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Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Ready reference for farmers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014609/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ready reference for farmers
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: Ready reference for farmers mineral resources in Florida, Florida vegetables, melons and non-citrus, poultry
Physical Description: 191 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "June, 1943"
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014609
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7084
ltuf - AMF9211
oclc - 41450305
alephbibnum - 002453901

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Full Text





Ne'w Series


Ready Reference

for

Farmers


Mineral Resources in Florida
Florida Vegetables, Melons and
non-citrus, Poultry


STATE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner






TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
June, 1943


,


Number 80











READY REFERENCE

FOR

FARMERS















STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAx MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida
June, 1943














Ready Reference for

Farmers




U. S. STATISTICS

Do you know that the U. S. A. has 3,026,789 square miles.
East to West continental length 3,100 miles.
Canadian boundary is 3,700 miles.
Mexican border has 2,105 miles.
Water boundary 11,075 miles.
Population is 51.4 urban, 48.6 rural.
4,000 towns with population of 3,000 and up to 100,000.
43 towns with population of 100,000 and up to 250,000.
13 towns with population of 250,000 and up to 500,000.
9 towns with population of 500,000 and up to 1,000,000.
10 towns with population of 1,000,000 and up to 7,000.000.
Total population U. S. A., 132,000,000.
Total population Canada, 10,000,000.
Total population Mexico, 20,000,000.
Total population South America, 80,000,000.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA RAIL AND BOAT CITRUS SHIPMENTS,
VALUATIONS, AND OTHER DATA FOR 10 YEARS

Total Portion With No. Total Estimated
Records, Carloads Carloads Rail Haul, Rail and Florida
Estimates Reported Shipped Shipped Boat Production
Season. Shipped. By Rail. By Boat. Shipments. Utilized.
All Citrus Carloads Cars Carloads Boxes Total Boxes
1930-31 74,645 72,949 1,696 27,229,945 35,004,971
1931-32 49,235 44,996 4,239 18,914,165 24,446,218
1932-33 55,501 44,456 11,045 20,176,750 28,409,630
1933-34 53,311 32,288 21,023 20,884,890 29,276,287
1934-35 51,107 27,460 23,647 20,132,561 32,835,854
1935-36 48,916 28,790 20,126 19,232,052 29,462,052
1936-37 66,879 43,570 23,309 26,221,696 40,601,208
1937-38 67,409 45,867 21,542 26,317,533 40,939,629
1938-39 87,067 58,933 28,134 33,927,076 56,447,995
1939-40 55,310 41,761 13,549 21,449,504 42,973,112
Average 60,938 44,107 16,831 23,448,617 36,039,695
1940-41 67,072 49,329 17,743 26,358,127 55,890,754
1941-42 61,945 60,128 1,817 25,142,270 48,400,000
1942-43 76,198 76,198 37,216,319 68,700,446


FLORIDA RAIL AND BOAT CITRUS SHIPMENTS,
VALUATIONS, AND OTHER DATA FOR 10 YEARS
(Continued)

Cost of Estimated Estimated(1) Estimated
Records and Cost of Picking, Gross f.o.b. Net Returns Gross Return
Estimates Production Hauling, Returns to Growers All Citrus
Season. (2) Before Packing, Florida Rail & Boat Harvested
Picked. Selling. Points. Shipments. and Used.
All Citrus Per Box Per Box Per Box Per Box Gross Value
1932-33 $0.45 $0.90 $1.36 $0.011/2 $32,616,451
1933-34 .44 .87 1.65 .331/2 42,401,191
1934-35 .43 .88 1.63 .32 42,797,752
1935-36 .44 .94 2.14 .76 53,189,191
1936-37 .37 .92 2.04 .75 68,838,758
1937-38 .38 .88 1.57 .30/2 53,285,352
1938-39 .34 .82 1.31 .15 58,646,931
1939-40 .42 .90 1.60 .28 50,365,127
1940-41 .39 .85 1.51 .27 64,192,695
1941-42 .43 .89 2.06 .74 80,572,620
10-Yr. Ave. .403 .883 1.673 .387 54,690,606
1942-43 .39 1.01 2.81 1.41 153,052,989
NOTES: (1) Net return after deducting for cost of production which includes fer-
tilizer, spray materials, cultivating, spraying, pruning, etc., but before
deducting taxes, interest, depreciation.
(2) Cost of production figures added to net returns to grower will show
"On Tree" average return.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


PULPWOOD

In a recent survey of the State's chemical industries,
Professor C. B. Pollard of the University of Florida,
pointed out that in addition to securing an adequate sup-
ply of pine pulpwood, it can produce cellulose in abund-
ance from its fast growing trees. Cellulose is the raw
material for the manufacture of Rayon, Cellophane, cel-
luloid, artificial leather, photographic film, explosives,
etc. In its sugar refining potentialities it can supply many
by-products through chemical research. In its mineral
wealth, consisting largely of non-metalic minerals, a great
development of new industries based on chemistry is
foreseen.
Florida now produces 80 per cent of the nation's phos-
phate rock and 50 per cent of the Fuller's earth. It has
some of the finest china clay in America and other im-
portant common minerals, clay, limestone and sand. It
has established plants and manufacturing kraft paper,
tung oil, sugar, Portland cement, brick, building board,
glass, sulphuric acid, fertilizer, fish oil, gypsum and the
chemist is playing a part in the development of citrus
juice and canning plants.
Florida has a great lumber and naval stores industry,
wood distillation and pine oil plants, and through the
chemist it can turn some of its turpentine into synthetic
camphor. It has the necessary raw materials, including
treated rosin, tung oil and turpentine for the establish-
ment of paint and varnish manufacturers, sand for the
making of glass, and essential oils largely imported from
foreign countries.









6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CANNING FRUITS

The canning of citrus products is definitely established
as an important factor in Florida's citrus industry.
During the packing season of 1942-43 canners packed
approximately 22,000,000 cases of grapefruit hearts,
grapefruit juice, orange juice and combination juice.
The Florida Grapefruit Canners' Association reports
that approximately 21,000,000 field boxes of grapefruit
and oranges were used in the forty-six canning plants
active during the last packing season. Some 8,000 workers
are employed in the canneries during packing months.
Much of the grapefruit, grapefruit juice, orange juice
and combination juice canned in Florida last season went
to the Armed Forces of the United States, Lend-Lease,
Red Cross and other Government Agencies.
Here is another Florida product which, like the
prophet, is honored more elsewhere than at home. Canned
citrus is well worthy of a place on the menu in Florida
homes, particularly as a competitor of canned fruits pro-
duced elsewhere.
You can make delicious salads of canned grapefruit
hearts, and the juice of citrus fruits has many uses. Get
acquainted with this product of Florida's soil and in-
dustry.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SEED REQUIRED PER ACRE
Kind of Seed Q
Asparagus in 12-inch drills.-........... ..-----------------
Asparagus Plants, 4 by 11/ feet..-.. -................- ..........
Barley ..----------..............-- ..........--.......... ...
Beans, bush, in drills, 2% feet --.... --.......... ...........- .
Beans, pole, Lima, 4 by 4 feet..........-....-----------
Beans, Carolina, prolific, etc., 4 by 3 ft... ...-..... --.........-- .....-
Beets and Mangel, drills, 2'/ feet---.........-----..-......- ....-----
Broom Corn, in drills -..................--- ----- ---------
Cabbage, outside, for transplanting ---..-........ .....- .....
Cabbage, sown in frames.....-----------------------------
Carrots, in drills, 2 feet --..---.. .......... ......
Celery, Seed ......... ......------------------ ----
Celery, plant, 4 by feet--..-----... .-. -------------.
Clover, white Dutch. -. .....- -------------
Clover, Lucerne --.....---------------------
Clover, Alsike --. ....... ......----------.------- -
Clover, large red, with timothy ..--.----........... -------......
Clover, large red, without timothy.--........ ------------
Corn, sugar .....---------.-------------------------
Corn, field ................-------- -----------...---
Corn, salad, drill 10 inches.. -.-.. --........-. --....--------.
Cucumbers, in hills ..-----.......--.---- -------
Flax, broadcast .-.......-----------..--..... ----
Grass, timothy with clover ....- -----------------..
Grass, timothy without clover--.....-....... -- -- ---- ----
Grass, orchard ....--......--------------------
Grass, red top or heads ..........------- ..................
Grass, blue .....--- ---.---- ----- ---
Grass, rye --.....................----- ------- . ..
Lettuce in rows 212 feet.................---------- .. .. ..........
Lawn grass --....---... ---............... ............---
Melons, water, in hills 8 by 8 feet......-........------- ---
Melons, citrons, 4 by 4 feet................-------------
Oats ----------------------------
Onions, in beds for sets-.........--- ...---.. --------- -----
Onions, in rows for large bulbs.............---------............
Parsnip, in drills 21/ feet ..................... ..........---
Pepper, plants, 2 by 1 foot.....-..-.........--------------..
Pumpkin, in hills, 8 by 8 feet ....--..---
Parsley, in drills, 2 feet................--......- .......
Peas, in drills, short varieties.. ...-------------.
Peas, in drills, tall varieties...--.........-------- ....---------


Peas, broadcast ................. ...-....... ....--
Potatoes ...... .............. -
Radish, in drills 2 feet ..-........-.... ...------
Rye, broadcast. ---...................... .
Rye, drilled ....... ......-------....
Squash, bush, in hills 4 by 4 feet.. ...-.------
Turnips, in drills 2 feet ......--.. ---------
Turnips, broadcast ......--................. --
Tomatoes, in frames......................-
Tomatoes, seed in hills 3 by 3 feet.. ..----..
Tomatoes, plants --..---............. ......-...
Wheat, in drills...... ----.-...-------.... -
Wheat, broadcast -. ..--------


--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------


uantity
10 qts.
8,000
1/2 bu.
1/2 bu.
20 qts.
10 qts.
9 lbs.
12 lbs.
12 oz.
4 oz.
4 lbs.
8 oz.
25,000
13 lbs.
10 lbs.
6 lbs.
12 lbs.
16 lbs.
10 qts.
8 qts.
25 lbs.
3 qts.
20 qts.
6 qts.
10 qts.
25 qts.
20 qts.
28 qts.
20 qts.
3 lbs.
35 lbs.
3 lbs.
2 lbs.
2 bu.
50 lbs.
7 lbs.
5 lbs.
17,500
2 qts.
4 Ibs.
2 bu.
14 bu.
3 bu.
8 bu.
10 lbs.
L bu.
L2 bu.
3 lbs.
3 lbs.
3 lbs.
3 oz.
8 oz.
3,800
L1/ bu.
2 bu.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


DIMENSIONS OF CITRUS FIELD AND
PACKING BOXES
The dimensions of citrus field boxes are 33"x12"x13".
Section 2377 of the Revised General Statutes of Florida
provides that all field boxes to be used in the sale of
oranges, grapefruit and lemons by growers to packers or
buyers shall be of uniform size or 12" wide, 13" high and
33" long, and shall contain a middle partition not less than
three-fourths of one inch thick, so that the standard field
box has inside dimensions of 12" wide, 13" deep with each
end of the crate 15" long. The middle partition and each
end of the crate has a thickness of one inch, making it 33".
The standard nailed box in which citrus fruits are packed
contains 1 3/5 bushels and measures 12"x12"x24", inside
dimensions, with a partition in center. The Bruce wire-
bound box has no center partition but is the same size as
the standard box.




THE GREAT AND GROWING SOUTH
The South produces 100 per cent of the carbon black
produced in America, and
100 per cent of the rosin,
99 per cent of the phosphate rock,
99 per cent of the sulphur,
92 per cent of the cigarettes,
70 per cent of the fertilizers,
78 per cent of the mica,
76 per cent of the Fuller's earth,
73 per cent of the hardwood,
69 per cent of the petroleum,
50 per cent of the feldspar,
49 per cent of the aluminum,
44 per cent of the lead,
41 per cent of the clay products,
40 per cent of the coal.








SEED PLANTING IN THE UNITED STATES
(Compiled from reports of the Department of Agriculture)
NEW ENGLAND


Kind of
crop
Corn.....---..-
Wheat.... ...
Oats.....-- ..-..
Barley..--.........
Rye..............
Buckwheat......
Wh. Beans.....
Potatoes.........
Turnips........
Mangels...........
Tobacco.........
Hay ...- ...


Corn........-.......
Wheat........
Oats---............
Barley ...........
Rye..---... ....
Buckwheat.....
Wh. Beans ----
Potatoes -...-...-
S. Potatoes.....
Cabbage....-.....
Turnips..--......
Mangels...........
Flax..-..........
Tobacco........
Hay, tim'y....-
Hay, cl'v'r....


Date of Planting
May 10 to 30...............
Fall or Spring..............
April to May.............
April to June 20.........
April to May, Sept.....
June 1 to 20.....-.........
May to June...............
April 15 to May 1.......
July 1 to August 3 ...--
April 15 to May 5.......
Seed bed April..........


April 20 to May 30.......
Sept. 20 to Oct. 20......
March to May...............
March to May...... ..-
Sept. 1 to Oct. 1.......
June to July ...............
May to June-................
March to May.....-...-....
May to June....-.........
March to July...... ...
July...-- ... .....---
May.........................
M ay...............................-
Seed bed March.........
Aug. to Oct.................-
Feb. to April............ ..


Best Soil
Sandy or clay loam.....
Clay loam.....................
Strong loam.................
Strong loam..................
Medium loam.............-..
Light loam.......... .......-
Sandy loam................
Rich loam.... ..-- ...-
Sandy loam --......-....-
Strong, heavy loam......
Sandy loam..................


Amount of Manure
per Acre
8 to 12 tons---..-
18 tons.................
6 to 8 tons.....-........
7 to 8 tons................
7 to 8 tons..........-........
4 to 6 tons.......--...
7 to 8 tons..................-
15 to 20 tons...............
10 tons....-...-................
8 to 15 tons..............
8 to 12 tons ..-----.......
- - - - - - - - - - -. - - -. -. --. I .- .


Amount of Seed
per Acre
8 to 12 qts.........
2 bush.............
2 to 3 bush .......
2 to 3 bush..-....
5 to 6 pecks.......
1 tol 1% bush......
8 to 16 qts.-.......
8 to 20 bush.......
1 lb. -.................-
4 to 6 lbs...-.......-


MIDDLE STATES
Medium loam -.......-.. 8 to 12 tons manure.... 6 to 8 qts.................. 16-18
Loam------....... ........ 8 tons; 300 lbs. fer..... 2 bush.....--...1..-... ...- 41-43
Moist clay loam ......... 8 tons; 300 Ibs. fer .... 2 to 2 12 bush.............. 16-17
Clay loam......-........-.... 8 tons; 300 bs. fer...... 2 to 2 bush..... ..... 13-16
Sand or gravel loam.... 8 tons; 300 lbs. fer...... 1/2 bush....- ............ 40-43
Loam.......................... 5 tons.................... 12 to 1 1 bush .......... 8-10
Sandy loam .................. 8 tons-... .. ................... 1L bush...........-.....-... 13-14
Loam...-.....--...............-- 10 to 18 tons ........--.... 8 to 15 bush................. 14-22
Sandy loam--........... ..--.... ...... .......... 10 tol2 bush........--... 10-15
Clay or sandy loam -..... 300 to 600 lbs. fer......... 4 to 8 oz....... .....-.......-. 8-15
Loam.....--...-...-.... -.... ....- -.. ........... 2 to 5 lbs..........-- .... ... 10-12
Loam....................-........ 10 to 20 tons ..--.........- . 10 to 15 bush...... .......... 15-18
Limestone loam.--....- ..............-...- 20 qts.....---... -........ 8-10
Sandy loam ................ Commercial fer....... ..............-...... .. ......... 15-20
Clay loam.----..... ............ .......... 6 to 8 qts.---.....................
Clay loam-.........---............... ...- 6 qts..-.....------........... ----


Wks. to
Mature
.......... 14-17
.... 20
----.. 11-15
....... 10-15
....... 40
.. 10-15
8-14
.. 12-20
--..... 10
... -..... 17-22
.. ..... 9-12









CENTRAL AND WESTERN STATES


Kind of Date of Planting
crop
Corn.....--..---...--....-- April 1 to June 1. ....-
Wheat-..---....... Fall or Spring............
Oats---......--........ April 1 to May 1.........
Barley.....-....... Fall or Spring............
Rye--....--...-- Sept. 1 to 30..............
Buckwheat...... June.--.......--- ...-----
Wh. Beans ....- May 10 to June 10......
Potatoes.......... Mar. 15 to June 1.........
Turnips-....-... July 15 to Aug. 30........
Mangels........... April 1 to May 15...--....
Flax...........-.. Mar. 15 to May 15.......
Tobacco........... Seed bed March........
Hay.............-. .April to May ........... -

Cotton..........-. Feb. to May 15...........
Corn .....-....---- Feb. to June.. ..........
Wheat --.......... Sept. to Nov ...--....-...
Oats ..............Feb., May, Sept.........
Barley .....-....-- April to May...---
Rye....-............ Sept. to Oct....--.....-.
Wh. Beans ..-. March to May.--.....-..
Cabbage.......... Oct., Mar. to May .......
Watermelon.__ Mar. 1 to May 10.........
Onions............ Feb. 1 to Apr. 10..........
Potatoes.......... Jan., Feb. to April-.....
S. Potatoes..... May to June..........-
Pumpkins ...... April 1 to May 1 .....
Tomatoes....-. Jan. 1 to Feb. 19......
Turnips ..- Feb., Aug., April....... .
Tobacco....-...- Seed bed March.........
Cow Peas....... May 1 to July 15....-...


Best Soil Amount of Manure
per Acre
Black or Sandy loam.... 5 to 10 tons................
Strong loam.................. 8 tons... ...............
Clay loam ................----- 8 tons ...--....--- ..........
Clay loam. ................ 8 tons-...................
Light loam -..-..... ......... 8 tons...--.......-..........
Clay loam....-............... 5 tons..---......- ...... ..
Clay loam ............ .... 8 tons....... ..............
Sandy loam....... ........ 5 to 10 tons----...
Loam or muck --.....-.... 8 to 10 tons........-..
Sandy loam ......... ..... 8 to 12 tons........
Loam......--...-- ............. 10 to 15 tons........-.......
Sandy loam.-............... 8 to 10 tons-....-.....
Clay loam.......-.........-.. 10 tons-- ........--......-- ...
SOUTHERN STATES


Sandy loam-.............. -
Rich loam..-..................
Clay loam...................
Clay loam..--...-............
Clay loam...................
Clay loam............-.......
Light loam--................
Light loam. -. --
Rich, light loam........
Loam or muck.......---
Light, loose loam....
Sandy loam -...... --........
Rich, light loam-..........
Rich, sandy loam.......- .
Rich, light loam.-......-
Sandy loam....-.............
Sandy loam-..............


----------------------------------- _.
10 bu. cotton seed ..-----
8 tons.... ..........
8 tons---------------_--------.
8 to 10 tons.........
8 to 10 tons....--
10 tons -------
10 tons ......................
8 tons...--------
6 to 10 tons---..~...
5 tons; 300 lbs. fer......

8 to 12 tons-...-......-




8 to 15 tons.-..............
200 to 300 lbs. phos...-..


Amount of Seed
per Acre
6 qts............ .......
2 bush.................
2 to 3 bush....-.......
2 bush..................
1 to 2 bush. ..-......
1 to 2 bush ........-..
1% bush... .........
5 to 10 bush..........
1 to 6 lbs..... ........
6 to 8 lbs.......... ...
2 to 3 pecks-.. ......
Oz. to 6 sq. rd.... -..
8 to 15 lbs.........-


Wks.
Mati


1 to 3 bush ........... ...
8 qts........... ... ... ......
2 bush............ ...-......
2 % bush.....--....- ........
212 bush..........- .........
1/2 bush..........- .....-
1 to 2 bush..............
4 to 8 oz........... ....
2 to 7 lbs...........-........-

8 to 10 bush.-.. ..........
10 to 12 bush.............
4 to 7 lbs.......... ........
4 to 9 oz.....--....... -.....
2 to 6 lbs........ ....
Oz. to 6 sq. rd.- --... ..
2 to 5 pecks................


to
ire
16-20
40-42
12-14
11-13
35-40
10-12
12
10-20
10-16
22-24
15-20
15-18


20-30
18-20
43
17
17
43
7- 8
14
16-20
16-24
11-15
12-15
17-20
14-20
8-12
18-20
6- 8









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


HOMEMADE STOCK FEED
The stock and condimental feeds that are generally
bought on the market, which are represented to be condi-
tioners, tonics, and fatteners, have for their foundation
simple and well-known drugs and feeds. If a tonic or
feed is desired, one of known composition may be mixed
at home with entirely satisfactory results. The following
two formulas are suggested:
I. II.
Pounds Pounds
Glauber salt -..---........- 2 Glauber salt .....--..... ....... 5
Soda ....-......... ......- .... 1 Saltpeter ....-...................... 1%
Salt .....-.....--...- .......- 1 FenugTeek --.................- 1
Fenugreek .......--------- 1 Gentian -----.. .......... ..-... .... 2
Linseed meal ----..---......25 Linseed meal ....--............-50
A heaping tablespoonful of one of the above mixtures
fed with the grain 3 times a day is sufficient.
When a tonic is needed it is advisable to investigate
why it is needed. The horse should receive daily atten-
tion regarding feed, water, salt, exercise, grooming, sani-
tation, and comfortable quarters. Neglect of any of these
factors is usually an underlying cause of the poor condi-
tion of the animal.


