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Group Title: New series
Title: Ready reference for farmers
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014610/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ready reference for farmers
Series Title: New series
Physical Description: 155 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture,
Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1937
Copyright Date: 1937
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "April, 1937."
General Note: Includes index.
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ltuf - AJP6805
oclc - 41450451
alephbibnum - 001822799

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Full Text




?EADr


REFERENCEE


FOR

FARMERS


STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida
APRIL, 1937

f PRINTED BY THE RECORD COMPANY, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
so an we m a










Ready Reference for

Farmers




U. S. STATISTICS

Do you know that the U. S. A. has 3,026,789 square
miles.
East to West continental length 3,100 miles.
Canadian boundary is 3,700 miles.
Mexican border has 2,105 miles.
Water boundary 11,075 miles.
Population is 51.4 urban, 48.6 rural.
4,000 towns with population of 3,000 and up to 100,000.
43 towns with population of 100,000 and up to 250,000.
13 towns with population of 250,000 and up to 500,000.
9 towns with population of 500,000 and up to 1,000,000.
10 towns with population of 1,000,000 and up to 7,000,000.
Total population U. S. A., 124,000,000.
Total population Canada, 10,000,000.
Total population Mexico, 20,000,000.
Total population South America, 80,000,000.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
DANIEL C. ROPER, Secretary
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Claudius T. Murchison, Director
PARTIAL DATA ON BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS IN
THE UNITED STATES
(In millions of dollars)
Prepared by the Division of Economic Research
H. Gordon Hayes, Chief
Note: Data are not available in respect to the total volume of
business transactions. The following data are offered as helpful
suggestions:

Bank Debits in 268 Reporting Cities
1929 ...................................... 982,531
1933 ....................................... *303,427
1934 (preliminary) ......................... 356,880
*11 months; no data for March. This month accounted for
about 9 per cent of the total during the decade 1921-1930.
Bank debits in these cities have been estimated to cover
about 90 per cent of all checks drawn in the country. Hence,
the above figures should be increased by one-ninth to rep-
resent all check transactions. It is also commonly esti-
mated that currency payments represent around 10 per
cent of all transactions. Therefore, the estimated total
check payments should be further increased by one-ninth
to arrive at an approximate figure for total transactions
settled by bank checks or currency.
These transactions do not show the total monetary val-
ue of transactions. For example, transfers on the stock
and commodity exchanges may be settled by payments of
net balances and real estate transfers in which buyers as-
sume mortgages are settled for less than the total value of
the property involved.
1929 1933
Manufactures (value of products).......... 70,435 31,359
Wholesale trade (net sales)............... 68,950 32,031
Retail trade (net sales through retail stores) 49,115 25,037
Service establishments, places of amusement,
and hotels (net receipts)................ 2,761
Gross receipts of all corporations (as com-
piled from income tax returns).......... 161,158 81,638(1932)
Gross income from farm production........ 11,941 *6,256
*Includes rental and benefit payments.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 5


National Income
Produced Paid Out
1929 ..................................... 82,935 82,300-
1930 ..................................... 70,588 75,800
1931 ..................................... 55,334 63,300
1932 ..................................... 40,755 49,700
1933 (preliminary) ....................... 42,665 46,800
Sources: Bank debits, Federal Reserve Board; manufactures,
wholesale and retail trade, and service industries, places of amuse-
ment, and hotels, Bureau of the Census; corporation receipts, Com-
missioner of Internal Revenue; farm income, Department of Agri-
culture; national income, Division of Economic Research, Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Stock of money:
December 31, 1934.............................. $14,306,814,000
March 31, 1935 ................................. 14,522,786,000
Money in circulation:
December 31, 1934 ............................ $5,535,672,000
March 31, 1935 ........................ .. ....... 5,493,138,000

Bank Deposits and Loans as Reported by the Federal
Reserve Board
Loans Deposits, exclusive
of interbank deposits
All reporting banks:
June 30, 1934 ................. $21,279,000,000 $41,857,000,000
Federal Reserve system member banks:
June 30, 1934 .................. $12,523,000,000 $26,615,000,000
December 31, 1934 ............ 12,028,000,000 28,943,000,000
Bank clearings, calendar year 1934:
(Commercial and Financial Chronicle) ............ $261,364,860,000
National debt:
December 31, 1934:
Gross debt ................................ $28,479,297,000
Net debt, including matured interest obligations 26,245,937,000
April 30, 1935 (preliminary)
Gross debt ................................. 28,668,106,000
Gross debt, less net balance in general fund.... 26,733,384,000





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


RURAL POVERTY
Remarks by Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture,
at the Third General Assembly of the Council of State
Governments, Washington, D. C., Jan. 23, 1937, at 10 a. m.
This opportunity to speak to the Council of State Gov-
ernments is one which I welcome. I want to talk over with
you some aspects of that part of our agricultural program
which will undoubtedly receive increasing emphasis during
the next few years, and therefore will directly concern both
yourselves and those of us connected with the National Ad-
ministration. This newer phase of agricultural development
is the general rehabilitation of that growing part of our farm
population which during the past has been submerged in
poverty, and chained by the handicaps of poor land, exces-
sive debt, and insecurity in the occupancy of their homes.
When the Federal Government first assumed the respon-
sibility for the relief of those impoverished by the depres-
sion, this problem of the submerged element in our rural
population first received national attention. It has been
attacked in several ways, and as the government has gained
experience with the problem, it has become clear that special
means of attack were needed. The problem raised by the
impoverishment of farmers was unlike that of industrial un-
employment. Farmers are small capitalists; their personal
bankruptcy does not consist of losing a job that they can
later regain when industrial activity is renewed. The grad-
ual impoverishment of rural families means the wiping out
of millions of small accumulations of private capital: the
failure of businesses, not merely their temporary idleness.
To correct that situation it is necessary to start at the ground
and, by slow and painstaking work, attempt to reconstruct
the basis of this individual capitalism which various depress-
ing forces have undermined. In devising this program of
agricultural rehabilitation, we have evolved a new approach
and reached a new understanding of the factors to be dealt
with. This new approach is now bearing fruit, and it is of
that I want to tell you.
The million or more farm families who have come to the
Resettlement Administration and other agencies for aid
consist, to a certain extent, of those who, as a direct result
of the depression, had lost their farms and means of liveli-
hood. But even more significant than this group of depres-
sion victims, were those whose poverty represented the
result of a generation or more of limited opportunity and
social handicap. Their condition revealed the existence of
long-time undermining forces in American agriculture, a
corrosion of our rural life at its very roots.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Some of the families represented in this group are those
who still occupy Worn-out tracts of farmland. Their present
deplorable condition tells the story of decades of wasteful
land use. Another group, the number of which was greatly
increased by recent drought, is composed of those who set-
tled on dry lands under circumstances which made success-
ful farming almost impossible. Finally there are those who
have suffered from our land tenure system with its specula-
tion, and increasing insecurity.
The United States Department of Agriculture, in co-
operation with the several States, has long tried to serve
American farmers. Through the various bureaus and ex-
periment stations in all parts of the nation, it has developed
new ways of farming and improved old ones. The Farm
Credit System has reduced interest rates.
But valuable as this work has been to farmers the
benefits of research and education have served only a part
of our farmers. Its help to the top third of our farm
population has been tremendous; its help to the bottom half
of our farmers has been small.
This fact is not the fault of the Department or of the co-
operating State institutions. The poorer families on our
farms, numbering several million, have been unable to share
in these benefits because of economic and social forces too
great for them. Poor land and insufficient capital have made
it impossible for many to utilize the services of the experi-
ment stations and of the Farm Credit System. Poor educa-
tion and grinding poverty have closed their minds. Too
many families have been unable to live with ordinary
decency.
The present movement to help this great mass of people
is not based upon sentiment. It is common sense. Rural
poverty has been closely linked with national poverty; for
poverty, lack of education, ignorance and hopelessness have
bred a disregard for the land, our basic natural resources. It
is no accident that our greatest rural poverty is found in
regions where destruction of the soil by wind or water has
been most severe. Ignorance and poverty breed waste.
Waste in turn breeds increased ignorance and poverty. If
we w'sh to save and improve our natural resources of soil,
grass and forest, we must also save and improve the people
in whose care those resources lie.
We are accustomed to think of our farm population as
the stable backbone of our nation. Most of our great lead-
ers have come from farm homes. But while we have been
indulging in romantic thinking about the beauties of a farm
background, the actual picture of our farm life has acquired
some grimly unpleasant aspects. The rural civilization
which we imagined existed, has been undermined by waste,





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


and mismanagement. While we are proceeding with a pro-
gram of security for industrial workers, security is grad-
ually declining among the farm population.
Several million poverty-stricken rural families are a
tremendous potential consuming public. A million farm
families in the United States have an average total income of
less than $400 per year. A half million families live on land
too poor to warrant continued cultivation. Such facts are
inconsistent with a national goal of economic democracy-
a goal that implies the greatest possible distribution of in-
come as a means of supporting purchasing power. The pos-
sibility of developing this great untouched field of consum-
ers is one of great concern to industry.
The problem of increased security of farm tenure and
better land use is national. But because the problem is na-
tional does not mean that it is not also a matter for local and
State concern. In any of these programs dealing directly
with human lives and methods of work, the possibilities of
Federal action are limited by our Constitution and govern-
mental tradition. If the program is to succeed, it will require
the closest cooperation between the States and the Federal
Government.
Right now there is particular interest being displayed in
the problem of farm tenancy. In part this is due to the fact
that the President has appointed a national committee to
report to him on methods of dealing with the farm tenant
problem. This committee is now engaged in studying the
tenant problem and drawing up its recommendations for
action.
We have always considered the United States as a land of
independent home owners. Such was undoubtedly the con-
cept of the founding fathers. But as we look back upon the
history of our land settlement, we see that instead of a
growing community of farm owner-operators, we have pro-
duced a growing community of tenants. Today less than
half of our farmers own all the land they operate. About
42 percent of our farmers own no land at all.
Seven southern states have more than 60 percent of their
farms operated by tenants, while, four of the New England
States have a tenancy percentage of less than 10. But no
major agricultural region can afford to neglect this problem.
The Cornbelt States have high percentages of tenancy, many
of them well above the national average. In the Great Plains
tenancy is a basic problem. In the western states, although
agriculture is yet comparatively young and tenancy is not
yet so very serious, the rate of increase from 1930 to 1935,
was generally higher than in other parts of the United
States.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 9

Several bills dealing with the farm tenant problem have
already been introduced into Congress this session, and it
appears probable that some form of Federal legislation on
the subject will result. Most of these bills revolve around
some procedure for Federal help to tenant farmers who wish
to acquire farms of their own. Some measure of this sort
would appear to be desirable, as the extension of financial
help for the purchase of farms is one of the biggest contri-
butions the Federal Government can make to the solution of
the problem. Such a program must, however, recognize the
fact that ownership needs not only to be established but
protected and maintained.
As I have pointed out on other occasions, there are some
2,800,000 tenant farmers in the United States, and this num-
ber is now increasing every year by about 40,000. If we are
to finance all the tenant farmers in the purchase of farms,
the task assumes impossible proportions. Other methods of
meeting the problem must also be employed.
As you all recognize, the basic problem of farm tenancy
is that of insecurity. It is insecurity of tenure that creates
a shifting tenant population, undermining rural institutions.
It is the insecurity of tenure that prevents tenants from tak-
ing an interest in soil conservation and leads them to skim
off the topsoil in an attempt to get as much as possible out
of their land in the shortest time. The institution of tenancy
itself is not an essentially bad thing. If we can introduce an
element of security into our tenant system we will go far to-
wards solving the basic problem that now causes justifiable
alarm. Some of you may know that Great Britain has met
its problem of farm tenancy in just this way. Tenancy in
that country has been transformed from an institution of
exploitation and insecurity, to one of permanence and
economic stability, by the passage of legislation governing
the contractual relations of landlords and tenants.
In any attempt to create a better tenant farming system
in the United States, the States themselves will have to take
the most prominent part. Regulation of landlord-tenant
relationships is outside the scope of Federal action. But the
States can do a great deal-in fact the opportunity for an
effective solution of our farm tenant problem through im-
provement of landlord-tenant relations, is perhaps the great-
est of all. State action to improve tenancy can reach all
tenants and can be accomplished with relative rapidity, as
compared to the slow gradual process of financing tenant
farmers year by year. In such legislation a dual objective
must be set up and strongly adhered to. Farm tenure should
first provide security to both the landlord and tenant, and




READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


second, it should be firmly linked with the conservation of
natural resources.
Many plans have already been widely discussed in this
nation and abroad as to how such objectives can be best
translated into legislation. In a sense both these objectives
go hand in hand. If the tenant feels secure, and is confident
that his constructive work will redound to his own benefit,
he will in the vast majority of cases practice conservation of
soil. And when the tenant has adopted a program of soil
conservation and farm improvement, it will be reflected in
additional security for the landlord.
One of the obvious methods whereby tenants can be made
to feel security is to provide for better leasing provisions
insofar as the term of lease is concerned. Our farm leases
as a rule run for one year only, and the American tenant
farmer moves on an average of once every three or four
years. There is little security in that system. But if leases
were to be drawn up with some provision for automatic re-
newal, then a large measure of security would be introduced.
State legislation could do much to bring about this greater
security by requiring the landlord to give a year's notice of
intention to terminate the lease, or else compensate the
tenant for losses incurred in having to move on short notice.
Tenants would then be enabled to plan their operations in
two-year periods at least.
Closely linked to this subject is that of proper compensa-
tion to tenants for improvements which they make and leave
on a farm. Lack of such compensation naturally discourages
effort to improve the land. Legislation could require the just
compensation of the tenant for improvements in soil fertility,
buildings. or of other nature, when left behind by a tenant
leaving his farm.
In passing, I should like to mention the need for written
leases with farm tenants as a means of establishing a clear
understanding of the terms, and as a definite protection to
both the landlord and the tenant.
In connection with its rehabilitation program, the Re-
settlement Administration of the Department of Agriculture,
has attempted to secure written leases for its loan clients,
and has found that such a system is both workable and help-
ful. It would also seem desirable to have some convenient
means established for settling disputes between landlords
and tenants in connection with these leases.
This whole subject of farm tenancy will be thoroughly
discussed in the report of the President's Farm Tenancy
Committee. I have mentioned only a few of the more obvious
methods available for State action. More details will be




READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 11

found in the Report of the President's Committee, and I
hope this will soon be ready for your inspection.
Any program to help tenants become farm owners runs
into tremendous human problems. Some tenant farmers,
particularly in the poorest farming sections, may not have
the ability to become farm owners at once. That is an addi-
tional reason for improving the tenant system, so that it can
be freed of its undesirable aspects and yet retained as an
opportunity for those who either cannot or prefer not to
become owners. In any case, if these families are to reach
independent self-support, the process will have to be a
gradual one. No hurry up process will answer the need.
Education and guidance will have to go hand in hand with
financial help.
Helping the poorer farm families improve their own posi-
tion step by step has been the guiding principle of the rural
rehabilitation program of the Resettlement Administration.
This program originally started by caring for farm families
on relief, and broadened out to include other farm families
on the poverty border line and beyond the help of the exist-
ing farm lending agencies. Loans averaging $350 have been
extended to those families who occupied land suitable for
farming, and along with the loans came the technical assist-
ance of trained agriculturalists and home management ex-
perts.
A special attempt is made to put the home in better
condition, and the housewife is helped to care for a garden
and can food for the winter months. If the farm is rented,
we try to secure three to five-year leases on equitable terms.
In this manner hundreds of thousands of farm families
are being helped to take the first step from poverty and
distress to independence and a comfortable standard of liv-
ing. According to an informal report which I received the
other day, about 25,000 farm families, who had started as
relief clients, now have the- necessary capital and knowledge
to run their own affairs independent of further support. In
other words, Rural Resettlement now has 25,000 graduates.
At the same time, I take particular pleasure in the knowl-
edge that several hundred thousand additional families are
on their way towards complete rehabilitation. It is far more
significant to raise several hundred thousand families a few
degrees, and place them in an upward instead of a downward
progress, than it is completely to rehabilitate a small per-
centage.
In this work a maximum of local cooperation is sought.
Committees of local leaders are asked to consult with the
county supervisors, and to give their advice as to the charac-





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


ter of those farmers who apply for loans-for these re-
habilitation loans are in reality "character loans." I believe
that this type of local cooperation is essential in a general
program to raise the standard of living of these most handi-
capped farm people.
It has frequently been said that the mass of poor farm-
ers in the United States do not have the necessary energy
or intelligence ever to manage their own affairs. Of course
there are such people. We have found them in our rural
rehabilitation program. The problem of how to handle them
satisfactorily remains to be solved. But our experience with
several hundred thousand families reveals that this is by
no means the whole story. Very often we have found that
families considered to be "no-account" were in reality suf-
fering from pellagra or some other disease, and that after
they had obtained some medical care and learned how to
provide a better diet for themselves, their native human
energy and intelligence began to function again. In other
cases, families have been burdened by an economic system
that has kept them perpetually in debt at a high rate of
interest. That the condition of these people is not usually a
matter of deficient character can be shown by the results of
a little dose of economic independence, decent food, and some
educational guidance.
The success of any program of agricultural improvement
depends in the long run on the wise use of land. A large
portion of our present rural poverty and backwardness
comes from unwise methods of land use, and unless we have
good land well used, no program for raising the rural stand-
ard of living can hope to attain its goal. What is more,
poverty on our farms will continue to grow and undermine
the constructive work which we are attempting, unless bet-
ter land use principles are put into practice.
You are no doubt familiar with many of the evidences of
mistaken land use. Our attempts to publicize these factors
have been unfortunately outdone by the vivid and tragic
demonstrations which nature has staged for us. You have
heard that 50,000,000 acres of once fertile farmland has been
practically ruined for agriculture by erosion. You may know
that there are some 100,000,000 acres of land in farms which
on the basis of expert judgment and experience are consid-
ered unsuited to crop farming. You undoubtedly are aware
that the destruction of the grass, the forests, and the top-
soil on our land has placed millions of acres in public owner-
ship for failure to pay taxes, while a large additional domain
is still delinquent.
Under various agencies, the Federal Government is vig-
orously attacking this third cause of rural poverty and de-





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 18

pression. The Soil Conservation Service is helping farmers
protect their land from rain and wind. Through the Agri-
cultural Conservation program much of our crop land is be-
ing devoted to building up the soil. Through a land use
planning program we have been able to get the first real
summary of our land resources. We have been able to locate
the problem areas and the nature of the bad practices which
must be corrected. Finally, we have undertaken to carry
out specific adjustments in land use in our marginal areas,
by the purchase of some 9,000,000 acres of land unsuited to
farming, but adapted to some other constructive use. The
complete task is gigantic. We have as yet made only a
beginning. In this land use program, the cooperation of
your State governments is also essential.
One cannot get away from the fact that the question of
constructive or destructive use of land depends upon the
people in whose care that land lies. In the United States
we have through a century and a half of our history, pro-
duced a new idea of land ownership, as expressed by the title
to land in fee simple absolute. Our farmers, our speculators,
and other land owners obtained with their land the right to
use and abuse the land as they saw fit. With a thoughtless-
ness born of the rich plenty of our resources we have lost
a sense of the deep responsibility towards the nation and
the race that goes with ownership of the soil. Had we not
lost that, we would not now be suffering from the disastrous
consequences of waste which are so evident on all sides. The
basic need in our land policy today is to re-establish a social
responsibility in the use of land, recognizing that no single
individual has the right to destroy what must be the source
of livelihood for succeeding generations. The Federal Gov-
ernment cannot legislate responsibility into the minds of our
people. The only way to cultivate responsibility is to grant
it and teach it. That is why our problem of land use goes
right back to the people on the land, and to their local gov-
ernmental agencies.
As an illustration of this fact, let me refer to the problem
of soil erosion. The Federal Government and its cooperat-
ing agencies in the States may indicate ways by which
private landowners can terrace and list their land so that
the soil will stay in its proper place. But this program is
powerless in the face of irresponsible land ownership that
will not take the trouble to care for its soil. To tackle that
problem, which those of you from the plains States will rec-
ognize as of vital importance to the protection of whole local
areas, local direct action is necessary.
In this connection I should like to call to your particular
attention the Standard State Soil Conservation Districts Law





14 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

which has been drawn up in the Department of Agriculture
at the request of numerous State agencies. The statute
under which the Federal Soil Conservation Service operates,
authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to require adoption
of State laws for the control of soil erosion as a condition to
the expenditure of Federal funds for that purpose within
the States. It has been, moreover, our frequently stated
policy that after July 1, 1937, no new soil conservation pro-
jects shall be established in any State which by that time
had not passed such legislation. The Standard State Soil
Conservation Districts Law is the type of legislation which
is believed to be capable of achieving the necessary results.
By this model law, local agencies called soil conservation
districts are set up and empowered, first, to carry out soil
conservation projects, including assistance to private land-
owners, and second, to enact regulations governing the use
of private land insofar as they may be necessary to secure
proper conservation of the soil. Local agencies of this sort
would be able to do what the Federal Government cannot do.
They provide a mechanism for bolstering up the conserva-
tion work of responsible landowners, and enable any com-
munity of land operators to enforce a program of soil con-
servation upon those owners who refuse to prevent their
soil from washing or blowing away and injuring the lands
of their neighbors.
Because its policy is to make possible the direct exercise
of responsible local authority, the Standard State Soil Con-
servation Districts Law embodies a thoroughly democratic
process. Soil conservation districts can be established only
after a majority of the land occupiers in the area have voted
favorably in a public referendum. Control over the districts
is vested in a board consisting both of experts assigned by
the State, and of local citizens representing the community
wherein its work is to be carried out. No land use regula-
tion proposed by this board can become law except after a
favorable majority vote of local farmers.
Various local bodies can be and are being used to effect
constructive uses of land. There is, for example, the problem
of managing large grazing areas, which now consist of sep-
arately owned land, some in private hands, some abandoned,
and some in public hands. The continuation of this mixed
and broken pattern of use encourages the worst sort of over-
grazing and waste. Some unified ownership and control is
necessary in order to place the land under such management
as will make it serve its greatest value, and yet conserve the
grass resources. At least one State has shown the way in
setting up local associations endowed with certain public
powers which enable them to lease lands from either public





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


or private owners, and assume control over large areas of
grazing land. There are striking instances on record of how
the grass on certain of these areas under local control has
been improved in carrying capacity, while on adjoining areas
of uncontrolled land unrestricted use has not only greatly
reduced the capacity of the range but exposed spots of earth
to the effects of wind erosion.
Throughout the United States economic change, the de-
pletion of soil, grass or forest, or other malpractices in land
use, have destroyed the producing power of large areas of
land. Owners of such tracts, rather than keep up payment
of taxes, have allowed the land to go into public ownership.
Many of you know the serious consequence of tax delin-
quency, particularly in States where land taxation provides
a major part of the revenue for local government. On the
one hand, counties and States are embarrassed by the loss
of tax revenue, and are forced to lay additional levies as
further burdens on hard-pressed taxpayers. On the other
hand, there is this large amount of tax reverted and tax
delinquent land which the counties and States rarely use
to any constructive purpose..
Much of this tax delinquency is concentrated on lands
that have been wrongly used. So long as it remains in poor
use, it will fail to produce tax revenue. It has been usual in
dealing with tax reverted land, for the county or State to
attempt to sell it back into private ownership as quickly
as possible. In cases where the land is of sufficiently good
quality to support a family, this procedure has its good
points. But we must face the truth that large amounts of
land, unsuited to crop farming, are being turned over to new
families by tax sales. In effect this means that the State
or county is encouraging a wrong use of land, aiding a family
to waste its capital, and contributing nothing toward the
solution of the tax delinquency problem. Furthermore this
process is breeding the very type of rural poverty against
which we are striving. If we help impoverished families
move off poor land to better farms, we cannot tolerate a
system which is encouraging others to get into the same
troubles that we are trying to abolish.
It is possible for the local governments to meet the
problem of tax-reverted lands in a constructive fashion.
Land is usually of value for something. The problem is to
find out not by guesswork or blind judgment, but on the basis
of careful appraisal, what the land is good for, and then
to put it to that use. Millions of acres of tax reverted and
tax delinquent land in the Great Plains. for instance; are
admirably suited to grazing use. . Millions of acres of
land held by other States or counties would serve a good





16 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

purpose as forest land or recreation areas. The Federal
Government is now buying up large acreages of private land
in order to convert it from unwise uses to constructive
uses. This program would be tremendously more effective
if a similar program of land use adjustment could be carried
out by the States on their tax reverted lands. From the
viewpoint of the States and counties, some action is inevit-
able if the amounts of delinquencies are not to increase.
Placed in its proper use, all land should produce some re-
venue-if not in taxes, then in the form of leases of rights
for use.
The whole matter of improving the handling of tax
delinquency is vital in our program for better land use. The
delinquent lands should be carefully studied in order to deter-
mine just what their actual character is, and classified as to
their best use. The execution of this type of land study, in
which the land use planning agencies of the Department are
already experienced, will have far more value than merely
to help solve the problem of tax reverted lands alone. It can
serve as a basis for rural zoning and other regulatory
measures which we must look forward to as means of insur-
ing against future mistakes in land use. After all, we do not
merely want to try to catch up with past mistakes; we want
also to prevent future errors.
If we are to know how to use our land, we must first know
more about its present condition, and obtain a clearer under-
standing of all the possible uses the land may have. We
have often undertaken studies of our land from one view-.
point alone: we have explored its soil types, mapped its topo-
graphy, and noted its natural cover. But we are only now
beginning to get together all the facts about a given area of
land-soil, climate, productive capacity, water-and balance
them against-each other to see what purposes the land can
best serve.
That kind of exhaustion study, of course, cannot be done
all at once. It will take many years, and it will demand
again the cooperation of all our governmental agencies. But
if we are to know what our land is really good for, and what
the causes for present waste and depreciation are, we must
obtain a more intensive knowledge of the economic and
physical resources of our land.
Even from this summary it is clear, I believe, that the
programs for better land use, for security of farm tenure,
and for human rehabilitation cover a vast field. We can-
not hope for a stable civilization in town or country unless
these problems are solved. The goal is three-fold-security,
conservation and higher living standards. It is a goal that
is worthy of our united efforts.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 17

$400,000,000-THE CITRUS INDUSTRY'S
CAPITAL INVESTMENT
If the total capital invested in Florida's citrus industry
were lumped in one sum under one organization, the Florida
State Bureau of Marketing estimates the result would be
an industrial giant with capital investment of $400,000,000.
This large investment of capital falls into many divi-
sions: The large and small investments in groves by grow-
ers; capital employed in construction of packing houses for
handling the citrus crop; money used to build canning and
processing plants; money invested in equipment of all types
for growing, picking, packing, selling and transportation of
Florida's golden fruit.
State Marketing Bureau estimates of the gross revenue
to Florida for last year's (1933-4) harvest of 28,409,630
boxes of citrus fruits shipped to northern markets, con-
sumed in the state and processed in canning factories, to-
taled $36,877,896. This estimate is not a return to growers,
but the gross sum returned to pay the cost of transporta-
tion in the state by rail, ship and truck; for wages for labor;
for all costs in production of oranges, grapefruit and tan-
gerines from blossom to market.
Back of the capital structure of the citrus industry are
more than 350,000 acres of grove lands in Florida; some
700 packing houses, large and small; modern facilities of
all kinds for handling a citrus production equivalent to
more than 78,000 carloads last season; and estimated em-
ployment for 60,000 workers in winter and 20,000 in sum-
mer.
Citrus is truly a major industry in Florida, with a large
long-term capital investment. The most important task
facing the industry's leaders is the return to the grower of
a profit commensurate with the wealth he helps create for
Florida.
According to the twentieth census of crops and manu-
factures (1932) compiled by the State Department of Ag-
riculture, Florida has approximately 1,730.057 acres of
land in actual cultivation. These figures include field crop
lands, truck crop lands and citrus groves in all sections of
the state.
In its bulletin on "The Citrus Fruit Outlook for 1933-
34," the United States Department of Agriculture estimates
a total of 350,000 acres in orange and grapefruit groves in
Florida, bearing and non-bearing.





