.
Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves and remove the seed. Fill the
cavity with ice cream (plain vanilla is best), and serve at once.
Mango for pies, sauces and butters. Select mature but unripe mangoes
and use in recipes for green apples. Sweeten according to taste.
Select the melon at a mature but unripe stage. Boil or steam and add a
little lime juice. This makes a delicious French sauce. The unripe fruit may
be used like any other melon in pickles or preserves. It combines nicely
with other fruits for marmalades and jellies. It is very good for sherbets.
As a breakfast food it needs no additions. As a dessert it is perfect.
Cut mature but unripe papaya in halves lengthwise. Add a little sugar
and orange, lime or lemon juice; or a little cinnamon in place of the juice.
Bake 20 minutes and serve immediately on taking from the oven.
1 cup vinegar 1 cup sugar
3 cups papaya 2 cups water
Make sirup of sugar and vinegar and water. Add a few whole cloves and
pepper-corns and half-ripe papaya cut into small pieces. Boil until tender.
Ginger or lemon may be added.
To 12 cups papaya pulp and juice of 1 lemon, 1/2 cup sugar, and beat
into 2 stiffly whipped whites of eggs. Cook. Serve with whipped cream.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Take ripe papaya-peel, seed, cut in small pieces-slightly cover with
water, cook until tender. Put through fruit press. To each cup of pulp add
1 cup of sugar, juice from one lemon, cook to 2220 F. Pack in jars. Process
Lime in Papaya Butter
To every 2 cups ripe mashed papaya add 1/4 lime juice and 1 cup sugar.
Peaches are canned in a thin sirup in halves or whole for desserts and
salads, and in pieces for pies and other cooked dishes.
Sweet Pickled Peaches
6 pounds peaches 4 ounces stick cinnamon
6 cups water A few whole cloves
2 cups vinegar Ginger root
6 cups sugar
Select firm clingstone peaches. Peel and drop into sirup of sugar, water
and vinegar, boiled together. Cook to 2210. Pack. Cover with boiling hot
sirup and process 20 minutes at simmering.
3 lbs. peeled, sliced, clingstone 2 lbs. sugar
peaches 3 peach kernels
6 cups water
Bring sugar and water to a boil, add peaches. Cook to 2220. Let "plump"
over night. Pack in sterilized containers, seal and process, or pack while
Wash 4 quarts ripe peaches thoroughly. Cut in pieces and put through
To each pint of pulp add 1 cup of sugar. Cook until of desired consist-
ency. Pour into sterilized jars and process 15 minutes.
1 dozen ripe peaches 2 quarts vinegar
1 red pepper 1 cup sugar
1 hot pepper /2 tablespoon ginger
1 green pepper 1/2 tablespoon cinnamon
1/2 pound raisins 1/2 tablespoon spice
3 onions (mild) /2 tablespoon celery seed
/2 cup acid fruit juice Salt
Combine ingredients and cook until the mixture is quite thick and clear.
Pack hot, seal and process 15 minutes at simmering.
2 dozen peaches chopped 3 cups sugar
1 pineapple or 1 pint can 2 lemons (juice and rind)
Cook peaches thick before adding other ingredients. Cook entire mix-
ture until quite thick.
Two cups of pecan meats may be added while mixture is boiling hot.
Pack, seal, process 5 minutes. A conserve may be made by using ripe
peaches and shredded pineapple. The addition of seedless raisins or of
shredded fig preserves adds to the interest and lessens the amount of sugar
needed. Lemon will give an additional flavor.
Peel from stem to blossom, placing immediately in weak salt solution (2
tablespoons to a gallon). Cut into halves and remove cores. Cook 5 to 10
minutes in syrup of one part sugar to two parts water. Pack into quart jars
and process 20 minutes, depending upon tenderness of fruit. If lemon or
ginger flavor is desired, add while cooking.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
1 pound pears 3 cups water
3 pound sugar
Cut pears in halves and core; place in syrup of sugar and water and
cook to 2240 F. Allow to stand until plump. Pack and process 20 minutes.
Whole cloves, slices of lemon or ginger may be added.
3 pounds firm pears 1 tablespoon ginger
4 cups sugar A few whole cloves
3 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon spices (whole)
5 cups water A stick of cinnamon
Peel pears lengthwise and leave whole. Make syrup of vinegar, water
and sugar; tie the spice in small pieces of cheesecloth, and add to the
syrup. When this mixture begins to simmer, add the pears and lemon rind
and bring to 2220. Cool and let stand. The next morning, drain off the
syrup and bring the syrup to boiling point. Pack fruit in jars, garnish with
cinnamon, cover with the syrup, seal and process quarts for 15 minutes at
1800 F. (simmering).
Core firm, medium-sized pears. Place in covered baking dish, sprinkle
with brown sugar. Add stick of cinnamon. Allow enough water to cover
bottom of pan. When tender, remove pears to glass dish, cook down syrup
and pour over pears. Serve hot or cold.