REMEDY TO KEEP HORSE FLIES OFF FARM
ANIMALS
It may be impossible for the man who has droves of
cattle on the ranges to apply a remedy to keep the flies
from drawing their blood and vitality, but that is not
impossible for the man with a few cattle on the farm,
especially dairy cattle.
Many fly-control preparations are on the market,
some of which are good and some of which are worthless.
In order to be safe use any one of the three following
formulas which are recommended by Professor J. R. Wat-
son, entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station:
No. 1: Laundry soap ..------........... ---....... .............- 1 pound
W ater --........--.. .-... -- -.......... 4 gallons
Crude petroleum ........... .---- --------- ....... 1 gallon
Powdered naphthaline ...-............ .. .-- ......--- 4 ounces
No. 2: Fish oil -----..- -...- ...... ......- 100 parts
Oil of tar --. -----...... ........---- -. 50 parts
Crude carbolic acid ............. ------ ...--....... 1 part
No. 3: Laurel oil ..........----..-- I.. .... .. 1 part
Linseed oil ..........----......- ------... 10 parts









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


One may buy the ingredients and prepare the solution
himself and save considerable money thereby. All must
be thoroughly emulsified by running through a spray
pump after which they are ready to be sprayed upon the
animals. Any of them, if properly prepared and applied,
should keep a cow or horse free of flies for at least a day.


HOMEMADE HOG TONIC
Experienced hog feeders have asserted that a mixture
of charcoal, ashes, lime, salt, sulphur and copperas kept
where hogs can eat it will tend to prevent worm infesta-
tion. Though there is no positive experimental evidence
in support of this idea, the mixture is of value as a source
of mineral matter in the diet and perhaps as an appetizer
and tonic. Following is a formula:
Charcoal......-----------......-------- ------- 1 bushel
Hardwood ashes----... ....... .. ........----------. 1 bushel
Salt........................----- -------- 8 pounds
Air-slacked lime...-...-........-------------------. 4 pounds
Sulphur -----------.~.-- 4 pounds
Pulverized copperas ... --------.....- 2 pounds
Mix the lime, salt and sulphur thoroughly and then
mix with the charcoal and ashes. Dissolve the copperas
in 1 quart of hot water and sprinkle the solution over the
whole mass, mixing it thoroughly. Keep some of this
mixture in a box before the hogs at all times, or place in
a self-feeder.

PRESERVING AND CANDLING EGGS
By Jos. Wm. Kinghorne
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1109
Preserving in Water Glass.-To preserve 15 dozen
eggs in water glass, the following directions should be
followed:
(1) Select a 5-gallon crock (earthen or stone) and
clean it thoroughly, then scald and allow to dry.
(2) Heat 10 to 12 quarts of water to the boiling point
and allow it to cool.
(3) When cool, measure out 9 quarts of water, place
in the crock, and add 1 quart of sodium silicate (com-
monly called water glass), which can be purchased at
almost any drug store. Stir well so that the solution be-
comes thoroughly mixed.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 13

The solution thus prepared is ready for the eggs,
which may be put in all at once or from time to time as
they are obtainable. Care should be taken in putting
them in the jar not to crack or break the shells; also
make sure that the solution covers the eggs by at least two
inches at all times.
Put the crock containing the preserved eggs in a cool,
dry place and cover with a tight lid or waxed paper to
prevent evaporation.
To preserve a smaller or larger number of eggs, the
solution should be mixed and prepared in the same pro-
portion.
Preserving With Lime Solution.-If water glass is not
obtainable, lime may be used. It is not considered so good
as water glass, as in some instances eggs preserved by this
method have tasted slightly of lime, although at other
times lime water has proved entirely satisfactory.
To preserve with lime, dissolve 2 pounds of unslacked
lime in a small quantity of water and dilute with five gal-
lons of water that has previously been boiled and cooled.
Allow the mixture to stand until the lime settles, then
pour off and use the clear liquid. Place clean, fresh eggs
in a clean earthenware crock or jar and pour the clear
limewater into the vessel until the eggs are covered. At
least 2 inches of the solution should cover the top layer
of eggs.
If best results are to be obtained the eggs should be
fresh and clean and preferably infertile. For this reason
it is always best when possible to candle the eggs care-
fully before preserving them unless they are known to be
strictly fresh. If an egg is only slightly soiled a cloth
dampened with vinegar may be used to remove the stains,
but eggs should not be washed with water or soap and
water, as water removes the protecting coating that is on
the shell and may tend to cause the contents to spoil.
Under no circumstances should badly soiled or cracked
eggs be used for preserving, as one of more such eggs in
a jar may spoil all the others.
Using Preserved Eggs.-Fresh eggs preserved accord-
ing to these directions will usually keep from 6 to 10
months and can be used satisfactorily for all purposes in
cooking and for the table. If, however, preserved eggs
are to be boiled, a small hole should be made with a pin
in the larger end of the shell before placing them in the
water, to allow the air in the egg to escape when heated
and thus prevent cracking.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fertile and Infertile Eggs.-An infertile egg is one
laid by a hen that has not been with a male bird for 2 or 3
weeks and the germ cell of which is not fertilized. The
length of time varies somewhat, but ordinarily all eggs
will be infertile after the male has been separated from
the flock for from 2 to 3 weeks. If the germ cell of the
egg has not been fertilized the egg will not hatch, and
it is impossible for a blood ring to form in such an egg
when exposed to heat, which so often happens with fertile
eggs. Infertile eggs will keep much longer than fertile
eggs, and are best for all purposes except hatching.
A fertile egg is just the opposite of an infertile one.
It is an egg laid by a hen that has been allowed to run
with a male bird within 2 or three weeks and the germ
cell of which is fertilized. The length of time required
for fertilizing varies somewhat, depending upon the vigor
of the male. Generally speaking, however, a good per-
centage of the eggs will prove fertile after the male has
been with the flock from 2 to 3 weeks. Fertile eggs are
the ones from which chicks are hatched, and are desir-
able for hatching purposes only, as they spoil much sooner
than infertile eggs, often resulting in heavy losses.
The male bird makes the egg fertile, and the fertile
egg, if heated, develops a blood ring, making it unfit to
eat. If you do want hatching eggs, then allow the male
to run with the flock during the hatching season, but take
him away after the hatching is completed. The hens will
lay just as many eggs without a male as with one.
Candling Eggs.-By the term candlingg" is meant the
discarding or sorting out of the bad eggs from the good
ones by holding the egg before a strong light in such a
manner that the rays of the light come to the eye through
the egg so that the condition of the contents can be seen.
The shell of a new-laid egg has a soft "glow" or
"bloom" which is a visible sign of perfect freshness. This
glow or bloom is destroyed by handling and in any case
disappears after the egg has been exposed to the air for
a short time. After that it is difficult to tell a fresh egg
from an old one by the appearance of the shell; there-
fore candling becomes necessary if you would be sure
that the egg is good.
Eggs can be candled best in a dark room, by the use of
a bright light inclosed in a box or case having a hole a
trifle smaller than an egg directly opposite the light. At
this hole the egg is held for examination. An ordinary









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 15

hand lamp, a lantern, an incandescent bulb, or a flash-
light may be used. Any box that, set on end, is large
enough to hold the lamp will do. In addition to the hole
opposite the light there should be a hole at the top end
of the box, otherwise the heat from the top of the chim-
ney would set the box on fire. A tester chimney made of
tin such as is used on a lamp for testing eggs in incubators
may be used for candling. When such a chimney is avail-
able the box is not necessary, as the eggs are tested by
means of the hole in the side of the chimney.
The box and light should be placed on a table or a
shelf where most convenient. Place on one side the eggs
that are to be candled and on the other side have sep-
arate boxes (or anything that will hold eggs) for the good
and the bad eggs. Hold the eggs, one by one, large end
up, close to the light.
A perfectly good fresh egg shows "full" and "clear"
before the light. There is almost no air cell at the large
end, and the yolk outline is only faintly visible. A fixed
air cell of one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in
depth indicates a fresh egg as eggs run generally. A
larger air cell with a movable lower line indicates-ac-
cording to sizes and fluctuations-a stale egg or one be-
coming weak and watery.
Very small dark spots which sometimes may be seen
are usually blood clots. Large dark spots, blood rings,
and shadows are due to heat and germination and indi-
cate the first stages of decay. An egg that looks very
dark or black, except for a large fixed air cell, contains
a chick at an advanced stage of incubation. An egg
which looks dark when tested in the same way but shows
a large air cell with a movable lower line is usually in an
advanced stage of fluid decomposition, or what is com-
monly known as a "rotten egg."
At first it may be a little difficult to test eggs as here
directed, but with a little practice it becomes a very simple
matter.

PERIOD OF INCUBATION
The period of incubation varies with different species
of poultry, as shown in the following table:
Kind of Poultry Days Kind of Poultry Days
Hen ..............-----------.-. 21 Peafowl ..... --- 28
Pheasant .----- .---22-24 Guinea fowl ..... ------26-28
Duck ......----..... ..... ...... 28 Ostrich .-... - 42
Duck (Muscovy) ..-. --33-35 Goose ...........--------- 30
Turkey .----... .. 28 Pigeon --.. -----... .. 17









16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The period of incubation varies somewhat with condi-
tions, so that a hatch may run one or two days over in
some cases, because of an accident during incubation or a
low temperature throughout that period, or it may come
off earlier. If through any accident the eggs are chilled
or overheated, it is advisable to continue the hatch, test-
ing the eggs after a few days to determine the extent of
the damage.


PRESERVING EGGS
Preserving Eggs by the Use of Water Glass
Use pure water that has been thoroughly boiled and
then cooled. To each ten quarts of water add one quart
of water glass. Pack the eggs in a jar and pour solution
over them, cover well. Keep the eggs in a cool, dark
place. A dry, cool cellar is a good place. If the eggs are
kept in too warm a place the silicate is deposited and the
eggs are not properly protected. Do not wash the eggs
before packing, for by so doing you injure their keeping
quality, probably dissolving the mucilaginous coating on
the outside of the shell. For packing, use only perfectly
fresh eggs, for the stale eggs will not be saved and may
prove harmful to the others.
Water glass is a very cheap product that can usually
be procured at about 50 cents per gallon, and one gallon
would make enough solution to preserve 50 dozen eggs,
so that the cost of material for this method would be only
about a cent per dozen.
Water glass is sodium and potassium silicate, sodium
silicate being usually the cheaper. If wooden kegs or
barrels are used in which to pack the eggs, they should
first be thoroughly scalded with boiling water, to sweeten
and purify them.










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 17


ROTATION IN THE GARDEN

Rotation of crops is desirable in the garden as well as
in field crops. Following is a suggested plan of rotation
for early and late vegetables in the small home garden:


Vegetable

Beets, early-.... ..-----------
Radishes -.. -.........--
Lettuce-.....- -..... ....... .....
Early Potatoes ...-....... ......--.
Onions, plants or sets --....-
Beets, late.- ..... -------...
Peas ..-.......-------------
Early Cabbage--.... ------------...-.
Early Potatoes..---------
Beans, bush .......----------.....
Beans, bush .-------...... ---
Tomatoes, early -.........--......
Tomatoes, medium and late-
Tomatoes, late ---.. -----.
Eggplant and Peppers ---
Cucumbers .---- ..-...------.-... -
Sweet Corn ...-....--- ----


Followed
by
.....-. Celery --
...... Celery -----......
...---- Celery ----......
-...... Spinach -............-

.- ----Spring Cabbage -
--.......Fall Cabbage .--.
.--.. Fall Beans... -........
--- Fall Radishes, Let
-..... Scotch Kale .---..
...-... Siberian Kale ......
--..--.. Turnips ---------
....--- Turnips -----------



-.------ Fall Potatoes ......


Distance
Apart
(Inches)
....-- 15
..--.- 15
.---- 15
------ ---- 24
---- 24
--. -- 18-24
...--- 30
--.........- -- 30
tuce -.....- 24
. ... ... 24
--......----- 24
-.- 36
----- 36
36
.- .-- 24
--- 48
..--.....--. 36


REQUIREMENTS FOR STORING FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES

Where fruits and vegetables are stored in cellars,
barns, pits, or other places, there are certain require-
ments that must be met in order to avoid decay.
Only products that are free of diseases should be
stored. Often lack of air causes rotting. Dry heat will
cause spoiling more quickly than any other condition.
When these products are stored in a dry place and begin
to shrivel, sprinkle the floor with water frequently, every
day if necessary. When put in storage pits, lack of venti-
lation is often the cause of rotting. Pits should be pro-
vided with a flue or chimney in the top so as to give the
proper ventilation. It is during the first month or two of
storage that most ventilation is needed, as that is the time
when the most moisture is given off.


HOW LATE TO PLANT VEGETABLES

In planting the fall garden, it is well to plant a big
variety of vegetables-practically all of those planted in









18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


the spring. It is usually best to make the last plantings so
they will mature just before frost, provided they are
kinds that will not withstand frost. The table herewith
lists some of the more common vegetables that will not
stand frost and the number of days it usually takes them
to mature under average conditions. This information
will enable us to determine how late we can wait to plant
these vegetables and have them mature before frost:
Days
Vegetables to mature
Bush lima beans -------------- .. -.... ---..... ---....... .. 70 to 80
Snapbeans .............. -------- ........-......... 45 to 55
Black-eyed peas --------------......---------...... .......... 65 to 75
Lady peas ...-..............- .------......... ............... 60 to 70
Irish potatoes ....--------------.......-.................... 75 to 100
Cucumbers ......... --------------------------------...- 55 to 80
Squash -----------.. --- -----.... ..... ............. 60 to 80
Tomatoes .....--------...-------- ........... 100 to 120

Vegetables which will withstand considerable frost,
but not very hard freezes, and the number of days it or-
dinarily takes them to mature are listed in the following
table:


Vegetables
Mustard ------- ---- -
Turnips -...--.-------------......-
Carrots ----..... ------.. .... ---------.
Beets ....-...-------.... ------....
Swiss chard ---------------....... ..
Radishes ---.............-------..
Lettuce ---.......---------------
Onions from seed-- ............ .
Onions, sets for green onions---
Kohl-Rabi ....-- .......... -- ......
English peas -----------------.....-
Cabbage ..................--........
Cauliflower ..............------..
Chinese Cabbage -------...--


Days
to mature
.....--- 30 to 40
-------.. 60 to 80
... ..... 65 to 85
----........ 65 to 70
...----... 45 to 65
..----- 20 to 30
..... ..- 60 to 75
-.......... -- ... 130 to 150
-- 35 to 40
.----- 65 to 75
------.. 40 to 70
--.-......- 90 to 120
.-----....--..... 100 to 125
-----.. ..... 90 to 110


The following list of vegetables will stand in the open
throughout the winter in most sections of the South, and
may be planted well into the fall:


Vegetables
Spinach -..........---------.----..
K ale ...............
Rape ......---------..... --......
Collards ----
Salsify ......-------
Parsnips -----------
Rutabagas -..---..... ---...... ----


Days
to mature
.----------- 30 to 60
-- ............ 90 to 120
.----------- 90 to 120
--. ----------- 100 to 130
..------- ..... 150
.-------- ..... 150
.....------- 80 to 100








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 19

POISON BRAN MASH
For poisoning cut worms, army worms, grasshoppers,
and the central powers of wormdom, now driving against
the safety of garden and field crops, "Poison bran mash"
is the Browning gun of immediate relief. The following is
the formula:
Paris green or powdered arsenate of lead (whichever
you prefer or can secure), one-fourth of a pound; wheat
bran (coarse preferred), 5 pounds; one or two oranges or
lemons ground or cut into very small pieces, molasses or
syrup, one quart; water, three quarts, or as needed to
make a crumbly and not sloppy dough.
Bran and Paris green (or arsenate of lead) should be
first mixed together in bucket or other receptable.
To the water, first add juices and pulp of oranges or
lemons. Add next syrup or molasses, mix, and then pour
onto the poison bran and stir thoroughly. Add more bran
or water only as needed to make a crumbly mash.
Scatter on ground alongside of plants or sow broad-
cast if you have a large area, and increase or decrease
bulk of mixture according to amount of ground to be
"doctored."


POISON FOR MOLE CRICKETS
The West Indian Mole Cricket is becoming quite trou-
blesome in some parts of the State. This is a pale brown
insect, which, when full grown, is over a inch in length.
Like other crickets, they avoid the sunlight. They live
in the ground, deep into which they go during the day.
But at night they come out to feed. The following direc-
tions may be used against the native species as well as
against the West Indian one:
To reduce their number in the ground, plow frequent-
ly during their spring breeding season, which is from
March to May. Allow chickens and especially turkeys to
follow the plow. They are fond of these insects and will
eat all that they can find. If possible pasture hogs in the
infested field.
During March and April, when they are flying (they
do not fly much at other seasons) they are attracted by
lights and may be captured by light traps. Suspend a
lantern over a dish of water that has a thin scum of
kerosene on top.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Sulphur placed in the seed drill is said to repel them
to some extent. They may be kept out-of seed beds by
gauze bottom and sides. At the time that the seed bed is
made up, place the gauze in the ground at the depth
of a foot, more or less according to whether the plants
to be grown are deep or shallow rooted, and place soil
over it. The gauze to be at all enduring in such a situation
should be of copper or galvanized iron.
Plants set out in a field may be protected by banding
them. For this purpose melt off tops and bottoms of tin
cans and place the resulting cylinders around the plants,
pushing them well into the ground, but allowing them to
project at least an inch or two above the ground. Instead
of the tin cans one may use tarred paper.
The moles may be poisoned by a mixture of cottonseed
meal or bran and Paris green. Thoroughly mix a pound
of Paris green with twenty or thirty of the cottonseed
meal and moisten the hole with diluted syrup.
Like other insects which live in the ground, they may
be destroyed by the use of carbon-bisulphide. Sink into
the infested garden several holes for each square yard.
These can be made with a cane if the soil is moist and
should be pushed to a depth of a foot. Pour into each hole
an ounce of the liquid and quickly cover up and tramp
solid. Keep the liquid as far as possible from the roots of
the plants or the latter will be killed also. Also keep the
liquid away from fires and lights, as it is very inflam-
mable.

FORMULAS FOR CEMENT
Cement Walk:
1 part cement,
21/ parts of sand (without clay or trash),
4 parts of gravel.
Cement Walk also:
6 bags of cement,
12 yard of sand (without clay or trash),
82/100 yard of gravel.
For use in making mortar for building brick wall:
4 bags of hydrated lime,
or
5 bags of Mason's mixed lime,
1 bag of cement.










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


STANDARDS OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
The Florida Farmer, March 16, 1928. Copied from the Revised
General Statutes of Florida (Vol. 1), 1920, Chapter 2372.
The following standards of weights and measures
shall be the standard weights and measures throughout
the state of Florida:
One standard liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid
inches. The weights and measures shall be as follows:


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Corn, shelled .....----------- 56
Corn, on cob with shuck ..... 70
Sorghum Seed ----.-..----- 56
Barley Seed ................. 48
Oats ..--.......--~.......... 32
Bran .............----------- 20
Corn Meal ...---- -.... 48
Beans, shelled --.... ----- 60
Beans, velvet, in hulls -------. 78
Beans, Castor, shelled .-------- 48
Millet Seed -..........----- 50
Beggarweed Seed.----------- 62
Irish Potatoes .------ 60
Sweet Potatoes--....---..- 56
Turnips ------------ --- -- 54


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Onions ............ .... ....-. 56
Salt ..~~~... .......-------- 60
Peanuts --------- 22
Chufas -............... 54
Rye -..-..56.............----- 56
Apples, dried ----- 24
Apples, green ---.........--. 48
Quinces .. -------- 48
Peaches, dried ...-.-------- 24
Peaches, green --..-..... 54
Cotton Seed --.........--...-- 32
Cotton Seed, Sea Island....-- 44
Plums ..---.............-- ....... 40
Pears ....-..-....----...........--- 55
Guavas .....-------- .. .....--- 54


STANDARD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Chapter 4975-(No. 91)
AN ACT to Establish a Standard of Weights and Meas-
ures of the State of Florida.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. The following standard of weights and
measures shall be the standard of weights and measures
throughout the State:
One standard bushel shall contain 2,150 2/5 solid
inches.
One liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid inches. The
weights and measures shall be as follows:
Wheat, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn, shelled, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn on cob with shuck, 70 pounds avoirdupois.
Sorghum seed, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Barley seed, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Oats, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, rough, per bushel, 45 pounds avoirdupois.
Rice, clean, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Bran, per bushel, 20 pounds avoirdupois.
Corn meal, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, shelled, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Beans, velvet, in hull, per bushel, 78 lbs. avoirdupois.
Beans, castor, shelled, per bushel, 48 lbs. avoirdupois.
Millet seed, per bushel, 50 pounds avoirdupois.
Beggarweed seed, per bushel, 62 pounds avoirdupois.
Irish potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Sweet potatoes, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Turnips, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Onions, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Salt, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Peanuts, per bushel, 22 pounds avoirdupois.
Chufas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Rye, per bushel, 56 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, dried, per bushel, 24 pounds avoirdupois.
Apples, green, per bushel, 24 pounds avoirdupois.
Quinces, per bushel, 48 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, dried, per bushel, 33 pounds avoirdupois.
Peaches, green, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, per bushel, 32 pounds avoirdupois.
Cottonseed, Sea Island, per bushel, 46 lbs. avoirdupois.
Plums, per bushel, 40 pounds avoirdupois.
Pears, per bushel, 60 pounds avoirdupois.
Guavas, per bushel, 54 pounds avoirdupois.
Sec. 2. All contracts hereafter made within the State
for work to be done or anything to be sold or delivered by
weight or measure shall be taken and construed accord-
ing to the standard of weights and measures hereby
adopted as the standard of this State.
Sec. 3. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with this
Act are hereby repealed.
Approved May 30, 1901.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 23

SYNOPSIS OF FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS
Relating to
LEGAL OR STANDARD WEIGHTS PER BUSHEL
and
THE SALE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Numerous inquiries are received asking for the "stand-
ard" or "legal" weight of fruits and vegetables, or, how
such products, packed in containers, may be marked to
comply with Federal requirements or those of the several
States.
With a minimum of detail, and chiefly for the pur-
pose of providing an outline for further study by those
who may be interested, the salient features of existing
Federal and State laws have been summarized.
From the lack of uniformity in them, it seems appar-
ent that if the varying requirements were strictly to be
enforced the vast interstate movement of fruits and vege-
tables could be carried on only with extreme difficulty.
No attempt is made herein to deal with laws or regu-
lations relating to those aspects of marketing such as the
grading of fruits and vegetables, or the licensing and reg-
ulations of dealers in those products.
FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS
Standard Weights.-With the exception of apples, for
which a weight of 50 pounds per bushel has been estab-
lished for the purpose of estimating duties on importa-
tions, no legal or standard weights for fruits and vege-
tables have been established by the Federal Government.
Marking.-The only Federal requirements as to mark-
ing fresh fruits and vegetables are contained in the Fed-
eral Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which provides that,
in interstate commerce, food in package form is mis-
branded if not plainly marked to show:
1. The name and place of business of manufacturer,
packer, or distributor.
2. An accurate statement of the quantity of con-
tents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical
count.
3. The common or usual name of the food.
Standard Containers.-Federal standards for contain-
ers have been established for barrels, Climax baskets,









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


baskets and other containers for small fruits, berries, and
vegetables, hampers, round stave baskets, and splint bas-
kets.
No Federal standards have been established for car-
tons, crates, boxes, drums, bags, or sacks.
In this connection, the Solicitor of the Department has
expressed the opinion that the Standard Container Act
of 1928, in establishing the bushel as 2150.42 cubic inches,
makes inoperative all State laws establishing weights per
bushel so far as they affect fruits and vegetables packed
in containers standardized by that law (hampers, round
stave baskets, and splint baskets).