18 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

With acreage in tangerines and satsumas added, it is
evident that more than one-fifth of Florida's producing
acres are in citrus groves.
The United States Department of Agriculture survey
shows that of 260,000 acres of orange groves in the state,
39,000 are not of bearing age. The grapefruit acreage, es-
timated at 90,000 includes approximately 8,100 acres not
yet.of bearing age.
This estimate of acreage devoted to citrus culture in
Florida (and nursery acreage is excluded in the figures
above) is the fundamental starting point in evaluation of
the citrus industry to Florida.
Incidentally, Florida's last crop census places a valua-
tion of $128,882,013 on the bearing orange and grapefruit
groves of the state. This figure is an estimate only of the
"state" of Florida citrus growers in their lands and bearing
trees.

CITRUS FRUIT CROPS OF FLORIDA
Season Total Boxes Season Total Boxes
1884-85............ 600,000 1909-10............ 6,130,798
1885-86........... 900,000 1910-11............ 4,360,497
1886-87............ 1,260,000 1911-12............ 4,708,350
1887-88............ 1,450,000 1912-13............ 8,125,465
1888-89............ 1,950,000 1913-14............ 7,651,514
1889-90........... 2,150,000 1914-15............ 9,573,011
1890-91 .......... 2,450,000 1915-16............ 8,205,434
1891-92. ... ....... 2,713,180 1916-17............ 6,960,000
1892-93............ 3,450,000 1917-18............ 5,581,309
1893-94............ 5,055,367 1918-19............ 8,946,204
1894-95............ 2,808,187 1919-20............ 12,495,925
1895-96............ 147,000 1920-21............ 13,195,398
1896-97............ 218,379 1921-22 ............ 13,331,949
1897-98............ .358,966 1922-23 ............ 16,886,701
1898-99............ 252,000 1923-24............ 19,200,000
1899-00............. 274,000 1924-25........... 19,171,440
1900-01............ 352,000 1925-26............ 14,694,120
1901-02............ 974,033 1926-27............ 16,588,800
1902-03............ 1,465,306 1927-28............ 13,600,000
1903-04......... 1,950,823 1928-29............ 23,200,000
1904-05............ 2,961,195 1929-30............ 14,200,000
1905-06............ 3,793,126 1930-31............ 27,200,000
1906-07........... 3,800,000 1931-32............ 26,748,133
1907-08............ 3,250,000 1932-33........... 20,176,000
1908-09............ 4,634,587 1933-34............ 28,000,000
1935-36*........... 38,000,000
*Estimated by Federal Government Station at Orlando.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 19

FLORIDA CITRUS ESTIMATE
By H. A. MARKS
Federal Agricultural Statistician

Total production of Florida citrus for the season 1934-35
is estimated at 36,000,000 boxes of which 21,000,000 boxes
are oranges, including tangerines, and 15,000,000 boxes
grapefruit. This is fruit for all purposes and includes the
shipped crop and fruit for canning and local consumption.
Total production for last year was 28,800,000 boxes of
which 18,100,000 were oranges including tangerines and
10,700,000 grapefruit.
Commercial production for 1934-35 is estimated at 30,-
000,000 boxes compared with 24,000,000 boxes shipped for
the season of 1933-34. Oranges including tangerines are
estimated at 19,000,000 boxes compared with 16,500,000
boxes shipped in 1933-34 and grapefruit at 11,000,000 com-
pared with 7,500,000 for the past season. This represents
fruit available for shipment by rail, boat and truck. Actual
shipments may be less than this amount depending on mar-
keting conditions and restrictions under the proposed mar-
keting agreement.
The growing season so far has been unusually favorable
with rains well distributed. There has been no damage
from storm or drought and dropping of fruit during the
summer months has been below average. Oranges are fully
up to the average in size but grapefruit averages smaller
than usual, especially in groves bearing heavy crops. For
the first time, the estimated crop is being divided by var-
ieties.
Total Crop Commercial Crop
1933-34 1934-35 1933-34 1934-35
Oranges & Tangerines 18,100,000 21,000,000 16,500,000 19,000,000
Early & Mid-season 9,600,000 11,500,000 8,700,000 10,400,000
Valencies ......... 6,500,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 6,400,000
Tangerines .......... 2,000,000 2,500,000 1,800,000 2,200,000
Grapefruit, all ....... 10,700,000 15,000,000 7,500,000 11,000,000
Seedless .......... 2,800,000 4,000,000 2,300,000 3,400,000
Other ............ 7,900,000 11,000,000 5,200,000 7,600,000
Total ........... 28,800,000 36,000,000 24,000,000 30,000,000





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


IMPORTS OF GRAPEFRUIT AND ORANGES INTO THE
UNITED KINGDOM IN 1929-1934


GRAPEFRUIT
Thousands Average value
Cwts. per cwt.
Shillings pence
543 33 3
556 32 6
896 27 6
773 26 6
776 27 4
974 23 10


ORANGES
Thousands Average value
Cwts. per cwt.
Shillings pence
9,264 21 2
10,207 18 8
10,391 18 4
9,343 16 3
11,555 14 8
10,399 14 9


IMPORTS INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM OF
GRAPEFRUIT IN 1933 AND 1934


Country whence
consigned '

South Africa .................... ;.........
British W est Indies ........................
Palestine ......... .......................
British Honduras ..........................
Other Empire Countries ....................

United States .......................... .
Puerto Rico ..............................
Cuba .....................................
Portuguese East Africa ....................
Brazil ..................................
Other Foreign Countries ....................

Total Empire Countries ...................
Total Foreign Countries ....................

Total .................................


1933 1934
thousand Thousand


cwts.
134
70
129
2

345
33
21
25
6
11

335
441

776


cwts.
151
118
240
9
2

339
19
20
24
24
28

520
454

974


1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 21


IMPORTS OF ORANGES INTO THE UNITED
KINGDOM IN 1933 AND 1934
Country whence 1933 1934
consigned Thousand Thousand
cwts. cwts.
Palestine .................................. 1,943 2,047
South Africa .............................. 1,122 1,217
Southern Rhodesia ......................... 52 73
British W est Indies ........................ 2 1
Australia ........... ...................... 46 113
Cyprus ... ................................ 27 63
Other Empire Countries .................... .. 1

Spain .............................. ......... 6,616 5,060
Italy ...................................... 32 49
United States ............................. 541 500
Brazil ......................... .. ........ 1,105 1,219
Portuguese East Africa .................... 10 6
Other Foreign Countries.................... 59 50

Total Empire Countries ..................... 3,192 3,515
Total Foreign Countries .................... 8,363 6,884

Total ................................ 11,555 10,399


FLORIDA CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND
OTHER DATA FOR 9 YEARS

Records Total Portion Portion Total
and Carloads of such with No. So-called
Estimates Reported Carloads Rail Haul Commercial
Season Shipped Shipped Shipped Shipments
All Citrus Carloads by Rail By Boat Boxes

1925-26 40,812 40,754 58 14,694,120
1926-27 46,082 45,962 120 16,588,800
1927-28 37,876 37,680 196 13,635,360
1928-29 63,673 62,996 677 23,239,645
1929-30 39,485(4) 39,231 254(4) 14,214,600
1930-31 74,645 72,949 1,696 27,229,945
1931-32 49,235 44,996 4,239 18,914,165
1932-33 55,501 44,456 11,045 20,176,750
1933-34 53,311 32,288 21,023 20,884,890
Averages 51,180 46,812 4,368 18,842,031





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


FLORIDA CITRUS SHIPMENTS, VALUATIONS, AND
OTHER DATA FOR 9 YEARS-Continued
Cost of Cost of Estimated Estimated
Records Production Picking, Estimated Net on tree FOB
and (2) Hauling, Gross (1) Returns
Estimates on Trees, Preparing, Fob Returns returns to "Commer-
Season Before Packing, Florida Florida eial Ship-
All Citrus Picked Selling Points Growers ments"
Per Box Per Box Per Box Per Box Gross Value

1925-26 $0.79 $1.30 $3.31 $1.22 $48,658,032
1926-27 .64 1.30 2.59 .65 42,887,340
1927-28 .63 1.28 3.77 1.84 51,424,100
1928-29 .64 1.25 2.11 .22 49,035,794
1929-30 .71 1.29 3.19 1.19 45,399,313
1930-31 .43 1.10 1.86 .33 50,569,525
1931-32 .53 .92 1.95 .50 36,948,352
1932-33 .45 .90 1.36 .01% 27,465,441
1933-34 .44 .87 1.65 .33% 34,451,906
Averages .53** 1.10** 2.23* .60* 42,982,200

Estimated Data for
Records on Tree Estimated Estimated Estimated Estimated
and Return (1) Trucked(S) Canned (3) Consumed Florida
Estimates Commercial Out of in (3) In Production
Season Shipments Florida Florida Florida Utilized
All Citrus Net Value Boxes Boxes Boxes Total Boxes

1925-26 $17,926,826 300,000 Negligible 1,500,000 16,494,120
1926-27 10,721,124 500,000 Unimportant 1,500,000 18,588,800
1927-28 25,151,097 800,000 600,000 1,000,000 16,035,360
1928-29 5,038,712 1,500,000 1,527,320 2,250,000 28,516,965
1929-30 16,942,604 (4)100,900 1,710,000 1,200,000 17,224,600
1930-31 8,920,949 2,640,000 2,954,056 2,180,970 35,004,971
1931-32 9,442,872 2,525,520 966,533 2,040,000 24,443,523
1932-33 309,774 3,010,180 2,800,000 2,422,700 28,409,630
1933-34 7,022,618 3,249,000 2,667,397 2,475,000 29,276,287
Averages 11,275,175 1,624,966 1,889,329 1,840,963 23,777,140


NOTESi (1) Net on tree before deducting for interest, depreciation
and taxes.
(2) Cost of production on tree includes fertilizer, spray ma-
terials, cultivating, spraying, pruning, etc., but not in-
terest, etc.
(3) Estimated figures for "trucked-out" stock are well bas-
ed for last 4 years.
Estimated figures for "canned" stock are well based for
last 6 years.
Estimated figures for "consumed in Florida" stock are
rough estimates based on supply, price, population, etc.
(4) "Fruit fly" season.
*Weighted average. **Approximate weighted average.
Florida State Marketing Bureau by F. H. S. January 22, 1935.
Jacksonville, Florida.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


WISE BUYER READS LABEL ON ALL
CANNED PRODUCTS
Canned chicken is one of the handy packaged foods
selected for summer picnics and meals out-of-doors, as well
as for home meals when a minimum of work and cooking
is desired. It is an excellent choice from the standpoint
of convenience and flavor.
But a wise buyer of home supplies, points out the Food
and Drug Administration of the United States Department
of Agriculture, makes a practice of reading labels on all
packaged goods to be sure the family food money is well
spent. She wants information as to the weight and purity
of the contents. Canned chicken is no exception. In the
case of chicken mixtures, she wants to know what else she
is getting and how much of it. No one wants to pay chick-
en prices for canned noodles in a chicken and noodle
mixture.
"Boned chicken" or "boneless chicken" is meat, with
or without a small amount of skin, sterilized in cans and
jars. It generally is packed with a little salt, chicken fat,
and sometimes a small quantity of chicken broth for mois-
ture. This is the chicken for sandwiches and salads or for
slicing as jellied chicken. Sometimes the natural jellying
power of the broth is increased by the addition of gelatin
or agar-agar. These do not injure flavor or food value, but
the law requires their presence be stated on the label.
"Potted" or "deviled" chicken is a sandwich spread
everyone likes. It is made of ground pieces of meat, often
spiced. Canned products such as "chicken a la king" and
"chicken chop suey" contain in addition to the meat, var-
ious quantities of vegetables, condiments, and flavoring ma-
terials. The names themselves suggest the nature of the
products with which the chicken is packed, but they must
be truthful.


PULPWOOD
In a recent survey of the State's chemical industries,
Professor C. B. Pollard of the University of Florida, pointed
out that in addition to securing an adequate supply of pine
pulpwood, it can produce cellulose in abundance from its
fast growing trees. Cellulose is the raw material for the
manufacture of Rayon, Cellophane, celluloid, artificial leath-
er, photographic film, explosives, etc. In its sugar refining





24 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

potentialities it can supply many by-products through
chemical research. In its mineral wealth, consisting largely
of non-metalic minerals, a great development of new indus-
tries based on chemistry is foreseen.
Florida now produces 80 per cent of the nation's phos-
phate rock and 50 per cent of the Fuller's earth. It has
some of the finest china clay in America and other import-
ant common minerals, clay, limestone and sand. It has es-
tablished plants and manufacturing kraft paper, tung oil,
sugar, Portland cement, brick, building board, glass, sul-
phuric acid, fertilizer, fish oil, gypsum and the chemist is
playing a part in the development .of citrus juice and
canning plants.
Florida has a great lumber and naval stores industry,
wood distillation and pine oil plants, and through the chem-
ist it can turn some of its turpentine into synthetic cam-
phor. It has the necessary raw materials, including treat-
ed rosin, tung oil and turpentine for the establishment of
paint and varnish manufacturers, sand for the making of
glass, and essential oils largely imported from foreign
countries.


CANNING FRUITS
Canning of citrus fruits and juices is a comparatively
new Florida industry, one which has shared its quota of
woes during the past three years. It grew too fast.
The canning of citrus products, however, has been defin-
itely established as an important factor in Florida's citrus
industry.
During the packing season of 1932-33, canners packed
approximately 2,960,000 cases of grapefruit hearts, grape-
fruit juice and orange juice-equivalent to one can per year
for nearly half the population of the United States.
The Florida Grapefruit Canners' Association estimates
that approximately 2,800,000 field boxes of grapefruit and
oranges of cannery grade were used in the twenty-eight
canning plants active during the last packing season. The
canned product had a wholesale value of $5,328,000. Some
8,000 workers are employed in the canneries during pack-
ing months.
Much of the grapefruit, grapefruit juice and orange
juice canned in Florida last season went into export trade,
approximately 500,000 cases being shipped to the United





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 25

Kingdom, Belgium, Holland, France, Spain, Germany,
Egypt, China and other overseas destinations.
Here is another Florida product which, like the prophet,
is honored more elsewhere than at home. Canned citrus is
well worthy of a place on the menu in Florida homes, par-
ticularly as a competitor of canned fruits produced else-
where.
You can make delicious salads of canned grapefruit
hearts, and the juice of citrus fruits has many uses. Get
acquainted with this product of Florida's soil and industry.



DIMENSIONS OF CITRUS FIELD BOXES
The dimensions of citrus field boxes are 33"x12"x13".
Section 2377 of the Revised General Statutes of Florida
provides that all field boxes to be used in the sale of or-
anges, grapefruit and lemons by growers to packers or buy-
ers shall be of uniform size or 12" wide, 13" high and
33" long, and shall contain a middle partition not less than
three-fourths of one inch thick, so that the standard field
box has inside dimensions of 12" wide, 13" deep with each
end of the crate 15" long. The middle partition and each
end of the crate has a thickness of one inch, making it 33".



THE GREAT AND GROWING SOUTH
The South produces 100 per cent of the carbon black
produced in America, and
100 per cent of the rosin,
99 per cent of the phosphate rock,
99 per cent of the sulphur,
92 per cent of the cigarettes,
70 per cent of the fertilizers,
78 per cent of the mica,
76 per cent of the Fuller's earth,
73 per cent of the hardwood,
69 per cent of the petroleum,
50 per cent of the feldspar,
49 per cent of the aluminum,
44 per cent of the lead,
41 per cent of the clay products,
40 per cent of the coal.





26 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


SEED REQUIRED PER ACRE
Kind of Seed Quantity
Asparagus in 12-inch drills.............................. 10 qts.
Asparagus Plants, 4 by 1% feet........................... 8,000
Barley ................................................... 2 2 bu.
Beans, bush, in drills, 2% feet.............................. 1 bu.
Beans, pole, Lima, 4 by 4 feet ............................ 20 qts.
Beans, Carolina, prolific, etc., 4 by 3 ft...................... 10 qts.
Beets and Mangel, drills, 2% feet ........................ 9 lbs.
Broom Corn, in drills ................................... 12 lbs.
Cabbage, outside, for transplanting ...................... 12 oz.
Cabbage, sown in frames ............................... 4 oz.
Carrots, in drills, 2% feet ................................. 4 lbs.
Celery, Seed ............................................... 8 oz.
Celery, plant, 4 by % feet............. ................. 25,000
Clover, white Dutch ............................... ...... 13 lbs.
Clover, Lucerne .................. ... ..................... 10 lbs.
Clover, Alsike ............................................ 6 Ibs.
Clover, large red, with timothy........................... 12 lbs.
Clover, large red, without timothy........................ 16 lbs.
Corn, sugar ........................................ .. 10 qts.
Corn, field ............................................ 8 qts.
Corn, salad, drill 10 inches............................... 25 lbs.
Cucumber, in hills...................... .................... 3 qts.
Flax, broadcast ....................................... 20 qts.
Grass, timothy with clover .............................. 6 qts.
Grass, timothy without clover ............................ 10 qts.
Grass, orchard ........................................ 25 qts.
Grass, red top or heads.................................. 20 qts.
Grass, blue ........................................... 28 qts.
Grass, rye ............................ .......... ..... 20 qts.
Lettuce in rows 2% feet................................. 3 lbs.
Lawn grass ......................................... 35 lbs.
Melons, water, in hills 8 by 8 feet.......................... 3 lbs.
Melons, citrons, 4 by 4 feet............................... 2 lbs.
Oats ........................................ .. ......... 2 bu.
Onions, in beds for sets ................................. 50 lbs.
Onions, in rows for large bulbs............................ 7 lbs.
Parsnip, in drills 2% feet............................... 5 lbs.
Pepper, plants, 2% by 1 foot............................. 17,500
Pumpkin, in hills, 8 by 8 feet.............................. 2 qts.
Parsley, in drills, 2 feet................................... 4 lbs.
Peas, in drills, short varieties........................... 2 bu.
Peas, in drills, tall varieties .......................... ...14 bu.
Peas, broadcast .......................................... 3 bu.
Potatoes ............................................ 8 bu.
Radish, in drills 2 feet................................... 10 lbs.
Rye, broadcast ......................................... 1% bu.
Rye, drilled ............................................. 1% bu.
Squash, bush, in hills 4 by 4 feet............... ........... 3 lbs.
Turnips, in drills 2 feet ................................... 3 bs.
Turnips, broadcast ...................................... 3 lbs.
Tomatoes, in frames ..................................... 3 oz.
Tomatoes, seed in hills 3 by 3 feet ........................ 8 oz.
Tomatoes, plants ....................................... 3,800
W heat, in drills .......................................... 1 bu.
Wheat, broadcast .............. ....................... 2 bu.





SEED PLANTING IN THE UNITED STATES
(Compiled from reports of the Department of Agriculture)
NEW ENGLAND
Kind of Amount of Manure Amount of Seed Wks. to
crop Date of Planting Best Soil per Acre per Acre Mature
Corn......... May 10 to 30.......... Sandy or clay loam.... 8 to 12 tons.......... 8 to 12 qts...... ...... 14-17
Wheat........Fall or Spring........ Clay loam............ 18 tons............... 2 bush................ 20
Oats......... April to May......... Strong loam........... 6 to 8 tons........... 2 to 3 bush............ 11-15
Barley....... April to June 20......Strong loam.......... 7 to 8 tons........... 2 to 3 bush............ 10-15
Rye..........April to May, Sept..... Medium loam......... 7 to 8 tons........... 5 to 6 pecks........... 40
Buckwheat... June 1 to 20.......... Light loam ........... 4 to 6 tons........... 1 to 14 bush.......... 10-15
Wh. Beans.... May to June........... Sandy loam........... 7 to 8 tons........... 8 to 16 qts...... ...... 8-14
Potatoes..... April 15 to May 1..... Rich loam............ 15 to 20 tons.......... 8 to 20 bush........... 12-20
Turnips...... July 1 to August 3..... Sandy loam........... 10 tons............... 1 lb................. 10
Mangels...... April 15 to May 5..... Strong, heavy loam.... 8 to 15 tons.......... 4 to 6 lbs............. 17-22
Tobacco...... Seed bed April........Sandy loam........... 8 to 12 tons.......... ..................... 9-12
Hay........................... .............. .......... . ......... ... ........................
MIDDLE STATES
Corn......... April 20 to May 30.... Medium loam......... 8 to 12 tons manure... 6 to 8 qts....... ...... 16-18
Wheat....... Sept. 20 to Oct. 20.... Loam ................ 8 tons; 300 lbs. fer..... 2 bush................ 41-43
Oats......... March to May.......... Moist clay loam....... 8 tons; 300 lbs. fer..... 2 to 2% bush.... ...... 16-17
Barley....... March to May......... Clay loam............ 8 tons; 300 lbs. fer..... 2 to 2% bush.......... 13-16
Rye.......... Sept. 1 to Oct. 1....... Sand or gravel loam... 8 tons; 300 Ibs. fer..... 1 bush.............. 40-43
Buckwheat... June to July......... Loam............... 5 tons............... % to 1 bush.. ...... 8-10
Wh. Beans.... May to June.......... Sandy loam........... 8 tons............... 1 bush.............. 13-14
Potatoes...... March to May........ Loam................ 10 to 18 tons.......... 8 to 15 bush........... 14-22
S. Potatoes... May to June.......... Sandy loam............................... 10 to 12 bush.......... 10-15
Cabbage..... March to July....... Clay or sandy loam.... 300 to 600 lbs. fer...... 4 to 8 oz........ ...... 8-15
Turnips...... July............ ........... Loam ................... .......... 2 to 5 lbs.............. 10-12
Mangels......May ................ Loam ............... 10 to 20 tons...........10 to 15 bush......... 15-18
Flax ............. .....May ...... ....... Limestone loam....... ..................... 20 qts........... .... 8-10
Tobacco...... Seed bed March........ Sandy loam........... Commercial fer....... ....................15-20
Hay, tim'y... Aug. to Oct........... Clay loam............ ................. to 8 qts....... ...........
Hay, cl'v'r.... Feb. to April........ Clay loam .............. ................. 6 ats........... ...........