PINEAPPLE (SEE SALADS)
Pineapple, because of its enzymes, combines nicely with meats or ome-
lets. Broiled ham or small sausages are often served on slices of pineapple
or with a sauce made of shredded pineapple.
7 eggs 3/4 cup grated cheese
1 teaspoon salt 1, tablespoons fat
3 tablespoons milk and cream 11/2 cups crushed canned
Separate eggs; beat yolks for one minute; then add salt, milk or cream,
and cheese and continue beating until well mixed. Melt fat in frying or
omelet pan, turning pan so melted fat goes well up on the sides. Beat
whites of eggs until stiff and fold in the yolk and cheese mixture. Pour into
the pan and cook over low heat until nicely browned on the underside.
Then place in a slow oven for about three minutes to dry off top. Mean-
while put the undrained pineapple into a sauce pan and boil until thick,
about ten minutes. When omelet is done, make a cut about one and one-
half inches long on either end of the fold line; then pour pineapple on one-
half of the omelet, fold and slide onto platter.
Pineapple Luncheon Sandwiches
1 cup finely diced cooked ham 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 cup crushed canned 2 tablespoons pineapple juice
pineapple, drained 1 beaten egg
2 tablespoons milk or water
Mix first four ingredients together well and spread between slices of
buttered bread. Dip each side of the prepared sandwiches in the beaten egg
which has been combined with milk; saute until golden brown on both
sides. Serve at once.
Pineapple and Rhubarb Marmalade
NOTE-If fresh pineapple is used in any of these recipes for marma-
lades, remember to bring to a boil before combining with other fruits.
3 lbs. pink rhubarb 4 cups sugar
3 cups pineapple pieces Juice and grated rind 1 lemon
Rhubarb need not be peeled if young and tender. Wash, and cut into
inch pieces. Drain pineapple. Combine rhubarb, pineapple, sugar and
lemon. Cook slowly until thick and clear. Fill jelly glasses and cover with
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2 cups crushed canned pineapple 1/3 cup of sugar
undrained Juice and rind of 1 lemon
/2 cup pineapple juice or water 1 tablespoon cornstarch
Heat pineapple, pineapple juice, grated lemon rind and lemon juice
until boiling. Combine cornstarch and sugar and add to pineapple sauce,
stirring constantly. Cook until thickened, and serve hot.
1 quart strawberries 1 orange
1 pint spiced grapes Sugar
2 cups pineapple pieces
Wash and hull berries. Drain grapes. Drain pineapple from juice. Slice
orange very thin or put through food chopper. Combine fruit, weigh, and
add an equal weight of sugar. Cook slowly until mixture thickens when a
little is tested on a cold plate. Pour into hot glasses and cover with melted
paraffin. This is a delicious preserve to serve with cream cheese and
Pineapple with Orange Sections
1 slice fresh pineapple Orange sections
Chill pineapple and orange. Peel orange with a sharp knife, cutting
through the white inner skin. Remove sections, keeping in as large pieces
as possible. When ready to serve, lay slices of pineapple on individual
plates, put a small mound of powdered sugar in the center and arrange
orange sections around pineapple slices, making a complete circle. Serve
4 cups shredded pineapple Strawberry jam
12 marshmallows Whipped cream
In each dessert glass put a layer of shredded pineapple, then 2 marsh-
mallows, cut in pieces with scissors dipped in cold water. Next a layer of
jam, another layer of shredded pineapple. Top with whipped cream, sweet-
ened and flavored. Sprinkle with chopped nuts or cocoanut.
1 pound berries 3/4 pound sugar
Select large, firm fruit. Wash, cap, getting the pithy center if possible.
Place berries in aluminum or porcelain vessel. Add sugar. Handle vessel
over flame so that the juice reaches the sugar and dissolves to form a syrup
or let stand over night. Place vessel over flame and bring to boil and boil
8 minutes. Cover and set aside until fruit is plump and cool. Cook to
desired consistency. Pack and seal.
Wash, cap and crush ripe strawberries. To each pound of fruit add 3/
pound of sugar. Stir constantly and cook to 2220 F. or until desired
1 pound fruit 3% pound sugar
% pint water
Wash, scald, peel and seed fruit. Make a syrup of sugar and water. Add
fruit and cook to 2260 F. Put in hot sterilized containers. Seal and process
1 pound fruit 1/2 pint water
% pound sugar
Prepare as for preserves. Put through food chopper. Mix sugar and
water. Add fruit and cook to about 2251 /2 F. or jellying point. Seal.
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Use equal measures of fruit and water and cook until tender, about 10
minutes. Sweeten to taste. Allow to come again to boiling point. It is not
necessary to strain the product.
Grapefruit juice, in canning includes the "hearts." Grapefruit hearts
are now known throughout the country. Prepare as for salads, removing
the hearts whole. Pack tightly into pint jars in which has been placed 2
tablespoons sugar. Process 35 minutes, 180.
Extract juice in such way as to exclude oil of the peel or the bitterness
of the rag. Bring juice to 1650 or 1700 in open vessel. Fill into bottles boil-
ing hot. Cap quickly. Process in water at 1800 F. for 30 minutes.