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT AND VOLUME
OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Concerning "standard weights," the Department of
Agriculture takes the position that it is impracticable to
define a unit of volume, such as a bushel, of fruits and
vegetables in terms of weight because the weight of such
products is likely to vary with the variety, size, condition,
and tightness of pack, and on whether the package is
slack filled, level full, or heaped, and, if heaped, on the
amount of such heap.
In order to facilitate and expedite the distribution of
perishable fruits and vegetables the Federal Government
has established standard sizes of certain commonly used
containers-berry boxes, Climax baskets, till baskets,
hampers, round stave baskets, and splint baskets-all of
which are subdivisions or multiples of the standard bushel
of 2150.42 cubic inches. The standard fruit and vegetable
barrel, also established by Federal law and similarly fixed
and uniform, contains 9 quarts in excess of three bushels.
Such packages, when level full are generally recognized
and accepted as full measure.
Perishable commodities must be handled with all pos-
sible dispatch and, when standardized containers are
used, the time and labor required to weigh each package
might more than offset the good which might result from
a knowledge of the exact weight.
In general, it may be said that the sale of packed fruits
and vegetables in the original standard container can
safely be made and should be made by the standard pack-
age; but when it is necessary to break such packages in









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 25

order to dispose of the contents in smaller quantities, sales
should be by weight or numerical count.
The laws of several States, including Massachusetts,
Alabama, Indiana and New Jersey embody this principle.

STATE REQUIREMENTS
Containers.-Various States have, by law or regula-
tion, established standard containers for fruits and vege-
tables other than those established by Federal law (See
Summary of Federal and State Laws pertaining to Con-
tainers for Fruits and Vegetables). Designed, for the most
part, to facilitate the shipping of products originating in
the States adopting them, such containers might not al-
ways comply with the laws of other States, if strictly inter-
preted and enforced.
As variously defined in State laws regulating the sale
of fruits and vegetables, the term "standard container"
is restricted to one "established by the laws of that State
or by Federal law," as in Massachusetts, New Jersey,
Indiana, and Pennsylvania; or "built in accordance with
Federal law," as in Ohio; or "established by law," as in
Oregon; or "established by the Board of Agriculture,"
as in Alabama. A State may refuse to accept a standard
adopted by another State, and there have been several
instances of this nature.
Marking.-With few exceptions (Kentucky, Missis-
sippi, and New Mexico), all States have misbranding laws
similar to the Federal law above referred to, applying
to foods in general, and presumably to fruits and vege-
tables, as does the Federal law. However, some States,
in addition to their misbranding laws, have special laws
relating to the sale of fruits and vegetables in containers.
Legal Weights.-In all but 9 States and the District of
Columbia, legal or standard weights per bushel for va-
rious fruits and vegetables have been established, but
there is little uniformity in them (see page 19), or in the
conditions under which they apply in the sale of these
products.
The questions, "What is a legal bushel?", and "How
shall fruits and vegetables in containers be marked?",
can be answered, if at all, only by reference to the par-
ticular requirements of each State.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


For full particulars in any instance, application should
be made to the Department of Agriculture or to the
Sealer of Weights and Measures in the State involved.
An attempt is here made merely to indicate:
1. States having no legal weights per bushel for
fruits and vegetables.
2. States having legal weights per bushel for fruits
and vegetables, and the conditions under which
they apply.

STATES GROUPED ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENTS
On the basis of similarity of requirements, in which
there is naturally some overlapping, and assuming that
the containers standardized by Federal law are lawful
units of sale in all States, the 49 separate jurisdictions
fall into 5 groups, as follows:
In Groups II, III, IV and V, the figures in parenthesis
indicate the number of products (fruits and vegetables)
for which legal weights are in effect. It would seem that
the legal weight requirement becomes relatively ineffec-
tual where it applies to only 2 or 3 products, as in Colo-
rado, Mississippi, Georgia and Kentucky (Group V).
This, and other inconsistencies and variations obtain-
ing with respect to the regulations affecting the sale of
fruits and vegetables, emphasize the need for simplifica-
tion and correlation.

GROUP I-STATES HAVING NO LEGAL WEIGHTS
PER BUSHEL FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Sub-Group A-States requiring sale by weight, or
count, or standard container:
Page 4 District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, Oregon, Utah.
Sub-Group B-States apparently not requiring sale by
weight, or count:
Page 6 Arizona, California, Delaware, Louisiana,
Washington.

GROUP II-STATES HAVING LEGAL WEIGHTS PER
BUSHEL, BUT HAVING ALSO:
Sub-Group A-Special provisions relating to fruits
and vegetables in containers:









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


OUTLINE SHOWING THE PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL
AND STATE LAWS
Relating to
LEGAL OR STANDARD WEIGHTS PER BUSHEL
and
THE SALE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
UNITED STATES Tariff Act 1930, 46 Stat. Chap. 497, p.
635, Par. 734: For the purpose of estimating duties on
importations:
Apples, green or ripe, 25 cents per bushel of 50 pounds.
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Public No. 717, 75th
Congress) : Effective June 25, 1939; relates to and
governs the marking of fruits and vegetables in pack-
age form. (See Page 1.) Enforced by Food and Drug
Administration, Washington, D. C.
Standard Barrel Act (38 Stat. p. 1186).
Standard Container Act 1916 (39 Stat. p. 673).
Standard Container Act 1928 (45 Stat. p. 685).
For detailed provisions of the above acts, see "Sum-
mary of State and Federal Laws Pertaining to Con-
tainers for Fruits and Vegetables."

OUTLINE OF EXISTING STATE LAWS ON THIS
SUBJECT
GROUP I-STATES HAVING NO LEGAL WEIGHTS
PER BUSHEL FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Sub-Group A-States requiring sale by weight, or
count, or standard container:

*DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 41 Stat. Chap. 118:
No legal weights per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 15. *Establishes certain standard containers, and
then provides:
Fruits, vegetables, grain, and similar commodities
shall not be sold except in standard containers herein
prescribed, or by weight, or by numerical count.
Sec. 16: The use of the standard containers enumer-
ated in Sec. 15 as measures is prohibited.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables.) BAE.


28









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Page 8 Alabama (27), Connecticut (26), Florida
(9), Indiana (14), Iowa (20), Michigan (8), Mon-
tana (8), Nebraska (20), New Hampshire (18),
Ohio (13), Pennsylvania (26), Rhode Island (10),
Vermont (23).
Sub-Group B-Special provisions relating to "com-
modities" in containers which might apply to
fruits and vegetables:
Page 12 New York (3), South Carolina (30), Ten-
nessee (26), Virginia (7).

GROUP III-STATES HAVING LEGAL WEIGHTS PER
BUSHEL THE USE OF WHICH APPEARS TO BE
OPTIONAL.
Page 14 Maine (27), North Carolina (27).

GROUP IV-STATES REQUIRING THE BUSHEL TO
BE A SPECIFIED WEIGHT UNLESS THERE IS
AGREEMENT TO USE SOME OTHER STAND-
ARD.
Page 15 Idaho (10), Illinois (19), Kansas (20), Mis-
souri (12), Nevada (10), New Mexico (14), Okla-
homa (13), Wisconsin (17).

GROUP V-STATES REQUIRING THE BUSHEL TO BE
A SPECIFIED WEIGHT APPARENTLY WITH-
OUT QUALIFICATION.
Page 17 Arkansas (5), Colorado (2), Georgia (3),
Kentucky (4), Maryland (7), Minnesota (17),
Mississippi (3), North Dakota (15), South Da-
kota (19), Texas (19), West Virginia (32),
Wyoming (10).









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 29

*MASSACHUSETTS Annotated Laws-Vol. 3, Chap. 94:
No legal weights per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 96. Except as otherwise provided in sections 98
and 99 (berry boxes and produce boxes), or except
when sold in the original standard container, all fruits,
nuts, vegetables, and grain, shall be sold at retail by
avoirdupois weight or numerical count. The words
"original standard container," as used in this section,
shall mean and include only barrels, boxes, baskets,
hampers, or similar containers, the dimensions or ca-
pacity of which is established by law of this Common-
wealth or by act of Congress, the contents of which
have not been removed or repacked by the retailer,
and upon which is plainly and conspicuously marked
the net quantity of the contents thereof in terms of
weight, measure or numerical count.
*NEW JERSEY Rev. Stats. 1937, Title 51, Chap. 1: No
legal weights per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 17. Food, other than liquids, shall be sold by net
weight or numerical count, except:
1. Fruits and vegetables in closed or covered standard
containers.
2. Vegetables customarily sold by the bunch.
3. Fresh berries in standard 1-quart or 1-pint boxes
or baskets.
"Original standard container" defined-only barrels,
baskets, boxes, hampers, or similar containers, the di-
mensions or capacity of which is established by State
or Federal law, the contents of which have not been
removed or repacked and which are properly marked
in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count.
Sec. 27. Containers for fruits and vegetables shall be
marked to indicate the exact capacity and to identify
the manufacturer.
*OREGON Code 1930. No legal weights per bushel for
fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 73-302. Unlawful to use dry capacity measures
to determine amounts or quantities sold.
All commodities heretofore sold by dry measure-
shall be sold upon the basis of net weight or numerical
count.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Boxes, baskets, and similar containers the capacity of
which has been established by law shall not be con-
strued as dry measures.
Sec. 73-327. Cranberries when sold in quantities less
than 1/3 barrel may be sold by dry measure.
Sec. 73-328. Cranberries may be sold in cartons of 4
qt., 2 qt., 1 qt., or 1 pt. capacity.
UTAH Rev. Stats. 1933: No legal weights per bushel for
fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 3-13-22. Unlawful to sell except for immediate
consumption on the premises commodities not liquid in
any other manner than by measure of length, by
weight, or by numerical count. Provided that nothing
in this section shall be construed to prevent the sale
of vegetables, fruit and produce in the U. S. Standard
barrel, or of berries and small fruits in boxes provided
in 6301 (3-13-23) (Standard berry boxes).
GROUP 1-
Sub-Group B-States apparently not requiring sale by
weight, or count:
*ARIZONA Rev. Code 1928. No legal weights per bushel
for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 3620. For measuring grain, fruit, coal, and vege-
tables, the unit shall be the Winchester bushel of
2150.42 cubic inches.
Sec. 3627. Where-potatoes, onions-are sold in
bags, sacks, or other containers, each such container
shall be marked with the correct weight of contents
in pounds and ounces, or in fractions of the pound,
avoirdupois.
Acts 1937, H. B. 102:
Sec. 3b. All lots of fruits and vegetables packed for
sale-or sold in Arizona must be packed in new or
clean containers.

*CALIFORNIA Political Code 1937. No legal weights
per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 3220. The measures of capacity for-fruit, corn
in the ear, and roots of all kinds, and for all other com-
modities commonly sold by heap measure, are the half
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See--Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


bushel and its multiples, and subdivisions. Such meas-
ures must be cylindrical with plane and even bottoms,
and of the following diameters; from outside to out-
side: Bushel, 19% inches; half bushel 15 inches;
peck, 12 1/3 inches.
Sec. 3221. All commodities sold by heap measure
must be duly heaped in the form of a cone, the outside
of the measure to be the base of the cone, and such
cone to be as high as the article will permit.
General Laws 1937, Act 5410:
Sec. 4. -commodities in containers-net contents to
be shown on the outside.
Sec. 5c. Quantity of solids shall be designated in
terms of weight-except in the case of articles in re-
spect to which there exists definite trade customs; in
such cases the designation may be in terms of weight,
measure, or numerical count, in accordance with such
trade custom.
Sec. 5e. Contents may be designated in terms of the
minimum but there shall be no tolerance below such
minimum designation.
Sec. 10. Container defined-any receptacle, carton,
or wrapping. No containers, boxes or baskets-shall
have a false bottom, or false side-walls, or false lid
or covering, or otherwise constructed to facilitate
fraud or deception.
DELAWARE Rev. Code 1935, Chap. 100: No legal
weights per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
Sec. 3437. Standard cup or basket for berries-full
dry quart or full dry pint.
Standard hamper-full bushel, dry measure.
Standard peach basket-1 bushel, dry measure.
Standard summer apple basket-1 bushel.
Standard basket for potatoes, tomatoes, turnips,
onions, cabbage-5/8 bushel.
Standard barrel-11 pecks.
(Above units not otherwise defined,-Ed.)
Other containers if used to be conspicuously marked
with exact size.
LOUISIANA General Laws 1932. No legal weights per
bushel for fruits and vegetables.
It appears that Louisiana has no laws on this subject.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


*WASHINGTON Remington's Rev. Stats. Anno. 1932:
No legal weights per bushel for fruits and vegetables.
It appears that Washington has no laws on this sub-
ject.
GROUP II-STATES HAVING LEGAL WEIGHTS PER
BUSHEL, BUT HAVING ALSO:
Sub-Group A--Special provisions relating to fruits
and vegetables in containers:
ALABAMA Agri. Code 1927, Art. 24:
Sec. 246. Legal Weights for 27 fruits and vegetables:
When no special written contract or agreement shall
be made to the contrary, the bushel-of the following
commodities shall be the weight per bushel-named
herein; provided that any commodity may be sold by
numerical count; or by the bunch.
Sec. 257. Except as otherwise provided or except
when sold in the original standard container, all fruits,
nuts, vegetables, and grain shall be sold at retail by
avoirdupois weight or numerical count. "Standard
container" defined-barrels, boxes, baskets, hampers,
and similar containers, the dimensions or capacity of
which is established by the State Board of Agricul-
ture, the contents of which have not been removed or
repacked by the retailer, and which is plainly marked
as to net contents in terms of weight, measure, or nu-
merical count.
*CONNECTICUT General Stats. 1930, Chap. 240.
Sec. 4724. A bushel struck measure shall be 2150.42
cubic inches.
A bushel heaped measure shall be 2564 cubic inches.
Sec. 4725. Legal Weights for 26 fruits and vegetables:
The bushel of-shall weigh:
Chapter 108, Sec. 2069. Establishes a standard bar-
rel, and a standard bushel for apples. Containers for
apples other than the standard barrel or standard
bushel shall be marked in terms of capacity or count.
Cum. Suppl. Ch. 240.
Sec. 1578c. When sold by weight a barrel of potatoes
shall be 150 pounds.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See--Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


*FLORIDA Comp. Laws 1927.
Sec. 3781. Legal Weights for 9 fruits and vegetables:
The following weights and measures shall be the
standards of weights and measures:
Sec. 7911: It shall be unlawful to sell-articles in Sec.
3781 except by the pound.
Sec. 3783: Beans, potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc., al-
ready put up in any sack, bag, or barrel-in original
packages-shall be marked in letters one inch high-
the exact weight in pounds avoirdupois.

INDIANA (1) Baldwins Anno. Stats. 1934; (2) Burns
Anno. Stats. 1933.
(1) Sec. 2779 Legal Weights for 15 fruits and veg-
(2) Sec. 69-305 tables: A bushel of the respective
articles hereinafter mentioned shall mean the
amount of weight avoirdupois in this section
specified:
(1) Sec. 16352 Legal Weights: Almost same phrase-
(2) Not given. ology as 2779, but fruits and vege-
tables named are not the same, and some of the
weights specified are at variance with 2779.
(1) Sec. 8487 Fruits and vegetables in closed con-
(2) Sec. 69-409 tainers which are not built in ac-
cordance with Federal or State standards shall
be marked with net contents in terms of weight.
(1) Sec. 16344 All commodities shall be sold by
(2) Sec. 69-113 avoirdupois weight or by numerical
count only, and it shall be unlawful to determine
the quantity by dry capacity measure, basket,
barrel, or container of any kind.
This does not apply to fruits and vegetables sold in
original standard container, or to vegetables custom-
arily sold by the bunch.
"Original standard container" defined-only barrels,
boxes, baskets, hampers, or similar container the di-
mensions or capacity of which is established by State
or Federal law, the contents of which have not been
removed or repacked, and which is marked to show
the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numeri-
cal count.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


*MICHIGAN Comp. Laws 1929.
Sec. 5545. Standard half bushel for fruits and other
commodities customarily sold by heaped measure; in
measuring such commodities the measure shall be
heaped as high as may be without special effort or
design.
Sec. 5567. Legal Weights for 8 fruits and vegetables:
That whenever-shall be sold by the bushel and no
special agreement as to measurement or weight shall
be made by the parties, the measure thereof shall be
ascertained by weight, and shall be computed as fol-
lows :
Sec. 16643.5. Drawers, cases, boxes or baskets for
fruits and vegetables represented to hold one bushel
or any fractional part thereof shall hold the quantity
offered for sale or sold whether by the bushel of 32
quarts or any fractional part.

*MONTANA Revised Code 1935.
Sec. 4223. The measure of-corn in ear, fruit, roots
of every kind-and for all commodities commonly
sold by heaped measure are the half bushel, its mul-
tiples and sub-divisions (form and dimensions speci-
fied).
Sec. 4224. All commodities sold by heaped measure
must be duly heaped in the form of a cone; the out-
side of the measure to be the base of the cone, and
the cone to be as high as the article will permit.
Sec. 4226. Legal Weights for 8 fruits and vegetables:
A bushel of the articles herein named consists of the
number of pounds affixed to each, to-wit:
Sec. 4265.4. Establishes a standard apple box.
Sec. 4265.5. Any box of less capacity (than above)
to be marked "Short Box."

NEBRASKA Comp. Laws 1929.
Sec. 7573. A bushel shall consist of 2150.42 cubic
inches.
Sec. 7582. Legal Weights for 20 fruits and vegetables:
Whenever any of the articles mentioned in this section
shall be sold by the bushel-and no special agree-
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


ment shall be made in writing, the measure thereof
shall be determined by avoirdupois weight and shall
be computed as follows:
Sec. 7585. All dry commodities not otherwise speci-
fied in this article shall be sold only by standard
weight, numerical count, or lineal measure, except
where parties have a written agreement specifying
some other unit, or, in the case of fruits and vege-
tables in containers other than specified in Sec. 7586
(berry boxes), where the containers are labelled
designating the minimum weight or minimum numeri-
cal count.

*NEW HAMPSHIRE Public Laws 1926, Chap. 161.
Sec. 26. Legal Weights for 18 fruits and vegetables:
Except where parties shall expressly agree to sale
by some other standard, a bushel shall contain the
number of pounds herein set forth.
Fruits, nuts, and vegetables, if sold by measure, shall
be sold by dry measure, U. S. Standard.
Large commodities shall be measured by heaping
measure in the form of a cone, the outside ring of the
measure to be the base of the cone, and the cone to
be as high as the commodity will admit.
Other commodities shall be measured by struck or
level measure.
Chapter 85, Laws 1933.
Sec. 2. Establishes a standard barrel and a standard
bushel for apples. Containers other than the above
to be marked in terms of cubical capacity, or count
with minimum size of fruit.

OHIO Code 1934, Chap. 32.
Sec. 6418. Legal Weights for 13 fruits and vegetables:
A bushel in avoirdupois weight of every article
herein mentioned shall be: (legal weights listed)
Unless otherwise agreed to the above mentioned ar-
ticles when dealt in by the bushel shall be bought and
sold upon such actual bulk weight, and no test for
moisture shall be used to change the standards here-
in provided.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Sec. 13128. Containers of fruits and vegetables shall
be marked with the net weight or numerical count, if
not built in accordance with Federal Standard Con-
tainer Acts, in which case cubical contents is sufficient.
Used containers shall be marked "Not original con-
tents."
*PENNSYLVANIA Stats. 1936, Title 76.
Sec. 246. Legal Weights for 26 fruits and vegetables:
Whenever any commodity named in this section shall
be sold by the bushel, the bushel shall consist of the
number of pounds herein stated. Provided, fruits and
vegetables in Pennsylvania standard containers which
are the original packages shall be exempt.
Acts 1937.
Act. No. 275. Closed package for grapes and pota-
toes defined-basket, box, bag, or other container,
the contents of which cannot be adequately inspected
without opening it.
Act. No. 276. Hereafter it shall be lawful to sell at
wholesale or retail fruits and vegetables in original,
unbroken containers if marked to show contents in
terms of weight, measure, or numerical count, and if
properly filled.
Fruits and vegetables sold in any manner other than
in standard containers shall be sold only by weight
or numerical count.
"Original standard container" defined-any barrel,
box, basket, bag, or similar container approved by any
proper Federal agency, or in accordance with any
act of Congress, or the laws of Pennsylvania.
*RHODE ISLAND General Laws 1923, Chap. 221.
Sec. 25. Legal Weights for 10 fruits and vegetables:
The legal weight-shall be as follows:
Sec. 27. Establishes a legal bushel box and half box.
Chapter 202:
Sec. 8. Nuts, shelled beans, and berries, when sold
by measure, shall be sold by dry measure.
Acts 1931:
Chap. 1701. Establishes a standard barrel, and a
standard box or bushel for apples.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 37

Containers other than above shall be marked in terms
of cubical capacity or count.

*VERMONT Public Laws 1933.
Sec. 7663. Fruit when not sold according to legal
weights must be properly graded and sold by nu-
merical count under the proper grade.
Sec. 7673. Legal Weights for 23 fruits and vegetables:
When purchased or sold by the bushel, the bushel
shall consist of the number of pounds herein set forth.