CENTRAL AND WESTERN STATES


Date of Planting


Best Soil


Amount of Manure
per Acre


Amount of Seed
per Acre


~-~ I-- _---- _- -- --I- I


Corn .........
Wheat .......
Oats.........
Barley.......
Rye.........
Buckwheat..
Wh. Beans....
Potatoes.....
Turnips ......
Mangels......
Flax........
Tobacco......
Hay.........


April 1 to June 1......
Fall or Spring........
April 1 to May 1.......
Fall or Spring.........
Sept. 1 to 30 .........
June.................
May 10 to June 10.....
Mar. 15 to June 1......
July 15 to Aug. 30.....
April 1 to May 15.....
Mar. 15 to May 15.....
Seed bed March.......
April to May..........


Black or Sandy loam...
Strong loam.........
Clay loam............
Clay loam............
Light loam...........
Clay loam............
Clay loam............
Sandy loam...........
Loam or muck.......
Sandy loam............
Loam ................
Sandy loam...........
Clay loam.............


5 to 10 tons..........
8 tons ...............
8 tons..............
8 tons ...............
8 tons...............
5 tons ...............
8 tons..............
5 to 10 tons..........
8 to 10 tons..........
8 to 12 tons..........
10 to 15 tons..........
8 to 10 tons..........
10 tons...............


SOUTHERN STATES


6 qts....... ....
2 bush..........
2 to 3 bush.....
2 bush..........
1 to 2 bush.....
1 to 2 bush.....
1% bush.......
5 to 10 bush.....
1 to 6 lbs........
6to 8 bs.......
2 to 3 pecks.....
Oz. to 6 sq. rd...
8 to 15 lbs.......


Cotton....... Feb. to May 15.......
Corn..........Feb. to June..........
Wheat....... Sept. to Nov..........
Oats......... Feb., May, Sept........
Barley....... April to May.........
Rye..........Sept. to Oct..........
Wh. Beans.... March to May........
Cabbage......Oct., Mar. to May.....
Watermelon.. Mar. 1 to May 10.....
Onions....... Feb. 1 to Apr. 10......
Potatoes..... Jan., Feb. to April....
S. Potatoes... May to June..........
Pumpkins.... April 1 to May 1......
Tomatoes.....Jan. 1 to Feb. 19.......
Turnips...... Feb., Aug., April......
Tobacco...... Seed bed March.......
Cow Peas.... May 1 to July 15......


Sandy loam ............................ .
Rich loam............. 10 bu. cotton seed......
Clay loam ............ 8 tons...............
Clay loam............ 8 to 10 tons..........
Clay loam............ 8 to 10 tons..........
Clay loam............ 10 tons..............
Light loam........... 8 tons...............
Light loam........... 6 to 10 tons..........
Rich, light loam....... 5 tons; 300 lbs. fer ....
Loam or muck...........................
Light, loose loam...... 8 to 12 tons..........
Sandy loam ................................
Rich, light loam....... ................ ...
Rich, sandy loam ...... .....................
Rich, light loam....... .....................
Sandy loam........... 8 to 15 tons..........
Sandy loam........... 200 to 300 lbs. phos.....


1 to 3 bush.....
8 qts...........
2 bush..........
2% bush........
2% bush........
1% bush........
1 to 2 bush......
4 to 8 oz........
2to 7 bs.......

8 to 10 bush.....
10 to 12 bush.....
4to7 lbs.......
4 to 9 oz........
2 to 6 lbs........
Oz. to 6 sq. rd...
2 to 5 pecks.....


Kind of
crop


Wks. to
Mature


16-20
40-42
12-14
11-13
35-40
10-12
12
10-20
10-16
22-24
15-20
15-18


...... 20-30
...... 18-20
...... 43
...... 17
...... 17
...... 43
...... .. 7-8
...... 14
...... 16-20
...... 16-24
...... 11-15
...... 12-15
...... 17-20
...... 14-20
.... 8-12
...... 18-20
. ..... 6-8


SOUTHERN STATES





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 29

HOMEMADE STOCK FEED

The stock and condimental feeds that are generally
bought on the market, which are represented to be condi-
tioners, tonics, and fatteners, have for their foundation
simple and well-known drugs and feeds. If a tonic or feed
is desired, one of known composition may be mixed at home
with entirely satisfactory results. The following two for-
mulas are suggested:
I. II.
Pounds Pounds
Glauber salt .............. 2 Glauber salt .............. 5
Soda .................... 1 Saltpeter ................ 1%
Salt ..................... 1 Fenugreek ............... 1
Fenugreek ............... Gentian ................. 2
Linseed meal .............25 Linseed meal .............50
A heaping tablespoonful of one of the above mixtures
fed with the grain 3 times a day is sufficient.
When a tonic is needed it is advisable to investigate why
it is needed. The horse should receive daily attention re-
garding feed, water, salt, exercise, grooming, sanitation,
and comfortable quarters. Neglect of any of these factors
is usually an underlying cause of the poor condition of the
animal.


REMEDY TO KEEP HORSE FLIES OFF FARM
ANIMALS
It may be impossible for the man who has droves of
cattle on the ranges to apply a remedy to keep the flies from
drawing their blood and vitality, but that is not impossible
for the man with a few cattle on the farm, especially dairy
cattle.
Many fly-control preparations are on the market, some
of which are good and some of which are worthless. In
order to be safe use any one of the three following formu-
las which are recommended by Professor J. R. Watson,
entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station:
No. 1: Laundry soap .............................. 1 pound
W ater ....................................... 4 gallons
Crude petroleum ............................ 1 gallon
Powdered naphthaline ........................ 4 ounces
No. 2: Fish oil ..................................... 100 parts
Oil of tar .................................... 50 parts
Crude carbolic acid .......................... 1 part
No. 3: Laurel oil ................................... 1 part
Linseed oil ..,....... ... . ,.. ..........., 10 parts





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


One may buy the ingredients and prepare the solution
himself and save considerable money thereby. All must be
thoroughly emulsified by running through a spray pump
after which they are ready to be sprayed upon the animals.
Any of them, if properly prepared and applied, should keep
a cow or horse free of flies for at least a day.


HOMEMADE HOG TONIC
Experienced hog feeders have asserted that a mixture
of charcoal, ashes, lime, salt, sulphur and copperas kept
where hogs can eat it will tend to prevent worm infestation.
Though there is no positive experimental evidence in sup-
port of this idea, the mixture is of value as a source of
mineral matter in the diet and perhaps as an appetizer and
tonic. Following is a formula:
Charcoal ..................................... 1 bushel
Hardwood ashes ............................. 1 bushel
Salt ...................................... 8 pounds
Air-slacked lime ...................:......... 4 pounds
Sulphur ...................................... 4 pounds
Pulverized copperas .......................... 2 pounds
Mix the lime, salt and sulphur thoroughly and then mix
with the charcoal and ashes. Dissolve the copperas in 1
quart of hot water and sprinkle the solution over the whole
mass, mixing it thoroughly. Keep some of this mixture
in a box before the hogs at all times, or place in a self-
feeder.


PRESERVING AND CANDLING EGGS
Jos. Wm. Kinghorne
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1109
Preserving in Water Glass.-To preserve 15 dozen eggs
in water glass, the following directions should be followed:
(1) Select a 5-gallon crock (earthen or stone) and clean
it thoroughly, then scald and allow to dry.
(2) Heat 10 to 12 quarts of water to the boiling point
and allow it to cool.
(3) When cool, measure out 9 quarts of water, place
in the crock, and add 1 quart of sodium silicate (commonly
called water glass), which can be purchased at almost any
drug store. Stir well so that the solution becomes thor-
oughly mixed.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 31

The solution thus prepared is ready for the eggs, which
may be put in all at once or from time to time as they are
obtainable. Care should be taken in putting them in the
jar not to crack or break the shells; also make sure that
the solution covers the eggs by at least two inches at all
times.
Put the crock containing the preserved eggs in a cool,
dry place and cover with a tight lid or waxed paper to
prevent evaporation.
To preserve a smaller or larger number of eggs, the solu-
tion should be mixed and prepared in the same proportion.
Preserving With Lime Solution.-If water glass is not
obtainable, lime may be used. It is not considered so good
as water glass, as in some instances eggs preserved by this
method have tasted slightly of lime, although at other
times lime water has proved entirely satisfactory.
To preserve with lime, dissolve 2 pounds of unslacked
lime in a small quantity of water and dilute with five gal-
lons of water that has previously been boiled and cooled.
Allow the mixture to stand until the lime settles, then pour
off and use the clear liquid. Place clean, fresh eggs in a
clean earthenware crock or jar and pour the clear limewater
into the vessel until the eggs are covered. At least 2 inches
of the solution should cover the top layer of eggs.
If best results are to be obtained the eggs should be
fresh and clean and preferably infertile. For this reason
it is always best when possible to candle the eggs carefully
before preserving them unless they are known to be strict-
ly fresh. If an egg is only slightly soiled a cloth dampened
with vinegar may be used to remove the stains, but eggs
should not be washed with water or soap and water, as
water removes the protecting coating that is on the shell
and may tend to cause the contents to spoil. Under no
circumstances should badly soiled or cracked eggs be used
for preserving, as one or more such eggs in a jar may spoil
all the others.
Using Preserved Eggs.-Fresh eggs preserved according
to these directions will usually keep from 6 to 10 months
and can be used satisfactorily for all purposes in cooking
and for the table. If, however, preserved eggs are to be
boiled, a small hole should be made with a pin in the larger
end of the shell before placing them in the water, to allow
the air in the egg to escape when heated and thus prevent
cracking.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Fertile and Infertile Eggs.-An infertile egg is one laid
by a hen that has not been with a male bird for 2 or 3
weeks and the germ cell of which is not fertilized. The
length of time varies somewhat, but ordinarily all eggs will
be infertile after the male has been separated from the
flock for from 2 to 3 weeks. If the germ cell of the egg has
not been fertilized the egg will not hatch, and it is impos-
sible for a blood ring to form in such an egg when exposed
to heat, which so often happens with fertile eggs. Infer-
tile eggs will keep much longer than fertile eggs, and are
best for all purposes except hatching.
A fertile egg is just the opposite of an infertile one. It is
an egg laid by a hen that has been allowed to run with a male
bird within 2 or three weeks and the germ cell of which is
fertilized. The length of time required for fertilizing var-
ies somewhat, depending upon the vigor of the male. Gen-
erally speaking, however, a good percentage of the eggs
will prove fertile after the male has been with the flock
from 2 to 3 weeks. Fertile eggs are the ones from which
chicks are hatched, and are desirable for hatching purposes
only, as they spoil much sooner than infertile eggs, often
resulting in heavy losses.
The male bird makes the egg fertile, and the fertile
egg, if heated, develops a blood ring, making it unfit to eat.
If you do want hatching eggs, then allow the male to run
with the flock during the hatching season, but take him
away after the hatching is completed. The hens will lay
just as many eggs without a male as with one.

Candling Eggs.-By the term candlingg" is meant the
discarding or sorting out of the bad eggs from the good
ones by holding the egg before a strong light in such a
manner that the rays of the light come to the eye through
the egg so that the condition of the contents can be seen.
The shell of a new-laid egg has a soft "glow" or "bloom"
which is a visible sign of perfect freshness. This glow or
bloom is destroyed by handling and in any case disap-
pears after the egg has been exposed to the air for a short
time. After that it is difficult to tell a fresh egg from an
old one by the appearance of the shell; therefore candling
becomes necessary if you would be sure that the egg is
good.
Eggs can be candled best in a dark room, by the use of
a bright light inclosed in a box or case having a hole a
trifle smaller than an egg directly opposite the light. At





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 33

this hole the egg is held for examination. An ordinary
hand lamp, a lantern, an incandescent blub, or a flashlight
may be used. Any box that, set on end, is large enough to
hold the lamp will do. In addition to the hole opposite the
light there should be a hole at the top end of the box, oth-
erwise the heat from the top of the chimney would set the
box on fire. A tester chimney made of tin such as is used
on a lamp for testing eggs in incubators may be used for
candling. When such a chimney is available the box is not
necessary, as the eggs are tested by means of the hole in
the side of the chimney.
The box and light should be placed on a table or a shelf
where most convenient. Place on one side the eggs that
are to be candled and on the other side have separate boxes
(or anything that will hold eggs) for the good and the bad
eggs. Hold the eggs, one by one, large end up, close to the
light.
A perfectly good fresh egg shows "full" and "clear" be-
fore the light. There is almost no air cell at the large end,
and the yolk outline is only faintly visible. A fixed air cell
of one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in depth indi-
cates a fresh egg as eggs run generally. A larger air cell
with a movable lower line indicates-according to sizes and
fluctuations-a stale egg or one becoming weak and watery.
Very small dark spots which sometimes may be seen
are usually blood clots. Large dark spots, blood rings, and
shadows are due to heat and germination and indicate the
first stages of decay. An egg that looks very dark or black,
except for a large fixed air cell, contains a chick at an ad-
vanced stage of incubation. An egg which looks dark when
tested in the same way but shows a large air cell with a
movable lower line is usually in an advanced stage of fluid
decomposition, or what is commonly known as a "rotten
egg".
At first it may be a little difficult to test eggs as here
directed, but with a little practice it becomes a very simple
matter.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


PERIOD OF INCUBATION
The period of incubation varies with different species
of poultry, as shown in the following table:
Kind of Poultry. Days. Kind of Poultry. Days.
Hen .................... 21 Peafowl ................. 28
Pheasant ................ 22-24 Guinea fowl .............26-28
Duck ................... 28 Ostrich ................. 42
Duck (Muscovy) ........33-35 Goose .......... ........ 30
Turkey .................. 28 Pigeon .................. 17

The period of incubation varies somewhat with condi-
tions, so that a hatch may run one or two days over in
some cases, because of an accident during incubation or a
low temperature throughout that period, or it may come
off earlier. If through any accident the eggs are chilled or
overheated, it is advisable to continue the hatch, testing
the eggs after a few days to determine the extent of the
damage.


PRESERVING EGGS
Preserving Eggs by the Use of Water Glass

Use pure water that has been thoroughly boiled and
then cooled. To each ten quarts of water add one quart of
water glass. Pack the eggs in a jar and pour solution over
them, cover well. Keep the eggs in a cool, dark place. A
dry, cool cellar is a good place. If the eggs are kept in too
warm a place the silicate is deposited and the eggs are not
properly protected. Do not wash the eggs before packing,
for by so doing you injure their keeping quality, probably
dissolving the mucilaginous coating on the outside of the
shell. For packing, use only perfectly fresh eggs, for the
stale eggs will not be saved and may prove harmful to the
others.
Water glass is a very cheap product that can usually be
procured at about 50 cents per gallon, and one gallon would
make enough solution to preserve 50 dozen eggs, so that the
cost of material for this method would be only about a cent
per dozen.
Water glass is sodium and potassium silicate, sodium
silicate being usually the cheaper. If wooden kegs or bar-
rels are used in which to pack the eggs, they should first be
thoroughly scalded with boiling water, to sweeten and
purify them.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 35

ROTATION IN THE GARDEN
Rotation of crops is desirable in the garden as well as
in field crops. Following is a suggested plan of rotation for
early and late vegetables in the small home garden:
Distance
Followed Apart
Vegetable by (Inches)
Beets, early .............. ... . Celery ...................... 15
Radishes ....................... Celery ...................... 15
Lettuce ........................ Celery ...................... 15
Early Potatoes ................. Spinach ..................... 24
Onions, plants or sets ................ .................... 24
Beets, late ................... Spring Cabbage ............ 18-24
Peas ........................... Fall Cabbage ................ 30
Early Cabbage .................. Fall Beans .................. 30
Early Potatoes .................. Fall Radishes, Lettuce ........ 24
Beans, bush ................... Scotch Kale ................. 24
Beans, bush ....................Siberian Kale ................ 24
Tomatoes, early ................. Turnips ..................... 30
Tomatoes, medium and late. ...... Turnips ..................... 36
Tom atoes, late ......................................... . 36
Eggplant and Peppers ..... ................................... 24
Cucumbers ............................................ 48
Sweet Corn .................... Fall Potatoes ................ 36


REQUIREMENTS FOR STORING FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES
Where fruits and vegetables are stored in cellars, barns,
pits, or other places, there are certain requirements that
must be met in order to avoid decay.
Only products that are free of diseases should be stored.
Often lack of air causes rotting. Dry heat will cause spoil-
ing more quickly than any other condition. When these
products are stored in a dry place and begin to shrivel,
sprinkle the floor with water frequently, every day if nec-
essary. When put in storage pits, lack of ventilation is
often the cause of rotting. Pits should be provided with
a flue or chimney in the top so as to give the proper venti-
lation. It is during the first month or two of storage that
most ventilation is needed, as that is the time when the
most moisture is given off.


HOW LATE TO PLANT VEGETABLES
In planting the fall garden, it is well to plant a big var-
iety of vegetables-practically all of those planted in the
spring. It is usually best to make the last plantings so





36 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


they will mature just before frost, provided they are kinds
that will not withstand frost. The table herewith lists
some of the more common vegetables that will not stand
frost and the number of days it usually takes them to
mature under average conditions. This information will
enable us to determine how late we can wait to plant these
vegetables and have them mature before frost:
Days
Vegetables to mature
Bush lima beans ..................................... 70 to 80
Snapbeans .......................................... 45to 55
Black-eyed peas ............................. .. ........ 65 to 75
Lady peas ........................................... 60to 70
Irish potatoes ......................................... 75 to 100
Cucumbers ........................................ 55 to 80
Squash ............................................. 60to 80
Tomatoes ............................................ 100 to 120

Vegetables which will withstand considerable frost,
but not very hard freezes, and the number of days it or-
dinarily takes them to mature are listed in the following
table:
Days
Vegetables to mature
Mustard .......................................... 30 to 40
Turnips ........................................... 60to 80
Carrots ........................................... 65 to 85
Beets ............................................. 65 to 70
Swiss chard ........................................ 45 to 65
Radishes .......................................... 20 to 30
Lettuce ........................................... 60to 75
Onions from seed..................................... 130 to 150
Onions, sets for green onions................ ........... 35 to 40
Kohl-Rabi ......................................... 65 to 75
English peas ........................ .. .............. 40to 70
Cabbage ............................................ 90to 120
Cauliflower ................ ......................... 100 to 125
Chinese Cabbage ..................................... 90 to 110

The following list of vegetables will stand in the open
throughout the winter in most sections of the South, and
may be planted well into the fall:
Days
Vegetables to mature
Spinach ........................................... 30to 60
Kale .............................................. 90 to 120
Rape ................................................ 90 to 120
Collards ................ ............................. 100 to 130
Salsify ................. .............................. 150
Parsnips ........................................... 150
Rutabagas ...............' .......................... .80 to 100





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 37

POISON BRAN MASH
For poisoning cut worms, army worms, grasshoppers,
and the central powers of wormdom, now driving against
the safety of garden and field crops, "Poison bran mash"
is the Browning gun of immediate relief. The following is
the formula:
Paris green or powdered arsenate of lead (whichever
you prefer or can secure), one-fourth of a pound; wheat
bran (coarse preferred), 5 pounds; one or two oranges or
lemons ground or cut into very small pieces, molasses or
syrup, one quart; water, three quarts, or as needed to
make a crumbly and not sloppy dough.
Bran and Paris green (or arsenate of lead) should be
first mixed together in bucket or other receptacle.
To the water, first add juices and pulp of oranges or
lemons. Add next syrup or molasses, mix, and then pour
onto the poison bran and stir thoroughly. Add more bran
or water only as needed to make a crumbly mash.
Scatter on ground alongside of plants or sow broadcast
if you have a large area, and increase or decrease bulk of
mixture according to amount of ground to be "doctored."

POISON FOR MOLE CRICKETS
The West Indian Mole Cricket is becoming quite trouble-
some in some parts of the State. This is a pale brown in-
sect, which, when full grown, is over an inch in length.
Like other crickets, they avoid the sunlight. They live
in the ground, deep into which they go during the day.
But at night they come out to feed. The following direc-
tions may be used against the native species as well as
against the West Indian one:
To reduce their number in the ground, plow frequent-
ly during their spring breeding season, which is from
March to May. Allow chickens and especially turkeys to
follow the plow. They are fond of these insects and will
eat all that they can find. If possible pasture hogs in the
infested field.
During March and April, when they are flying (they do
not fly much at other seasons) they are attracted by lights
and may be captured by light traps. Suspend a lantern
over a dish of water that has a thin skum of kerosene
on top.
Sulphur placed in the seed drill is said to repel them to





38 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

some extent. They may be kept out of seed beds by gauze
bottom and sides. At the time that the seed bed is made
up, place the gauze in the ground at the depth of a foot,
more or less according to whether the plants to be grown
are deep or shallow rooted, and place soil over it. The
gauze to be at all enduring in such a situation should be of
copper or galvanized iron.
Plants set out in a field may be protected by banding
them. For this purpose melt off tops and bottoms of tin
cans and place the resulting cylinders around the plants,
pushing them well into the ground, but allowing them to
project at least an inch or two above the ground. Instead
of the tin cans one may use tarred paper.
The moles may be poisoned by a mixture of cottonseed
meal or bran and Paris green. Thoroughly mix a pound
of Paris green with twenty or thirty of the cottonseed
meal and moisten the hole with diluted syrup.
Like other insects which live in the ground, they may
be destroyed by the use of carbon-bisulphide. Sink into
the infested garden several holes for each square yard.
These can be made with a cane if the soil is moist and
should be pushed to a depth of a foot. Pour into each hole
an ounce of the liquid and quickly cover up and tramp
solid. Keep the liquid as far as possible from the roots of
the plants or the latter will be killed also. Also keep the
liquid away from fires and lights, as it is very inflammable.


FORMULAS FOR CEMENT
Cement Walk:
1 part cement,
2/2 parts of sand (without clay or trash),
4 parts of gravel.
Cement Walk also:
6 bags of cement,
1 yard of sand (without clay or trash).
82/100 yard of gravel.
For use in making mortar for building brick wall:
4 bags of hydrated lime,
or
5 bags of Mason's mixed lime,
1 bag of cement.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


STANDARDS OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
The Florida Farmer, March 16, 1928. Copied from the Revised
General Statutes of Florida (Vol. 1), 1920, Chapter 2372.
The following standards of weights and measures shall
be the standard weights and measures throughout the
state of Florida:
One standard liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid inches.
The weights and measures shall be as follows:


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Corn, shelled ............. 56
Corn, on cob with shuck.... 70
Sorghum Seed ............. 56
Barley Seed ................ 48
Oats ..................... 32
Bran ..................... 20
Corn Meal ................ 48
Beans, shelled ............. 60
Beans, velvet, in hulls...... 78
Beans, Castor, shelled...... 48
Millet Seed ............... 50
Beggarweed Seed .......... 62
Irish Potatoes ............. 60
Sweet Potatoes ............ 56
Turnips .................. 54


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Onions ................... 56
Salt ...................... 60
Peanuts .................. 22
Chufas ................... 54
Rye ...................... 56
Apples, dried .............. 24
Apples, green ............. 48
Quinces .................. 48
Peaches, dried ............. 24
Peaches, green ............ 54
Cotton Seed ............... 32
Cotton Seed, Sea Island..... 44
Plums .................... 40
Pears .................... 55
Guavas ................... 54


STANDARD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Chapter 4975-(No. 91)

AN ACT to Establish a Standard of Weights and Measures
of the State of Florida.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. The following standard of weights and meas-
ures shall be the standard of weights and measures
throughout the State:
One standard bushel shall contain 2,150 2/5 solid inches.
One liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid inches. The
weights and measures shall be as follows:
Wheat, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn, shelled, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn on cob with shuck, 70 pounds avoirdupois.
Sorghum seed, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.