Sweet orange juice keeps its flavor better in canning when combined
with sour citrus juice in proportion of 4 to 1. Lime, lemon, calamondin,
Seville or sour orange may be used. Use sugar in proportion of 2 cups sugar
to one gallon juice mixture. Bottle and process at 1650 F. for 30 minutes.
OTHER FRUIT JUICES
Ripe grapes, plums, berries produce valuable fruit juices. Bring fruit to
simmering temperature. Remove juice, strain through a heavy cloth.
Sweeten slightly, about 1 cup sugar to a gallon of juice. Strain again if a
clear juice is desired. Seal hot and process at about 1800 F. Fruit jars may
be used for keeping juices for home use. If bottles are used, cork tightly,
process and seal with wax afterwards, or use a bottle capper.
Fruits Containing Pectin for Jelly-Citrus fruits, particularly ripened
grapes, blackberries, dewberries, huckleberries, quinces, guavas, crabapple,
May haws, plus, pomegranate, roselle.
Fruits Lacking in Pectin-Strawberries, peaches, pineapple, rhubarb.
Fruits Lacking Acid for Jelly-Pears, quince, sugar apple, sapodilla,
Tropical Fruits for Jelly-Tamarind (red), satin fruit (red), pitanga
(red), mulberry (dark), guava, carombola, Persian lime, pomegranate,
Cattley guava, jaboticaba, umkokolo, ketembilla (English gooseberry).
C." A Few Florida Fruit Desserts
Numerous of the sweet, sub-acid and acid fruits lend themselves easily
to desserts. The sapote, the sapodilla, sugar apple, the mango, papaya, in
the natural form, are desserts. The sour-sop, the lime, the pomegranate,
the tamarind, the passion flower lend a delightful flavor to sherbets. The
juicy fruits, berries, citrus, plums and grapes are adaptable in hundreds of
methods. The melons, guavas, peaches, pears, figs, greatly increase the list.
The rich Florida coloring in fruits gives wonderful possibilities in attrac-
Since many vegetables must be cooked, fruits remain the sure means of
getting Nature's fresh natural food with the vitamins, mineral, organic
acids and laxative properties. Therefore, it is important that fruits be used
fresh. They are also used to flavor and make attractive other less interest-
The best known Florida dessert-that is, the dessert most nearly a
Florida dessert-is ambrosia.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
6 oranges 3 cups fresh grated cocoanut
1/2 cup sugar
Peel and slice pulp of oranges. Grate cocoanut. Place a layer of orange
pulp in a large bowl. Sprinkle a little sugar and add a layer of cocoanut,
then another layer of orange, a sprinkle of sugar, and over all pour cocoa-
nut juice and free orange juice. Add a final covering of grated cocoanut.
Leave in refrigerator until next day and serve.
2 cups sugar 2 cups orange juice
3 cups water 1 cup lemon juice
Boil sugar and water 10 minutes. Cool, add fruit juices. Freeze to a
(Makes about 13/ quarts)
3 cups sugar 34 cup lemon juice
1 quart water 2 egg whites
Boil sugar and water together for 5 minutes to make syrup. Add lemon
juice, cool and freeze to a mush. Add stiffly beaten egg whites and finish
14 cup orange juice 1 cup any one of the following
/2 cup lemon juice fruits: Crushed strawberries,
2 /2 cups sugar crushed peaches, mashed bana-
1 quart milk nas, mangoes, guavas, papayas
Add more sugar if needed
Mix and freeze. If mixture curdles it will freeze smooth again.
ORANGE ICE CREAM
3 cups orange juice 1 cup thick cream
1 cup sugar 2 cups thin cream or milk
Mix orange juice and sugar thoroughly. Add cream or cream and milk
and freeze. Or add just thin cream or milk, freeze to a mush; add whipped
cream and continue freezing.
ORANGE CREAM CUSTARD
2 eggs 2 cups milk
4 cup sugar /2 teaspoon vanilla
2 teaspoons flour 5 tablespoons sugar
/8 teaspoon salt 4 oranges
Beat egg yolks, add 1/4 cup sugar, flour and salt and mix thoroughly.
Add milk and cook in a double boiler until thick enough to coat spoon.
Cool, add vanilla and turn into serving dish containing peeled and sliced
oranges. Beat egg whites with 5 tablespoons sugar. Heap on top of custard
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM
1 tablespoon granulated gelatine 2 cup sugar
1/4 cup cold water Sprinkling salt
1 cup orange juice pulp 1 cup cream
1 tablespoon lime juice
Soak gelatine in cold water for 5 minutes and dissolve by standing cup
containing mixture in hot water. Add to orange juice and pulp. Add lime
juice, sugar and salt. When it begins to jelly, fold in whipped cream; turn
into cold mold to become firm.
ORANGE BAVARIAN CREAM PIE
Make orange Bavarian cream as given in recipe, pouring into baked
pastry shell. Chill till firm. Top with additional whipped cream if desired.