*IOWA Code 1935.
Sec. 3234. Dry commodities to be bought or sold by
standard weight or measure unless in package form, or
unless parties otherwise agree in writing.
Sec. 3236. Legal Weights for 20 fruits and vegetables:
When any of the commodities enumerated in this sec-
tion shall be sold by the bushel or fractional part
thereof, except when sold in a United States standard
container, the measure shall be determined by avoir-
dupois weight and shall be computed as follows:
Sec. 3238. Fruits and vegetables in Climax baskets
must be labelled with the net weight.

GROUP II-
Sub-Group B-States having special provisions re-
lating to "commodities" in containers which might
apply to fruits and vegetables.

*NEW YORK Laws 1930, Chap. 1.
Sec. 190. Legal Weights for 3 fruits and vegetables:
When sold by the bushel, and no special agreement
is made by the parties, the bushel shall consist of:
Sec. 193. Except meat, meat products, and butter,
all commodities not in containers shall be sold by
standard net weight, standard measure, or numerical
count, provided that vegetables may be sold by the
bunch.
Sec. 194. Commodities in containers-net contents to
be marked on the outside in terms of weight, measure,
or numerical count.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SOUTH CAROLINA Code 1932.
Sec. 6645. Legal Weights for 30 fruits and vegetables:
the following shall be the legal and uniform standard
weight and measure in this State for the sale and pur-
chase of the following named products of the farm,
orchard, and garden:
Sec. 6646. All packages of articles enumerated in
Sec. 1 (probably Sec. 6645)-shall correspond in
weight and measure to the standards fixed in Sec-
tion 1.
TENNESSEE Annotated Code 1932.
Sec. 6649. Legal Weights for 26 fruits and vegetables:
The following shall be the legal and uniform stand-
ard of weights and measures in this State for the sale
and purchase of the following named products of the
farm, orchard, and garden:
Sec. 6651. Unlawful to sell any food commodity by
dry (capacity) measure which shall be sold by weight
only. Provided, that this shall not apply to dry food
commodities shipped into this State when sold in the
original packages.
VIRGINIA 1936 Virginia Code, Chap. 62.
Sec. 1485 (131/2)-except for immediate consumption
on the premises, commodities not liquid shall be sold
by measure of length, by weight, or by numerical
count, unless otherwise agreed in writing, provided,
fruits and vegetables may be sold in the standard bar-
rel; berries and small fruits in standard boxes; and
fruits and vegetables usually sold by the head or
bunch may be sold in that manner.
Provided further-this section does not apply to
foodstuffs put up in original packages.
"Original packages" defined-as package, carton,
case, can, barrel-or other receptacles, or in cover-
ings or wrappings, and shall include both wholesale
and retail packages.
Sec. 1485(14). Legal Weights for 7 fruits and vege-
tables: In all sales by weight of the products named
herein, the number of pounds stated shall be the true
and legal standard.
GROUP III STATES HAVING LEGAL WEIGHTS PER
BUSHEL THE USE OF WHICH APPEARS TO BE
OPTIONAL.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


*MAINE Rev. Stats. 1930, Chap. 53.
Sec. 31. Legal Weights for 27 fruits and vegetables:
Standard weights per bushel of commodities are as
follows:
At the request of the vendor or vendee the measure
of these articles shall be determined as aforesaid. All
such products to be in good order and fit for shipping
or for market.
Sec. 32. If sold by measure, fruits, nuts, and vege-
tables shall be sold by dry measure, level full.
NORTH CAROLINA Code 1931.
Sec. 8060. Legal Weights for 27 fruits and vegetables:
The standard weight of the following seeds, and other
articles shall be as stated in this section; but this sec-
tion shall not be construed to prevent purchase and
sale by measure.
GROUP IV-STATES REQUIRING THE BUSHEL TO
BE A SPECIFIED WEIGHT UNLESS THERE IS
AGREEMENT TO USE SOME OTHER STANDARD.
*IDAHO Idaho Code 1932.
Sec. 68-208. Legal Weights for 10 fruits and vege-
tables: When any of the following articles shall be
sold-and no special contract or agreement shall be
made to the contrary-such sale and all computations
for payment therefore shall be by weight. Of the fol-
lowing articles per bushel:
ILLINOIS Revised Stats. 1935, Chap. 147.
Sec. 32. Commodities sold by heaped measure shall
be duly heaped in the form of a cone, the outside of
the measure to be the limit of the base of the cone and
cone to be as high as the article will permit.
Sec. 34. Legal Weights for 19 fruits and vegetables:
When no special contract or agreement shall be made
to the contrary the weight per bushel or per barrel
shall be as follows:
*KANSAS General Stats. 1935.
Sec. 83-109. Legal Weights for 20 fruits and vege-
tables:-Mill products and vegetable products here-
inafter mentioned shall have only the following stand-
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ard weights, and when any of the following articles
shall be contracted for or sold-and no special agree-
ment shall be made to the contrary, such sale-shall
be by net weight, the net weight to be marked on
the outside of the barrel, sack, package, or bale-and
the net weight-shall be as follows:
MISSOURI Annotated Stats.
Sec. 14487. Legal Weights for 12 fruits and vege-
tables: Whenever the articles hereinafter named shall
be sold by the bushel, and no special agreement as to
measurement or weights thereof shall be made, the
bushel shall consist of the following number of
pounds:
NEVADA Comp. Laws 1929.
Sec. 8285. Legal Weights for 10 fruits and vegetables:
Whenever any of the following articles shall be sold
-and no special contract or agreement shall be made
to the contrary, such sale and computations for pay-
ment shall be by weight. The net weight per barrel
or per bushel-shall be:
*NEW MEXICO Annotated Stats. 1929.
Sec. 153-116. Legal Weights for 14 fruits and vege-
tables: Whenever the articles hereinafter named shall
be sold by the bushel, and no special contract or agree-
ment shall be made to the contrary, the bushel shall
consist of the following number of pounds:
Sec. 153-123. All dry commodities not otherwise
specified in this chapter shall be sold only by standard
dry measure, standard weight, or numerical count,
except where parties otherwise agree.
OKLAHOMA Stats. 1931.
Sec. 13333. Legal Weights for 13 fruits and vege-
tables: Whenever the articles hereinafter named shall
be sold by the bushel, and no agreement as to weights
or measure thereof shall be made by the parties, the
bushel shall consist of the following number of
pounds.
*WISCONSIN Stats. 1937.
Sec. 98.10. Legal Weights for 17 fruits and vegetables:
Whenever any of the commodities mentioned in this
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 41

section shall be sold by the bushel and no special
agreement as to the weight thereof shall be made in
writing, the measure thereof shall be ascertained by
avoirdupois weight and shall be computed as follows:
Sec. 98.11. Establishes standard bushel and standard
half bushel. In measuring dry commodities custom-
arily sold by heaped measure, the measure shall be
heaped as high as may be without special effort or de-
sign.
GROUP V-STATES REQUIRING THE BUSHEL TO BE
A SPECIFIED WEIGHT APPARENTLY WITHOUT
QUALIFICATION.
*ARKANSAS Digest of Stats. 1937.
Sec. 14498. Legal Weights of 5 fruits and vegetables:
The legal weight per bushel of:
*COLORADO Annotated Stats. 1935, Chap. 175.
Sec. 3. Legal Weights for 2 fruits and vegetables:
60 pounds of potatoes, 57 pounds of onions, shall be
the standard weight of a bushel.
GEORGIA Code 1933.
Sec. 112-101. Legal Weights for 3 fruits and vege-
tables: The legal weight of the following articles per
bushel shall be:
KENTUCKY Carroll's Stats. 1936, Chap. 134.
Sec. 4821. Legal Weights for 4 fruits and vegetables:
The following weights shall constitute a bushel of
each article named:
Sec. 4822. Legal weight per barrel Irish potatoes-
160 lbs.
*MARYLAND Annotated Code 1924, Vol. 2, Art. 97.
Sec. 26. Legal Weights for 7 fruits and vegetables:
The standard weights shall be as follows:
*MINNESOTA Gen. Stats. 1927.
Sec. 7025. Legal Weights for 17 fruits and vegetables:
In contracts for the sale of the following articles the
term "bushel" shall mean the number of pounds here-
in stated.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See-Summary of Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MISSISSIPPI Annotated Code 1930, Chap. 176.
Sec. 7355. Legal Weights for 3 fruits and vegetables:
On all sales by weight of the agricultural products
hereinafter named the number of pounds per bushel
as stated in the following schedule shall be the true
and lawful legal standard weight:
NORTH DAKOTA Comp. Laws 1913.
Sec. 3006. Legal Weights for 15 fruits and vegetables:
In contracts for the sale of any of the following ar-
ticles the term "bushel" shall mean the number of
pounds avoirdupois herein stated.
SOUTH DAKOTA Comp. Laws 1929.
Sec. 10370F. Legal Weights for 19 fruits and vege-
tables: Whenever any of the articles mentioned in
this section shall be dealt in by the bushel a bushel of
the respective articles shall mean the amount of
weight herein specified.
*TEXAS Vernon's Stats. 1936.
Art. 5733. Standard measure for commodities not
liquid:
1/2 bushel-1075.21 cubic inches.
1 bushel-2150.42 cubic inches.
All measure for measuring dry commodities shall not
be heaped but shall be stricken with a straight stick
or roller.
Art. 5734. Legal Weights for 19 fruits and vege-
tables: Whenever any of the following articles shall
be sold-the weight per bushel or per barrel-shall
be as follows:
WEST VIRGINIA Code 1937, Chap. 47.
Sec. 4532. Legal Weights for 32 fruits and vegetables:
Except when sold in baskets or containers provided
in Sections 4537 and 4538 (Climax baskets and berry
baskets) a bushel of the respective articles herein-
after mentioned shall be the amount of weight avoir-
dupois, as shown by the following table:
WYOMING Rev. Stats. 1931.
Sec. 123-111. Legal Weights for 10 fruits and vege-
tables: All commodities hereinafter named in this
section-when sold by the bushel, the bushel shall
consist of the number of pounds hereinafter stated.
*States so marked have established standard containers of types other than those
established by Federal law (See--Summary nf Federal and State Laws Pertaining
to Containers for Fruits and Vegetables). BAE.












READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 43








VARIATIONS IN THE LEGAL WEIGHTS PER BUSHEL
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
As established by the several States.
(1st figure-weight fixed; 2nd figure-number of States.)
(In some instances weights are qualified other than as indicated in foot-notes.)

APESt [5I0- 1 I i I
APPLES ............ .50- 9 48-17 47- 1 45- 4 44- 2 ..... ..... ..
BEANS, Green .... .............. 56- 50- 138- 2130- 3 28- 1 ..
Lima ........................ 56- 7 55- 1 4- 1 .... .. ..........
String ......... ............. 30- 1 24- 7 .... ..... ... ....... .. .......
BERRIES, Black. .......... ..... 48- 5 40- 1 .... .... ...
Blue ........ ............... 142- 152 (h leberries) 1 .... .... .
Goose .......... .......... 148- 4 (h e5
Goose .. ........ ......... 48- 4 40- 5 .... .. .... . ...................
Raspberry .... ........ 148 640- 1 .. ... ....... .. ..
Strawberries .................. .48- 6 40- 1 .....
BEETS ...................... . 60- 8 56-1250- 8 .......... .......... .....
CABBAGE ......... ... 50- 6 .. ....
CARROTS ................... 50-30 5- 2 ... . ... ....
CHERRIES ..... ....... .. ...... ..56a-8 40- 2.. ..
CHESTNUTS ......... ........ 57 10- ..... .. ..
CITRUS, Oranges ... ............. . 50- 148- 1 46- 1 .
Lemons.................... 48- 1 ... ..... ......
LSTUT ....................... 1 ..............................
Grapefruit .................... 56- 1 48- 1.... ..... .......
CORN, Sweet ............. 50- 4 8- 145- 1 . .. .
CRANBERRIES .................. .40- 1 36- 3 35- 1 33- 2 32- 6 ..........
CUCUMBERS .................... 150- 2 48-17 .7 ....
CURRANTS ..................... .40- 4 ................. ................
GREENS, Beet .......... ........... .12- 4 .::. ..... ....
Dandelion ................ 12- 4 .... .... .. .
Kale ....................... 30- 1115- 112- 3 10- 1 ..... ..
Spinach ......... .......... . 30- 1115- 1 14- 1112- 8 10- 1 ... .. .....
GRAPES ........................ 6Oc 248b-6 40b-3 ...... .. ..
HORSERADISH ................ O- 7. .. .0-
M ELON S ....................... 0- 3 ... ..... :. .. .'. .. : "Iii
ONIONS ..... .................... 5-195- 455- 2154- 252- 8 50- 3 ....
PARSLEY ...................... 8- ... ... ............... .... .
PARSNIPS .................... 50-15 48- 2 45- 644- 342- 4 .... ....
PEACHES ................... .54- 1 2- 150- 548-2040 1 .
PEANUTS ...... ............ i25- 1 24- 2 23- 3122-12 20- 6.... ..
PEARS ........... ........ . ..58- 5 56- 2155- 152- 1150- 4 48- 4 45- 6 36- 1
PEAS, Green .................. . 56- 3 50- 232- 2130- 7 28- 426- 1 ..........
PEPPERS ................ ...... 24- I ........ ..... ..... ..............
PLUMS .......... .............64- 5160- 152- 1150- 1 8- 5 40- 1 ..... ...
POTATOES, Sweet ... ............. 60- 1 56- 555- 5154-10 50-1446- 1 .....
W white ......... ... 60-37 56- 1 ..... ... ... .
QUINCES ...................... 48-18 .... .................... .
RHUBARB......... ..... .... : 50- 6 i. . . .
RUTABAGAS .................... 60- 6 56- 1 52- 2 50- 9......... ...
TOMATOES .. ................60- 545- 2 .
TURNIPS ... ................. i60- :. 1 156- 3155-15154- 15 7142- 3


a-With Stems; without stems, 64 lbs.
b--With Stems.
c-Without Stems; with stems, 48 lbs.
The above summarized from Bureau of Standards Mis. Publ. No. 20, 3rd Edi-
tion, corrected as of October 1938.









44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


HOW TO DETERMINE CITRUS FRUIT SIZES
Since prices realized for oranges and grapefruit are
being determined more and more by their size, Florida
growers are showing greater interest in the size of their
fruit. The following table gives the diameter for different
sizes of oranges and grapefruit:
ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT
Number Diameter Number Diameter
in box of fruit in box of fruit
96 3%" 28 51/4"
112 3%1" 36 5 "
126 3%1" 46 43%"
150 3 1/16" 54 41/2"
176 2 15/16" 64 414"
200 2 13/16" 72 41/"
216 2 11/16" 80 4 "
226 2 9/16" 96 3%"

TREES PER ACRE UNDER CITRUS PLANTING
SYSTEMS
Citrus groves are usually planted in one of three for-
mations-the triangular, rectangular or hexagonal.
In the triangular system, the land is laid off in squares
or rectangles. Two trees are planted in two corners of
each rectangle, and the third in the center of the oppo-
site side of the rectangle. If the rows are laid off 30x30
feet, the trees, under this system, will be 30 feet apart in
one direction through the grove, and about 331/2 feet
apart in the other direction.
The rectangular system, which is most generally used
in Florida, provides for setting the trees in squares or
oblongs. Under this system, the rows of trees intersect
each other at right angles, and cultivation may be either
crosswise or lengthwise of the grove.
The hexagonal system of planting is similar to the tri-
angular system of planting, excepting that under this sys-
tem each tree is equally distant from each adjoining tree.
This system of planting allows about 15 per cent more
trees to the acre than does the rectangular system. The










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 45


following table gives the number of trees per
the different planting systems:


Distance
apart
19 x 10 ft.
12 x 12 ft.
15 x 10 ft.
15 x 15 ft.
20 x 15 ft.
18 x18 ft.
20 x 20 ft.
25 x 20 ft.
25 x 25 ft.
30 x 30 ft.
35 x 35 ft.


Triangular
planting
386
275
164
175
132
122
98
79
64
44
33


Rectangular
planting
436
303
290
193
145
134
108
87
70
48
36


acre under


Hexagonal
planting
501
348

217

142
124

81
55
41


WHERE THE CITRUS GROWER'S MONEY GOES
When the consumer in the North pays $7.00 for a box
of Florida citrus fruit, the grower should receive a net
profit of $1.67. At least, that is the way it figures out on
paper. The following table, showing the distribution of
the money paid by the consumer for Florida fruit, was
compiled by the Florida Citrus Exchange, and is based on
a consumer purchase price of $7.00. When fruit sells for
less than $7.00 a box to the consumer, the grower's net
return is proportionately less.

Distribution of $7.00 Paid by Consumer


Grower's Net ......--...$1.67
Production Cost --....... .77
Picking --- ........... ....-...... .061/2
Hauling -----------......... ..... .071/2
Packing --..----.. ................ .72
Freight, etc. ..--.....-..-- -- 1.15


Sales Costs ..............$ .131/
Advertising -........--.......- .06
Wholesaler's Profit ..... .46
Retailer's Profit ..-.---. 1.89

Total .---.----.... ............ $7.00


Estimates on the cost of such items as production,
hauling, packing, freight, etc., are, of course, general
averages for the entire state, and will vary in the different
citrus localities depending upon their local conditions.

STATE AGENCIES WHICH SERVE FLORIDA
CITRUS GROWERS
Research work on Florida citrus production problems
is conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, at Gainesville, by its Citrus Branch, at Lake Alfred,









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and by the United States Department of Agriculture at a
Citrus Disease Laboratory, at Orlando.
Headquarters for the Florida Citrus Market News
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture
are with the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation, at Winter Haven. Additional citrus market news
service is furnished by the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau at Jacksonville.
Enforcement of the state's green fruit law is in charge
of the Florida State Department of Agriculture, at Talla-
hassee, though enforcement headquarters during the
shipping season are located at Winter Haven.
Headquarters for the State Plant Board, which has
charge of the state's plant quarantine and nursery inspec-
tion work are at Gainesville.

BRIEF HINTS ON PRUNING FRUIT TREES
1. Make all cuts close and parallel to remaining limb.
2. Paint all wounds over 1 inch in diameter with white
lead and raw linseed oil to which a little corrosive sub-
limate has been added. (Do not use boiled linseed oil or
prepared paints. They are apt to injure the bark and may
even kill the tree.)
3. Train young trees to a central leader.
4. When planting the trees cut off to 2/3 of the
tops. This lessens the demands on the root system until
it has a chance to become established in the soil.
5. Develop 3 to 5 main or scaffold branches.
6. In old trees remove deadwood, crossing and rub-
bing branches, and thin the top. Confine pruning to the
smaller branches and avoid heavy pruning.
7. A few water sprouts may be left in the old trees
to shade the large limbs.

PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
General Instructions for the Commercial Production of
Vegetable Crops
All truck crops listed in this table are produced in
commercial quantities by Florida farmers. Such crops as
beets, turnips, radishes, spinach and cantaloupes, which
are grown mainly for local markets in this state, are not
listed.










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Because of the wide range in Florida climatic and soil
conditions, the rules for growing one crop in the southern
part of the state do not always apply to growing the same
crop in the central or northern sections of the state.
Hence, the information and suggestions given in this table
are of only a general nature, and must be properly inter-
preted when applied to various local conditions.
References: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville; Florida State Department of Agriculture,
Tallahassee; P. H. Rolfs' "Sub-Tropical Vegetable Gar-
dening"; and William Gomme, Pinellas County Agricul-
tural Agent.
FEDERAL ALPHABET
Alphabet spotting, always a diversion but sometimes
a headache, is becoming a game in which only experts
can qualify. Witness the abridged but still extremely long
list of government agencies below. Not only more and
more alphabetical agencies are cropping up, but also a
frivolous tendency is developing whereby new-born units
pick an alphabetical combination regarded as more or less
apt, then pick words to suit. For instance, the Waves,
Women's Auxiliary Volunteer Emergency Service.













DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



FEDERAL ALPHABET


AAA Agricultural Adjustment Agency
ARA Agricultural Research Administration


BAE
BEW
BFDC

BLS
BPI
BWC


Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Board of Economic Warfare
Bureau of Foreign & Domestic Com-
merce
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Public Inquiries
Board of War Communications


CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration
CAB Civil Aeronautics Board
CCC Civilian Conservation Corps (in liqui-
dation) also,
Commodity Credit Corporation
CCS Combined Chiefs of Staff
CIAA Office of Coordinator of Inter-Ameri-
can Affairs
CPRB Combined Production and Resources
Board


DFRRO

DHWS

DPC
DSC

FBI
FCA
FCC
FCIC
FDA


FDIC

FHA
FHLBA

FPC
FPHA
FSA

FTC
FWA


Director of Foreign Relief and Re-
habilitation Operations
Office of Defense Health and Welfare
Services
Defense Plant Corporation
Defense Supplies Corporation

Federal Bureau of Investigation
Farm Credit Administration
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
Food & Drug Administration; also,
Food Production and Distribution
Administration
Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora-
tion
Federal Housing Administration
Federal Home Loan Bank Adminis-
tration
Federal Power Commission
Federal Public Housing Authority
Farm Security Administration: also
Federal Security Agency
Federal Trade Commission
Federal Works Agency


GAO General Accounting Office
GPO Government Printing Office

HOLC Home Owners' Loan Corporation

IADB Inter-American Defense Board
ICC Interstate Commerce Commission

MRC Metals Reserve Company

NACA National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics
NHA National Housing Agency


NLRB
NRPB
NWLB
NYA

OAPC
OAWR
OCD
ODT
OES
OEMI
OLLA
OOC
OPA
OSFCW

OSRD

OSS
OWI

PAW
PBA
PRA
PWA
PWC
PWRCB


National Labor Relations Board
National Resources Planning Board
National War Labor Board
National Youth Administration

Office of Alien Property Custodian
Office of Agricultural War Relations
Office of Civilian Defense
Office of Defense Transportation
Office of Economic Stabilization
Office of Emergency Management
Office of Lend-Lease Administration
Office of Censorship
Office of Price Administration
Office of Solid Fuels Coordinator
for War
Office of Scientific Research and
Development
Office of Strategic Services
Office of War Information

Petroleum Administrator for War
Public Buildings Administration
Public Roads Administration
Public Works Administration
Pacific War Council
President's War Relief Control Board


REA Rural Electrification Administration
RFC Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RRB Railroad Retirement Board
RRC Rubber Reserve Company


SCS
SEC
SPARS

SSB
SSS


Soil Conservation Service
Securities and Exchange Commission
Women's Reserve, U.S. Coast Guard
( Spar adapted from Coast Guard)
Social Security Board
Selective Service System


TVA Tennessee Valley Authority


USCG
USECC

USES
USMC


United States Coast Guard
United States Employees' Com-
pensation Commission
United States Employment Service
United States Marine Corps: also
U. S. Maritime Commission


WAC Women's Army Corps
WAVES Women's Auxiliary Volunteer Emer-
gency Service (Women's Reserve
-U. S. Naval Reserve)
WDC War Damage Corporation
WMC War Manpower Commission
WPA Work Projects Administration (in
liquidation)
WPB War Production Board
WRA War Relocation Authority
WSA War Shipping Administration












PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS


rype or
Soil Best
Adapted


Muck; Haim-
mock: Flat
Woods, well-
drained: Pine
good quality


Amt. Seed
Per Acre


3 plkgs.
I bu.