40 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

Barley seed, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Oats, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, rough, per bushel, 45 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, clean, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Bran, per bushel, 20 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn meal, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, shelled, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, velvet, in hull, per bushel, 78 lbs. avoirdupois.
Beans, castor, shelled, per bushel, 48 lbs. avoirdupois.
Millet seed, per bushel, 50 pounds avoirdupois.
Beggarweed seed, per bushel, 62 pounds avoirdupois.
Irish potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Sweet potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Turnips, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Onions, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Salt, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Peanuts, per bushel, 22 pounds avoirdupois.
Chufas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Rye, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, dried, per bushel, 24 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, green, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Quinces, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, dried, per bushel, 33 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, green, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, Sea Island, per bushel, 46 lbs. avoirdupois.
Plums, per bushel, 40 pounds avoirdupois.
Pears, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Guavas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Sec. 2. All contracts hereafter made within this State
for work to be done or anything to be sold or delivered by
weight or measure shall be taken and construed according
to the standard of weights and measures hereby adopted
as the standard of this State.
Sec. 3. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this
Act are hereby repealed.
Approved May 30, 1901.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 41

CITRUS PRODUCTION COSTS AND PROFITS
Citrus Reference Book
That "short" crops bring growers greater profits than
do "bumper" or even "normal" crops is definitely proved by
a comparison of Florida citrus statistics for the seasons
1926-27 and 1927-28 compiled by Commissioner L. M.
Rhodes of the Florida State Marketing Bureau, at Jack-
sonville.
In the season 1926-27, with commercial shipments to-
taling 16,588,800 boxes, Florida orange and grapefruit
growers received a net profit of $10,721,124, or an average
of 641/2 cents per box, after all marketing, packing and pro-
duction costs had been deducted from the total sale price
of the fruit.
In the season 1927-28, with commercial shipments to-
taling 13,635,360 boxes, Florida orange and grapefruit
growers received a net profit of $25,151,097, or an average
of $1.84 per box, after all marketing, packing and produc-
tion costs had been deducted from the total sale price of
the fruit.
In the following tabulation of Mr. Rhodes' statistics it
will be found that he gives the same cost of production for
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines for the seasons of 1926-
27 and 1927-28. The accuracy of this estimate is question-
able, for production costs necessarily vary from season to
season in accordance with the average production of fruit
per acre.
In studying these statistics, it should be remembered
that the figures given are averages for the entire crop.
Season Season
1926-27 1927-28
Oranges shipped, boxes .................. 9,090,000 6,700,680
Grapefruit shipped boxes................. 6,958,800 6,532,920
Tangerines shipped boxes ................ 540,000 401,760
Total shipments, boxes................... 16,588,800 13,635,360

Average price received per box,
f. o. b. shipping point:
Oranges ................................ $2.75 $4.16
Grapefruit .............................. 2.30 3.28
Tangerines .............................. 3.49 5.28
General Average, per box.................. 2.58% 3.77%





42 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Total value of crop, estimated on f. o. b.
shipping point sales:
Oranges ............................... $24,997,500 $27,874,828
Grapefruit ......................... 16,005,240 21,427,977
Tangerines ............................. 1,884,600 2,121,292
Total value all shipments................. $42,887,340 $51,424,097
Costs of production, picking, packing,
selling, etc.:
Cost of production on trees............... $10,600,776 $ 8,547,033
(Costs per box, oranges 72c, grapefruit 52c,
tangerines 81c.)
Picking, hauling, all packing house charges,
selling, advertising, etc., at $1.30 per box 21,565,440 17,725,968

Total costs of production ................ $32,166,216 $26,273,001
Total profit realized by growers after pro-
duction, packing, selling cost, etc., are
deducted from f. o. b. sales prices...... $10,721,124 $25,151,097
Average profit per box realized by growers
on all classes of fruit sold.............. $ .64% $ 1.84
Transportation charges collected by Florida
railroads for transportation in this state.. $ 3,981,312 $ 3,266,908
Value of fruit moved by truck to southern
states and fruit consumed by Florida
people ............................... $ 650,000 $ 950,000
Value of fruit canned in Florida.................... $ 600,000
Total revenue realized by Florida from its
citrus fruit crop ...................... $47,876,152 $56,241,008
PRODUCTION OF ORANGES
Farm Farm
Boxes Price Value
1925 ....................... 34,896,000* .... ...
1924 ...................... 35,400,000 $1.82 $64,290,000
1923 ..................... 36,500,000 1.78 64,940,000
1922 ..................... 30,200,000 2.10 63,310,000
1919-23 Average ........... 27,846,000 2.25 60,872,000
State Data for 1925
California ................. 20,400,000 $3.30 $67,320,000
Florida .... ............... 14,100,000* .... ..........
Others .................... 396,000 .... ..........
Total ............... 34,896,000
PRODUCTION OF LEMONS
California, 1925 ............ 6,000,000 $3.00 $18,000,000
California, 1924 ............ 5,125,000 2.40 12,300,000
PRODUCTION OF GRAPEFRUIT
Florida, 1925 ...... 8,200,000 California, 1925...... 400,000
Florida, 1924 ...... 10,500,000 California, 1924...... 387,000
*Preliminary, will be revised later.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 43


FACTS AND FIGURES ON FLORIDA CITRUS

According to the report of 1930 of the State Plant
Board, Florida has 22,026,714 citrus trees. Of these, 17,-
685,000 are in bearing and 4,341,714 are as yet non-bearing.
The number of bearing and non-bearing trees of oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines, satsumas and other varieties of
citrus is as follows:


Orange ........................ 10,846,932
Grapefruit .................... 5,189,679
Tangerine ....................... 1,149,490
Satsuma ........................ 235,503
Other citrus ..................... 263,396
Total ........................ 17,685,000


2,813,529
402,508
527,552
293,320
204,805

4,341,714


The following table shows the leading orange producing
counties of the state, each of these counties having one-
third of a million, or more, orange trees:


Polk ...............
Orange .............
Lake ...............
Hillsborough ........
Volusia ............
Brevard .............


3,445,242
1,704,006
1,102,255
837,613
670,701
635,533


Highlands .......... 542,096
Marion ............. 478,018
Pinellas ............ 455,601
Hardee ............. 436,363
DeSoto ............. 366,754
Total ............ 10,674,182


The following table shows the principal grapefruit pro-
ducing counties of Florida, each of these counties having
one-fourth of a million, or more, grapefruit trees:


Polk ...............
Dade ...............
Pinellas ............
Lake ...............


1,735,320
447,346
395,317
332,127


Highlands ..........
Manatee ............
Indian River ........
Total ............


The leading tangerine counties of the state are shown
by the following table, each of these counties having fifty
thousand, or more, trees:


Polk ...............
Orange ............
Volusia ............
Lake ...............
Hillsborough ........
Hardee ............
Highlands ..........


255,997
234,045
188,206
152,504
96,843
77,558
68,343


Seminole ...........
Pinellas ............
St. Lucie ............
DeSoto ............
Putnam ............

Total ............


295,991
278,908
275,634
3,760,643


64,289
60,315
56,174
53,769
52,155

1,360,198





44 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

HOW TO DETERMINE CITRUS FRUIT SIZES
Since prices realized for oranges and grapefruit are be-
ing determined more and more by their size, Florida grow-
ers are showing greater interest in the size of their fruit.
The following table gives the diameter for different sizes
of oranges and grapefruit:

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT
Number Diameter Number Diameter
in box of fruit in box of fruit
96 31" 28 5W"
112 3%" 36 5
126 3%" 46 4%"
150 3 1/16" 54 4W"
176 2 15/16" 64 4%"
200 2 13/16" 72 4%"
216 2 11/16" 80 4 "
226 2 9/16" 96 35/"

TREES PER ACRE UNDER CITRUS PLANTING
SYSTEMS
Citrus groves are usually planted in one of three for-
mations-the triangular, rectangular or hexagonal.
In the triangular system, the land is laid off in squares
or rectangles. Two trees are planted in two corners of each
rectangle, and the third in the center of the opposite side
of the rectangle. If the rows are laid off 30x30 feet, the
trees, under this system, will be 30 feet apart in one direc-
tion through the grove, and about 331/2 feet apart in the
other direction.
The rectangular system, which is most generally used
in Florida, provides for setting the trees in squares or
oblongs. Under this system, the rows of trees intersect
each other at right angles, and cultivation may be either
crosswise or lengthwise of the grove.
The hexagonal system of planting is similar to the tri-
angular system of planting, excepting that under this sys-
tem each tree is equally distant from each adjoining tree.
This system of planting allows about 15 per cent more
trees to the acre than does the rectangular system. The





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 45


following table gives the number of trees per acre under
the different planting systems:
Tri- Rec- Hex-
Distance angular tangular agonal
apart planting planting planting
10x10 ft. 386 436 501
12x12 ft. 275 303 348
15x10 ft. 164 290
15x15 ft. 175 193 217
20x15 ft. 132 145
18x18 ft. 122 134 142
20x20 ft. 98 108 124
25x20 ft. 79 87
25x25 ft. 64 70 81
30x30 ft. 44 48 55
35x35 ft. 33 36 41

WHERE THE CITRUS GROWER'S MONEY GOES
When the consumer in the North pays $7.00 for a box
of Florida citrus fruit, the grower should receive a net
profit of $1.67. At least, that is the way it figures out on
paper. The following table, showing the distribution of
the money paid by the consumer for Florida fruit, was com-
piled by the Florida Citrus Exchange, and is based on a
consumer purchase price of $7.00. When fruit sells for
less than $7.00 a box to the consumer, the grower's net
return is proportionately less.
Distribution of $7.00 Paid By Consumer
Grower's Net .......... $1.67 Sales Costs ............ $ .13%
Production Cost ....... .77% Advertising ........... .06
Picking ................ .06% Wholesaler's Profit ..... .46
Hauling ............... .07% Retailer's Profit ....... 1.89
Packing ............... .72
Freight, etc. ........... 1.15 Total ..............$7.00
Estimates on the cost of such items as production, haul-
ing, packing, freight, etc., are, of course, general averages
for the entire state, and will vary in the different citrus
localities depending upon their local conditions.

STATE AGENCIES WHICH SERVE FLORIDA
CITRUS GROWERS
Research work on Florida citrus production problems is
conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
at Gainesville, by its Citrus Branch, at Lake Alfred, and by
the United States Department of Agriculture at a Citrus
Disease Laboratory, at Orlando.





46 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

Headquarters for the Florida Citrus Market News Ser-
vice of the United States Department of Agriculture are
with the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion, at Winter Haven. Additional citrus market news
service is furnished by the Florida State Marketing Bureau,
at Jacksonville.
Enforcement of the state's green fruit law is in charge
of the Florida State Department of Agriculture, at Talla-
hassee, though enforcement headquarters during the ship-
ping season are located at Winter Haven.
Headquarters for the State Plant Board, which has
charge of the state's plant quarantine and nursery inspec-
tion work are at Gainesville.

BRIEF HINTS ON PRUNING FRUIT TREES

1. Make all cuts close and parallel to remaining limb.
2. Paint all wounds over 1 inch in diameter with white
lead and raw linseed oil to which a little corrosive sublimate
has been added. (Do not use boiled linseed oil or prepared
paints. They are apt to injure the bark and may even kill
the tree.)
3. Train young trees to a central leader.
4. When planting the trees cut off 1/2 to 2/3 of the
tops. This lessens the demands on the root system until
it has a chance to become established in the soil.
5. Develop 3 to 5 main or scaffold branches.
6. In old trees remove dead wood, crossing and rubbing
branches, and thin the top. Confine pruning to the smaller
branches and avoid heavy pruning.
7. A few water sprouts may be left in the old trees to
shade the large limbs.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
Statistics compiled by the Grove Inspection Department-State
Plant Board of Florida showing number of citrus trees by counties
and varieties-based on inspection completed December 15, 1934.

Total Total Total Total Total Total
Year Orange Grapefr't T'ng'rine S'ts'ma Misc.(l) All Citrus

1919(2).. 11,356,414
1923..... 10,912,716 4,780,496 609,107 (3) 374,908 16,677,227
1928..... 13,660,461 5,592,187 1,677,042 528,823 568,201 22,026,714
1931..... 14,549,074 6,412,268 1,987,894 724,768 649,846 24,323,850
1934.....16,254,129 6,456,389 1,877,779 749,589 1,127,287 26,465,173

(Note: The figures given in the above tabulations include all
trees inspected by agents of the State Plant Board, whether in
grove formation, in small plantings or back yards, and regardless of
thrift or condition. They do not, therefore; correctly represent what
are usually regarded as "Commercial Plantings".
Approximately two years are required to complete an inspection
of the citrus plantings of the State. It therefore follows that the
figures shown for some counties may be those obtained as much as
two years prior to date of completion of the inspection.)
(1) Lemons, Rough Lemons, Limes, and Kumquats.
(2) Figures as to varieties not available.
(3) Included as "oranges".






CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
Showing Number of Citrus Trees by Counties and Varieties
as of November 15, 1934.
Total Total
County Orange Trees Grapefruit Trees Tangerine Trees S'ts'm's Misc.*
Bearing Bearing
Non- Non- Non- and Non- and Non-
Bearing Bearing Total Bearing B'ring Total Bearing B'ring Total B'ring Bearing Total
Alachua ...... 55,152 9,938 65,090 3,749 848 4,597 6,056 703 6,759 18,263 3,267 97,976
Baker ........ 1,279 132 1,411 187 22 209 25 2 27 23,655 720 26,022
Bay** ........ 639 2 641 483 10 493 164 0 164 66,125 357 67,780
Bradford ..... 4,009 739 4,748 297 71 368 82 8 90 15,931 541 21,678
Brevard ...... 620,474 75,964 696,438 177,317 37,520 214,837 42,954 1,353 44,307 199 9,031 964,812
Broward ..... 84,576 51,119 135,695 17,056 2,843 19,899 6,624 1,815 8,439 112 15,371 179,516
Calhoun** .... 706 0 706 51 5 56 31 3 34 3,551 113 4,460
Charlotte ..... 41,935 4,101 46,036 13,436 396 13,832 5,706 167 5,873 23 6,693 72,457
Citrus ....... 43,328 3,893 47,221 6,009 175 6,184 4,736 15 4,751 1,663 2,885 62,704
Clay ......... 6,239 1,430 7,669 773 194 967 378 103 481 45,724 1,210 56,051
Collier ....... 14,796 2,449 17,245 12,655 855 13,510 220 4 224 16 3,542 34,537
Columbia ..... 2,775 308 3,083 275 51 326 57 6 63 2,232 409 6,113
Dade ......... 204,538 15,885 220,423 345,492 11,376 356,868 26,871 2,388 29,259 168 274,307 881,025
DeSoto ....... 394,932 23,885 418,817 87,359 1,138 88,497 42,508 498 43,006 558 16,161 567,039
Dixie** ....... 359 33 392 9 3 12 2 0 2 50 4 460
Duval ........ 28,559 4,824 33,383 3,476 604 4,080 985 62 1,047 22,700 2,707 63,917
Escambia .... 814 28 842 470 21 491 44 0 44 73,876 1,717 76,970
Flagler ...... 20,489 1,609 22,098 1,634 274 1,908 9,047 157 9,204 558 212 33,980
Franklin ..... 121 4 125 5 0 5 0 0 0 4 7 141
Gadsden ...... 602 88 690 99 48 147 28 0 28 3,361 3,794 8,020
Gilchrist ..... 1,065 238 1,303 73 50 123 19 3 22 321 133 1,902
Glades ....... 3,118 1,045 4,163 596 66 662 180 12 192 1 1,535 6,553
Gulf** ....... 1,534 42 1,576 51 83 134 19 5 24 1,395 59 3,188
Hamilton ..... 795 36 831 104 11 115 14 0 14 1,190 137 2,287
Hardee....... 470,160 37,804 507,964 60,073 1,434 61,507 52,755 459 53,214 855 15,896 639,436
Hendry ....... 33,971 6,324 40,295 14,091 908 14,999 1,299 134 1,363 31 8,706 65,394
Hernando .... 93,693 7,661 101,354 26,758 1,077 27,835 60,286 660 60,946 33,986 2,146 226,267
Highlands .... 595,232 16,343 611,575 365,317 3,051 368,368 62,923 269 63,192 311 47,301 1,090,747
Hillsborough .945,811 77,678 1,023,489 262,779 8,160 270,939 90,558 834 91,392 2,920 108,070 1,496,810
Holmes ....... 687 0 687 91 0 91 25 2 27 4,617 125 5,547
Indian River .261,757 36,446 298,203 374,303 51,217 425,520 35,169 1,611 36,780 26 7,403 767,932
Jackson** .... 865 0 865 362 78 440 83 0 83 174,252 176 175,816
Jefferson ..... 1,104 209 1,313 241 165 406 16 0 16 26,755 13,372 41,862







CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA-Continued.
Total Total
County Orange Trees Grapefruit Trees Tangerine Trees S'ts'm's Misc.*
Bearing Bearing
Non- Non- Non- and Non- and Non-
Bearing Bearing Total Bearing B'ring Total Bearing B'ring Total B'ring Bearing Total
Lafayette** .. 660 0 660 16 0 16 2 0 2 37 10 725
Lake ....... 1,187,791 182,828 1,370,619 418,868 49,432 468,300 165,627 8,697 174,324 11,482 36,369 2,601,094
Lee .......... 192,759 10,575 203,334 206,807 9,925 216,732 7,628 171 7,799 61 14,768 442,694
Leon** ....... 692 178 870 239 67 306 7 1 8 3,423 297 4,904
Levy** ....... 3,431 41 3,472 132 6 138 105 3 108 440 38 4,196
Liberty** ..... 212 24 236 14 2 16 2 0 2 1,074 22 1,350
Madison ...... 1,579 166 1,745 202 25 227 49 0 49 1,017 235 3,273
Manatee ...... 237,465 28,013 265,478 296,836 24,870 321,706 8,393 45 8,438 165 22,018 617,805
Marion ....... 561,010 107,513 668,523 63,594 4,933 68,527 52,832 2,067 54,899 11,000 6,082 809,031
Martin ....... 56,889 9,796 66,685 37,334 463 37,797 3,088 34 3,122 62 11,415 119,081
Monroe** ..... 4,671 38 4,709 3,330 12 3,342 1,811 5 1,816 1 146,652 156,520
Nassau ....... 2,358 897 3,255 165 84 249 29 1 30 1,694 370 5,598
Okaloosa ..... 186 1 187 120 4 124 4 0 4 38,474 277 39,066
Okeechobee 25,783 1,238 27,021 5,988 136 6,124 2,888 66 2,954 20 8,263 44,382
Orange ....... 1,752,416 275,900 2,028,316 273,266 21,411 294,677 237,533 5,325 242,858 6,038 23,711 2,595,600
Osceola ...... 276,902 27,610 304,512 69,572 4,921 74,493 51,538 684 52,222 963 14,185 446,375
Palm Beach 55,919 6,332 62,251 35,057 2,723 37,780 6,738 572 7,310 77 22,584 130,002
Pasco ........ 325,157 28,938 354,095 86,719 8,867 95,586 39,826 2,335 42,161 2,030 33,459 527,331
Pinellas ...... 430,042 22,047 452,089 491,875 38,881 530,756 44,563 282 44,845 1,158 33,789 1,062,637
Polk ......... 3,351,107 134,234 3,485,341 1,790,313 68,9531,859,266 410,198 909 411,107 3,699 143,040 5,902,453
Putnam ...... 279,482 22,769 302,251 32,164 1,917 34,081 48,083 3,299 51,382 7,634 5,022 400,370
St. Johns ..... 35,430 5,610 41,040 3,516 194 3,710 1,686 32 1,718 32,888 684 80,040
St. Lucle ..... 328,474 50,994 379,468 232,524 27,973 260,497 64,642 2,017 66,659 38 18,609 725,271
Santa Rosa ... 427 6 433 112 0 112 8 0 8 40,148 241 40,942
Sarasota .... 162,593 4,641 167,234 74,862 1,605 76,467 2,241 172 2,413 65 8,973 255,152
Seminole ..... 728,727 78,706 807,433 47,710 8,971 56,681 57,962 4,181 62,143 1,246 9,419 936,922
Sumter ....... 100,435 21,682 122,117 9,964 736 10,700 6,464 436 6,900 464 5,906 146,087
Suwannee .... 2,768 369 3,137 332 104 436 66 10 76 3,365 620 7,634
Taylor** ..... 604 138 742 17 11 28 14 0 14 28 31 843
Union ........ 1,817 446 2,263 188 81 269 46 15 61 2,402 313 5,308
Volusia ....... 711,683 94,384 806,067 84,502 13,887 98,389 165,999 5,231 171,230 3,985 11,241 1,090,912
Wakulla** .. 143 46 189 34 14 48 2 0 2 1,021 13 1,273
Walton .... 1,032 10 1,042 223 0 223 38 0 38 21,303 313 22,919
Washington .. 944 0 944 161 0 161 10 0 10 26,658 211 27,984
TOTAL ...14,757,702 1,496,427 16,254,129 6,042,427 413,962 6,456,389 1,829,916 47,863 1,877,779 749,589 1,127,287 26,465,173
*Includes Lemons, Rough Lemons, Limes, and Kumquats. **Current count incomplete. Figures shown are for 1931.
(Dec. 15, 1934.)






50 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
General Instructions for the Commercial Production of
Vegetable Crops
All truck crops listed in this table are produced in com-
mercial quantities by Florida farmers. Such crops as beets,
turnips, radishes, spinach and cantaloupes, which are grown
mainly for local markets in this state, are not listed.
Because of the wide range in Florida climatic and soil
conditions, the rules for growing one crop in the southern
part of the state do not always apply to growing the same
crop in the central or northern sections of the state.
Hence, the information and suggestions given in this table
are of only a general nature, and must be properly inter-
preted when applied to various local conditions.
References: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville; Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tal-
lahassee; P. H. Rolfs' "Sub-Tropical Vegetable Gardening";
and William Gomme, Pinellas County Agricultural Agent.









PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS

Type of Yield Cost Distance
Crop Principal Soil Best Amt. Seed When to Amount Days to Per Per Apart Rows Remarks
Variety Adapted Per Acre Plant Fertilizer Mature Acre Acre and In Rows
Giant String-
less
Refugee Jan., Feb.,
Black Val- Mar., Apr.,
entire Muck; Ham- June, (but- Ready market for
Wardwells mock; Flat 3 pkgs. to ter varl- 800 to 110 $60 3 to 4 ft. late fall and spring
BEANS Kidney Wax Woods, well- 1 bu. eties.) 1,000 lbs. 70 days Ham- to 3 to 4 in. crop. In South Flor-
New Davis drained; Pine per acre. pers $85 ida fall beans sell
White Wax good quality, well.
Green & Yel-
low Bountiful Aug. &
Fordhook Sept. (snap 45 days
Lima varieties)
Jersey Wake-
field Muck; Ham-
Charleston mock; Flat 1 lb. suf- October, 1,500 to 90 to 100 to $75
CABBAGE Wakefield Woods, well- flcient November 2,000 lbs. 100 150 to 6 by 3 ft. Spring crop brings
Premium Flat drained; Pine for 2 & January per acre. days crates $100 good returns.
Dutch good quality, acres.
Succession
Copenhagen
Golden self
blanching Muck; Ham- 2,000 Ibs. $400 This crop must be
CELERY (Ey) mock; Flat August to per acre 130 600 to 3 ft. by 4 in. carefully handled
Green Top Woods, well- 6 oz. November and more days crates $600 for the best results.
Easy Blanch- drained, if neces-
ing sary.
Improved 200 to $75
CUCUM- White Spine Hammock; 2 to 3 lbs. August, 500 to 800 65 to 75 300 to 6 by 5 ft. Easy crop to grow,
BERS Davis Perfect Flat Woods, Sept., Oct. lbs. per days cukes $100 good local market.
Stay Green well-drained, acre.










PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued.

Type of Yield Cost IUitance
Crop Prineipal Soil Beat Amt. Seed When to Amount Days to Per Per Apart Rows Remarks
Variety Adapted Per Acre Plant Fertililer Mature Acre Acre and in Rows

Hammock;
Black Beauty Flat Woods, Jan. spring Good profitable
EGGPLANT Florida well-drained; 6 oz. crop. July, 2,000 lbs. 130 400 $125 5 by 3 ft. shipping crop.
Highbush Pine, good fall crop. per acre. days crates Ready market.
quality.
Big Boston Muck; Ham-
LETTUCE Cream Butter mock; Flat 2 lbs. September 3,000 lbs. 60 days 600 to $150 14 by 14 in. Good drainage es-
Romaine Woods, well- to Dec. per acre. 700 sential and land
Iceberg drained, crates should not be sour.


Crystal Wax
White Ber-
muda
Australian
Brown
Red Bermuda


Low Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods; Pine.


3 to 4 lbs.
seed
8 bu. sets


Dec. to
Feb. Seed.
Jan. to
Mar. sets.


2,000 lbs.
per acre.


400 to
500
crates


12 by 6 in.


Use well-rotted sta-
ble manure when
able. Nitrate soda
can be used when
maturing, 100 lbs.
to acre.


Alaskan Ex- Muck; Ham-
tra Early mock; Flat Soil must not be
ENGLISH Thomas Laxton Woods, high 80 lbs. October to 500 to 65 days 200 $85 4 ft. by 1 in. sour. Innoculation
PEAS Florida Mc- quality; March. 800 lbs. ham- of seed advisable.
Neil Pine, good per acre. pers.
Telephone quality.
Flat Woods;
PEPPERS Ruby King Hammock; M lb. July, Aug., 3,000 lbs. 125 to 200 $85 3 ft. by 20 in. Good fall shipping
World Beater Pine, good fall. Jan., per acre. 140 crates crop.
quality, spring, days
Spaulding, Flat Woods, 1,500 lbs. Treat seed before
POTATOES Rose 4 well-drained; December to 2,000 3 ft. 6 in. planting. Be pre-
(Irish) Bliss Triumph Hammock; 10 bu. & Ibs. per 70 days 45 bbls. $125 by 12 in. pared to dust or
Irish Cobbler Muck. January. acre. spray with bor-
__deaux preparations.


ONIONS
tW










PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued.