Crop







BEANS









CABBAGE






CELERY





CUCUMBERS


Yield Cost Distance
When to Amount Days to rer Per Apart Rows
Plant Fertilizer Mature Acre Acre and in Rows


Principal
Variety

Giant String-
less
Refugee
Black Val-
entine
Wardwcll's
Kidney Wax
New Davis
White Wax
Green & Yellow
Bountiful
Fordhook
Lima
Jersey Wake-
field
Charleston
Wakefield
Premium Flat
Dutch
Succession
Copenhagen
Golden self
blanching
(Ey)
Green Top
Easy Blanch-
ing

Improved
White Spine
Davis Perfect
Stay Green


August,
Sept., Oct.


800 to
1,000 Ibs.
per acre.









1,500 to
2,000 lbs.
per acre.



2,000 Ibs.
per acre
and more
if neces-


Ie sary.


500 to 800
lbs. per
acre.


70 days 110
Ham-
pers


45 days





90 to 100 to
100 150
days crates




130 600
days crates



200 to
65 to 75 200
days 300s
cues


3 to 4 ft.
: to 4 in.









6 by 3 ft.






3 ft. by 4 in.





6 by 5 ft.


Remarks






Ready market for late
fall and spring crop.
In South Florida fall
beans sell well.


Jan., Feb.,
Mar., Apr.,
June, (but-
ter-vari-
eties)


Aug. &
Sept. (snap
varieties)



October,
November
& January




August to
November


Muck; Ham- 1 lb. suf-
mock; Flat licient
Woods, well- for 2
drained; Pine acres.
good quality


Muck; Ham-
mock; Flat 6 oz.
Woods, well-
drained.


Hammockl;
Flat Woods, 2 to 3 lbs.
well-drained.


Spring crop brings
good returns.





This crop must be
carefully handled for
the best results.



Easy crop to grow,
good local market.


-~-- ~


II II















PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued


Crop



EGGPLANT



LETTUCE





ONIONS






ENGLISH
PEAS



PEPPERS



POTATOES
SIrish)


Amount )Days to
Fertilizer Mature


2,000 Ibs. 130
per acre. days


3,000 lbs. 60 days
per acre.


Principal
Variety

Black Beauty
Florida
Highbush

Big Boston
Cream Butter
Romaine
Iceberg

Crystal Wax
White Ber-
muda
Australian
Brown
Red Bermuda

Alaskan Ex-
tra Early
Thomas Laxton
Florida Mc-
Neil
Telephone

Ruby King
World Beater

Spaulding,
Rose 4
Bliss Triumphl
Irish Cobbler


Type ol'
Soil Best
Adapted
Hammock;
Flat Woods,
well-drained;
Pine, good
quality.
Muclk; Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods, well-
drained.


Low Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods; Pine.



Muck; Ham-
mock; Flat
Woods, high
quality;
Pine, good
quality.
Flat Woods;
Hammock;
Pine, good
quality.
Flat Woods,
well-drained;
Hammock;
Muck.


Amt. Seed When to
Per Acre Plant

Jan. spring
0 oz. crop. July,
fall crop.


2 lbs. September
to Dec.



3 to 4 lbs. Dec. to
seed Feb. Seed
8 bu. sets Jan. to
Mar. Sets.




80 lbs. October to
March.



1/2 lb. July, Aug.,
fall. Jan.,
spring.

December
10 bu. &
January,


Yield
Per
Acre


400
crates


600 to
700
crates



400 to
500
crates





hanm-
pers


200
crates



415 bbls.


Distance
Apart Rows Remarks
and in Rows


Cost
Per
Acre


$125



$150





$125






$85




$85




$1.25


Good profitable ship-
ping crop. Ready mar-
ket.


Good drainage essen-
tial and land should
not be sour.


Use well-rotted stable
manure when able.
Nitrate soda can be
used when maturing,
100 lbs. to acre.



Soil must not be sour.
Innoculation of seed
advisable.


Good fa 11 shipping
crop.

Treat seed before plant-
ing. Be prepared to
dust or spray with bor-
deaux preparations.


2,000 Ibs.
per acre.





500 to
800 lbs.
per acre.


3,000 lbs.
per acre.

1,500 lbs.
to 2,000
lbs. per
acre.


120
days





(i65 days




125 to
140
days


70 days


5 by 3 ft.



14 by 14 in.





12 by 6 in.






4 ft. by 1 in.




3 ft. by 20 in.



3 ft. ( in.
by 12 in.












PLANTING TABLE FOR FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS-Continued


Crop


POTATOES
(Sweet)




STRAW-
BERRIES




r SWEET
CORN






TOMATOES






WATER-
MELONS


Principal
Variety
Porto Rico
Big Stem Jersey
Triumph
Norton Yam
Nancy Hall


Missionary
Klondykc


Adams' Early
Crosby's Early
Stowell's
Evergreen
Country
Gentleman
Howling Mob
Livingston
Globe
Marglobe
Stone
Earliana
Beauty
Bonny Best
Norton

Tom Watson
Florida
Favorite
Irish Gray


Type o1I
Soil Best
Adapted

Pine lands;
Sandy Flat
Woods.



Flat Woods;
Hammock.




Muck Flat
Woods
Hammock.



Prairie;
Hammock ;
Muck; Flat
Woods, well-
drained.




Pine; Flat
Woods, well-
drained.


Amt. Seed
Per Acre

8 bu. for
draws


Single
row, 15,-
000 plants
Ox12 in.
35,000
plants.



15 lbs.






Slb.







2 lbs.


When to
Plant

April, May,
June, July.




Sept., Nov.





Feb.,
March,
April,
May.




Jan. to
March.






Jan. to
March.


Amount
Fertilizer

600 to
1,000 lbs.
per acre.


1,500 lbs.
plus 100
lbs. Ni-
trate per
acre.

500 lbs.
plus 50
lbs. Ni-
trate soda
at tesselling
per acre.


1,300 lbs.
to 1,500
lbs. per
acre.





1,500 lbs.
per acre.


Days to
Mature

120
days




70 days





70 to
85 days






135
days






70 to
90 days


Yield
Per
Acre

100 to
200 bu.



1,500 to
2,000
qts.




30 to 50
crates.






230
crates.





1 car-
load 2
acres.


Cost
Per
Acre


$45



$175
to
$250





$25






$100







$30


Distance
Apart Rows Remarks
and in Rows


3 ft. by 14 in.




3 ft. by 14 in.






3 ft. by 9 in.






4 ft. by 2 ft.







10 ft. by 10 ft.


Allow 10,000 slips to
acre.



Use stable manure if
possible in addition to
commercial fertilizer.



Run seed through creo-
lin solution to keep off
birds. Use % lb. arse-
nate lead powder to 6
lbs. hydrated lime for
bud worm.


Good commercial mar-
ket for first-class ma-
terial. Local market
good.



Treat seed and be pre-
pared to dust or spray
with nicotine and bor-
deaux solution.






A VEGETABLE PLANTING TABLE FOR YEAR-AROUND USE


Seed for Plants for Depth of )Distance Between Rows Mature or
Vegetable 100 Feet 100 feet Planting- Days to For Horse For Hand Plants in Ready for
of Row of Row Inches Come up Cultivation Cultivation the Row Use in-


1. Artichoke (Globe)..... 1 ounce.... .......
2. Asparagus ............ 1 ounce.... 0 to 80 .


3. Beans (snap)...........
4. Beans (Pole) ..........
5. Beans (Bush Lima) .....
6. Beans (Pole Lima) .....
7. Beet. ................
8. Brussels Sprouts .......
9. Cabbage ..............
10. Cantaloupe............

11. Cauliflower ...........
12. Carrot.................
13. Celery. ...............
14. Collard...............
15. Chard. ...............
16. Corn (Sweet) ..........
17. Corn Salad ............
18. Cucumber. ............
19. Eggplant..............
20. Endive................
21. K ale ................
22. Kohl-Rabi.............
23. L eek .................
24. Lettuce................
25. M ustard ..............
26. Okra .................
27. Onion (seed) ..........
28. Onion (sets) ..........
29. Parsley. ..............
30. Parsnip ..............
31. Peas ...........:.....
l32. Peppers..............
33. Potato (Irish) .........
34. Potato (Sweet)........
35. Radish ...............
36. Rhubarb ..............
37. Salsify ...............
138. Spinach ..............
3:1. Spinach (New Z.)......
40. Squash (bush)........


41. Squash (vine) .........


42. Tomato...............
43. Turnip...............
44. Watermelon ..........


1 pint...... ............
V pint ...... ............
I to 1 pt .................
1/2 pini ..................
S ounces ................
% ounce. . 65 to 90 . .
Sounce .... 65 to 90....
1 ounce .. .. ... .......


(O to 75 ....

200 to 250....
65 to 100....
200..........

100 .........

50 to 70....
100 ........

t0 .........

L25 to 200...







50 ........

75 slips.....

oo...... ......
33 roots.....

............


%/ to 1.........
1 to 1 1/ roots ....
10 to 12.........
1% to 2........
11/ to2 .........
11/ to 2 ........
11/ to 2........
1 to 1I /.........
%/ . . . . . . .
. to 1 i. . .....

L/to l .........
4 . . . . . . .

.., 1 ..... .... .
1 to .. .... .... .

.. to 1 /... ........

% to ...........
i to 11.. .........
1/4 ......... .
% to % .........
% 2 . . . . . .. ..
%1/ . . . . . . .


1 to 2 ........
13 to 1 ..........
I to 2 ..........
1/to ...........
1/y, to 1...... ....
3 to 3...........
S/to ............
3 to 5 .........-
2 t o 3 . . . .. .
%/ to 1..........

I/ 'to 'l .... . .. . .
1 to 3 ..........
i/, to 1 .........
1 to 2 ..........


2to28..... 3 to 4 ft......


6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
7 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....


10 to 15.....
10 to 15 .....
12 to 20.....
6 to 10.....

8 to 10.....
LO to 12.....
S to 8.....
LO to 14.....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....
6to 8.....
8 to 1 ......
6 to 10.....
4to 5.....
15 to 20......
8 to 12......
6 to 8......
18 to 24 ......
12 to 18.....
6 to 10......
10 to 14.....
15 to 25 .....
. . . . . . .
4 to 6......
L2 to 14......
8 to 1 ......
( to 12......
14 to 16 .....
6 to 10.....
6 to 10.....


3 to 4 ft......
23/2 to3 ft....
4 ft..........
3 ft.... .. ... .
1 ft.. ... ....
2to 2'/ It....
2% to 3 ft.. .
21% to 3 It.. .
5 to 6 It......

2 3/ to 3 ft.. .
3 to 21/% t... .
3 to 4 ft......
Sto 2 ft...
3 ft..........
: to 3 ft ... .
2to 2 ft....
1 to 5 ft......
3 ft..........
2 to 21/2 t....
21/ to 3 ft....
212 to 3 ft....
2 ft..........
2to 2 1/ It... .
2 ft ..........
4 ft..........
2 it..........
2 ft..........
2 It..........
2 to 2 1/2 ft...
3 to 4 It......
2 to 3 It......
2 to 3 ft.. .
3 to 4 ft......
2 It..........
3 to 5 ft......
2 ft..........
Sfit..........
3 to 4 ft......
3 to 4 t......


3 ft..........
3 ft.........
2 to 2% ft....
3 ft..........
2 to 2% ft....
2 1/ to3 ft...
15 to 18 in..
2 to 2 I ft...
ito 2 1 ft...
Sto 6 ft......

2 to 2% ft....
15 to 18 in....
18 to 24 in...
18 to 24 in...
18 to 24 in...
12 to 3 ft...
15 to 18 in....
4 to 5 ft......
2 to 2% ft...
15 to 18 in....
18 to 24 in....
18 to 24 in...
18 to 24 in....
15 to 18 in....
15 to 18 in....
3 ft ....... ...
15 in.........
5 in.........
5 in.........
15 to 18 in....
2% to 3 ft....
4 in.........
2 to 22 ft....
3 ft.. .........
12 to 15 in....
3 to 4 ft ......
15 to 18 in...
15 to 18in...
3 to 4 ft......
3 to 4 It......
3 to 4 It..


1/ oullce .. ..
1 ounce ....
%1 ounce. ....
1 ounce....

1 ounce ..
14 pint... ...
% ounce ....
1 ounce....
1/4 ounce. ....
2 ounce .....
/ ounce. ...
1/ ounce ....

1 O01CO .....

2 ounces ...
1 on ce .... .
1 quart .....
'4 ounce. ....
t ounce.....

S ouncelc ... ,
5 to (G bs..
3 lbs .......
1 unnce. ....
I roots .....
I 01 1n e .....
L ouu ce .....
1 ounce .....
/2 ounce.....


1/ ounce ....


Sounce ..... 35 to50 .... z tol.......... 4to 7 ..... 3 to 4ft.. . 2to 3 ft....
S ounce.. . ............. 4 to ......... 8 to 12 .... 2 ft......... 15 to 18in....
1 ounce.... ...... ................ ... ....... 8to 10 ft.....8 to 10 t.....


2 Ift........ 8 to 12 months


15 in .........
3 to 4 in......
2 to 3 ft......
0 to 10 in.....
2 to 3 It......
4 to 5 in......
14 to 18 in....
14 to 18 in....
Drills. 18 in.,
hills, 5 ft...
15 to 18 in....
1 to 4 in......
4 to 0 in......
12 to 18 in....
5 to 6 in......
30 to 36 in....
8 to 10 in.....
15 in........
18 to 24 in...
8 to 10 in...
8 to 10in...
4 to 6 in ......
4 to 6 in......
3 to 10 in.....
I to 4 in......
ft .. . . . .
3 to 4 in......
3 to 4 in......
3 to 4 in......
3 to 4 in......
1 in .........
15 to 18 in....
12 to 18 in...
14 to 18 in...
1 in.........
3 to 4 tt.....
1 in.........
1 to 2 in......
18 in........
15 to 18 in.,
drill; 4
ft. hills ....
2 to 3 ft.....
drill; 8
ft. hills
2 to 3 ft.
2 to 3 in......
Drills, 2 to...
3 ft.; hills


3 to
40 to
50 to
60 to
60 to
60 to
90 to
90 to


4 years
65 days
80 days
90 days
80 days
80 days
120 days
130 days


120 to 150 days
100 to 130 days
75 to 110 days
120 to 150 days
100 to 120 days
40 to 60 days
60 to 100 days
60 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
90 to 180 days
90 to 120 days
60 to 80 days
100 to 115 days
60 to 90 days
70 days
98 to 140 days
130 to 150 days
90 to 120 days
90 to 120 days
125 to 160 days
40 to 80 days
100 to 140 days
80 to 140 days
140 to 160 days
20 to 40 days
1 to 3 years
120 to 180 days
30 to 60 days
80 to 90 days


60 to 80 days


120 to 160 days
100 to 140 days
60 to 80 days


............ 1 to 2........... 6 to 10...... 7 to 10 it..... 7 to 10 ft.....


. 11.











READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


WORLD AREA AND CULTIVATED LAND


EUROPE ........... -.
Austria --.-- -------
Belgium .------....
Bulgaria .....-...... ......
Czecho-Slovakia --.
Denmark -. ...----.
Finland ...........--------..
France .........--------
Germany ....-- ..--------
Great Britain .-.........-.
Greece ..........--...
Hungary -----........- ----
Ireland
Italy ....-.......--... ..
Jugo-Slavia -----....
Latvia ..--------...........
Netherlands ......------
Norway .-......--........-----
Poland ...- ......
Portugal ............-...---
Roumania ...-.- ..-------.
Russia ------........-.........
Spain -..-................ ...
Sweden .--....-.......
Switzerland .......
Turkey (also in Asia)..


AMERICA -
Canada ....----
Cuba .............
United States
Mexico -........


Square Miles
3,883,992
30,139
11,373
48,000
54,428
16,609
145,724
212,659
183,000
88,725
41,933
35,164
32,559
110,660
99,300
25,361
13,199
124,964
144,772
35,501
122,282
1,900,000
195,057
169,567
15,945
692,240


..-----.... 8,859,257
.-....... .... 3,729,665
-. ...- .... 44,218
....----- 3,627,557
-...------ 767,323


SOUTH AMERICA .....
Argentina --.----
Bolivia............
Brazil ...... ......-...
Chile ......--------
Colombia ...
Ecuador.............
Guiana .-.. ........ .
Paraguay ---
Peru .............. .......
Uruguay .....--...........
Venezuela ---


7,570,015
1,153,419
708,195
3,280,905
289,796
435,278
118,627
167,540
97,722
683,321
72,172
393,976


AFRICA .....-..........-.. --11,622,619
Algeria -.......---- .... 1,120,000
Egypt --..--.. --.. ........--. 383,900
Morocco ......--.......-.... 169,576
Union of South Africa 473,100


Productive
Area (Acres)

17,688,174
6,386,804
18,959,249
33,288,062
10,018,872

123,242,860
110,422,019
47,607,907
7,008,992
77,225,350
17,541,412
65,228,470
5,937,761
15,908,298
7,247,342
23,476,215
79,627,036
17,281,037
61,478,618
698,902,137
112,665,245
71,023,990
7,914,460




109,945,057
8,716,734
878,788,639



537,805,490


29,771,613





40,875,235



50,845,587
5,506,930
18,135,190
10,086,204


Per-cent
Productive

89.9%
87.8
79.6
95.5
94.3

94.2
94.2
84.7
44.9
96.2
86.1
92.1
52.3
98.0
89.8
29.4
91.8
78.5
84.4
54.7
90.4
70.0
77.6


4.8
30.8
46.2



73.7


16.1





88.5



40.7
2.2
31.2
3.3









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Square Miles Productive Per-cent
Area (Acres) Productive
ASIA .--.....- -.. -- ..-- 15,868,613
China --......-...... .... ... 4,278,252
Dutch East Indies ... 739,545 19,098,359 58.8
French Indo-China .-- 310,060 74,050,187 42.8
India ..... ..--------. 1,802,657 475,576,765 76.4
Japan .---- 245,551 74,013,574 78.3
Persia ... - 635,135
Siberia . 5,600,000 715,837,976 17.8
Australia ...-...-..-.... 2,974,581 113,416,162 6.0
New Zealand .- 105,000 53,971,152 81.4



HARVEST TIME OF THE WORLD
The following shows the months of the wheat harvest
in the different wheat-growing sections of the world:

January-Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argen-
tine Republic.

February and March-East India and Upper Egypt.

April-Lower Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Persia, Asia
Minor, India, Mexico and Cuba.

May-Algeria, Central Asia, China, Japan, Morocco,
Texas and Florida.

June-Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, South
of France, California, Oregon, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ala-
bama, Georgia, Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky,
Kansas, Arkansas, Utah, Colorado and Missouri.

July-Roumania, Bulgaria, Austro-Hungary, South of
Russia, Germany, Switzerland, France, South of England,
Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, New England
and Upper Canada.

August-Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, Denmark,
Poland, Lower Canada, Colombia, Manitoba and Dakota.

September and October-Scotland, Sweden, Norway,
and North of Russia.

November-Peru and South Africa.

December-Burma.










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


NUMBER TREES OR PLANTS TO AN ACRE


Distance No. Plants
Apart Per Acre
12 by 1 inch .......-.. 522,720
12 by 3 inches ......... 174,240
18 by 1 inch ........... 348,480
18 by 3 inches .......--.. 116,160
18 by 12 inches --....... 29,040
18 by 18 inches ........ 19,360
24 by 12 inches .-....--- 21,780
24 by 18 inches .--....... 14,520
30 by linch .......... 209,088
30 by 6 inches ...--.. 34,848
30 by 12 inches ......-. 17,424
30 by 24 inches .. ...... 8,712
40 by 30 inches ---....-. 9,970
36 by 3 inches .--.... 58,080
36 by 30 inches .....-... 5,808
42 by 24 inches .........- 6,223
42 by 36 inches ......-.... 4,148
42 by 42 inches .........-. 3,556
48 by 18 inches .........- 7,790
6 by 6 inches -.......... 174,240
1 foot by 1 foot ........._ 43,560
1 foot by 2 feet ........ 21,780
1 foot by 3 feet --...-..... 14,520


Distance
Apart
1 foot by 11/2 feet.
2 feet by 2 feet.....
2 feet by 3 feet.....
3 feet by 3 feet.....
4 feet by 1 foot.....
4 feet by 2 feet.....
4 feet by 3 feet ..--
4 feet by 4 feet-....
5 feet by 5 feet.....
6 feet by 6 feet.....
7 feet by 7 feet.....
8 feet by 8 feet....
9 feet by 9 feet.-...
10 feet by 10 feet .....
12 feet by 12 feet.....
20 feet by 20 feet.....
25 feet by 25 feet..-.
30 feet by 30 feet....
35 feet by 35 feet..-.
40 feet by 40 feet ....-
50 feet by 50 feet-.....
60 feet by 60 feet......
70 feet by 70 feet.....


No. Plants
Per Acre
. 19,360
S10,890
S7,260
S4,840
S10,890
S5,445
. 3,630
S2,772
1,742
1,210
888
680
537
435
302
108
70
48
35
27
17
12
9


To find the number of plants or trees in an acre at any
distance apart, multiply the one distance in feet by the
other to give the square feet in each space and divide this
distance into 43,560. Example: 4 by 4 feet equals 16
square feet. By dividing this into 43,560, the number of
square feet in an acre, we have 2,722, which is the num-
ber of plants required to set an acre when put 4 by 4 feet
apart.
The table above gives the number required for most
of the distances ordinarily used.











56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SEED USED PER ACRE


Alfalfa, broadcast ...--.........--..--- lb.
Alfalfa, drilled ....-.... ........ ....lb.
Barley----..... ---............------..---..... bu.
Beans, field, small..... -----------bu.
Beans, field, large... ---------. bu.
Beets, common (not sugar) ----lb.
Blue grass ----------...... ----- --bu.
Broom corn.........-- ......--------. lb.
Buckwheat -----------------bu.
Cabbage plants -- .----------no.
Clover, alsike........------- ---..lb.
Clover, Japan .. ----- lb.
Clover, mammoth ..-....------- . lb.
Clover, red, alone .-....--------.. lb.
Clover, red, on grain .... ..----- lb.
Clover, crimson .......---.........---lb.
Corn, for grain -------.-------.lb.
Corn, fodder, for silage--.....-...lb.
Cotton--...... ----------............ bu.
Cowpeas, for forage -......----bu.
Cowpeas, in drill with corn .....-- bu.
Cowpeas, for seed..--------...--..bu.
Field peas, small...---...-..-----..--bu.
Field peas, large--..--..-...---....----bu.
Flaxseed--.. ---- lb.
Oats-------......................--- bu.
Orchard grass.. ------- lb.
Peanuts..... ...----------....bu.
Potatoes...------.........---.......-------bu.
Rice.......--- ....- ..-- ......-------..--... bu.
Rye, for grain----~. --..----------.bu.
Rye, for forage--...----..........-------. bu.
Soy beans, drilled ...---..-.----- bu.
Soy beans, broadcast ...........---- bu.
Sugar beets----........----... ........ .---- lb.
Sweet potato plants -........--......-.no.
Timothy.................. ........------------lb.
Tobacco plants --.....---..-----. no.
Wheat-............----......-- --------....bu.


5
























6

4


Estimated Range
Average of Bulk of
of Reports Plantings
18.3 15 to 20
14.8 12 to 18
1.84 1.5 to 2.2
.76 .5 to 1.0
1.29 1.0 to 1.5
6.3 5.5 to 7.5
1.07 .75 to 1.25
6.0 3 to 7
.98 .75 to 1.25
,658 5,000 to 7,000
8.7 8 to 12
9.9 9 to 15
10.4 8 to 12
10.7 8 to 12
9.8 8 to 12
12.1 10 to 15
9.5 6 to 12
26.0 15 to 35
.96 .9 to 1.1
1.31 1.0 to 1.5
.63 .40 to .65
.70 .50 to .75
.93 .75 to 1.25
1.17 1.0 to 1.5
29.2 25 to 30
2.37 2.0 to 2.5
12.6 10 to 15
1.02 1.0 to 1.1
8.6 7 to 12
1.98 1.5 to 2.5
1.44 1.25 to 1.75
1.82 1.5 to 2.0
.79 .50 to 1.00
1.37 1.00 to 1.50
13.1 12 to 18
,605 6,000 to 7,000
9.4 8 to 12


,762
1.38


1.25 to 1.75









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 57

SELECTION AND STORAGE OF SEED CORN
By C. P. Hartley
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 415
Autumn is the time to prepare for a profitable corn
crop the following season. To be first class, seed must be:
1. Well adapted to the seasonal and soil conditions
where it is to be planted.
2. Grown on productive plants of a productive va-
riety.
3. Well matured, and preserved from ripening time
till planting time in a manner that will retain its full pro-
ductivity.
At corn-ripening time drop all other business and
select an abundance of seed corn. The process is too im-
portant to be conducted incidentally while husking. Get
the very best that is to be had and preserve it well. The
only proper way to select seed corn is from the stalks
standing where they grew, as soon as ripe and before the
first hard freeze.
As soon as the crop matures, go through the field with
a seed-picking bag and husk the ears from the stalks that
have produced the most corn without having any special
advantages, such as space, moisture or fertility. The
seed-picking bags are always open for filling and may be
instantly opened at the bottom for emptying. Avoid the
large ears on stalks standing singly with an unusual
amount of space around them. The inherent tendency of
the plant to produce heavily of sound, dry, shelled corn
is of most importance.
Later-maturing plants with ears which are heavy be-
cause of an excessive amount of sap should be ignored.
Sappiness greatly increases the harvest size and weight
and is apt to destroy the quality. In the Central and
Southern States, short, thick stalks are preferable. Short
stalks are not so easily blown down and permit thicker
planting. In general they are more productive than slen-
der ones. The tendency for corn to produce suckers is
heredity. Seed should be taken from stalks that have
no suckers.
Treatment of Seed.-The same day seed corn is gath-
ered the husked ears should be put in a dry place where
there is free circulation of air, and placed in such a man-
ner that the ears do not touch each other. If left in the
husk long after ripening it may sprout or mildew during









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


warm, wet weather or become infested with weevils or
grain moths, or their eggs. The vitality of seed is often
reduced by leaving it in a sack or in a pile for even a day
after gathering. During warm weather, with some mois-
ture in the cobs and kernels, the ears heat or mildew in a
remarkably short time. Binder twine will support 15 or
20 ears on a string. Ordinarily the best place to hang
these strings of ears is in an open shed or loft.
Wire racks are more convenient and in the end cheaper
than binder twine. Such racks can be made from elec-
trically welded lawn fencing without any waste. Fencing
with horizontal wires 4 inches apart and upright wires 2
inches apart may be obtained in widths of 2, 3 and 4 feet.
All dealers in wire fencing can supply such fencing at an
initial cost of about 10 cents for each bushel of seed sus-
pended. These racks will last many years and are easily
stored when not in use.
Permanent seed racks are convenient, and when they
are located in a dry, breezy place the ears dry success-
fully. Only during unusually damp weather at seed-
gathering time will fire be necessary. If heat is employed
in a poorly ventilated room it will do the seed more injury
than good. If used, the fire should be slow, long con-
tinued, and situated below the seed ears, with good ven-
tilation above them.
Weevils.-If at any time signs of weevils or grain
moths show on the corn, it should be inclosed with car-
bon bisulphide in practically air-tight rooms, bins, boxes,
or barrels for 48 hours. The bisulphide should be placed
in shallow dishes or pans on top of the seed. One-half
pint is sufficient for a box or barrel holding 10 bushels or
less. One pound, costing about 30 cents, is sufficient for
a room or bin 10 feet each way. After fumigation the
ears must be thoroughly aired, taking care that no fire is
present when the fumigation box is open.
In localities where weevils and grain moths injure
stored grain, the thoroughly dry seed should be stored in
very tight mouse-proof receptacles, with 1 pound of moth
balls or napthalene inclosed for each bushel of corn.
This quantity tightly inclosed with the corn will prevent
damage from these insects and will not injure the seed.
The material will cost about 6 cents a pound. Sixty cents
worth will protect enough to plant 60 acres.
Winter Storage.-After hanging in the shed or lying
on the racks for two months, the seed ears should be "dry









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


as bone" and contain less than 10% of moisture. They can
remain where they dried or be stored in mouse-proof bar-
rels, boxes, or crates during the winter, but in either case
must not be exposed to a damp atmosphere, or they will ab-
sorb moisture and be injured. Some farmers place the
thoroughly dried seed ears in the center of a wheat bin
and fill the bin with loose, dry wheat. This protects the
ears from rats and mice.
Testing.-Seed corn that matured normally and has
been properly preserved will grow satisfactorily. Ears
slightly damaged by poor preservation may germinate
100%, but will produce less than if they had received
better care. Make a seed-testing box and test 100 ears
separately. Be sure that each kernel tested is perfect in
appearance and was not injured at the tip when removed
from the ear. If 3 or more kernels out of 10 from any
ear fail to grow, test every ear in the entire supply of
seed. If the seed has been properly selected and preserved
the 100 ears tested will seldom reveal any poor ones and
further testing will usually be unnecessary.
Grading.-Shelled corn is difficult to grade satisfac-
torily. The grading can be done better before the ears
are shelled. If the seed ears vary greatly as to size of
kernel they should be separated into two or three grades
according to size of kernel. These grades should be
shelled separately,.tested in the corn planter, and num-
bered to correspond with the number on the planter plates
that are found to drop them most uniformly. These ar-
rangements can be completed before the rush of spring
work begins.
Shelling.-The first operation in properly shelling
seed corn is the removal of the small kernels from the tips
of the ears and the round thick kernels from the butts.
The former are less productive than the other kernels of
the ear. The round butt kernels are as productive as the
other kernels but do not plant uniformly in a planter.
Shelling seed corn carefully by hand is the best
method. The greater the acreage planted the greater the
profit derived from hand shelling. Into a shallow sieve
each ear should be shelled separately, rejecting any
worm-eaten or blemished kernels. If the supply from
the one ear appears good and contains no poor kernels,
it is poured into the general supply and another ear
shelled in the same way.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


STORAGE OF VARIOUS VEGETABLES
By James H. Beattle
U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 879
A half-acre garden, if properly cared for, will produce
far more vegetables than the average family can consume
during the maturing period of the crops. Only a small
portion of the garden should be devoted to those vege-
tables which must be used as soon as they reach maturity.
Beets, late cabbage, carrots, celery, onions, parsnips, po-
tatoes, salsify, and turnips may be stored in their natural
condition, and should be grown to the extent of the family
needs for storage for winter use. Beans of various kinds,
including the Limas, may be stored dry. The successful
storage of vegetables is not at all difficult; in fact, good
storage facilities already exist in most homes, it being
only necessary to make use of the cellar, the attic, a large
closet, or other parts of the dwelling, depending upon the
character of the product to be stored.
Beans and Peas.-Beans may be kept for winter use
by picking the pods as soon as they are mature, and
spreading them in a warm, dry place, such as an attic
floor, until the beans are thoroughly dry. Then shell and
store in bags hung in a dry, well-ventilated place until
needed. Allow navy and other bush beans to mature on
the vines until a maximum number of pods are ripe; then
pull the whole plant and cure it like hay. After thorough
drying, thrash the beans and store as suggested above.
Peas may be treated like bush beans and stored in the
same manner.
Late Beets.-The beets should be pulled and the tops
cut off when the soil is dry. If they are to be held in a
storage room in the basement or in an outdoor storage
cellar, they should be placed in ventilated barrels, loose
boxes, or, better still, in crates. If sufficient space is avail-
able in the cellar, it is a good plan simply to place in small
piles along the wall. Storage in large piles should be
avoided, as it is liable to cause heating and decay.
For storage in banks or pits prepare the beets as for
storage in the room in the basement or in the outdoor
cellar. Select a well-drained location, make a shallow
excavation, about 6 inches deep, line it with straw, hay,
leaves, or similar material, and place the beets in a coni-
cal pile on the lining. Make the bottom of the pile about
the same size as but not larger than the bottom of the








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


excavation. Cover the beets with the same material as
that used for lining the bottom of the pit, and carry it up
several inches above the apex of the pile of vegetables,
having it extend through the dirt covering. This serves
as a ventilating flue, and it should be covered with a piece
of tin or a short board as a protection from rain. The
dirt covering should be 2 or 3 inches thick when the vege-
tables are stored, and it should be increased as severely
cold weather approaches until it is a foot or more in thick-
ness. In finishing the pit the dirt should be firmed with
the back of the shovel in order to make it as nearly water-
proof as possible.
The shallow base around the base of the pit should
have an outlet for carrying off the water. Supplement
the dirt covering with manure, straw, corn fodder, or
other protecting material. Use several small pits instead
of a large one, as vegetables keep better in small pits and
the entire contents may be removed when the pit is
opened.
Late Cabbages.-Heads of late cabbage may be cut
and stored in conical pits in the same manner as beets.
Another common and very satisfactory method is to pull
the plants, roots and all, and place them in a long pit
with the heads down. A few heads may be removed from
time to time without disturbing the remainder of the pit.
As slight freezing does not injure the cabbage, the cover-
ing of the pit need not be as thick as for other vegetables.
Another good method for storing cabbage is as fol-
lows: The plants are pulled, roots and all, and set side
by side with the roots down in a shallow trench, the length
of which corresponds with the width of the bed. The bed
may be any width up to 8 or 10 feet and as long as neces-
sary to hold the number of cabbages to be stored. Cover
the roots with earth. Around the bed erect a frame of
rails, boards, or poles, or by driving a row of poles into
the ground so that an enclosure of about 2 feet in height
is formed. Bank the outside of this frame with dirt and
place poles across the top, covering them with straw, hay
or corn fodder. Make provision for removing portions of
the stored product from one end of the pit. This type of
storage is inexpensive and gives good results. When the
heads are cut, leave the roots in position, and in the spring
these roots will sprout and supply the family with an
abundance of greens. A large percentage of the cabbage
sprouts found on the market are produced in this way.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Heads of cabbage may be laid in rows on shelves in an
outdoor storage cellar, but not in a storage room in the
cellar of a dwelling, as the odor is likely to penetrate
through the house.
Carrots.-Carrots may be stored in a storage room in
the basement, in outdoor storage cellars, or in banks or
pits, and are handled in the same way as beets. It is ad-
visable to place a small quantity in the storage room in
the basement or in the storage cellar and the remainder
in banks or pits. They are not injured by slight freezing;
hence need not be covered as deeply as potatoes.
Late Celery.-Celery may be stored for a time in the
position where grown by placing enough earth around the
base of the plants to hold them in good form. Allow them
to remain in this condition until just before severe freez-
ing occurs; then bank the earth up to the very tops of the
plants, almost covering them, and as the weather becomes
colder cover the ridge with coarse manure, straw, or corn
fodder held in place by means of stakes or boards. The
celery may be removed as needed, but this method is open
to the objection that it is hard to get the celery out when
the ground is frozen.
Another method of storing celery is to excavate a pit
10 to 12 inches wide to a depth of about 24 inches and of
any desired length; thoroughly loosen the soil in the bot-
tom or shovel in loose topsoil to form a bed in which to
set the roots of the celery, and pack this trench with fully-
grown plants, placing the roots close together with con-
siderable soil adhering to them. Water the celery as it
is placed in the trench and allow the trench to remain
open long enough for the tops to become dry. Unless the
soil is very dry at the time of storing or extended warm
weather should follow, it will not be necessary to apply
more water. Place a 12-inch board on edge along one
side of the trench and bank it with the surplus earth;
cover the trench with a roof of boards, straw on poles, or
cornstalks from which the tops have been removed, plac-
ing the stalks across the pit with one end resting on the
board and the other on the ground; spread over this a
light covering of straw or other material which will pack
closely, and as the weather becomes colder increase the
covering to keep out the frost. Celery stored in this man-
ner will keep until late in the winter. This method, be-
cause of its simplicity, is recommended for the farmer
and small grower.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


The unused pit of a permanent hotbed may be utilized
as a storage place for celery by removing the surplus
earth and substituting a covering of boards for the sash.
Store the celery in the same manner as in the trench, and
cover the bed with any material which will keep out frost.
Celery may be stored on the floor of a storage room in
the basement of a dwelling or in an outdoor storage cel-
lar. Take up the plants just before freezing occurs, with
considerable earth adhering, and set them on the floor
with the roots packed together as closely as possible. If
moderately moist, the celery will keep well under the
conditions found in most storage cellars. Celery should
not be stored in the same cellar as turnips or cabbage, as
it will absorb the odor of these vegetables, ruining its
flavor.
Oinions.-To keep well, onions must be mature and
thoroughly dry. Put them in ventilated barrels, baskets,
crates, or loosely woven bags, as good ventilation is essen-
tial to the keeping of onions. A dry, well-ventilated place,
such as an attic, furnishes a good storage space for onions,
as slight freezing does not injure them, provided they
are not handled when frozen.
Parsnips.-Parsnips may be allowed to remain in the
ground and dug as needed, as freezing does not injure
them. However, as it is a difficult matter to dig them
when the ground is frozen, it is advisable to store a small
quantity in the storage room in the basement of the dwell-
ing or in the outdoor storage cellar for use during the
periods when the ground is frozen. Parsnips may be
stored in the same manner as beets and carrots.
Potatoes, Irish.-The Irish potato is the most import-
ant vegetable in the northern portions of the United States
and is stored in large quantities for winter use. It may
be kept in the storage room in the basement, in outdoor
storage cellars, and in banks or pits. When stored in cel-
lars, the potatoes may be put into barrels, boxes, baskets,
crates, bins, or on the floor, but must be protected from
the light. When stored in banks or pits they are handled
in the same way as beets, carrots, etc. Potatoes must be
protected from freezing, and before winter sets in, the pit
must be covered with manure, straw, or other material in
addition to several inches of earth. It is a good plan to
place the major portion of the crop in banks or pits and
a small quantity in the storage room in the basement or
in the outdoor storage cellar for immediate use.









64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Potatoes, Sweet.-Sweet potatoes should be mature
when dug and should be left exposed for a few hours to
dry off the surface moisture before being placed on stor-
age. They should be handled carefully at all times, as
they are bruised easily. This crop may be kept in pits or
banks in outdoor storage cellars, but a warm, dry place is
preferable. When stored in pits or banks sweet potatoes
are handled in much the same way as beets or other root
crops. When kept in a specially constructed storage
house, either in bulk or in crates, the potatoes should be
cured for about 10 days or two weeks at a temperature of
75 to 80 F. After the curing period the temperature
should be reduced gradually to about 550 F. and main-
tained at that point or as near it as practicable for the
remainder of the storage period. When well matured
before digging, carefully handled, well cured, and held
at a uniform temperature of about 550 F., sweet potatoes
may be kept throughout the winter and spring. When
only a few bushels are to be stored, they may be placed
in the basement near the furnace, on a shelf near the
kitchen stove, near the chimney on the second floor, or
even in the attic.
Pumpkins and Squashes.-Pumpkins and squashes
may be kept for winter use in the storage room in the
basement or in dry, well-ventilated cellars, but a dry,
above-ground, frost-proof place is best. Put them in rows
on shelves so that they are not in contact with each other.
If the temperature is maintained at about 40' F., late-
maturing varieties of these vegetables will keep until late
in winter.
Salsify may be stored in the same way as beets, car-
rots, and parsnips.
Late Turnips.-Turnips will stand hard frost, but
alternate freezing and thawing injures them. Gather,
top, and store the roots in banks, pits, or an outdoor stor-
age cellar. Do not place them in the storage room in the
basement of the dwelling, as they give off odors that pene-
trate through the house.
Apples may be kept in the storage room in the base-
ment of the dwelling, in outdoor storage cellars, and in
banks or pits. Conditions suitable for the keeping of po-
tatoes answer fairly well for apples. Under some condi-
tions it will be an advantage to store part of the crop in
the cellar and the late-keeping varieties suitable for
spring use in outdoor banks or pits.








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


ARITHMETICAL PRINCIPLES
In measuring surfaces and volumes we are often in
need of simple rules by which calculations can be made
that will enable us to do quite difficult farm engineering.
Especially is this true of geometrical calculations.
The easiest of all surface measurements is the surface.
The surface of a square is ascertained by multiplying the
length by the width stated in terms of the same denomina-
tion and we have the area.
To find the area of a circle, multiply the circumference
by the radius and divide by 2: Therefore, if the radius
(half the diameter) of a circle is known, the area can be
ascertained by multiplying the radius by self (square it)
and multiply this product by 3.1416.
To find the convex surface of a prism or a cylinder:
Multiply its altitude (height) by the perimeter (sum of
its boundary lines) of its base.
To find the volume (cubic contents) of a sphere: Mul-
tiply the convex surface by the radius and divide by 3.
To find the contents of a cylinder: Multiply the diam-
eter of the base by 3.1416-this gives the circumference
of the base. Then multiply this circumference by the
radius (half the diameter) and divide this by 2-this
gives the area of the base-then multiply the area of the
base by the altitude, which gives the cubic contents or
volume.
Square root is serviceable in many calculations. If
you want to know the length of one side of a square and
have the area you find it by the rules of square root.
Square root applies to areas; hence, the side of a
square is the root of the area.
The following is the rule for finding the square root:
Separate the number into periods of two figures each,
beginning at the decimal point.
Find the greatest square in the left-hand period and
write its root as the first figure of the required root.
Square this root, subtract the result from the left-half
period, and to the remainder annex the next period for a
dividend.
Divide this new dividend by twice the part of the root
already found and write the quotient as the second figure
of the required root. Annex to this advisor the figure








66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

thus found and multiply by the number representing this
figure.
Subtract this result, bring down the next period, and
proceed as before until all the periods have been thus
annexed.
The result is the square root required.


BOARD MEASURE
Boards are sold by the square foot surface, one inch in
thickness. If cut thinner, they count the same as if an
inch thick.
To ascertain the number of square feet in a board,
multiply the width in inches by the length in feet, and
divide the product by 12; the quotient is the number of
feet in the board, and the remainder is the odd inches.
Six inches and over, remainder are counted an additional
foot. For example, measure a board 22 inches wide by
19 feet long, as below:
Multiply 22 the width in inches
by 19 length in feet
198
22
12)418 Product
Quotient 34 10 remainder.
Showing 34 feet 10 inches in the board, which counts 35 feet.


THE MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER OR SCANTLING
NOTE: The following valuable tables are taken from Day's Ready
Reckoner, by permission of the publishers, Dick & Fitzgerald, of
New York.
Scantling, or timber for building, is sold by the square
foot of inch-board measure. Thus a cubic foot of scantling
which is a foot wide, a foot thick and a foot long, contains
twelve feet measurement. To ascertain the square feet in
a piece of scantling of any length, width, and thickness,
multiply the width in inches by the thickness in inches;
then multiply the product of these figures by the length in
feet, and divide the second product by twelve; the quo-
tient is the number of feet, and the remainder (if any) is
the odd inches. Six inches and over are usually reckoned
as an extra foot.