Type of Yield Cost Distance
Crop Principal Soil Best Amt. Seed When to Amount Days to Per Per Apart Rows Remarks
Variety Adapted Per Acre Plant Pertilizer Mature Acre Acre and in Rows
Porto Rico
POTATOES BigStemJersey Pine lands; 600 to 120 100 to
(Sweet) Triumph Sandy Flat 8 bu. for April, May, 1,000 lbs. days 200 bu. $45 3 ft. by 14 in. Allow 10,000 slips
Norton Yam Woods. draws June, July per acre. to acre.
Nancy Hall
Single
Row, 15,- 1,500 lbs. 1,500 to $175 Use stable manure
STRAW- Missionary Flat Woods; 000 plants Sept.-Nov. plus 100 70 days 2,000 to 3 ft. by 14 in. if possible in addi-
BERRIES Klondyke Hammock 9x12 in. lbs. Ni- qts. $250 tion to commercial
35,000 trate per fertilizer.
plants. acre.
Adams' Early 500 lbs. Run seed through
Crosby's Early plus 50 creolin solution to
SWEET Stowell's Muck; Flat Feb., lbs. Ni- 70 to 30 to 50 keep off birds. Use
CORN Evergreen Woods; 15 lbs. March, trate soda 85 days crates. $25 3 ft. by 9 in. % lb. arsenate lead
Country Hammock. April, at tassel- powder to 6 lbs. hy-
Gentleman May. ing per drated lime for bud
Howling Mob acre. worm.
Livingston
Globe Prairie;
Marglobe Hammock; 1,300 lbs. Good commercial
TOMATOES Stone Muck; Flat 1 lb. Jan. to to 1,500 135 250 $100 market for first-
Earliana Woods, well- March. lbs. per days crates. 4 ft. by 2 ft. class material. Lo-
Beauty drained, acre. cal market good.
Bonny Best
Norton
Treat seed and be
Tom Watson Pine; Flat 1 car- prepared to dust or
WATER- Florida Woods, well- 2 lbs. Jan. to 1,500 lbs. 70 to load 2 $30 10 ft. by spray with nicotine
MELONS Favorite drained. March. per acre. 90 days acres. 10 ft. and bordeaux solu-
Irish Gray tion.




A VEGETABLE PLANTING TABLE FOR YEAR-AROUND USE
Seed for Plants for Depth of Distance Between Rows Mature or
Vegetable 100 Feet 100 Feet Planting- Days to For Horse For Hand Plants in Ready for
of Row of Row Inches Come up Cultivation Cultivaon the Row Use in-


1. Artichoke (Globe)... 1 ounce...
2. Asparagus.......... 1 ounce...


3. Beans (snap)......
4. Beans (Pole)........
5. Beans (Bush Lima).
6. Beans (Pole Lima)..
7. Beet................
8. Brussels Sprouts....
9. Cabbage............
10. Cantaloupe.........
11. Cauliflower ........
12. Carrot.............
13. Celery..............
14. Collard.............
15. Chard.............
16. Corn (Sweet) ......
17. Corn Salad..........
18. Cucumber ..........
19. Eggplant..........
20. Endive............
21. Kale ...............
22. Kohl-Rabi ..........
23. Leek...............
24. Lettuce.............
25. Mustard ..........
26. Okra...............
27. Onion (seed).......
28. Onion (sets).......
29. Parsley...........
30. Parsnip............
31. Peas........ .......
32. Peppers...........
33. Potato (Irish)......
34. Potato (Sweet) .....
35. Radish.............
36. Rhubarb............
37. Salsify.............
38. Spinach. ...........
39. Spinach (New Z.)...
40. Squash (bush).....


1 pint. ....
% pint.....
% to 1 pt...
% pint....
2 ounces..
% ounce...
% ounce...
% ounce ...

% ounce...
1 ounce...
% ounce....
%1 ounce...
1 ounce...
' pint.....
% ounce...
% ounce...
% ounce...
Sounce...
Sounce...
Sounce...
1 ounce....
% ounce...
1 ounce...
2 ounces..
1 ounce...
1 quart....
% ounce...
% ounce...
1 to 2 pts..
% ounce....
5 to 6 lbs..
3 pounds..
1 ounce...
33 roots....
1 ounce...
1 ounce...
% ounce...
1 ounce...


50........
60 to 80..





65 to 90...
65 to 90...


60 to 75...

200 to 250..
65 to 100..
200 ........

400. ........

50 to 70...
100.........
100. ........

125 to 200..



50..........



75 slips...
....33 roots......
............


% to 1 ........
1 to 1%, roots
10 to 12.......
1% to 2.......
1% to 2.......
1% to 2.......
1% to 2 ......

1 to 1% .....


% ..to ..... ..
%.............




1 to 1% ." .





. to 2 ........


% . ..
to ............

% to .... .....
% to 1 .......
S......... .





1 to .........


% to ..........
1 to .......



% to ..
1 to 2.........

% to 1.......

1 to 2.........
2. to 3.......
1 to 1. . .

to 2.........
% to 1........
1 to 2.........


ft......... 2 ft......... 8 to 12 months


2 to 28....

6 to 10....
6 to 10....
6 to 10....
6 to 10....
7 to 10....
6 to 10....
6 to 10 ....
6 to 10....
6 to 10....

10 to 15....
12 to 20....
6 to 10...
7 to 10...
8 to 10....
10 to 12....
6 to 8 ....
10 to 14....
6 to 10....
6 to 10....
6 to 8....
8 to 12....
6 to 10....
4 to 5....
15 to 20....
8 to 12....
6 to 8....
18 to 24....
12 to 18....
6 to 10....
10 to 14....
15 to 25....
. ..... ....
4 to 6....
12 to 14....
8 to 12....
6 to 12....
14 to 16....
6 to 10....
6 to 10....


3 to 4 ft....

3 to 4 ft....
2% to 3 ft..
4 ft........
3 ft.......
4 ft........
2 to 2% ft.
2% to 3 ft..
2% to 3 ft..
5 to 6 ft....

2% to 3 ft..
2 to 2% ft..
3 to 4 ft....
2 to 2% ft..
2 ft.........
3 to 3% ft.
2 to 2% ft..
4 to 5 ft...
3 ft........
2 to 2% ft..
2% to 3 ft..
2% to 3 ft..
2 ft........
2 to 2% ft..
2 ft.........
4 ft........
2 ft........
2 ft........
2 ft........
2 to 2% ft.
3 to 4 ft....
2 to 3 ft....
2% to 3 ft.
3 to 4 ft....
2 ft.........
3 to 5 ft....
2 ft........
2 ft........
3 to 4 ft....
3 to 4 ft....


3 ft.........
2 to 2% ft..
3 ft .......
2 to 2% ft..
2% to 3 ft..
15 to 18 in..
2 to 2% ft..
2 to 2% ft..
5 to 6 ft....

2 to 2% ft..
15 to 18 in.
18 to 24 in.
18 to 24 in.
18 to 24 in.
2% to 3 ft.
15 to 18 in.
4 to 5 ft....
2 to 2% ft..
15 to 18 in.
18 to 24 in..
18 to 24 in..
18 to 24 in..
15 to 18 in.
15 to 18 in.
3 ft........
15 in.......
15 in.......
15 in.......
15 to 18 in.
2% to 3 ft.
24 in.......
2 to 2% ft.
3 ft........
12 to 15 in.
3 to 4 ft....
15 to 18 in.
15 to 18 in.
3 to 4 ft...
3 to 4 ft...


41. Squash (vine)...... % ounce... ............ to 2......... 6 to 10.... 7 to 10 ft... 7 to 10 ft..

42. Tomato............. ounce... 35 to 50... % to 1........ 4 to 7.... 3 to 4 ft.... 2 to 3 ft....
43. Turnip.............. ounce....... ... .. to ....... 8 to 12.... 2 ft......... 15 to 18 in.
44. Watermelon........ 1 ounce... ............ 1............... ...... 8 to 10 ft... 8 to 10 ft..


15 in.......
3 to 4 in....
2 to 3 ft....
6 to 10 in..
2 to 3 ft....
4 to 5 in...
14 to 18 in.
14 to 18 in.
Drills, 18 in.,
hills, 5 ft..
15 to 18 in.
3 to 4 in...
4 to 6 in...
12 to 18 in.
5 to 6 in...
30 to 36 in.
8 to 10 in..
15 in.......
18 to 24 in.
8 to 10 in...
8 to 10 in...
4 to 6 in...
4 to 6 in...
3 to 10 in..
3 to 4 in....
2 ft........
3 to 4 in...
3 to 4 in...
3 to 4 in...
3 to 4 in...
1 in.. .....
15 to 18 in.
12 to 18 in.
14 to 18 in.
1 in........
3 to 4 ft....
1 in.........
1 to 2 in....
18 in.......
15 to 18 in.,
drill; 4
ft. hills..
2 to 3 ft.,
drill; 8
ft. hills...
2 to 3 ft....
2 to 3 in...
Drills, 2 to
3 ft.; hills
8 ft. .....


3 to 4 years
40 to 65 days
50 to 80 days
60 to 90 days
60 to 80 days
60 to 80 days
90 to 120 days
90 to 130 days

120 to 150 days
100 to 130 days
75 to 110 days
120 to 150 days
100 to 120 days
40 to 60 days
60 to 100 days
60 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
90 to 180 days
90 to 120 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 115 days
60 to 90 days
70 days
98 to 140 days
130 to 150 days
90 to 120 days
90 to 120 days
125 to 160 days
40 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
80 to 140 days
140 to 160 days
20 to 40 days
1 to 3 years
120 to 180 days
30 to 60 days
80 to 90 days

60 to 80 days

120 to 160 days
100 to 140 days
60 to 80 days

100 to 120 days





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 55


WORLD AREA AND CULTIVATED LAND
Square Miles Productive Per cent
Area (Acres) Productive
EUROPE................. 3,883,992
Austria ................. 30,139 17,688,174 89.9%
Belgium ................ 11,373 6,386,804 87.8
Bulgaria ................ 48,000 18,959,249 79.6
Czecho-Slovakia ......... 54,428 33,288,062 95.5
Denmark ............... 16,609 10,018,872 94.3
Finland ................ 145,724 ...
France ................. 212,659 123,242,860 94.2
Germany ............... 183,000 110,422,019 94.2
Great Britain ........... 88,725 47,607,907 84.7
Greece ................. 41,933 7,008,992 44.9
Hungary ............... 35,164 77,225,350 96.2
Ireland ................. 32,559 17,541,412 86.1
Italy ................... 110,660 65,228,470 92.1
Jugo-Slavia ............. 99,300 5,937,761 52.3
Latvia .................. 25,361 15,908,298 98.0
Netherlands ............ 13,199 7,247,342 89.8
Norway ................ 124,964 23,476,215 29.4
Poland ................. 144,772 79,627,036 91.8
Portugal ................ 35,501 17,281,037 78.5
Roumania .............. 122,282 61,478,618 84.4
Russia ................ 1,900,000 698,902,137 54.7
Spain .................. 195,057 112,665,245 90.4
Sweden ................... 169,567 71,023,990 70.0
Switzerland ............. 15,945 7,914,460 77.6
Turkey (Also in Asia).... 692,240 ..........

AMERICA ................ 8,859,257
Canada ................ 3,729,665 109,945,057 4.8
Cuba ................... 44,218 8,716,734 30.8
United States ........... 3,627,557 878,788,639 46.2
Mexico ................. 767,323 ....

SOUTH AMERICA ....... 7,570,015
Argentina .............. 1,153,419 537,805,490 73.7
Boliva .................. 708,195 ....
Brazil .................. 3,280,905 ....
Chile ................... 289,796 29,771,613 16.1
Colombia ................ 435,278 ....
Ecuador ................ 118,627 ....
Guiana ................. 167,540 ...
Paraguay ............... 97,722 ....
Peru ................... 683,321 ....
Uruguay ................ 72,172 40,875,235 88.5
Venezuela .............. 393,976 ..........

AFRICA .................11,622,619
Algeria ................ 1,120,000 50,845,587 40.7
Egypt .................. 383,900 5,506,930 2.2
Morocco ................ 169,576 18,135,190 31.2
Union of South Africa.... 473,100 10,086,204 3.3




56 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

Square Miles Productive Per cent
Area (Acres) Productive
ASIA .....................15,868,613
China ................ 4,278,252 ....
Dutch East Indies ....... 739,545 19,098,359 58.8
French Indo-China ....... 310,060 74,050,187 42.8
India ................... 1,802,657 475,576,765 76.4
Japan .................. 245,551 74,013,574 78.3
Persia .................. 635,135 .. ..
Siberia ................ 5,600,000 715,837,976 17.8
Australia ................. 2,974,581 113,416,162 6.0
New Zealand .............. 105,000 53,971,152 81.4



HARVEST TIME OF THE WORLD
The following shows the months of the wheat harvest
in the different wheat-growing sections of the World:
January-Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentine
Republic.
February and March-East India and Upper Egypt.
April-Lower Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Persia, Asia Minor,
India, Mexico and Cuba.
May-Algeria, Central Asia, China, Japan, Morocco,
Texas and Florida.
June-Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, South of
France, California, Oregon, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama,
Georgia, Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, Kansas,
Arkansas, Utah, Colorado and Missouri.
July-Roumania, Bulgaria, Austro-Hungary, South of
Russia, Germany, Switzerland, France, South of England,
Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, New England and
Upper Canada.
August-Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, Denmark,
Poland, Lower Canada, Colombia, Manitoba and Dakota.
September and October-Scotland, Sweden, Norway and
North of Russia.
November-Peru and South Africa.
December-Burma.






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


NUMBER TREES OR PLANTS TO AN ACRE


No. Plants Distance
Per Acre Apart


No. Plants
Per Acre


12 by 1 inch ........... 522,720
12 by 3 inches .........174,240
18 by 1 inch ..........348,480
18 by 3 inches ......... 116,160
18 by 12 inches ......... 29,040
18 by 18 inches ......... 19,360
24 by 12 inches ......... 21,780
24 by 18 inches ......... 14,520
30by 1 inch ..........209,088
30 by 6 inches ......... 34,848
30 by 12 inches ......... 17,424
30 by 24 inches ......... 8,712
40 by 30 inches ......... 9,970
36 by 3 inches ......... 58,080
36 by 30 inches ......... 5,808
42 by 24 inches ......... 6,223
42 by 36 inches ......... 4,148
42 by 42 inches ......... 3,556
48 by 18 inches ......... 7,790
6 by 6 inches ......... 174,240
1 foot by 1 foot ......... 43,560,
1 foot by 2 feet ..........21,780
1 foot by 3 feet ......... 14,520


1 foot by 1 feet .....
2 feet by 2 feet .......
2 feet by 3 feet .......
3 feet by 3 feet .......
4 feet by 1 foot .......
4 feet by 2 feet .......
4 feet by 3 feet .......
4 feet by 4 feet .......
5 feet by 5 feet .......
6 feet by 6 feet .......
7 feet by 7 feet .......
8 feet by 8 feet .......
9 feetby 9 feet .......
10 feet by 10 feet .......
12 feet by 12 feet .......
20 feet by 20 feet .......
25 feet by 25 feet .......
30 feet by 30 feet .......
35 feet by 35 feet .......
40 feet by 40 feet .......
50 feet by 50 feet .......
60 feet by 60 feet .......
70 feet by 70 feet .......


To find the number of plants or trees in an acre at any
distance apart, multiply the one distance in feet by the
other to give the square feet in each space -and divide this
distance into 43,560. Example: 4 by 4 feet equals 16 square
feet. By dividing this into 43,560, the number of square
feet in an acre, we have 2,722, which is the number of
plants required to set an acre when put 4 by 4 feet apart.
The table above gives the number required for most of
the distances ordinarily used.


Distance
Apart


19,360
10,890
7,260
4,840
10,890
5,445
3,630
2,772
1,742
1,210
888
680
537
435
302
108
70
48
35
27
17
12
9





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


SEED USED PER ACRE


Alfalfa, broadcast ...........lb.
Alfalfa, drilled ............ lb.
Barley .................... bu.
Beans, field, small............bu.
Beans, field, large ............ bu.
Beets, common (not sugar).... lb.
Blue Grass ................. bu.
Broom corn ............... lb.
Buckwheat ................. .bu.
Cabbage plants .............. no.
Clover, alsike ............... lb.
Clover, Japan .............. .b.
Clover, mammoth ........... lb.
Clover, red, alone.............l.b.
Clover, red, on grain..........lb.
Clover, crimson ..............lb.
Corn, for grain ............ lb.
Corn, fodder, for silage.......lb.
Cotton .................... bu.
Cowpeas for forage .......... bu.
Cowpeas, in drill with corn.....bu.
Cowpeas, for seed ........... bu.
Field peas, small ............. bu.
Field peas, large ............. bu.
Flaxseed .................... .b.
Oats ..................... bu.
Orchard grass ............... lb.
Peanuts ..................... bu.
Potatoes ................... bu.
Rice ...................... bu.
Rye, for grain................bu.
Rye, for forage ..............bu.
Soy beans, drilled ............bu.
Soy beans, broadcast ......... bu.
Sugar beets ................. .b.
Sweet potato plants..........no.
Tim othy .................... .b.
Tobacco plants ..............no.
W heat ...................... bu.


Average
of Reports
18.3
14.8
1.84
.76
1.29
6.3
1.07
6.0
.98
5,658
8.7
9.9
10.4
10.7
9.8
12.1
9.5
26.0
.96
1.31
.63
.70
.93
1.17
29.2
2.37
12.6
1.02
8.6
1.98
1.44
1.82
.79
1.37
13.1
6,605
9.4
4,762
1.38


Estimated Range
of Bulk of
Plantings
15 to 20
12 to 18
1.5 to 2.2
.5 to 1.0
1.0 to 1.5
5.5 to 7.5
.75 to 1.25
3 to 7
.75 to 1.25
5,000 to 7,000
8 to 12
9 to 15
8 to 12
8 to 12
8 to 12
10 to 15
6 to 12
15 to 35
.9 to 11
1.0 to 1.5
.40 to .65
.50 to .75
.75 to 1.25
1.0 to 1.5
25 to 30
2.0 to 2.5
10 to 15
1.0 to 1.1
7 to 12
1.5 to 2.5
1.25 to 1.75
1.5 to 2.0
.50 to 1.00
1.00 to 1.50
12 to 18
6,000 to 7,000
8 to 12

1.25 to 1.75





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


SELECTION AND STORAGE OF SEED CORN
By C. P. Hartley
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 415
Autumn is the time to prepare for a profitable corn crop
the following season. To be first class, seed must be:
1. Well adapted to the seasonal and soil conditions
where it is to be planted.
2. Grown on productive plants of a productive variety.
3. Well matured, and preserved from ripening time till
planting time in a manner that will retain its full produc-
tivity.
At corn-ripening time drop all other business and select
an abundance of seed corn. The process is too important to
be conducted incidentally while husking. Get the very best
that is to be had and preserve it well. The only proper way
to select seed corn is from the stalks standing where they
grew, as soon as ripe and before the first hard freeze.
As soon as the crop matures, go through the field with
a seed-picking bag and husk the ears from the stalks that
have produced the most corn without having any special
advantages, such as space, moisture or fertility. The seed-
picking bags are always open for filling and may be instant-
ly opened at the bottom for emptying. Avoid the large
ears on stalks standing singly with an unusual amount of
space around them. The inherent tendency of the plant to
produce heavily of sound, dry, shelled corn is of most im-
portance.
Later-maturing plants with ears which are heavy be-
cause of an excessive amount of sap should be ignored.
Sappiness greatly increases the harvest size and weight
and is apt to destroy the quality. In the Central and
Southern States, short, thick stalks are preferable. Short
stalks are not so easily blown down and permit thicker
planting. In general they are more productive than slen-
der ones. The tendency for corn to produce suckers is
heredity. Seed should be taken from stalks that have
no suckers.
Treatment of Seed.-The same day seed corn is gath-
ered the husked ears should be put in a dry place where
there is free circulation of air, and placed in such a manner
that the ears do not touch each other. If left in the husk
long after ripening it may sprout or mildew during warm,
wet weather or become infested with weevils or grain





60 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

moths, or their eggs. The vitality of seed is often reduced
by leaving it in a sack or in a pile for even a day after
gathering. During warm weather, with some moisture in
the cobs and kernels, the ears heat or mildew in a remark-
ably short time. Binder twine will support 15 or 20 ears
on a string. Ordinarily the best place to hang these strings
of ears is in an open shed or loft.
Wire racks are more convenient and in the end cheaper
than binder twine. Such racks can be made from electric-
ally welded lawn fencing without any waste. Fencing with
horizontal wires 4 inches apart and upright wires 2 inches
apart may be obtained in widths of 2, 3 and 4 feet. All
dealers in wire fencing can supply such fencing at an initial
cost of about 10 cents for each bushel of seed suspended.
These racks will last many years and are easily stored
when not in use.
Permanent seed racks are convenient, and when they
are located in a dry, breezy place the ears dry successfully.
Only during unusually damp weather at seed-gathering time
will fire be necessary. If heat is employed in a poorly
ventilated room it will do the seed more injury than good.
If used, the fire should be slow, long continued, and situated
below the seed ears, with good ventilation above them.

Weevils.-If at any time signs of weevils or grain moths
show on the corn, it should be inclosed with carbon bisul-
phide in practically air-tight rooms, bins, boxes, or barrels
for 48 hours. The bisulphide should be placed in shallow
dishes or pans on top of the seed. One-half pint is suffi-
cient for a box or barrel holding 10 bushels or less. One
pound, costing about 30 cents, is sufficient for a room or
bin 10 feet each way. After fumigation the ears must be
thoroughly aired, taking care that no fire is present when
the fumigation box is open.
In localities where weevils and grain moths injure stored
grain, the thoroughly dry seed should be stored in very
tight mouse-proof receptacles, with 1 pound of moth balls
or naphthalene inclosed for each bushel of corn. This quan-
tity tightly inclosed with the corn will prevent damage
from these insects and will not injure the seed. The ma-
terial will cost about 6 cents a pound. Sixty cents worth
will protect enough to plant 60 acres.
Winter Storage.-After hanging in the shed or lying on
the racks for two months, the seed ears should be "dry as





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 61

bone" and contain less than 10% of moisture. They can
remain where they dried or be stored in mouse-proof bar-
rels, boxes, or crates during the winter, but in either case
must not be exposed to a damp atmosphere, or they will
absorb moisture and be injured. Some farmers place the
thoroughly dried seed ears in the center of a wheat bin
and fill the bin with loose, dry wheat. This protects the
ears from rats and mice.

Testing.-Seed corn that matured normally and has been
properly preserved will grow satisfactorily. Ears slightly
damaged by poor preservation may germinate 100%, but
will produce less than if they had received better care.
Make a seed-testing box and test 100 ears separately. Be
sure that each kernel tested is perfect in appearance and
was not injured at the tip when removed from the ear. If
3 or more kernels out of 10 from any ear fail to grow, test
every ear in the entire supply of seed. If the seed has been
properly selected and preserved the 100 ears tested will sel-
dom reveal any poor ones and further testing will usually be
unnecessary.

Grading.-Shelled corn is difficult to grade satisfactor-
ily. The grading can be done better before the ears are
shelled. If the seed ears vary greatly as to size of kernel
they should be separated into two or three grades accord-
ing to size of kernel. These grades should be shelled sep-
arately, tested in the corn planter, and numbered to cor-
respond with the number on the planter plates that are
found to drop them most uniformly. These arrangements
can be completed before the rush of spring work begins.

Shelling. The first operation in properly shelling seed
corn is the removal of the small kernels from the tips of
the ears and the round thick kernels from the butts. The
former are less productive than the other kernels of the
ear. The round butt kernels are as productive as the other
kernels but do not plant uniformly in a planter.
Shelling seed corn carefully by hand is the best method.
The greater the acreage planted the greater the profit de-
rived from hand shelling. Into a shallow sieve each ear
should be shelled separately, rejecting any worm-eaten or
blemished kernels. If the supply from the one ear appears
good and contains no poor kernels, it is poured into the
general supply and another ear shelled in the same way.





62 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

STORAGE OF VARIOUS VEGETABLES
By James H. Beattle
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 879
A half-acre garden, if properly cared for, will produce
far more vegetables than the average family can consume
during the maturing period of the crops. Only a small
portion of the garden should be devoted to those vegetables
which must be used as soon as they reach maturity. Beets,
late cabbage, carrots, celery, onions, parsnips, potatoes,
salsify, and turnips may be stored in their natural condition,
and should be grown to the extent of the family needs for
storage for winter use. Beans of various kinds, including
the Limas, may be stored dry. The successful storage of
vegetables is not at all difficult; in fact, good storage facil-
ities already exist in most homes, it being only necessary to
make use of the cellar, the attic, a large closet, or other
parts of the dwelling, depending upon the character of the
product to be stored.