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


In measuring the length of a piece of timber, the lum-
berman counts even feet only. Unless the length is full
ten inches or more over an even number of feet, the ex-
cess is not counted; but ten inches over are counted as a
full foot. In marking the contents of a piece of timber
when it runs over measure, the lumberman usually places
a mark at the spot where the measurement ends. The
marks are made on one end of the stick with Roman cap-
ital letters instead of figures, as XXI for 21, XVIII for 18,
and so on.
Example.--Suppose a stick of timber to be 11 inches
in width, 9 inches thick, and to measure 27 feet in length:
Multiply 11 the width
by 9 the thickness
Product 99 by which
multiply 27 the length in feet
693
Divide this 198
product by 12)2673
Quotient 222 9 remainder
The quotient is the number of square feet (inch-board
measure), the 9 remainder being the odd inches. As 6
inches and over are counted a foot, 223 feet are the con-
tents of the stick.



PLANK MEASURE
Board measure is the basis of plank measure; that is,
a plank 2 inches thick and 133 feet long and 10 inches
wide contains evidently twice as many square feet as if
only one inch thick; therefore, in estimating the contents
of any plank we first find the contents of the surface,
taken one inch thick, and then multiply this product by
the thickness of the plank in inches.
Example.-Suppose we wish to ascertain the contents
of a plank 6 feet long, 12 inches wide and 21/4 inches
thick. First multiply the width in inches (12) by the
length in feet (6), and divide the product by 12. This
will give the contents of a board 1 inch thick, 12 inches
wide and 6 feet long. If the last product be multiplied








68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

by 21/4, the result will be the contents of a plank 6 feet
long, 12 inches wide and 21/4 inches thick.
Thus, 12 width in inches
6 length in feet
12)72
6
2 1/ thickness in inches
131/2 contents in feet, board measure


ROMAN NUMERALS
Ques. How did the Romans add, subtract and multi-
ply with Roman numerals?
Ans. The Romans had no symbols to indicate mathe-
matical processes and operations. Originally they ex-
pressed every word and operation in words of full length.
Their mathematical calculations were never simplified
further than to abbreviate centum, 100, into C; mille,
1000, into M and so on. Figuring in the days of Caesar
was clumsy business. Practically all calculations were
performed on the abacus, an apparatus resembling the
Chinese swanpan or the bead-and-frame affairs now used
in kindergarten work. The Roman abacus contained
seven long and seven shorter rods or bars. There were four
beads on the long bars and one on the shorter ones. The
beads on the short bars denoted five.


HANDY RULES
A cubic foot or 1728 cubic inches of water contains
71 gallons and weighs 621/2 pounds.
A gallon of water contains 231 cu. in. and weighs
8 1/3 pounds.
For the circumference of a circle, multiply diameter
by 3.1416.
For the diameter of a circle multiply circumference
by .31831.
For the area of a circle, square diameter and multiply
by .7854.
To find the pressure in pounds per sq. in. of a column
of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by
.434.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


One cord of soft wood is equal to 61 per cent of a ton
of soft coal; one cord of hard wood is equivalent to 88 per
cent of a ton of soft coal.
A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds
one foot per minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the con-
sumption of 71/2 pounds of ordinary coal, or about 1 pound
of coal to 1 gallon of water.



ORDINARY INTEREST FOR 1 TO 360 DAYS
(The table below gives the interest on $100 at 1 per cent)
Days Int. Days Int. Days Int.
1................ .00277 15-----... ...... .04166 29---... ....- .08056
2............... .00555 16-......... 04444 30 .08333
3 --....~...... 00833 17-.....--.... .04722 60..-....-....... .16667
4............... .01111 18---.. ...... 05000 90 ..... ... .25000
5-----.. .01389 19--......... .05278 120.......-.... .33333
6.--........- .01667 20.........-- 05556 150 .. 41667
7............. .01944 21 ........... 05833 180--... .50000
8 -.........- .02222 22 ---.......- .. 06111 7 mo............58333
9-----.... .02500 23 -------- .. .06389 8 mo ......... .66667
10. .. .02778 24......--...... .06667 9 mo ....-... .75000
11--...--..... .03056 25------ .. 06944 10 mo ....... .83333
12-............... .03333 26- ...........- .07222 11 mo......- .. 91667
13----------- .03611 27----........... 07500 12 mo.. ..... 1.00000
14........... .03889 28----- --.... .07778
Example: Suppose you borrow $200 for 40 days at 7 per cent.
The interest for 30 days at 1 per cent on $100 is $0.08333. The
interest for 10 days at 1 per cent on $100 is $0.2778. The sum of
these two gives the interest for 40 days, or $0.11111. For $200 the
interest for 40 days will be $0.22222. Since this is the rate of 1 per
cent, multiply by 7 to get the interest at 7 per cent. This equals $1.56.










70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


WEIGHTS OF CORN SILAGE
Estimated Weights of Corn Silage One Month or More After Filling


Depth of
silage
in feet 10 ]
2 2.5 3
4 5.2 7
6 7.9 11
8 10.8 15
10 13.7 19
12 16.8 24
14 19.9 28
16 23.1 33
18 26.2 37
20 29.5 42
22 32.7 47
24 35.9 51
26 39.2 56
28 42.6 61
30 45.9 66
32 49.3 70
34 52.7 75
36 80
38 85
40 90
42
44


Diameter of Silo in Feet


14
5.0
10.2
15.6
21.2
27.0
32.9
39.0
45.2
51.4
57.8
64.0
70.4
76.9
83.4
90.1
96.7
103.3
110.0
116.6
123.2
129.8
136.4


16
6.1
13.3
20.3
27.7
35.2
42.9
50.9
59.0
67.1
75.4
83.6
91.9
100.3
108.9
117.6
126.2
134.8
143.5
152.1
160.7
169.3
177.9


18
8.2
16.8
25.7
35.0
44.5
54.3
64.4
74.6
84.8
95.3
105.6
116.1
126.8
137.6
148.6
159.5
170.5
181.4
192.4
203.3
214.2
225.2


20
10.2
20.8
31.8
43.2
55.0
67.1
79.6
92.2
104.8
117.8
131.0
143.6
156.8
170.1
183.7
196.2
208.7
221.0
233.7
246.2
258.7
271.2


-This table taken from Kansas Bulletin No. 222
1. If corn is put in silo while in the milk stage add 10 to 15 per
cent to weights given in table.
2. If corn is past the usual stage of maturity and contains less
water than usual deduct 10 to 15 per cent.
3. If grain is unusually heavy in proportion to stalk add 5 to 10
per cent.
4. If very little or no grain is present deduct 10 per cent. (Under
normal conditions grain represents from 30 to 35 per cent of the
total weight of corn silage.)
5. Sweet sorghum and kafir silage weigh about the same as corn.
6. Fineness and tramping have no effect on the volume per ton
of silage.
7. To estimate amount of silage in silo one month or more after
filling:
(1) Determine original height of settled silage and read tonnage
from table.
(2) Determine height of settled silage removed and read ton-
nage from table.
(3) The tonnage remaining is obtained by subtracting (2)
from (1).
Example. A 14-foot silo was filled to a depth of 35 feet
(settled height), and 16 feet have been removed. Find
tonnage remaining.
Total capacity before removal of silage........... 06.6 tons
Weight of the 16 feet of silage removed-- ......--- 45.2 tons


Amount remaining --. --........--. ..-..


-. 61.4 tons









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


LOGS REDUCED TO SQUARE TIMBER
To reckon the contents of a round log in cubic feet of
square timber, first reduce it to square timber; thus:
Measure the diameter (or thickness) at each end in
inches; add these measurements together, and divide the
sum-total by 2; the quotient is the average diameter.
One-third of this diameter is allowed for the chips or
slabs. To deduct this third, divide the number of inches
diameter by 3, and subtract the quotient from it; the re-
mainder is the proper diameter for measurements. The
thickness of the log is generally counted in even inches;
and one-third of an inch excess, or upward, is added as
an extra inch. After getting the square of the log in
manner above described, the number of cubic feet in it is
reckoned the same as in square timber. But as in the re-
duction of logs fractions of inches often have to be reck-
oned, an example may be useful for a perfect understand-
ing of it.
Example.-Suppose a round log to be 35 feet long, 24
inches thick at the butt and 19 inches thick at the top.
Add 24
and 19 the two diameters.
Sum-total 43 to which add two ciphers to include
the fractions, and then divide by 2)43.00
Deduct 1/3 for slabs 3)21.50 average diam.
7.17
True diameter 14.33 or 14-1/3 inches
Reduce this to thirds, thus: Three times 14 is 42, and the odd one
makes 43 thirds.
Multiply 34
by 43
129
172
Total 1849 which represents ninths of inches.
Add two ciphers to include the fractions, and then, to reduce to
inches, Divide by 9)1849.00
205.44
Multiply by 35 the length of the log.
102720
61632
Divide by 12)7190.40
Divide by 12) 599.20
Cubic feet 49 93/100 counting 50 feet.









72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

MISCELLANEOUS MEASUREMENTS
One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs 53 pounds.
To find side of an equal square multiply diameter by
.8862.
One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to
50 pounds.
To find area of a circle multiply square of diameter
by .7854.
To find diameter of a circle multiply circumference
by .31831.
To find circumference of a circle multiply diameter
by 3.1416.
To find surface of a ball multiply square of diameter
by 3.1416.
To find cubic inches in a ball multiply cube of diam-
eter by .5236.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity
four times.
Each nominal horse power of a boiler requires 30 to
35 lbs. of water per hour.
A gallon of water (U. S. Standard) weighs 8 1/3
pounds and contains 231 cubic inches.
There are nine square feet of heating surface to each
square foot of grate surface.
A cubic foot of water contains 71/ gallons, 1728 cubic
inches, and weighs 6212 pounds.
A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds
one foot per minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
The average consumption of coal for steam boilers is
12 pounds per hour for each square foot of grate surface.
To find the pressure in pounds per square inch of a
column of water, multiply the height of the column in
feet by .434.
Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 de-
grees) has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7
pounds to the square inch).
To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the con-
sumption of 712 pounds of ordinary coal, or about 1 pound
of coal to 1 gallon of water.











READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Apothecaries' Weight: 20 grains = 1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dram;
8 drams = 1 ounce; 12 ounces 1 pound.
Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram; 16
drams = 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 25 pounds = 1 quarter;
4 quarters = 1 cwt.; 20 cwt. = 1 ton.
Avoirdupois Weight (long ton) : 27 11/32 grains = 1 dram; 16 drams
= 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1 pound; 112 pounds = 1 cwt.; 20
cwt. 1 ton.
Troy Weight: 24 grains = 1 pennyweight; 20 pennyweights = 1
ounce; 12 ounces 1 pound.
Circular Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 degree;
30 degrees = 1 sign; 12 signs = 1 circle or circumference .
Cubic Measure: 1,728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet = 1
cubic yard; 128 cubic feet = 1 cord; 243/ cubic feet = 1 perch.
Dry Measure: 2 pints = 1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks = 1
bushel.
Liquid Measure: 4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1
gallon; 311 gallons = 1 barrel; 2 barrels = 1 hogshead.
Long Measure: 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet = 1 yard; 51 yards = 1
rod or pole; 40 rods = 1 furlong; 8 furlongs = 1 statute mile
(1,760 yards or 5,280 feet); 3 miles = 1 league.
Mariners' Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 120 fathoms = 1 cable
length; 71/2 cable lengths = 1 mile; 5,280 feet = 1 statute mile;
6,080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile; 1 knot = a speed of 1 nautical
mile, or 1.151 statute miles per hour.
Paper Measure: 24 sheets = 1 quire; 20 quires = 1 ream (480
sheets); 2 reams = 1 bundle; 5 bundles = 1 bale.
Square Measure: 144 square inches = 1 square foot; 9 square feet
= 1 square yard; 301/ square yards = 1 square rod or perch;
40 square rods = 1 rood; 4 roods = 1 acre; 640 acres = 1
square mile; 36 square miles (6 miles square) = 1 township.
An Acre contains 4,840 sq. yds. or 43,560 sq. ft. A square acre
measures 208.71 feet on each side.
Time Measure: 60 seconds = 1 minute; 60 minutes = 1 hour; 24
hours = 1 day; 7 days = 1 week; 365 days = 1 year; 366 days
= 1 leap year.


LAWFUL BUSHEL MEASURE OF GRAIN AND SEED
The most general weights are given for most states. Principal
exceptions are noted. Weights are given in pounds. Marks U. S.
Standard.
Alfalfa seed, 60; Apples, 48, 50* (Me. 44); Barley, 47, 48*;
Beans, 60*; Blue grass seed, 14; Bran, 20; Buckwheat, 40, 42, 48*,
50, 52; Cherries, 40, 50*; Clover seed, 60; Corn, in ears, 68, 70, 72;
Corn, shelled, 56* (Cal. 52, N. M. 54) ; Corn meal, 48, 50; Cranber-
ries, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40; Flaxseed, 56* (Conn., N. J., 55); Malt, 30,
32, 34, 38; Millet, 50 (Minn. 48) ; Oats, 32*; Onions, 50, 52, 54, 55,
56, 57; Peaches, 40, 48, 50*, 58; Peanuts, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25; Pears,
36, 45, 48, 50*, 58; Peas, 60*; Plums, 28, 40, 48, 50*, 52, 64; Pota-
toes, 60* (N. C. 56); Sweet potatoes, 46, 50, 54, 55, 56, 60; Rice,
rough, 44, 45; Rye, 56*; Rye Meal, 50; Timothy seed, 45; Wheat, 60*.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MEASUREMENTS
Circle: Diameter = circumference X .31831. Circumference = di-
ameter X 3.1416. Area = diameter squared X .7854.
Sphere: Surface = diameter squared X 3.1416. Cubic contents =
diameter cubed X .5236.
Cylinder: Area = circumference of base (see circle) X height. Con-
tents = area of the base X height.
Cone or pyramid: Lateral surface = circumference of base (see
(circle) X the slant height. Volume = area of base X 1/3
altitude, the altitude being the perpendicular distance from the
base to the highest point. Volume of frustrum of pyramid ox
cone = 1/3 height X sum of the areas of the upper and lower
bases and square root of their product.
Triangle: Area = base X 1/ altitude. Given measurements of three
sides, get % sum of sides, from this subtract each side sepa-
rately; multiply all remainders and 1/ sum together; square root
of product = area.
Hypothenuse of right triangle = sq. root of the sum of the squares
of the other two sides.
Square, Rectangle or Parallelogram: Area = base X altitude.
Trapezoid: Area = altitude X sum of parallel sides.
Height of Tree or Building may be found by length of shadow. Set
up a stick and measure its shadow, then height of tree = length
of shadow of tree X height of stick length of shadow of
stick.
Barrel: Volume same as for cylinder, but with a diameter equal to
half the sum of head and bung diameters.
Speed of Falling Body: 16 feet the first second.
16 + 32 = 48 feet the second second.
16 + 32(2) = 80 feet the third second.
16 + 32(3) = 112 feet the fourth second.
16 + 32(4) = 144 feet the fifth second.
16 + 32 (n-1) feet the nth second.
Velocity of Sound, Light and Radio: Sound in the air at 600 F.
travels 1,120 feet per second; in water, 4,708 feet per second; in
wood at least 10,000 feet per second; in metal at least 4,000 feet
per second. Light travels 186,600 miles per second. Radio
waves are considered to have the same speed as light.
A horse-power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds one foot per
minute, or 550 pounds one foot per second.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times.



COMMODITY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
A pint's a pound-or very nearly-of the following: water, wheat,
butter, sugar, blackberries.
A gallon of milk weighs 8.6 lbs., cream 8.4 lbs., 461 qts. of milk
weighs 100 lbs.
A keg of nails weighs 100 Ibs. A barrel of flour weighs 196 Ibs; of
salt, 280 lbs.; of beef, fish or pork, 200 lbs.; cement (4 bags) 376
lbs.











READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


Cotton in a standard bale weighs 480 lbs. A bushel of coal weighs
80 lbs.
A barrel of cement contains 3.8 cu. ft.; of oil, 42 gals.
A barrel for dry commodities contains 7,056 cu. in. or 105 dry qts.
A bushel stroked contains 2,150.42 cu. in., a barrel heaped = 2,747.7
cu. in. Used to measure apples, potatoes, shelled corn in bins.
A peck = 537.605 cu. ins. A dry quart = 67.201 cu. ins.
A board foot = 144 cu. in., a cord contains 128 cu. ft.
A barrel of flour weighs 196 lbs. net; 4/2 bu. of wheat makes a bar-
rel of "straight" flour.
Solids (lbs. per cu. ft.)-Anthracite, 87-112; Cement, set, 170-190;
Clay, 122-162; Coal, soft, 75.94; Glass, common, 150-175; Ice,
57; Iron, pure, 491; Iron, cast, 444; Ivory, 114-129; Lead,
711; Lime, mortar, 103-111; Lime, slaked, 81-87; Limestone,
167-171; Marble, 160-177; Paper, 44-72; Rock salt, 136; Sand-
stone, 134-147.
Liquids-Alcohol, 50.4; Benzene, 56.1; Gasoline, 41.0-43.0; Milk,
64.2-64.6; Coconut oil, 57.7.
Woods-Cedar, 30-35; Ebony, 69-83; Pine, white, 22-31; Pine, yel-
low, 23-37; Hickory, 37-58; Mahogany, 41; Maple, 37-47; Oak,
37-56; Walnut, 40-43.




WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES OF WATER
1 cubic inch of water weighs .03627 lbs. 1 cubic foot weighs 62.5 lbs.
1 pint (liquid) weighs 1.044375 lbs. 1 gallon weighs 8.355 lbs.
1 cubic foot = 7.48052 gals. 1 gal. = 231 cu. in. 1 liquid quart =
57.75 cu. in. Pressure in pounds per square inch of a column of
water = height in feet X .434.



FOREIGN MEASURES OF DISTANCE COMPARED
TO MILE
Mile Kilometer
American or English mile ..----.-----... -----... ...- 1.000 1.609
French Kilometer ---------------...... ---. .... .... .621 1.000
German Geographical mile --...----... --..... --.......... 4.610 7.420
Russian verst--.---.. .~-- ....---------- ...-. ... .. .663 1.067
Austrian mile---- --------.---.-..-... .. ...... 4.714 7.586
Dutch ure --------------. .- ......-- ....... 3.458 5.565
Norwegian mile .----. ----... -----...-- -..-..--.. 7.021 11.299
Swedish mile.------..-----.-----.----.--.. .... 6.644 10.692
Danish mile -------... --------..-- -..- ..... 4.682 7.536
Swiss stunde--..--- --.---- ------.. .....-..-.--.. 2.987 4.808










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FIRST AID TO THE INJURED OR POISONED
First-Call a Doctor.
If the sufferer is in a faint or fit, loosen clothing. Lay
flat on back, raising feet higher than head. Fan freely
and put cold water on the face and chest. Camphor,
ammonia or smelling salts, held near nose, often revive.
If vomiting, turn head to one side.
If unconscious, don't put anything in mouth. Water or
stimulant may cause choking. Unconscious persons cannot
swallow.
If conscious, cold water frequently revives and re-
freshes if given slowly in sips.
Apoplexy-Stroke of Paralysis.-Do not give stimu-
lants. Loosen clothing. Elevate the patient's head and
apply cold cloths. Keep the body and feet warm.
Foreign Bodies in Eye.-Pull the upper lid downward
away from the eyeball over lower lid and release.
Burns and Scalds.-Cover with cooking soda and lay
wet cloth over it. Whites of eggs and olive oil. Olive or
linseed oil, plain or mixed with chalk.
Lightning.-Dash cold water over person struck. Per-
form artificial respiration.
Fainting.-Place flat on back; allow fresh air and
sprinkle with water.
Shock.-If faint and cold, give stimulant in small
doses, once in fifteen or twenty minutes and secure
warmth by external applications and rubbing.
Bleeding from Wound.-If from an artery, stop the
current of blood to the wound by putting a compress or
cloth pad over the artery. Fasten it firmly by a handker-
chief or bandage which may be tightened by twisting in
a stick as a binder. The location of the artery can gener-
ally be determined by the throbbing sensation. If from a
vein, stop the flow by pressure directly over the wound or
by exposure or application of cold water. Perchloride of
Iron may be applied with cloth or lint. Keep the part
elevated.
Wounds.-The part should be properly cleansed of all
foreign matter, the edges brought together and fastened
with strips of plaster, apply anodyne solution, give stimu-
lant, laudanum with brandy, if necessary.
Bruises.-Apply Jayne's Lincreme; keep well covered
and warm.