Beans and Peas.-Beans may be kept for winter use by
picking the pods as soon as they are mature, and spreading
them in a warm, dry place, such as an attic floor, until the
beans are thoroughly dry. Then shell and store in bags
hung in a dry, well-ventilated place until needed. Allow
navy and other bush beans to mature on the vines until a
maximum number of pods are ripe; then pull the whole
plant and cure it like hay. After thorough drying, thrash
the beans and store as suggested above. Peas may be
treated like bush beans and stored in the same manner.
Late Beets.-The beets should be pulled and the tops cut
off when the soil is dry. If they are to be held in a storage
room in the basement or in an outdoor storage cellar, they
should be placed in ventilated barrels, loose boxes, or, better
still, in crates. If sufficient space is available in the cellar,
it is a good plan simply to place in small piles along the
wall. Storage in large piles should be avoided, as it is
liable to cause heating and decay.
For storage in banks or pits prepare the beets as for
storage in the room in the basement or in the outdoor cellar.
Select a well-drained location, make a shallow excavation,
about 6 inches deep, line it with straw, hay, leaves, or
similar material, and place the beets in a conical pile on the
lining. Make the bottom of the pile about the same size as
but not larger than the bottom of the excavation. Cover





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 63

the beets with the same material as that used for lining
the bottom of the pit, and carry it up several inches above
the apex of the pile of vegetables, having it extend through
the dirt covering. This serves as a ventilating flue, and it
should be covered with a piece of tin or a short board as
a protection from rain. The dirt covering should be 2 or
3 inches thick when the vegetables are stored, and it should
be increased as severely cold weather approaches until it
is a foot or more in thickness. In finishing the pit the dirt
should be firmed with the back of the shovel in order to make
it as nearly waterproof as possible.
The shallow base around the base of the pit should have
an outlet for carrying off the water. Supplement the dirt
covering with manure, straw, corn fodder, or other protect-
ing material. Use several small pits instead of a large
one, as vegetables keep better in small pits and the entire
contents may be removed when the pit is opened.
Late Cabbages.-Heads of late cabbage may be cut and
stored in conical pits in the same manner as beets. An-
other common and very satisfactory method is to pull the
.plants, roots and all, and place them in a long pit with the
heads down. A few heads may be removed from time to
time without disturbing the remainder of the pit. As
slight freezing does not injure the cabbage, the covering of
the pit need not be as thick as for other vegetables.
Another good method for storing cabbage is as follows:
The plants are pulled, roots and all, and set side by side
with the roots down in a shallow trench, the length of
which corresponds with the width of the bed. The bed
may be any width up to 8 or 10 feet and as long as neces-
sary to hold the number of cabbages to be stored. Cover
the roots with earth. Around the bed erect a frame of
rails, boards, or poles, or by driving a row of poles into the
ground so that an enclosure of about 2 feet in height is
formed. Bank the outside of this frame with dirt and place
poles across the top, covering them with straw, hay or corn
fodder. Make provision for removing portions of the stored
product from one end of the pit. This type of storage is
inexpensive and gives good results. When the heads are
cut, leave the roots in position, and in the spring these
roots will sprout and supply thd family with an abundance
of greens. A large percentage of the cabbage sprouts found
on the market are produced in this way.
Heads of cabbage may be laid in rows on shelves in an




64 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

outdoor storage cellar, but not in a storage room in the
cellar of a dwelling, as the odor is likely to penetrate through
the house.

Carrots.-Carrots may be stored in a storage room in
the basement, in outdoor storage cellars, or in banks or pits,
and are handled in the same way as beets. It is advisable
to place a small quantity in the storage room in the base-
ment or in the storage cellar and the remainder in banks
or pits. They are not injured by slight freezing; hence need
not be covered as deeply as potatoes.

Late Celery.-Celery may be stored for a time in the
position where grown by placing enough earth around the
base of the plants to hold them in good form. Allow them
to remain in this condition until just before severe freezing
occurs; then bank the earth up to the very tops of the
plants, almost covering them, and as the weather becomes
colder cover the ridge with coarse manure, straw, or corn
fodder held in place by means of stakes or boards. The
celery may be removed as needed, but this method is open
to the objection that it is hard to get the celery out when
the ground is frozen.
Another method of storing celery is to excavate a pit
10 to 12 inches wide to a depth of about 24 inches and of
any desired length; thoroughly loosen the soil in the bottom
or shovel in loose topsoil to form a bed in which to set the
roots of the celery, and pack this trench with fully-grown
plants, placing the roots close together with considerable
soil adhering to them. Water the celery as it is placed in
the trench and allow the trench to remain open long enough
for the tops to become dry. Unless the soil is very dry at
the time of storing or extended warm weather should fol-
low, it will not be necessary to apply more water. Place
a 12-inch board on edge along one side of the trench and
bank it with the surplus earth; cover the trench with a
roof of boards, straw on poles, or cornstalks from which
the tops have been removed, placing the stalks across the
pit with one end resting on the board and the other on the
ground; spread over this a light covering of straw or other
material which will pack closely, and as the weather be-
comes colder increase the covering to keep out the frost.
Celery stored in this manner will keep until late in the
winter. This method, because of its simplicity, is recom-
mended for the farmer and small grower.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


The unused pit of a permanent hotbed may be utilized
as a storage place for celery by removing the surplus earth
and substituting a covering of boards for the sash. Store
the celery in the same manner as in the trench, and cover
the bed with any material which will keep out frost.
Celery may be stored on the floor of a storage room in
the basement of a dwelling or in an outdoor storage cellar.
Take up the plants just before freezing occurs, with con-
siderable earth adhering, and set them on the floor with
the roots packed together as closely as possible. If moder-
ately moist, the celery will keep well under the conditions
found in most storage cellars. Celery should not be stored
in the same cellar as turnips or cabbage, as it will absorb
the odor of these vegetables, ruining its flavor.

Onions.-To keep well, onions must be mature and thor-
oughly dry. Put them in ventilated barrels, baskets, crates,
or loosely woven bags, as good ventilation is essential to
the keeping of onions. A dry, well-ventilated place, such
as an attic, furnishes a good storage space for onions, as
slight freezing does not injure them, provided they are not
handled when frozen.

Parsnips.-Parsnips may be allowed to remain in the
ground and dug as needed, as freezing does not injure them.
However, as it is a difficult matter to dig them when the
ground is frozen, it is advisable to store a small quantity
in the storage room in the basement of the dwelling or in
the outdoor storage cellar for use during the periods when
the ground is frozen. Parsnips may be stored in the same
manner as beets and carrots.

Potatoes, Irish.-The Irish potato is the most important
vegetable in the northern portions of the United States
and is stored in large quantities for winter use. It may
be kept in the storage room in the basement, in outdoor
storage cellars, and in banks or pits. When stored in cellars,
the potatoes may be put into barrels, boxes, baskets, crates,
bins, or on the floor, but must be protected from the light.
When stored in banks or pits they are handled in the same
way as beets, carrots, etc. Potatoes must be protected from
freezing, and before winter sets in, the pit must be covered
with manure, straw, or other material in addition to sev-
eral inches of earth. It is a good plan to place the major
portion of the crop in banks or pits and a small quantity




READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


in the storage room in the basement or in the outdoor
storage cellar for immediate use.

Potatoes, Sweet,-Sweet potatoes should be mature
when dug and should be left exposed for a few hours to
dry off the surface moisture before being placed on storage.
They should be handled carefully at all times, as they are
bruised easily. This crop may be kept in pits or banks in
outdoor storage cellars, but a warm, dry place is preferable.
When stored in pits or banks sweet potatoes are handled in
much the same way as beets or other root crops. When kept
in a specially constructed storage house, either in bulk or in
crates, the potatoes should be cured for about 10 days or
two weeks at a temperature of 75 to 800 F. After the
curing period the temperature should be reduced gradually
to about 55 F. and maintained at that point or as near it
as practicable for the remainder of the storage period.
When well matured before digging, carefully handled, well
cured, and held at a uniform temperature of about 550 F.,
sweet potatoes may be kept throughout the winter and
spring. When only a few bushels are to be stored, they
may be placed in the basement near the furnace, on a shelf
near the kitchen stove, near the chimney on the second
floor, or even in the attic.

Pumpkins and Squashes.-Pumpkins and squashes may
be kept for winter use in the storage room in the basement
or in dry, well-ventilated cellars, but a dry, above-ground,
frost-proof place is best. Put them in rows on shelves so
that they are not in contact with each other. If the tem-
perature is maintained at about 400 F., late-maturing vari-
eties of these vegetables will keep until late in winter.

Salsify may be stored in the same way as beets, carrots,
and parsnips.

Late Turnips.-Turnips will stand hard frost, but alter-
nate freezing and thawing injures them. Gather, top, and
store the roots in banks, pits, or an outdoor storage cellar.
Do not place them in the storage room in the basement of
the dwelling, as they give off odors that penetrate through
the house.

Apples may be kept in the storage room in the basement
of the dwelling, in outdoor storage cellars, and in banks or
pits. Conditions suitable for the keeping of potatoes an-





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


swer fairly well for apples. Under some conditions it will
be an advantage to store part of the crop in the cellar and
the late-keeping varieties suitable for spring use in outdoor
banks or pits.


ARITHMETICAL PRINCIPLES
In measuring surfaces and volumes we are often in need
of simple rules by which calculations can be made that will
enable us to do quite difficult farm engineering. Especially
is this true of geometrical calculations.
The easiest of all surface measurements is the surface.
The surface of a square is ascertained by multiplying the
length by the width stated in terms of the same denomina-
tion and we have the area.

To find the area of a circle, multiply the circumference
by the radius and divide by 2: Therefore, if the radius
(half the diameter) of a circle is known, the area can be
ascertained by multiplying the radius by itself (square it)
and multiply this product by 3.1416.
To find the convex surface of a prism or a cylinder:
Multiply its altitude (height) by the perimeter (sum of its
boundary lines) of its base.
To find the volume (cubic contents) of a sphere: Multi-
ply the convex surface by the radius and divide by 3.
To find the contents of a cylinder: Multiply the diam-
eter of the base by 3.1416-this gives the circumference of
the base. Then multiply this circumference by the radius
(half the diameter) and divide this by 2-this gives the
area of the base-then multiply the area of the base by the
altitude, which gives the cubic contents or volume.
Square root is serviceable in many calculations. If you
want to know the length of one side of a square and have
the area you find it by the rules of square root.
Square root applies to areas; hence, the side of a square
is the root of the area.
The following is the rule for finding the square root:
Separate the number into periods of two figures each,
beginning at the decimal point.





68 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

Find the greatest square in the left-hand period and
write its root as the first figure of the required root.
Square this root, subtract the result from the left-half
period, and to the remainder annex the next period for a
dividend.
Divide this new dividend by twice the part of the root
already found and write the quotient as the second figure
of the required root. Annex to this divisor the figure thus
found and multiply by the number representing this figure.
Subtract this result, bring down the next period, and
proceed as before until all the periods have been thus an-
nexed.
The result is the square root required.



BOARD MEASURE
Boards are sold by the square foot surface, one inch in
thickness. If cut thinner, they count the same as if an
inch thick.
To ascertain the number of square feet in a board, mul-
tiply the width in inches by the length in feet, and divide
the product by 12; the quotient is the number of feet in the
board,, and the remainder is the odd inches. Six inches and
over, remainder are counted an additional foot. For ex-
ample, measure a board 22 inches wide by 19 feet long, as
below:
Multiply 22 the width in inches
by 19 length in feet
198
22
12)418 Product
Quotient 34 10 remainder.
Showing 34 feet 10 inches in the board, which counts 35 feet.



THE MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER OR SCANTLING
NOTE: The following valuable tables are taken from Day's Ready
Reckoner, by permission of the publishers, Dick & Fitzgerald, of
New York.
Scantling, or timber for building, is sold by the square
foot of inch-board measure. Thus a cubic foot of scantling





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 69

which is a foot wide, a foot thick and a foot long, contains
twelve feet measurement. To ascertain the square feet in
a piece of scantling of any length, width, and thickness,
multiply the width in inches by the thickness in inches;
then multiply the product of these figures by the length in
feet, and divide the second product by twelve; the quotient
is the number of feet, and the remainder (if any) is the
odd inches. Six inches and over are usually reckoned as
an extra foot.
In measuring the length of a piece of timber, the lum-
berman counts even feet only. Unless the length is full
ten inches or more over an even number of feet, the excess
is not counted; but ten inches over are counted as a full
foot. In marking the contents of a piece of timber when
it runs over measure, the lumberman usually places a mark
at the spot where the measurement ends. The marks are
made on one end of the stick with Roman capital letters
instead of figures, as XXI for 21, XVIII for 18, and so on.
Example.-Suppose a stick of timber to be 11 inches in
width, 9 inches thick, and to measure 27 feet in length:
Multiply 11 the width
by 9 the thickness
Product 99 by which
multiply 27 the length in feet
693
Divide this 198
product by 12)2673
Quotient 222 9 remainder
The quotient is the number of square feet (inch-board
measure), the 9 remainder being the odd inches. As 6
inches and over are counted a foot, 223 feet are the con-
tents of the stick.


PLANK MEASURE
Board measure is the basis of plank measure; that is, a
plank 2 inches thick and 133 feet long and 10 inches wide
contains evidently twice as many square feet as if only one
inch thick; therefore, in estimating the contents of any
plank we first find the contents of the surface, taken one
inch thick, and then multiply this product by the thickness
of the plank in inches.





70 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

Example.-Suppose we wish to ascertain the contents of
a plank 6 feet long, 12 inches wide and 214 inches thick.
First multiply the width in inches (12) by the length in
feet (6), and divide the product by 12. This will give the
contents of a board 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide and 6 feet
long. If the last product be multiplied by 21/, the result
will be the contents of a plank 6 feet long, 12 inches wide
and 214 inches thick.
Thus, 12 width in inches
6 length in feet
12)72
6
2 4 thickness in inches
13% contents in feet, board measure


ROMAN NUMERALS
Ques. How did the Romans add, subtract and multiply
with Roman numerals?
Ans. The Romans had no symbols to indicate mathe-
matical processes and operations. Originally they ex-
pressed every word and operation in words of full length.
Their mathematical calculations were never simplified fur-
ther than to abbreviate centum, 100, into C; mille, 1000,
into M and so on. Figuring in the days of Caesar was
clhmsy business. Practically all calculations were perform-
ed on the abacus, an apparatus resembling the Chinese
swanpan or the bead-and-frame affairs now used in kinder-
garten work. The Roman abacus contained seven long and
seven shorter rods or bars. There were four beads on the
long bars and one on the shorter ones. The beads on the
short bars denoted five.


HANDY RULES
A cubic foot or 1728 cubic inches of water contains 71/2
gallons and weighs 621/2 pounds.
A gallon of water contains 231 cu. in. and weighs 8/8
pounds.
For the circumference of a circle, multiply diameter by
3.1416.






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


For the diameter of a circle multiply circumference by
.31831.

For the area of a circle, square diameter and multiply
by .7854.

To find the pressure in pounds per sq. in. of a column of
water, multiply the height of the column in feet by .434.

One cord of soft wood is equal to 61 per cent of a ;ton
of soft coal; one cord of hard wood is equivalent to 88 per
cent of a ton of soft coal.

A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds
one foot per minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.

To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the con-
sumption of 71/2 pounds of ordinary coal, or about 1 pound
of coal to 1 gallon of water.





ORDINARY INTEREST FOR 1 TO 360 DAYS
(The table below gives the interest on $100 at 1 per cent)


Days
1 .........
2 .........
3 ........
4 .........
5 ........
6 .........
7 .........
8 .........
9 .........
10 .........
11 ........
12 .........
13 .........
14 .........


Int.
.00277
.00555
.00833
.01111
.01389
.01667
.01944
.02222
.02500
.02778
.03056
.03333
.03611
.03889


Days
15 .........
16 .........
17 .........
18 .........
19 .........
20 .........
21 .........
22 .........
23 .........
24 .........
25 .........
26 .........
27 .........
28 .........


Int. Days Int.
.04166 29 ........ .08056
.04444 30 ........ .08333
.04722 60 ........ .16667
.05000 90 ........ .25000
.05278 120 ......... 33333
.05556 150 ........ .41667
.05833 180 ......... 50000
.06111 7mo ....... 58333
.06389 8mo ....... 66667
.06667 9 mo ....... 75000
.06944 10 mo ....... 83333
.07222 11mo ...... .91667
.07500 12 mo ....... 1.00000
.07778


Example: Suppose you borrow $200 for 40 days at 7 per cent.
The interest for 30 days at 1 per cent on $100 is $.08333. The in-
terest for 10 days at 1 per cent on $100 is $.02778. The sum of these
two gives the interest for 40 days, or $.11111. For $200 the interest
for 40 days will be $.22222. Since this is the rate of 1 per cent,
multiply by 7 to get the interest at 7 per cent. This equals $1.56.






72 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


WEIGHTS OF CORN SILAGE
Estimated Weights of Corn Silage One Month or More After Filling.
Depth of
silage Diameter of Silo in feet
in feet 10 12 14 16 18 20
2 2.5 3.7 5.0 6.1 8.2 10.2
4 5.2 7.5 10.2 13.3 16.8 20.8
6 7.9 11.4 15.6 20.3 25.7 31.8
8 10.8 15.6 21.2 27.7 35.0 43.2
10 13.7 19.8 27.0 35.2 44.5 55.0
12 16.8 24.2 32.9 42.9 54.3 67.1
14 19.9 28.7 39.0 50.9 64.4 79.6
16 23.1 33.2 45.2 59.0 74.6 92.2
18 26.2 37.8 51.4 67.1 84.8 104.8
20 29.5 42.4 57.8 75.4 95.3 117.8
22 32.7 47.0 64.0 83.6 105.6 131.0
24 35.9 51.7 70.4 91.9 116.1 143.6
26 39.2 56.5 76.9 100.3 126.8 156.8
28 42.6 61.3 83.4 108.9 137.6 170.1
30 45.9 66.1 90.1 117.6 148.6 183.7
32 49.3 70.9 96.7 126.2 159.5 196.2
34 52.7 75.8 103.3 134.8 170.5 208.7
36 80.7 110.0 143.5 181.4 221.0
38 85.5 116.6 152.1 192.4 233.7
40 90.4 123.2 160.7 203.3 246.2
42 129.8 169.3 214.2 258.7
44 136.4 177.9 225.2 271.2
-This table taken from Kansas Bulletin No. 222.
1. If corn is put in silo while in the milk stage add 10 to 15 per
cent to weights given in table.
2. If corn is past the usual stage of maturity and contains less
water than usual deduct 10 to 15 per cent.
3. If grain is unusually heavy in proportion to stalk add 5 to 10
per cent.
.4. If very little or no grain is present deduct 10 per cent. (Under
normal conditions grain represents from 30 to 35 per cent of the
total weight of corn silage.)
5. Sweet sorghum and kafir silage weigh about the same as corn.
6. Fineness and tramping have no effect on the volume per ton
of silage.
7. To estimate amount of silage in silo one month or more after
filling:
(1) Determine original height of settled silage and read tonnage
from table.
(2) Determine height of settled silage removed and read tonnage
from table.
(3) The tonnage remaining is obtained by subtracting (2)
from (1).
Example. A 14-foot silo was filled to a depth of 35 feet
(settled height), and 16 feet have been removed. Find
tonnage remaining.
Total capacity before removal of silage.......... 106.6 tons
Weight of the 16 feet of silage removed......... 45.2 tons
Amount remaining ....................... 61.4 tons





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 73

LOGS REDUCED TO SQUARE TIMBER
To reckon the contents of a round log in cubic feet of
square timber, first reduce it to square timber; thus:
Measure the diameter (or thickness) at each end in inches;
add these measurements together, and divide the sum-
total by 2; the quotient is the average diameter. One-third
of this diameter is allowed for the chips or slabs. To de-
duct this third, divide the number of inches diameter by 3,
and subtract the quotient from it; the remainder is the
proper diameter for measurements. .The thickness of the
log is generally counted in even inches; and one-third of
an inch excess, or upward, is added as an extra inch. After
getting the square of the log in manner above described,
the number of cubic feet in it is reckoned the same as in
square timber. But as in the reduction of logs fractions
of inches often have to be reckoned, an example may be
useful for a perfect understanding of it.
Example.-Suppose a round log to be 35 feet long, 24
inches thick at the but and 19 inches thick at the top:
Add 24
and 19 the two diameters.
Sum-total 43 to which add two ciphers to include
the fractions, and then divide by 2)43.00
Deduct 1/3 for slabs 3)21.50 average diam.
7.17
True diameter 14.33 or 14-1/3 inches
Reduce this to thirds, thus: Three times 14 is 42, and the odd one
makes 43 thirds.
Multiply 34
by 43
129
172
Total 1849 which represents ninths of inches.
Add two ciphers to include the fractions, and then, to reduce to inches,
Divide by 9)1849.00
205.44
Multiply by 35 the length of the lot.
102720
61632
Divide by 12)7190.40
Divide by 12) 599.20
Cubic feet 49-93/100 counting 50 feet.




74 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

MISCELLANEOUS MEASUREMENTS
One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs 53 pounds.
To find side of an equal square multiply diameter by
.8862.
One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to 50
pounds.
To find area of a circle multiply square of diameter by
.7854.
To find diameter of a circle multiply circumference by
.31831.
To find circumference of a circle multiply diameter by
3.1416.
To find surface of a ball multiply square of diameter
by 3.1416.
To find cubic inches in a ball multiply cube of diameter
by .5236.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity
four times.
Each nominal horse power of a boiler requires 30 to 35
lbs. of water per hour.
A gallon of water (U. S. Standard) weighs 8 1/3
pounds and contains 231 cubic inches.
There are nine square feet of heating surface to each
square foot of grate surface.
A cubic foot of water contains 71/ gallons, 1728 cubic
inches, and weighs 62/ pounds.
A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds
one foot per minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
The average consumption of coal for steam boilers is
12 pounds per hour for each square foot of grate surface.
To find the pressure in pounds per square inch of a
column of water, multiply the height of the column in feet
by .434.
Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 de-
grees) has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 pounds
to the square inch).
To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the con-
sumption of 71/2 pounds of ordinary coal, or about 1 pound
of coal to 1 gallon of water.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 75


U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains = 1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dram;
8 drams = 1 ounce; 12 ounces = 1 pound.
Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram; 16
drams = 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 25 pounds = 1 quarter;
4 quarters = 1 cwt.; 20 cwt. = 1 ton.
Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram; 16 drams
= 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 112 pounds = 1 cwt.; 20
cwt. = 1 ton.
Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights = 1
ounce; 12 ounces = 1 pound.
Circular Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 degree;
30 degrees = 1 sign; 12 signs = 1 circle or circumference.
Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet = 1
cubic yard; 128 cubic feet = 1 cord; 24% cubic feet = 1 perch.
Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks = 1
bushel.
Liquid Measure: 4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1
gallon; 311/ gallons = 1 barrel; 2 barrels = 1 hogshead.
Long Measure: 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet = 1 yard; 5% yards = 1
rod or pole; 40 rods = 1 furlong; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile
(1,760 yards or 5,280 feet); 3 miles = 1 league.
Mariners' Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 120 fathoms = 1 cable
length; 7% cable lengths = 1 mile; 5,280 feet = 1 statute mile;
6,080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile; 1 knot = a speed of 1 nautical
mile, or 1.151 statute miles per hour.
Paper Measure: 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (480
sheets); 2 reams = 1 bundle; 5 bundles = 1 bale.
Square Measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square feet
= 1 square yard; 30% square yards = 1 square rod or perch;
40 square rods = 1 rood; 4 roods = 1 acre; 640 acres = 1
square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square) = 1 township.
An acre contains 4,840 sq. yds. or 43,560 sq. ft. A square acre
measures 208.71 feet on each side.
Time Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 hour; 24
hours = 1 day; 7 days = 1 week; 365 days = 1 year; 366 days
= 1 leap year.

LAWFUL BUSHEL MEASURE OF GRAIN AND SEED
The most general weights are given for most states. Principal
exceptions are noted. Weights are given in pounds. *Marks U. S.
Standard.
Alfalfa seed, 60; Apples, 48, 50* (Me. 44); Barley, 47, 48*;
Beans, 60*; Blue grass seed, 14; Bran, 20; Buckwheat, 40, 42, 48*,
50, 52; Cherries, 40, 50*; Clover seed, 60; Corn: in ears, 68, 70, 72;
Corn: shelled, 56* (Cal. 52, N. M., 54); Corn meal, 48, 50; Cranberries,
32, 33, 35, 36, 40; Flaxseed, 56* (Conn., N. J., 55); Malt, 30, 32, 34,
38; Millet, 50 (Minn. 48); Oats, 32*; Onions, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57;
Peaches, 40, 48, 50*, 58; Peanuts, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25; Pears, 36, 45,
48, 50*, 58; Peas, 60*; Plums, 28, 40, 48, 50*, 52, 64; Potatoes, 60*,
(N. C. 56); Sweet Potatoes, 46, 50, 54, 55, 56, 60; Rice, rough, 44,
45; Rye, 56*; Rye meal, 50; Timothy seed, 45; Wheat, 60*.





76 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

MEASUREMENTS

Circle: Diameter = circumference X .31831. Circumference = di-
ameter X 3.1416. Area = diameter squared x .7854.
Sphere: Surface = diameter squared X 3.1416. Cubic contents =
diameter cubed X .5236.
Cylinder: Area = circumference of base (see circle) x height. Con-
tents = area of the base X height.
Cone or pyramid: Lateral surface = circumference of base (see
circle) X % the slant height. Volume = area of base x 1/3
altitude, the altitude being the perpendicular distance from the
base to the highest point. Volume of frustrum of pyramid or
cone = 1/3 height X sum of the areas of the upper and lower
bases and square root of their product.
Triangle: Area = base X % altitude. Given measurements of three
sides, get 1/2 sum of sides from this subtract each side separ-
ately; multiply all remainders and % sum together; square root
of product = area.
Hypothenuse of right triangle = sq. root of the sum of the squares
of the other two sides.
Square, Rectangle or Parallelogram: Area = base X altitude.
Trapezoid: Area = altitude X sum of parallel sides.
Height of Tree or Building may be found by length of shadow. Set
up a stick and measure its shadow, then height of tree = length
of shadow of tree X height of stick + length of shadow of
stick.
Barrel: Volume same as for cylinder, but with a diameter equal to
half the sum of head and bung diameters.
Speed of Falling body: 16 feet the first second.
16+32 = 48 feet the second second.
16+32(2)= 80 feet the third second.
16+32(2)=112 feet the fourth second.
16+32(4)=144 feet the fifth second.
16+32(n-1) feet the nth second.
Velocity of Sound, Light and Radio: Sound in the air at 60 F.
travels 1,120 feet per second; in water, 4,708 feet per second; in
wood at least 10,000 feet per second; in metal at least 4,000 feet
per second. Light travels 186,600 miles per second. Radio
waves are considered to have the same speed as light.
A horse-power is equivalent to raising 33,000' pounds one foot per
minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times.




COMMODITY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

A pint's a pound-or very nearly-of the following: water, wheat,
butter, sugar, blackberries.
A gallon or milk weighs 8.6 lbs., cream 8.4 lbs., 46% qts. of milk
weighs 100 lbs.
A keg of nails weighs'100 Ibs. A barrel of flour weighs 196 lbs; of





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 77


salt, 280 lbs.; of beef, fish or pork, 200 lbs; cement (4 bags) 376
lbs.
Cotton in a standard bale weighs 480 lbs. A bushel of coal weighs
80 lbs.
A barrel of cement contains 3.8 cu. ft.; of oil, 42 gals.
A barrel for dry commodities contains 7,056 cu. in. or 105 dry qts.
A bushel stroked contains 2,150.42 cu. in., a barrel heaped = 2,747.7
cu. in. Used to measure apples, potatoes, shelled corn in bins.
A peck = 537.605 cu. ins. A dry quart = 67.201 cu. ins.
A board foot = 144 cu. in., a cord contains 128 cu. ft.
A barrel of flour weighs 196 lbs. net; 4% bu. of wheat makes a bar-
rel of "straight" flour.
Solids (lbs. per cu. ft.)-Anthracite, 87-112; Cement, set, 170-190;
Clay, 122-162; Coal, soft, 75-94; Glass, common, 150-175; Ice, 57;
Iron, pure, 491; Iron, cast, 444; Ivory, 114-129; Lead, 711; Lime,
mortar, 103-111; Lime, slaked, 81-87; Limestone, 167-171;
Marble, 160-177; Paper, 44-72; Rock salt, 136; Sandstone, 134-147.
Liquids-Alcohol, 50.4; Benzene, 56.1; Gasoline, 41.0-43.0; Milk, 64.2-
64.6; Coconut oil, 57.7.
Woods-Cedar, 30-35; Ebony, 69-83; Pine, white, 22-31; pine, yel-
low, 23-37; Hickory, 37-58; Mahogany, 41; Maple, 37-47; Oak,
37-56; Walnut, 40-43.



WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES OF WATER
1 cubic inch of water weighs .03627 lbs. 1 cubic foot weighs 62.5 lbs.
1 pint (liquid) weighs 1.044375 lbs. 1 gallon weighs 8.355 lbs.
1 cubic foot = 7.48052 gals. 1 gal = 231 cu. in. 1 liquid quart =
57.75 cu. in. Pressure in pounds per square inch of a column of
water = height in feet X .434.




FOREIGN MEASURES OF DISTANCE COMPARED
TO MILE
Mile. Kilometer
American or English mile...................... 1.000 1.609
French kilometer ............................. .621 1.000
German Geographical mile ..................... 4.610 7.420
Russian verst ................................ .663 1.067
Austrian mile ................................ 4.714 7.586
Dutch ure .................................... 3.458 5.565
Norwegian mile ............................... 7.021 11.299
Swedish m ile ................................. 6.644 10.692
Danish m ile .................................. 4.682 7.536
Swiss stunde ................................. 2.987 4.808





78 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
In Case of Injury Where Physician Cannot Be Secured
Drowning.-1. Loosen clothing if any. 2. Empty lungs
of water by laying body on its stomach and lifting it by
the middle so that the head hangs down. Jerk the body a
few times. 3. Pull tongue forward, using handkerchief, or
pin with string if necessary. 4. Immitate motion of res-
piration by alternately compressing and expanding the
lower ribs about twenty times a minute. Alternately rais-
ing and lowering the arms from the sides up above the head
will stimulate the action of the lungs. Let it be done
gently but persistently. 5. Apply warmth and friction to
extremities. 6. By holding the tongue forward, closing the
nostrils and pressing the "Adam's Apple" back (so as to
close the entrance to the stomach), direct inflation can be
tried. Take a deep breath and breathe it forcibly into the
mouth of patient, compress the chest to expel the air, and
repeat the operation. 7. Don't give up! People have been
saved after hours of patient, vigorous effort. 8. When
breathing begins get patient into a warm bed, give warm
drinks or spirits in teaspoonfuls, fresh air and quiet.
Burns and Scalds.-Cover with cooking soda and lay wet
cloths over it. Whites of eggs and olive oil. Olive or lin-
seed oil, plain or mixed with chalk or whiting. Sweet or
olive oil and lime water.
Lightning.-Dash cold water over the person struck.
Sunstroke.-Loosen clothing. Get patient into shade
and apply ice cold water to head. Keep head in elevated
position.
Mad Dog or Snake Bite.-Tie cord tight above wound.
Suck the wound and cauterize with caustic or white hot
iron at once, or cut adjoining parts with a sharp knife.
Give stimulants, as Whiskey, Brandy, etc.
Venomous Insects' Stings, Etc.-Apply weak Am-
monia, Oil, Salt Water or Iodine.
Fainting.-Place flat on back; allow fresh air and
sprinkle with water. Place head lower than rest of body.
Cinders in the Eye.-Roll soft paper up like a lamplight-
er, and wet the tip to remove, or use a medicine dropper to
draw it out. Rub the other eye.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 79


Fire From Kerosene.-Don't use water, it will spread the
flames. Dirt, sand, or flour is the best extinguisher, or
smother with woolen rug, tablecloth or carpet.
Suffocation from Inhaling Illuminating Gas.-Get into
the fresh air as soon as possible and lie down. Keep warm.
Take ammonia-twenty drops to a tumbler of water at fre-
quent intervals; also two to four drops tincture nux vomica
every hour or two for five or six hours.




IN CASE OF POISON
First. Send for a physician.
Second. Empty the stomach by an emetic-a teaspoonful of mus-
tard or two teaspoonfuls of common salt in tepid water; teaspoonful
of alum in water. Tickle the throat with a feather or finger. Apply
antidotes as follows:


Poison Antidote No.
Acetic Acid ............... 6
Alcoholic Liquors .......... 10
Ammonia ................. 9
Antimony ................ 5
Aqua fortis ............... 6
Arsenic ................... 2
Bitter Almond ............. 7
Blue Vitriol ............... 3
Bug Poison ............... 3
Carbolic Acid ............. 3
Carbonic Acid Gas ......... 10
Charcoal Fumes ........... 10
Chloride of Zinc............ 5
Chloroform, inhaled ....... 10
Chloroform, swallowed ..... 1
Coal Gas .................. 10
Copperas ................. 3
Corrosive sublimate ........ 3
Ether inhaled ............. 10
Ether swallowed .......... 1


Poison Antidote No.
Laudanum ................ 1
Lye ...................... 9
M orphine ................. 1
Muriatic Acid ............ 6
N itre ..................... 9
Nitric Acid ............... 6
Opium .................... 1
Oxalic Acid ............... 6
Paris Green ............... 2
Phosphorus ............... 2
Prussic Acid .............. 7
Rat Poison ................ 2
Saltpetre ................. 9
Sugar of Lead ............. 4
Sulphuric Acid ............ 8
Strychnine ................ 1
Tartaric Acid ............ 6
Toad-stools ............... 4
White Lead ............... 4
White Vitriol .............. 5


1. Emetic. If patient is drowsy, give cold coffee; keep awake
and moving.
2. Emetic. Warm extremities; give large doses of magnesia;
raw eggs; lime water; milk; flour and water.
3. White of eggs; milk, flour and water; give largely for ten
minutes, then give emetic and follow by mild stimulants.
4. Mustard emetic followed by Epsom salt.
5. Emetic. Give warm water to relieve vomiting; tea to table-





80 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

spoonful baking powder, salaratus, chalk, lime or magnesia, followed
by milk and white of egg.
6. Emetic. Baking powder, etc., as in No. 5, followed by linseed
tea or slippery elm tea.
7. Emetic. Followed by brandy or by teaspoonful ammonia in
pint of water.
8. Large quantities of water followed by large doses magnesia
or lime.
9. Drink diluted vinegar or lemon juice, follow with tablespoonful
castor oil, cream, sweet oil or linseed oil; then with teaspoonful
doses an hour apart for three hours.
10. Fresh air, inhalation of ammonia; warm extremities; artificial
breathing, as in drowning.



SCREW WORM TREATMENT
We have in Florida two species of the screw worm and
there is some misunderstanding regarding the control of
this pest because of the difference in the habits of these
parasites. The common screw worm fly, or Cochliomyia
macellaria, is the one that makes its seasonal appearance in
Texas and other southwestern states and the one that was
first reported in Georgia and Florida. This species of the
screw worm propagates and perpetuates itself in the car-
casses of dead animals and only affected part and a bloody-
colored discharge will be observed.
Owners of livestock should ride their pastures and
ranges regularly to observe infested animals, which should
be driven to prepared pens and chutes for treatment. When
the animal has been properly restrained, the wound should
be filled with 90 per cent commercial benzol and allowed to
remain in the wound for at least five minutes. It has been
found advisable, in handling screw worm cases, to intro-
duce the benzol into the wound with a syringe or oil can and
then plug the entrance with a pledge of cotton, allowing
this to remain five or ten minutes. Benzol kills the screw
worms slowly. It is not necessary to remove the maggots,
if, by so doing, you cause the wound to bleed as this mater-
ially delays healing. Next, fill the wound with pine tar oil,
specific gravity 1.065 and also place a quantity of this pine
tar oil on the margins of the wound. When working his
livestock, the owner should paint all cuts and bruises with
pine tar oil as this material will prevent the flies from de-
positing their eggs. Infested animals should be placed in





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 81

a lot or hold-up pen and treated daily until all wounds have
healed.
There has been a demand to dip cattle through the area
where this pest exists in the hope that by so doing the
dipping would control this menace. It is the opinion of the
writer and the experience of the federal government that
dipping is not an effective measure. It is more economical
and more practical to swab the ears of cattle, hogs and
sheep with pine tar oil and this application or dressing will
kill all of the ticks present and stay on the ear for a con-
siderable period of time, thereby preventing another in-
festation.
The owners of small herds or flocks, grazed or pastured
or those on the range which come to the lot every night,
have little difficulty in treating their animals under these
conditions. The open range, with large herds, presents an-
other problem. Here the owner may live miles from his
cattle or hogs and, therefore, is immediately confronted
with the heavy expense of observing and treating his ani-
mals.


THE FORECLOSURE PROBLEM
"First of all, we face the problem-and fact-of the
steady increase of foreclosures on farm home mortgages.
The number today is almost as great as during the peak
period of 1932-33-some 2,000 a week. This, my friends, is
striking at the very foundation of American Agriculture.
The Federal Home Loan Bank Review, a government pub-
lication, has let out the information that the Farm Credit
Administration in the year 1936 up to September 1st has
foreclosed or has arranged to foreclose the mortgages on
30,267 farms. This is an average for the first 8 months of
the year of 3,782 farm homes a month or 945 a week. The
same authority also tells us that the Home Owners Loan
Corporation has foreclosed on or has authorized the fore-
closure on urban homes at the rate of 43,870 during the first
8 months of this year, which is an average of 1,370 a week.
This record does not include foreclosures by the many other
private lending agencies that own mortgages on farms and
urban homes.
It is apparent that there has been quite a decrease in
the number of farm mortgages, for when a farm or home is
foreclosed on the indebtedness no longer exists.





82 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates,
37 East Pine Street, Orlando, Florida.

COTTON REPORT AS OF JULY 1, 1935.
Florida cotton in cultivation July 1, 1935, is estimated
at 94,000 acres compared with 92,000 acres in cultivation
July 1, 1934.
The Crop Reporting Board of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, from the reports and data furnished
by crop correspondents, field statisticians, cooperating
State Boards (or Departments) of Agriculture and Agricul-
tural Colleges, makes the following estimate of COTTON
acreage in cultivation July 1, 1935.
U. S. ACREAGE IN CULTIVATION, TOTAL 29,166,-
000 ACRES.
U. S. ACREAGE IN CULTIVATION COMPARED
WITH LAST YEAR, 104.6 PER CENT.
10-Yr. Aver. AREA IN CULTIVATION
Abandonment July 1, July 1, 1934
1925-34 1934 Percentage
STATE Percent Acres of 1934 Acres
Virginia ........... 1.4 59,000 98 58,000
N. Carolina ........ 1.0 961,000 104 999,000
S. Carolina ......... 1.8 1,315,000 108 1,420,000
Georgia ........... 1.6 2,124,000 106 2,251,000
Florida ............ 3.0 92,000 102 94,000
Missouri ........... 2.5 319,000 102 325,000
Tennessee ......... 1.3 748,000 105 785,000
Alabama .......... 1.1 2,144,000 109 2,337,000
Mississippi ........ 1.2 2,510,000 106 2,661,000
Louisiana .......... 1.4 1,172,000 110 1,289,000
Texas ............. 3.2 10,816,000 105 11,357,000
Oklahoma ......... 3.5 2,943,000 93 2,737,000
Arkansas .......... 1.9 2,190,000 107 2,343,000
New Mexico ....... 5.7 100,000 110 110,000
Arizona (a) ........ 0.5 136,000 112 152,000
California ......... 1.6 225,000 100 225,000
All other .......... 2.4 29,000 79 23,000
U. S. .............. 2.4 27,883,000 104.6 29,166,000
Lower Calif.
(Old Mexico) (b). 2.5 66,000 174 115,000
(a) Including Pima Egyptian long staple cotton estimated at 33,000
acres this year compared with 28,000 acres in cultivation July
1, 1934.
(b) NOT included in California figures, NOR in United States total.
H. A. MARKS,
Agricultural Statistician.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates,
37 East Pine Street, Orlando, Florida.

COTTON REPORT AS OF JULY 1, 1934.
Florida cotton in cultivation July 1, 1934, is estimated
at 88,000 acres compared with 119,000 acres in cultivation
July 1, 1933.
The Crop Reporting Board of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, from the reports and data furnished
by crop correspondents, field statisticians, cooperating
State Boards (or Departments) of Agriculture and Agri-
cultural Colleges, makes the following estimate of COTTON
acreage in cultivation July 1, 1934.
U. S. ACREAGE IN CULTIVATION, TOTAL 28,024,-
000 ACRES.
U. S. ACREAGE IN CULTIVATION COMPARED
WITH LAST YEAR, 69 PER CENT.


STATE


10-Yr. Aver.
Abandonment
1924-33
Percent


Virginia ..........
N. Carolina ........
S. Carolina .......
Georgia .........
Florida ...........
Missouri ..........
Tennessee ..........
Alabama ..........
Mississippi ........
Louisiana ..........
Texas ............
Oklahoma ..........
Arkansas ..........
New Mexico........
Arizona (b) ........
California .........
All Other .........
U. S. ..............
Lower California


AREA IN CULTIVATION
July 1, July 1, 1934
1933(a) Percentage
Acres of 1933 Aci
76,000 75 57,C
1,320,000 74 977,(
1,811,000 71 1,286,C
2,855,000 75 2,141,0
119,000 74 88,0
473,000 61 289,0
1,152,000 66 760,0
3,210,000 69 2,215,C
3,820,000 69 2,636,0
1,767,000 70 1,237,0
16,050,000 68 10,914,0
4,133,000 64 2,645,0
3,648,000 65 2,306,0
129,000 75 97,0
140,000 94 132,0
223,000 101 225,0
26,000 73 19,0
40,852,000 69 28,024,0


res
)00
P00
>00
100
100
100
100
100
00
'00
100
00
00
100
00
00
)00


(Old Mexico) (c) ... 1.0 54,000 115 62,000
(a) In 1933, approximately 10,495,000 acres were removed from
cultivation under contract with the Secretary of Agriculture.
(b) Including Pima Egyptian long staple cotton estimated at 29,000
acres this year compared with 27,000 acres in cultivation July
1, 1933.
(c) NOT included in California figures, NOR in United States total.
J. C. TOWNSEND, JR.,
Truck Crop Estimator, Acting in Charge.


^









SELECTED COTTON STATISTICS-AMERICAN, FOREIGN, AND WORLD.
(000 omitted)

1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934
-21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35
American
American production .................. 13,429 7,945 9,755 10,140 13,630 16,105 17,978 12,956 4714,47714,825 13,932 17,095 13,001 13,047 9,443
Worldcarry-overof Americancottont.... 6,338 9,393 5,162 3,304 2,705 3,386 5,495 7,696 5,114 4,421 6,287 8,86812,96011,58810,634
World supply of American cotton* ...... 19.767 17.338 14,917 13,444 16,335 19,491 23,473 20,652 19,591 19,246 20,219 25,963 25,961 24,635 19,886
United States consumption of American
cotton ........................... 4,677 5,613 6,322 5,353 5,917 6,176 6,880 6,535 6,778 5,803 5,084 4,744 6.004 5,554 ......
Foreign consumption of American cotton. 5,353 7,142 6,343 5,747 7,353 7,560 8,897 8,872 8,288 7,212 5.817 7,572 8,167 7,985 ......
World consumption of American cotton. 10,035 12,755 12,665 11,100 13,270 13,736 15,777 15,407 15,066 13,015 10.901 12,316 14,171 13,539 ..
Foreign
Foreign production ..................... 7,671 7,455 9,545 9,560 11,370 11,795 10,422 11,04412,32311,67511,86810,40510,40510,69913,053.
World carry-over of foreign cotton....... 4,847 4381 4,474 3,565 3,297 3,550 3,989 3,961 4,543 4,655 4,994 4,766 3,994 4,447 5,435
World supply of foreign cotton........... 12,518 11,836 14,019 13,125 14,667 15345 14,411 15,005 16,866 16,330 16,862 15,171 14,693 17500 ......
United States consumption of foreign
ottont ........................... 216 281 299 252 224 225 251 235 245 249 155 100 106 116......
Foreign consumption of foreign cottont.... 7,349 8,129 9,178 9,071 9,814 10,726 10,110 9,898 10,561 11,937 11,425 9,903 10,076 11,439 ......
World consumption of foreign cotton .... 7,565 8,410 9,477 9,323 10,038 10,951 10,361 10,133 10,806 12,186 11,580 10,003 10,182 11555 ..
World
World production ...................... 21,100 15,400 19,300 19,700 25,000 27,900 28,400 24,000 26,800 26500 25,800 27,500 23,700 26,100 .
World carry-over* ...................... 11,185 13,774 9.636 6,869 6,002 6,936 9,484 11,657 9,657 9,076 11,281 13,634 16,954 16,03516069
World supply* ........................ 32,285 29,174 28,936 26,569 31,002 34,836 37,884 35,657 36,457 35,576 37,081 41,134 40,654 42,135 ...
World consumptiont ....................17,600 21,165 22,14220,42323,30824,68726,13825,54025,87225,20122,48122,31924,35325,094...


From information compiled by the Bureau of Agricultural Economies.
Preliminary. T478-pound bales.
October 26, 1934.


tRunning bales.


*Mixed bales.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 85

FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Rule No. 100.
(Superseding Rule No. 38.)
Rule No. 100. Governing the Specifications for Septic
Tanks and Absorption Beds for the Treatment of Sewage
from Residences, Schools, etc.

Section I. Definitions.
A. A septic tank shall be construed to mean a water-
tight receptacle so constructed as to accomplish the par-
tial removal and liquefaction of the solid matter in sus-
pension of sewage.
B. A septic tank absorption bed shall be construed to
mean an underground pipe system consisting of open-
jointed pipe so distributed that the effluent from a septic
tank is oxidized.
C. The effective depth of a septic tank shall be-e6n-
strued to mean the depth from the liquid level line to the
inside bottom of the tank.
D. The effective capacity of a septic tank shall be con-
strued to mean the total liquid volume measured fromthe
liquid level line to the inside bottom of the tank and from
the inlet wall to the outlet wall of the tank.

Section II.
Septic tanks for the treatment of sewage from resi-
dences, apartments, hotels, schools, and public buildings
when used in Florida shall conform with the following
minimum regulations:

A. Material of Construction.
1. Tanks shall be constructed of durable, non-corrod-
ible material, impervious to water and resistant to decay.
2. Tanks made of concrete shall be thoroughly water-
proofed on the inside or constructed of cement mixed with
a standard water-proofing compound. No concrete shall be
used having a weaker mixture or consistency than 1:2:4,
i.e. one part by volume of cement; two parts by volume of
sand; and four parts by volume of stone. In the construc-
tion of concrete tanks standard methods and specifications
of the A. S. T. M. shall be followed with regards to ma-
terials, tools and mixing procedure. Commercial con-





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


cerns shall file a sworn statement with the State Board of
Health as to the concrete mixture and consistency.
3. All septic tanks shall be fully guaranteed not to
leak when laid down at point of installation and shall be
tested for leakage after installation.

B. Capacity.
1. The minimum effective capacity of tanks for RESI-
DENTIAL USE shall be figured as follows:
a. Capacities of septic tanks for residential use shall
be based on two (2) persons occupying each bed room or
other sleeping quarters.
b. The MINIMUM effective capacity of any septic tank
for residential use shall be two hundred and fifty (250)
gallons to care for five (5) people.
c. An additional fifty (50) gallons per person shall be
added for all over five (5) people, provided the maximum
capacity of the first chamber of any precast construction
shall not exceed one thousand (1000) gallons.
d. Septic tanks for residential use shall have a mini-
mum effective depth of thirty (30) inches below the liquid
level line, and a minimum air space above of six (6) inches.
2. The minimum effective capacity of septic tanks for
APARTMENTS and HOTELS shall be based on the follow-
ing graduated scale:
First five (5) persons 250 gallons, plus.
40 gallons per person for next 5 persons, plus.
25 gallons per person for next 30 persons, plus.
15 gallons per person for next 160 persons, plus.
10 gallons per person for each person in excess of 200
persons.
a. The effective capacity shall be based on two (2)
persons occupying each bedroom or other sleeping quar-
ters in any building provided that the maximum capacity
of the first chamber of any precast construction shall not
exceed one thousand (1000) gallons.
b. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks for
apartments and hotels in excess of one thousand (1000)
gallons shall be three (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall
have a minimum air space of nine (9) inches.
3. The minimum effective capacities of septic tanks




READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 87

for schools shall be designed as a basis of fifteen (15) gal-
lons per pupil.
a. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks for
schools in excess of one thousand (1000) gallons shall be
three (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall have a minimum air
space of nine (9) inches.
b. Septic tanks for schools in excess of 150 pupils
shall be considered as a special problem and plans and loca-
tion of these tanks together with the plans and location
of toilets shall be submitted to the State Board of Health
for approval.
4. Septic tanks for public buildings such as court
houses, jails, post offices, passenger stations, etc., in excess
of one thousand (1000) gallons shall be considered as spec-
ial problems and the location and plans of such installa-
tions shall be submitted to the State Board of Health for
approval.
Section III. Location.
A. Septic tanks and drainage lines from same shall
not be located under any building used as a residence.
B. Septic tanks and drain lines from same shall not
be located or installed within two (2) feet six (6) inches
of any building or bearing wall, foundation pier or column.
C. The outlet of the house sewer shall be so arranged
as to permit the invert of the house sewer to enter the
septic tank at a distance not exceeding twelve (12) inches
under the surface of the ground.

Section IV. Construction.
A. Tanks shall consist of two or more chambers sep-
arated by a partition wall and connected by overflow pipes,
wiers, or orifices properly located and of such size and con-
struction as to prevent undue velocities and carrying a scum
and sludge into the second chamber.
B. The inlet and outlet baffle, "T", or vented elbow
shall not extend more than thirteen (13) inches below the
water-line in tanks with an effective depth of thirty (30)
inches; nor more than eighteen (18) inches in tanks of
greater effective depth.
C. There shall be no openings in the partition wall be-
tween the first and second chambers nearer than fifteen
(15) inches from the bottom of the first chamber, nor shall





88 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

the bottom of the "T" or elbow connection be nearer than
fifteen (15) inches from the bottom of the first chamber.
D. A small vent above the flow line shall be placed
through all partition walls.
E. The liquid level in the first chamber shall be one
(1) inch lower than the invert of the inlet pipe.
F. All septic tanks shall be water, fly and mosquito
proof.
G. All septic tanks shall be covered by a removable
cover or manhole so placed in the top of the tank as to
give access for cleaning and to the inlet and outlet fittings,
provided that the tops of concrete tanks shall be reinforced.
H. Septic tank installation involving the use of siphons
or other automatic dosing apparatus shall be required to
have special approval by the State Board of Health.
I. All septic tank manufacturers shall be assigned a
code number and such code number together with the
manufacturer's name and address shall be imprinted upon
the cover located over the inlet of each septic tank manu-
factured for use in Florida. Manufacturers shall further
be required to file with the State Board of Health the name,
address and territory of each representative selling or in-
stalling their septic tanks.

Section V. Absorption Beds.
Drainage and absorption beds for septic tanks shall
conform with the following:
A. Drains shall be of cement, vitrified or agricultural
tile, laid with one-quarter (1/4) inch openings between the
ends of pipe. Each joint shall be covered with sections of
tar paper, not less than four inches by eight inches (4"x8")
previous to refilling the pipe trench.
B. The first two (2) feet of said drain line shall be
made water-tight.
C. Drain line shall be four (4) inches in diameter or
greater.
D. Absorption drains shall be laid not less than two
(2) feet apart, with inverts not more than eighteen (18)
inches deep in the ground.
E. The layout of the absorption beds shall be such
that the maximum grade for the drain lines shall not ex-




READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


ceed two (2) inches per one hundred (100) feet; provided
all drains shall be laid to uniform grade.
F. The minimum drain line for any installation shall
be seventy-five (75) feet. The drain line shall be seventy-
five (75) feet in length for the first two hundred and fifty
(250) gallons tank capacity and an additional twenty-five
(25) feet for each one hundred (100) gallons in excess of
two hundred and fifty (250) gallons, tank capacity.
G. For installations in clay or other non-absorbent
soils, the drain lines shall be laid upon beds of porous
material in depth at least twelve (12) inches below the
invert of the drain.
H. There shall be no portion of any absorption beds
closer than twenty-five (25) feet in sandy soil, and fifty
(50) feet in coral formation to a well water supply.

DEBT AND TAXES
A statement prepared by A. M. Lamport & Company, big
New York investment house, recently placed the national
debt of the United States at $34,000,000,000, or $266 for
every American. Comparative figures placed England's na-
tional debt at $35,000,000,000 and France's at $21,700,000,-
000.
The Lamport report pointed out that in England and
France the per capital debt was $751 and $517 respectively,
both considerably more than the American $266. The report
continued:
"With respect to the relation of national income to gov-
ernment debts and interest charges, the government debt
of this country is equal to 57 per cent of the national income
of its people ($59,800,000,000), while England's debt equals
178 per cent of national income of $19,700,000,000, and
France's 185 per cent of income of $11,700,000,000. National
income of the people of the United States amounts to 72
times annual interest charges on the government's debt,
compared with 19 times for England and 17 times for
France."
These figures had to do with the direct current tax load.
Other figures applicable to the American tax situation were
made available recently by The Providence Journal of
Providence, R. I. In the first study of its kind ever under-
taken, The Journal told the tax story of three thrifty New
England families living outside the income tax level. The




90 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

three kept a strict family budget for every week in the year
from September 1, 1935, to September 1, 1936. An analysis
of these budgets disclosed that for each family the average
total tax (in direct, indirect or hidden levies) was 14.74
cents for every dollar spent. Specific tax averages were:
7.10 cents out of every dollar spent on food; 6.41 cents out
of every dollar spent on clothing; 20.65 cents out of every
dollar for rent; 12.50 cents out of every dollar for electricity;
10.26 out of every dollar for telephone; and 14.70 out of
every dollar for gas.

Adequate maintenance and development of waterways
and harbor facilities, as a link in the transportation systems
of the country, are of particular concern to the South. Not
only do the states from Maryland to Texas handle a large
part of the inland and coastwise waterborne commerce of the
nation, but one-quarter of the country's total foreign trade
passes through Southern ports. Last year about 35 per cent
of American exports and 13 per cent of all imports were
handled by South Atlantic and Gulf ports.
Foreign trade through the South has shown an increase
for the past three years in succession. The total for 1935
was $1,087,000,000 as compared with $985,000,000 in 1934,
$885,000,000 in 1933 and $808,000,000 in 1932. Exports
through the South were valued at $804,460,000 in 1935, a
gain of $45,000,000, about 6 per cent, over 1934, and im-
ports were $282,571,000, a gain of $56,000,000, or nearly 25
per cent over the preceding year.
Some of the important commodities making up the bulk
of the country's sales abroad are chiefly the products of
Southern factories, mines and farms. Included in the major
items of export are cotton $428,000,000; petroleum $249,-
000,000; tobacco $143,000,000; coal $52,000,000; wood and
products $41,000,000; sulphur $7,000,000; phosphate $5,000,-
000; naval stores $16,000,000, and fertilizer $14,000,000.
.With the South producing practically all of the country's
cotton, 65 per cent of the domestic petroleum output, 93 per
cent of the tobacco, 41 per cent of the coal, 43 per cent of
the lumber, 70 per cent of the fertilizer, all of the sulphur
and phosphate and naval stores and a large proportion of
many other raw and finished products comprising the bulk
of our sales to foreign countries, the Southern States are
vitally concerned in maintaining and improving port facili-
ties to adequately serve the nation's trade.-Manufacturers
Record, Nov., 1936.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


FLORIDA STILL IMPORTS FOODS
Many Products Brought In Could Be Raised Here
(Florida Grower, November, 1936)
While Florida dairy farms are producing almost enough
fluid milk for home consumption, canned and condensed milk
is still being imported in large quantities. In fact Florida's
imports bulk to a huge total.
The following statistics were compiled for Florida Grow-
er by L. H. Lewis, marketing specialist in livestock and field
crops of the Florida State Marketing Bureau whose head-
quarters are in Jacksonville:
Florida spends for hay and mixed feeds (270,000 tons).... $8,000,000
Florida spends for butter (25,400,000 lbs.) ............... 6,850,000
Florida spends for cheese (6,750,000 lbs.) ................ 1,350,000
Florida spends for eggs (12,000,000 doz.) ................ 3,000,000
Florida spends for poultry meat (14,500,000 Ibs.)......... 2,500,000
Florida spends for canned vegetables ................... 3,000,000
Florida spends for fresh vegetables .................... 1,500,000
Florida imported, according to the latest figures of the
Florida State Marketing Bureau, for the year 1934, the fol-
lowing items and amounts with values of products as in-
dicated:
Mutton and lamb (9,000,000 lbs.) ......................$ 1,625,000
Pork (59,000,000 lbs.) ................................. 11,000,000
Beef and veal (68,500,000 lbs.) ......................... 10,500,000
Lard (11,600,000 lbs.) ................................. 1,180,000
Milk-canned and powdered--equal to 4,200,000 gals...... 2,800,000
According to the latest figures, Florida slaughtered in the state the
following number of cattle, sheep and hogs:
Florida shipped and killed locally and put on local markets 52,000
head of cattle or 24,700,000 lbs.
Florida shipped and killed locally 31,000 head of calves or 3,565,000
lbs. of veal.
Florida also shipped 1,000 head of stocker, feeder and dairy cattle
Sor 650,000 lbs.
Florida killed for farm slaughter and home use 10,000 head of
cattle or 4,750,000 lbs. and 8,000 calves or 920,000 lbs.
Total number of head of cattle on farms in Florida for 1934 were
as follows:
845,734 head of cows, cattle, and calves, at $14.80 a head, $12,516,-
863.20. This represents 48,801 herds or an average of 17.33 cattle per
herd.
Florida had in 1934-
18,000 head of horses valued at $68.00 per head.......... $1,224,000
42,000 mules valued at $99.00 per head.................. 4,158,000
43,000 head of sheep valued at $2.40 per head............ 103,200
477,000 hogs valued at $3.20 per head.................... 1,526,400
98,000 dairy cows valued at $30.00 per head............. 2,940,000




92 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


PLANT IMMIGRANTS EAGERLY SOUGHT
By T. J. BROOKS,
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture.
(Florida Grower, November, 1936)

Many nations have ransacked the continents and the isles of the
sea in search of plant immigrants. As a result the largest crops of
some countries come from the plant immigrants. The same is true
of animals but not in so marked a degree.
The centers of origin of cultivated plants are limited to a few areas
of the earth. But it is at these centers that we find the greatest vari-
eties of each species. From these places the plants spread naturally,
and by man, over the entire globe where plants thrive. However, each
fruit and vegetable has been found to thrive in other parts of the
world than the point of origin. This is illustrated by the Irish potato
which is a native of South America, but it thrived so well in Ireland
that it took on the name by which it is known throughout the world.
The distribution of plants and animals over the world has made it
possible for the human race to be distributed also. Were all plants
and animals restricted to their indigenous countries it would neces-
sitate the redistribution of the inhabitants of all countries. Some
would not be habitable at all which are now densely populated.
Florida's leading crops are fruits and vegetables which are im-
migrant species of the vegetable kingdom. To illustrate this point
the following Florida crops came from the countries mentioned:
From Southeastern Asia-Citrus, mango, banana, yam.
From East Central Asia-Oats, millet, cabbage, tung tree.
From Western Asia-Carrots, melon, certain grapes, onion.
From Southern Asia-Rice, sorghum, sugarcane, eggplant, cucum-
ber, ramie.
From the Levant-Lands bordering the Mediterranean sea-
Turnip, certain peas, fig, celery, asparagus, beet, lettuce, pepper,
cauliflower.
From South America-Irish potato, cassava, peanut, tomato.
From tropical America-Papaya, avocado, pineapple, chayota,
cocoa, vanilla.
From various parts of the United States-Corn, tobacco, beans,
pumpkins.
Some native crops-Guavas, blueberries, pecans, sugar apple, wild
grape.






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 93


TIME DIFFERENCE

Twelve O'Clock Noon United States Standard Eastern Time as
Compared with the Clocks in the Following Cities
of the United States


Atlanta, Ga. ........11:00 a.m.
Baltimore, Md. ...... 12:00 noon
Birmingham, Ala. ...11:00 a.m.
Boston, Mass ....... 12:00 noon
Buffalo, N. Y....... 12:00 noon
Charleston, S. C.... .12:00 noon
Chicago, Ill. ........ 11:00 a.m.
Cincinnati, Ohio .... 12:00 noon
Cleveland, Ohio .... 12:00 noon
Dallas, Tex. ........ 11:00 a.m.
Denver, Colo. .......10:00 a.m.
Detroit, Mich ....... 12:00 noon
E1 Paso, Tex .......10:00 a.m.
Galveston, Tex .... 11:00 a.m.
Indianapolis, Ind. ...11:00 a.m.
Kansas City, Mo ... .11:00 a.m.
Los Angeles, Calif. .. 9:00 a.m.
Louisville, Ky ..... 11:00 a.m.


Memphis, Tenn ..... .11:00 a.m.
Milwaukee, Wis ... .11:00 a.m.
Minneapolis, Minn. ..11:00 a.m.
Nashville, Tenn. ....11:00 a.m.
New Orleans, La. ...11:00 a.m.
New York City ..... 12:00 noon
Norfolk, Va ........ 12:00 noon
Omaha, Neb. ....... 11:00 a.m.
Philadelphia, Pa ... .12:00 noon
Pittsburgh, Pa. ..... 12:00 noon
Richmond, Va. ......12:00 noon
Salt Lake City, Utah 10:00 a.m.
San Francisco, Calif.. 9:00 a.m.
Savannah, Ga. ......12:001 noon
Seattle, Wash. ...... 9:00 a.m.
St. Louis, Mo....... 11:00 a.m.
Toledo, Ohio ........ 12:00 noon
Washington, D. C... .12:00 noon


FIRST AID TO THE INJURED OR POISONED

First-Call a Doctor.

If the sufferer is in a faint or fit, loosen clothing. Lay
flat on back, raising feet higher than head. Fan freely and
put cold water on the face and chest. Camphor, ammonia
or smelling salts, held near nose, often revive.

If vomiting, turn head to one side.

If unconscious, don't put anything in mouth. Water or
stimulant may cause choking. Unconscious persons cannot
swallow.

If conscious, cold water frequently revives and refresh-
es if given slowly in sips.

Apoplexy-Stroke of Paralysis.-Do not give stimu-
lants. Loosen clothing. Elevate the patient's head and
apply cold cloths. Keep the body and feet warm.

Foreign Bodies in Eye.-Pull the upper lid downward
away from the eyeball over lower lid and release.

Burns and Scalds.-Cover with cooking soda and lay





94 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

wet cloth over it. Whites of eggs and olive oil. Olive or
linseed oil, plain or mixed with chalk.
Lightning.-Dash cold water over person struck. Per-
form artificial respiration.
Fainting.-Place flat on back; allow fresh air and sprin-
kle with water.
Shock.-If faint and cold, give stimulant in small doses,
once in fifteen or twenty minutes and secure warmth by
external applications and rubbing.
Bleeding from Wound.-If from an artery, stop the
current of blood to the wound by putting a compress or
cloth pad over the artery. Fasten it firmly by a handker-
chief or bandage which may be tightened by twisting in
a stick as a binder. The location of the artery can gener-
ally be determined by the throbbing sensation. If from a
vein, stop the flow by pressure directly over the wound or
by exposure or application of cold water. Perchloride of
Iron may be applied with cloth or lint. Keep the part
elevated.
Wounds.-The part should be properly cleansed of all
foreign matter, the edges brought together and fastened
with strips of plaster; apply anodyne solution, give stimu-
lant, laudanum with brandy, if necessary.
Bruises.-Apply Jayne's Lincreme; keep well covered
and warm.
Poisoned Wounds.-From a bite of animals treatment
should be prompt. If possible suck the wound thoroughly
two or three minutes; cauterize with either nitric acid,
chloride of zinc or nitrate of silver, use whiskey freely in-
ternally.
Sting of Insects.-Apply spirits of ammonia.
Poisons.-General Directions-Give an emetic as soon
as possible; tablespoonful of powdered mustard in a tum-
bler of warm water, or twenty grains of ipecac, or rich
milk or whites of eggs in large doses; after vomiting give
freely of warm drinks.
Don't Do This
Don't touch a wound with your finger.
Dbn't put an unclean dressing over a wound.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 95

Don't move a patient unnecessarily.
Don't fail to remove false teeth or other things from
the mouth of an unconscious person.
Don't wash wounds.
Don't have a tourniquet on over twenty minutes without
loosening.


VITAMINS AND NUTRITION IN THE HOME
Scientists tell us there are four principal vitamins, A,
B, C, D, that are directly concerned with the proper growth,
skeletal development and general physical well-being of our
bodies.
Vitamin A, the growth vitamin, is found in butter, egg
yolk, milk, liver, various other foods and cod liver oil.
Vitamin B has its chief source in whole grain products;
oranges and tomatoes are an excellent source of Vitamin C,
while some of the other fresh fruits and vegetables also
contain large amounts. Vitamin D is found in sunshine
and also in butter, egg yolk and cod liver oil.
Vitamin A is perhaps the most important of the group
because it is essential for the proper growth and develop-
ment. It aids in building up resistance to colds and other
infections.
Cod liver oil contain much vitamin A, but one of the
most pleasant ways to get our supply is in our daily food,
suggests Miss Ada Lockhart of the National Dairy Coun-
cil.
It is a simple matter to include vitamin A each day.
Many of our recipes call for milk, butter and eggs-three
important sources. If we follow the advice of nutritionists
and include in our daily diet fruits, fresh vegetables, milk,
butter and an egg a day or three times a week, we may
be certain we are getting that important vitamin. The
necessary precaution is to have enough of these basic foods.
Use one quart of milk for children under fourteen and at
least a pint for adults. Whole grain cereal for breakfast
and at least some of the bread made from whole grain;
fruit at least once; two vegetables besides potatoes, one of
them raw; and two ounces of butter per capital per day is
recommended.
"The child whose parents will allow him to play with
his food at the table, to refuse spinach, green beans, or-
ange juice, milk and some of the other essentials in the





96 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

well-rounded diet, is being harmed in two ways. Not only
is the health question involved, which the absence of these
elements in the diet all through life, means, but there is
also the mental or social risk," warns Miss Gabriel.
"The child who is pampered and who develops peculiar
tastes, likes and desires, is apt to become a misfit in society
in more ways than one. A little wholesome discipline of
the right kind, positive firmness instead of nagging, and
above all, the parent's own appreciation of nourishing
foods, is most important during this pre-school time."
"Milk as the source of calcium, the real foundation for
tooth building, and the importance of a quart of it every
day, especially for prospective mothers, is a big truth we
have learned about tooth architecture. The ability to
enjoy fresh, green vegetables the year round in the present
market season is also responsible for an improvement in
the soundness of our teeth."
"Dr..Thurman Rice of the Indiana University School of
Medicine tells of the breakfast which he feels is suitable
for school children and which contained all those qualities
for health. I think it is the breakfast which is worthy of
broadcasting to every American home:
"Orange or other fresh fruit, buttered toast, cereal with
milk or cream, cocoa made with milk, bacon or an egg, an
attractive dining room, a smile from Dad or Mother."


AMOUNT OF PAINT REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN
SURFACE
It is impossible to give a rule that will apply in all
cases, as the amount varies with the kind and the thick-
ness of the paint, the kind of wood or other material to
which it is applied, the age of the surface, etc. The fol-
lowing is an approximate rule: Divide the number of
square feet of surface by 200. The result will be the num-
ber of gallons or liquid paint required to give two coats; or
divide by 13 and the result will be the number of pounds
of pure ground white lead required to give three coats.


BUILDING WHITE WASH
Slake one-half barrel of fresh lime with boiling water,
covering it to keep in the steam.
Strain liquid through a fine sieve and add seven pounds
of fine salt, previously dissolved in warm water; three






READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 97

pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin paste and stirred in
boiling hot; one-half pound bolted gilders whiting; one
pound of white glue which should first soak in cold water
until swollen up, then melt over a slow fire, avoiding burn-
ing it. Add five gallons of hot water to the mixture, stir
it well and let it stand a few days covered up. When ready
to use the wash make it boiling hot, which can be done
over the kitchen stove or a portable furnace. A pint will
cover nearly a square yard. It is a very white and durable
wash for outside work. It is almost equal to good paint.


REMOVING GREASE SPOTS FROM SHOES
Grease spots on shoes, especially tan shoes, are very
hard to remove, and when gasoline or other cleaning fluids
are used a conspicuous light spot with a ring around it is
often left. A better method, which will be found entirely
satisfactory, is the application of ordinary rubber cement,
which is customarily used for patching inner tubes. Put
a thick drop of cement on the grease spot and rub it down
evenly with your finger, tapering it to a thin edge. After
it has thoroughly dried, rub it off and repeat the process
until the spot has disappeared. This method leaves no
ring or light spot.


TO REMOVE MILDEW FROM CLOTH
Put a teaspoonful of chloride of lime into a quart of
water, strain it twice, then dip the mildewed places in this
weak solution; lay in the sun. If the mildew has not dis-
appeared when dry, repeat.


THE MOON
The mean distance of the moon, our nearest celestial
neighbor, is 238,862 miles, though it may approach us as
near as 221,466 miles, and it may recede as far as 252,715
miles. Its diameter is 2,160 miles. It would take 49 moons
to make a body as large as the earth. A body weighing
150 pounds on the earth would weigh only 25 pounds on
the moon. The moon always keeps the same side towards
us. No one ever saw the other side of the moon.
The moon has no atmosphere, no water, no fire, no ani-
mal life and no vegetable life. It is a dead world. It has






98 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

a day two weeks long with intense sunshine, and a night
of two weeks with intense cold. Its surface is very rough
and mountainous with many extinct volcanoes, some of
which are five miles high and more than fifty miles across.
The telescope shows huge cracks in the surface many miles
long. It is a dark body with no light of its own. Its light
is reflected from the sun.
The moon has no appreciable effect upon animal or
vegetable life, nor does it affect the weather in any way.



CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS

The year 1935 of the Christian Era comprises the lat-
ter part of the 159th and the beginning of the 160th year
of the independence of the United States of America, and
corresponds to the year 6648 of the Julian period.
January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar, corresponds to Janu-
ary 14, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 7444 of the Byzantine era begins on Septem-
ber 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 5696 of the Jewish era begins at Sunset on
September 27, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 2688 since the founding of Rome, according
to Varro, begins on January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 2684 of the era of Nabonassar begins on April
27, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 2595 of the Japanese era, being the 10th year
of the period Showa, begins on January 1, 1935, Gregorian
Calendar.
The year 2247 of the Grecian era, or era of the Seleu-
cidae, begins in the present day usage of the Syrians on
September 1, 1935, or on October 1, 1935, Julian Calendar,
according to different sects; but in the ancient usage of
Damascus and Arabia Petraea the year began with the
vernal equinox.
The year 1652 of the era of Diocletian begins on August
30, 1934, Julian Calendar.
The year 1354 of the Mohammedan era, or era of the
Hegira, begins at sunset on April 4, 1935, Gregorian
Calendar.





READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


2,427,804 is the Julian day number of January 1, 1935,
Gregorian Calendar.


CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS
Name Began
Grecian Mundane Era .........................B. C. 5598, Sept. 1
Civil Era of Constantinople ....................B.C. 5508, Sept. 1
Alexandrian Era .............................B. C. 5502, Aug. 29
Julian Period ............................... B. C. 4713, Jan. 1
Mundane Era ..............................B. C. 4008, Oct. 1
Jewish Mundane Era .................. .......B. C. 3761, Oct. 1
Era of Abraham .............................B. C. 2015, Oct. 1
Era of the Olympiads .........................B.C. 776, July, 1
Roman Era (A. U. C.) .........................B. C. 753, Apr. 24
Era of Metonic Cycle .........................B. C. 432, July, 15
Grecian or Syro-Macedonian Era ...............B.C. 312, Sept. 1
Era of Maccabees ..... ........................B.C. 166, Nov. 24
Tyrian Era ................................ B. C. 125, Oct. 19
Sidonian Era ....................... ........ B. C. 110, Oct. 1
Julian Era ................ .. ................ B. C. 45, Jan. 1
Spanish Era ................................ B. C. 38, Jan. 1
Augustan Era ............................... B. C. 27, Feb. 14
Christian Era ................................A. D. 1, Jan. 1
Destruction of Jerusalem .....................A. D. 69, Sept. 1
Mohammedan Era ...........................A. D. 622, July 16

The year 1931 corresponds to the year 7539-40 of the
Byzantine era; 5691-92 of the Jewish era, the year 5692
commencing at sunset September 11; 2684 since the foun-
dation of Rome, according to Varro; 2707 of the Olympiade
or the third year of the 677th Olympiad, commencing July
1, 2591 of the Japanese era, and to the sixth year of the
period entitled Showa; 1349-50 of the Mohammedan era,
the year 1350 beginning at sunset May 18.
The 156th year of the independence of the U. S. begins
on July 4, 1931.


THE ANCIENT AND MODERN YEAR
The Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians
in September, the Romans first in March and afterward in
January, the Afghans and Persians on March 21 (beginning
of Spring); the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the
Mohammedans in July.





100 READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS

THE CHINESE YEAR
The Nationalist Government in China decreed that the
Gregorian Calendar should go into effect on Jan. 1, 1929;
but owing to internal conditions, its practical enforcement
has been limited to the great ports and to official activities
and agencies.
The old Chinese year began late in January or early in
February and was similar to the Mohammedan, in having
12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately; but in every 19
years there were 7 years, each of which had 13 months.
This did not work out quite right, so the years were ar-
ranged in 60-year cycles with 22 extra months distributed
through each cycle.
Each year of the old years in China had an animal for its
symbol. There are 12 of these animals, coinciding in num-
ber and order with the signs of the Zodiac.
Symbolic Zodiac Symbolic Zodiac
Year Animal Sign Year Animal Sign
1928 Dragon(Shan) Leo 1934 Dog(Hsu) Aquarius
1929 Serpent(Ssu) Virgo 1935 Boar(Hai) Pisces
1930 Horse(Wu) Libra 1936 Rat(Tzu) Aries
1931 Sheep(Wei) Scorpio 1937 Ox(Chou) Taurus
1932 Monkey(Shan) Sagittarius 1938 Tiger(Yin) Gemini
1933 Cock(Yu) Capricornus 1939 Hare(Mao) Cancer

This 12-year animal-cycle of year has persisted in China
and also in Japan. The superstitious oriental believed each
of the animals named rules events in its corresponding
year.



THE FIRST RECORD OF CHRISTIAN ERA
"Why did not 'Anno Domini,' of the Christian Era, be-
gin at the Birth of Christ?"
Luke declares that Jesus "began to be about 30 years
of age at the time of His ministry."-Luke 3:23. But ac-
cording to the Christian Era now (A. D.), Hp was bap-
tized of John A. D. 27, and at once began His ministry.
The intention was to mark the time from His birth;
but the first record of the use of the Christian Era was by
a Scythian by birth, but a Roman abbot, who flourished in
the reign of Justinian. His name was Dionysius Exigiuus,




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