76










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 77

Poisoned Wounds.-From a bite of animals treatment
should be prompt. If possible suck the wound thoroughly
two or three minutes; cauterize with either nitric acid,
chloride of zinc or nitrate of silver, use whiskey freely
internally.
Sting of Insects.-Apply spirits of ammonia.
Poisons.-General Directions-Give an emetic as soon
as possible; tablespoonful of powdered mustard in a tum-
bler of warm water, or twenty grains of ipecac, or rich
milk or whites of eggs in large doses; after vomiting give
freely of warm drinks.
Don't Do This
Don't touch a wound with your finger.
Don't put an unclean dressing over a wound.
Don't move a patient unnecessarily.
Don't fail to remove false teeth or other things from
the mouth of an unconscious person.
Don't wash wounds.
Don't have a tourniquet on over twenty minutes with-
out loosening.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
In Case of Injury Where Physician Cannot Be Secured
Drowning.-1. Loosen clothing if any. 2. Empty
lungs of water by laying body on its stomach and lifting
it by the middle so that the head hangs down. Jerk the
body a few times. 3. Pull tongue forward, using hand-
kerchief, or pin with string if necessary. 4. Imitate
motion of respiration by alternately compressing and ex-
panding the lower ribs about twenty times a minute.
Alternately raising and lowering the arms from the sides
up above the head will stimulate the action of the lungs.
Let it be done gently but persistently. 5. Apply warmth
and friction to extremities. 6. By holding the tongue
forward, closing the nostrils and pressings the "Adam's
Apple" back (so as to close the entrance to the stomach),
direct inflation can be tried. Take a deep breath and
breathe it forcibly into the mouth of the patient, compress
the chest to expel the air, and repeat the operation. 7.
Don't give up! People have been saved after hours of
patient, vigorous effort. 8. When breathing begins get
patient into a warm bed, give warm drinks or spirits in
teaspoonfuls, fresh air and quiet.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Sunstroke.-Loosen clothing. Get patient into shade
and apply ice cold water to head. Keep head in elevated
position.
Mad Dog or Snake Bite.-Tie cord tight above wound.
Suck the wound and cauterize with caustic or white hot
iron at once, or cut adjoining parts with a sharp knife.
Give stimulants, as Whiskey, Brandy, etc.
Cinders in the Eye.-Roll soft paper up like a lamp-
lighter, and wet the tip to remove, or use a medicine drop-
per to draw it out. Rub the other eye.
Fire From Kerosene.-Don't use water, it will spread
the flames. Dirt, sand, or flour is the best extinguisher,
or smother with woolen rug, tablecloth or carpet.
Suffocation from Inhaling Illuminating Gas.-Get into
the fresh air as soon as possible and lie down. Keep
warm. Take ammonia-twenty drops to a tumbler of
water at frequent intervals; also two to four drops tinc-
ture nux vomica every hour or two for five or six hours.



IN CASE OF POISON
First. Send for a physician.
Second. Empty the stomach by an emetic-a teaspoonful of
mustard or two teaspoonfuls of common salt in tepid water; tea-
spoonful of alum in water. Tickle the throat with a feather or finger.
Apply antidotes as follows:


Poison Antidote No.
Acetic Acid ....-.... --.....-------- 6
Alcoholic Liquors .-----..-- 10
Ammonia .....---...--. .----.----- 9
Antimony ...-.-.-. ..-----...--...- 5
Aqua fortis ...- ...-..-... .. 6
Arsenic ..-...... ....-- ...-- ...- 2
Bitter Almond -.------.--- 7
Blue Vitriol .-...-.-- ..-.....- 3
Bug Poison --.-. --.. ..------. .. 3
Carbolic Acid ----...--- 3
Carbonic Acid Gas -..--.....-- 10
Charcoal Fumes ---....------.. 10
Chloride of Zinc ----..--... .- 5
Chloroform, inhaled ----. 10
Chloroform, swallowed -..-.. 1
Coal Gas .....-...--.. ---... 10
Copperas ....-. .......--------. --- 3
Corrosive sublimate -..-..----. 3
Ether inhaled .......---.. ..- .. 10
Ether swallowed ---......----- 1


Poison Antidote No.
Laudinum ---....--..---- .....- 1
Lye .--.....-.....-.. ...---------- 9
Morphine .......------......----..---- 1
Muriatic Acid ..--....--.......-- 6
Nitre ...-..-....----.-----.. 9
Nitric Acid ...-..-......... ..... .. 6
Opium ...................... ...... 1
Oxalic Acid ---..-..... --... .... 6
Paris Green ------....--------- 2
Phosphorus ...-..... .... ..------. 2
Prussic Acid .....-------. ..-- 7
Rat Poison .-- ..-- .. ..----.- 2
Saltpetre -.......... .... ....- 9
Sugar of Lead ...--- ...-- .------- 4
Sulphuric Acid ---..--........-. 8
Strychnine ---...---- -------- 1
Tartaric Acid ---.......----...----- 6
Toad-stools ------------.. ------- 4
White Lead .......---.....- 4
White Vitriol .--.....--.....--.. 5


1. Emetic. If patient is drowsy, give cold coffee; keep awake
and moving.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 79

2. Emetic. Warm extremities; give large doses of magnesia;
raw eggs; lime water; milk; flour and water.
3. White of eggs; milk, flour and water; give largely for ten
minutes, then give emetic and follow by mild stimulants.
4. Mustard emetic followed by Epsom salt.
5. Emetic. Give warm water to relieve vomiting; tea to table-
spoonful baking powder, salaratus, chalk, lime or magnesia, followed
by milk and white of egg.
6. Emetic. Baking powder, etc., as in No. 5, followed by lin-
seed tea or slippery elm tea.
7. Emetic. Followed by brandy or by teaspoonful ammonia in
pint of water.
8. Large quantities of water followed by large doses magnesia
or lime.
9. Drink diluted vinegar or lemon juice, follow with table-
spoonful castor oil, cream, sweet oil or linseed oil; then with tea-
spoonful doses an hour apart for three hours.
10. Fresh air, inhalation of ammonia; warm extremities; arti-
ficial breathing, as in drowning.


SCREW WORM TREATMENT
We have in Florida two species of the screw worm and
there is some misunderstanding regarding the control of
this pest because of the difference in the habits of these
parasites. The common screw worm fly, or Cochliomyia
macellaria, is the one that makes its seasonal appearance
in Texas and other southwestern states and the one that
was first reported in Georgia and Florida. This species
of the screw worm propagates and perpetuates itself in
the carcasses of dead animals and only affected part and
a bloody-colored discharge will be observed.
Owners of livestock should ride their pastures and
ranges regularly to observe infested animals, which
should be driven to prepared pens and chutes for treat-
ment. When the animal has been properly restrained,
the wound should be filled with 90 per cent commercial
benzol and allowed to remain in the wound for at least
five minutes. It has been found advisable, in handling
screw worm cases, to introduce the benzol into the wound
with a syringe or oil can and then plug the entrance with
a pledge of cotton, allowing this to remain five or ten
minutes. Benzol kills the screw worms slowly. It is not
necessary to remove the maggots, if, by so doing, you
cause the wound to bleed as this materially delays heal-
ing. Next, fill the wound with pine tar oil, specific grav-
ity 1.065 and also place a quantity of this pine tar oil on
the margins of the wound. When working his livestock,
the owner should paint all cuts and bruises with pine tar









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


oil as this material will prevent the flies from depositing
their eggs. Infested animals should be placed in a lot or
hold-up pen and treated daily until all wounds have
healed.
There has been a demand to dip cattle through the
area where this pest exists in the hope that by so doing
the dipping would control this menace. It is the opinion
of the writer and the experience of the federal govern-
ment that dipping is not an effective measure. It is more
economical and more practical to swab the ears of cattle,
hogs and sheep with pine tar oil and this application of
dressing will kill all of the ticks present and stay on the
ear for a considerable period of time, thereby preventing
another infestation.
The owners of small herds or flocks, grazed or pas-
tured or those on the range which come to the lot every
night, have little difficulty in treating their animals under
these conditions. The open range, with large herds, pre-
sents another problem. Here the owner may live miles
from his cattle or hogs and, therefore, is immediately
confronted with the heavy expense of observing and
treating his animals.

THE FORECLOSURE PROBLEM
First of all, we face the problem-and fact-of the
steady increase of foreclosures on farm home mortgages.
The number today is almost as great as during the peak
period of 1932-33-some 2,000 a week. This, my friends,
is striking at the very foundation of American Agricul-
ture. The Federal Home Loan Bank Review, a govern-
ment publication, has let out the information that the
Farm Credit Administration in the year 1936 up to Sep-
tember 1st has foreclosed or has arranged to foreclose
the mortgages on 30,267 farms. This is an average for
the first 8 months of the year of 3,782 farm homes a
month or 945 a week. The same authority also tells us
that the Home Owners Loan Corporation has foreclosed
on or has authorized the foreclosure on urban homes at
the rate of 43,870 during the first 8 months of this year,
which is an average of 1,370 a week. This record does
not include foreclosures by the many other private lend-
ing agencies that own mortgages on farms and urban
homes.
It is apparent that there has been quite a decrease in
the number of farm mortgages, for when a farm or home
is foreclosed on the indebtedness no longer exists.













SELECTED COTTON STATISTICS-AMERICAN, FOREIGN, AND WORLD.
(000 omitted)

1920 1921 1922 1923 1934 192, 1 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 19 3 134
-21 -22 -23 -24 -25 27 -28 -2 -30 -31 -3 3 3 34 3
American I ] I
American production .................. 13,4291 7,945 9,755 10,140113,630116,105 17,97812,95614,477 14,825 13,932 17,09513,00113,047 9.443
World carry-over of American cottont..... 6,338 9,393 5,162 3,304 2,705 3,3861 5,495 7,696 5,114 4.421 6,287 8,868 12,960111,588110,634
World supply of American cotton* ....... 19,767 17,338 14.917 13,444 16,335 19.491 23,473 20,652 19,591 19,246 20,219 25,963 25,961 24,635 19,886 W
United States consumption of American iI I. I
cottont ......... ................ 4,677 5,613 6,322 5,3531 5,917 6,17 6,880 6,535 6,778 5,803 5,084 4744 6,004 5,554 ...
Foreign consumption of American cotton 5,353 7,142 6,343 5.747 7,353 7,560| 8,897 8.872 8,288 7,212 5,817 7,572 8,167 7,985 .....
World consumption of American cottont. 10,035 12,755 12,665 11,100 13,270 13,736 15.777 15,407 15,066 13.015|10,001 12.316 4,171 13,539 .
Foreign I I 1 I I I P
Foreign production ... .... ..... ... 7 671) 7,455 9.545| 0,560 11,370 11,795 10,422 11.044 12,32311,675 11,868 10,405110,699113,053) ...
World carry-over of foreign cotton: ...... 4 847 4,381 4,474 3,565 3,297 3,550 3,989 3,961) 4,543| 4,655 4,994 4,766 3,994 4,4471 5,435 0
World supply of foreign cotton. ......... 12,51811,83614,019113,125 14,667 15,345 14,411 15,005 16,866 16,330116,863215,171 14,693 17.500) ...... n
United States consumption of foreign I I I I I
cottont ...................... 216 281 299 252) 224 225| 251 235 245 249 155 100 106 1160 . It
Foreign consumption of foreign cotton .. 7,349 8,129 9.178 9,071) 9,814 10,726110,110 9,898 10,561 11,937 11,425 9,903 10.07611,439 ..... O
World consumption of foreign cottont ..... 7,565 8,410 9.477 9,323 10,038110,951 10,361 10,133 10,800 12,186 11.580 10,003 10,18211,555 ..... .
World -------- .11 |70I25
World production: ................... .. 21,100 15,400 19,3 197005,000 27,900 8400 24,000 26,800 26,500 25,800 27,50023,70026,100 .
World carry-over*. ................ ...11,18513,7741 9 636 6 8691 6,002 6,936 9.484 11,657 9,657 9,076 11,281113,634 16,954 16,035 16,069
World supply* ........................ 32,285 29,174|28,936 26,569|31,002 34,836 37,884 35,657 36,457135,576137,08141,13440,65 42,135 .....
World consumption. ................... .17,600 21,16522,142 20,423i23,308 24,687 26,138 25,540 25,872125,201 22.481 22,319024,35:25,094| .....
From information compiled by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Preliminary. q478-pound bales. tRunning bales. *Mixed bales.
October 26, 1934.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Rule No. 100
(Superseding Rule No. 38.)
Rule No. 100. Governing the Specifications for Septic
Tanks and Absorption Beds for the Treatment of Sewage
from Residences, Schools, etc.

Section I. Definitions.
A. A septic tank shall be construed to mean a water-
tight receptacle so constructed as to accomplish the par-
tial removal and liquefaction of the solid matter in sus-
pension of sewage.
B. A septic tank absorption bed shall be construed to
mean an underground pipe system consisting of open-
jointed pipe so distributed that the effluent from a septic
tank is oxidized.
C. The effective depth of a septic tank shall be con-
strued to mean the depth from the liquid level line to the
inside bottom of the tank.
D. The effective capacity of a septic tank shall be
construed to mean the total liquid volume measured from
the liquid level line to the inside bottom of the tank and
from the inlet wall to the outlet wall of the tank.

Section II.
Septic tanks for the treatment of sewage from resi-
dences, apartments, hotels, schools, and public buildings
when used in Florida shall conform with the following
minimum regulations:

A. Material of Construction.
1. Tanks shall be constructed of durable, non-cor-
rodible material, impervious to water and resistant to
decay.
2. Tanks made of concrete shall be thoroughly
water-proofed on the inside or constructed of cement
mixed with a standard water-proofing compound. No
concrete shall be used having a weaker mixture or con-
sistency than 1:2:4, i.e. one part by volume of cement;
two parts by volume of sand; and four parts by volume
of stone. In the construction of concrete tanks standard
methods and specifications of the A. S. T. M. shall be
followed with regards to materials, tools and mixing pro-









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


cedure. Commercial concerns shall file a sworn state-
ment with the State Board of Health as to the concrete
mixture and consistency.
3. All septic tanks shall be fully guaranteed not to
leak when laid down at point of installation and shall be
tested for leakage after installation.

B. Capacity.
1. The minimum effective capacity of tanks for
RESIDENTIAL USE shall be figured as follows:
a. Capacities of septic tanks for residential use shall
be based on two (2) persons occupying each bedroom or
other sleeping quarters.
b. The MINIMUM effective capacity of any septic
tank for residential use shall be two hundred and fifty
(250) gallons to care for five (5) people.
c. An additional fifty (50) gallons per person shall
be added for all over five (5) people, provided the maxi-
mum capacity of the first chamber of any precast con-
struction shall not exceed one thousand (1000) gallons.
d. Septic tanks for residential use shall have a mini-
mum effective depth of thirty (30) inches below the
liquid level line, and a minimum air space above of six
(6) inches.
2. The minimum effective capacity of septic tanks
for APARTMENTS and HOTELS shall be based on the
following graduated scale:
First five (5) persons 250 gallons, plus.
40 gallons per person for next 5 persons, plus.
25 gallons per person for next 30 persons, plus.
15 gallons per person for next 160 persons, plus.
10 gallons per person for each person in excess of 200
persons.
a. The effective capacity shall be based on two (2)
persons occupying each bedroom or other sleeping quar-
ters in any building provided that the maximum capacity
of the first chamber of any precast construction shall not
exceed one thousand (1000) gallons.
b. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks for
apartments and hotels in excess of one thousand (1000)
gallons shall be three (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall
have a minimum air space of nine (9) inches.
3. The minimum effective capacities of septic tanks









84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

for schools shall be designed as a basis of fifteen (15)
gallons per pupil.
a. The minimum effective depth of septic tanks for
schools in excess of one thousand (1000) gallons shall be
three (3) feet six (6) inches, and shall have a minimum
air space of nine (9) inches.
b. Septic tanks for schools in excess of 150 pupils
shall be considered as a special problem and plans and
location of these tanks together with the plans and loca-
tion of toilets shall be submitted to the State Board of
Health for approval.
4. Septic tanks for public buildings such as court
houses, jails, post offices, passenger stations, etc., in excess
of one thousand (1000) gallons shall be considered as
special problems and the location and plans of such in-
stallations shall be submitted to the State Board of Health
for approval.
Section III. Location.
A. Septic tanks and drainage lines from same shall
not be located under any building used as a residence.
B. Septic tanks and drain lines from same shall not
be located or installed within two (2) feet six (6) inches
of any building or bearing wall, foundation pier or
column.
C. The outlet of the house sewer shall be so ar-
ranged as to permit the invert of the house sewer to enter
the septic tank at a distance not exceeding twelve (12)
inches under the surface of the ground.
Section IV. Construction.
A. Tanks shall consist of two or more chambers sep-
arated by a partition wall and connected by overflow
pipes, wiers, or orifices properly located and of such size
and construction as to prevent undue velocities and carry-
ing a scum and sludge into the second chamber.
B. The inlet and outlet baffle, "T", or vented elbow
shall not extend more than thirteen (13) inches below
the water-line in tanks with an effective depth of thirty
(30) inches; nor more than eighteen (18) inches in tanks
of greater effective depth.
C. There shall be no openings in the partition wall
between the first and second chambers nearer than fifteen
(15) inches from the bottom of the first chamber, nor
shall the bottom of the "T" or elbow connection be nearer









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 85

than fifteen (15) inches from the bottom of the first
chamber.
D. A small vent above the flow line shall be placed
through all partition walls.
E. The liquid level in the first chamber shall be one
(1) inch lower than the invert of the inlet pipe.
F. All septic tanks shall be water, fly and mosquito
proof.
G. All septic tanks shall be covered by a removable
cover or manhole so placed in the top of the tank as to
give access for cleaning and to the inlet and outlet fit-
tings, provided that the tops of concrete tanks shall be
reinforced.
H. Septic tank installation involving the use of
siphons or other automatic dosing apparatus shall be re-
quired to have special approval by the State Board of
Health.
I. All septic tank manufacturers shall be assigned a
code number and such code number together with the
manufacturer's name and address shall be imprinted
upon the cover located over the inlet of each septic tank
manufactured for use in Florida. Manufacturers shall
further be required to file with the State Board of Health
the name, address and territory of each representative
selling or installing their septic tanks.

Section V. Absorption Beds.
Drainage and absorption beds for septic tanks shall
conform with the following:
A. Drains shall be of cement, vitrified or agricultural
tile, laid with one-quarter (1/4) inch openings between
the ends of pipe. Each joint shall be covered with sec-
tions of tar paper, not less than four inches by eight inches
(4"x8") previous to refilling the pipe trench.
B. The first two (2) feet of said drain line shall be
made water-tight.
C. Drain line shall be four (4) inches in diameter or
greater.
D. Absorption drains shall be laid not less than two
(2) feet apart, with inverts not more than eighteen (18)
inches deep in the ground.
E. The layout of the absorption beds shall be such
that the maximum grade for the drain lines shall not ex-









86 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ceed two (2) inches per one hundred (100) feet; pro-
vided all drains shall be laid to uniform grade.
F. The minimum drain line for any installation shall
be seventy-five (75) feet. The drain line shall be seven-
ty-five (75) feet in length for the first two hundred and
fifty (250) gallons tank capacity and an additional twen-
ty-five (25 feet for each one hundred (100) gallons in
excess of two hundred and fifty (250) gallons, tank ca-
pacity.
G. For installations in clay or other non-absorbent
soils, the drain lines shall be laid upon beds of porous
material in depth at least twelve (12) inches below the
invert of the drain.
H. There shall be no portion of any absorption beds
closer than twenty-five (25) feet in sandy soil, and fifty
(50) feet in coral formation to a well water supply.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC AND MANPOWER
STRENGTH
Sept., 1942, and Yet
Allies Axis
Population ......---...-... ---... --. 67. % 18.5%
Area -.... ....--...........-... .63.3 4.4
Iron ....................-.....-- 61.6 37.5
Copper .......- .... .......- ----72.1 11.9
Gold -----..- --78.9 4.1
Silver .. -.~.--- ---------- 42.5 7.8
Motor Cars ...----.... ---- ---- ----- .78.9 8.0
Cotton .............------- ....- 88.1 0.0
Wool ...... ............. -- - 66.2 6.8
W heat .. ..........- ..........--- --------- -71.3 6.4
Corn -....-.....--- ------- ----- -------------75.8 17.0
Live Stock ...... ...............------- 59.6 13.4
Hogs ...... .. ---............ ---.-31.4 18.5
Sheep ..........----------- ----- 51.6 11.9
Coal .-...... .........-------- --. 63.1 33.5
Rubber ...-............ --- -- --.-------10.0 90.0
Potatoes ..........----.------------------.. ..-----------.38.5 57.4
Petroleum-Present percentage indeterminate.
Remember that large areas of the earth are not in the war and
the above percentages apply to those which are officially at war.
Adequate maintenance and development of water-
ways and harbor facilities, as a link in the transportation
systems of the country, are of particular concern to the
South. Not only do the states from Maryland to Texas
handle a large part of the inland and coastwise water-
borne commerce of the nation, but one-quarter of the
country's total foreign trade passes through Southern
ports. Last year about 35 per cent of American exports
and 13 per cent of all imports were handled by South
Atlantic and Gulf ports.
Foreign trade through the South has shown an in-
crease for the past three years in succession. The total
for 1935 was $1,087,000,000 as compared with $985,000,-
000 in 1934, $885,000,000 in 1933 and $808,000,000 in
1932. Exports through the South were valued at $804,-
460,000 in 1935, a gain of $45,000,000, about 6 per cent,
over 1934, and imports were $282,571,000, a gain of $56,-
000,000, or nearly 25 per cent over the preceding year.
Some of the important commodities making up the
bulk of the country's sales abroad are chiefly the prod-
ucts of Southern factories, mines and farms. Included in
the major items of export are cotton $428,000,000; pe-
troleum $249,000,000; tobacco $143,000,000; coal $52,-









88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

000,000; wood and products $41,000,000; sulphur $7,-
000,000; phosphate $5,000,000; naval stores $16,000,-
000, and fertilizer $14,000,000.
With the South producing practically all of the coun-
try's cotton, 65 per cent of the domestic petroleum out-
put, 93 per cent of the tobacco, 41 per cent of the coal,
43 per cent of the lumber, 70 per cent of the fertilizer, all
of the sulphur and phosphate and naval stores and a
large proportion of many other raw and finished products
comprising the bulk of our sales to foreign countries, the
Southern States are vitally concerned in maintaining and
improving port facilities to adequately serve the nation's
trade-Manufacturers Record, Nov., 1936.










READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


FLORIDA STILL IMPORTS FOODS
Many Products Brought In Could Be Raised Here
By L. H. Lewis, Marketing Specialist,
State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla., Sept., 1943.

Kind of Product Imported Amount Value
Beef and Veal .---................-------- 53,591,600 Ibs. $6,740,010
Mutton and Lamb..----.... --..... --...... 10,620,000 lbs. 1,215,215
Pork .............. ..... ...... 77,000,000 lbs. 9,625,000
Lard ... ...--.........-......... 18,653,000 lbs. 1,678,770
Cheese -----.. --.....--.. ---- -- .--....... 7,948,750 lbs. 1,669,237
Butter .. . ...... ------ -... 31,508,608 Ibs. 9,767,668
Sweet Cream .... -. -....- ....... ........ 350,000 gal. 525,000
Evaporated and Canned Milk ........ 26,728,000 lbs. 3,073,700
Turkeys and Chickens --......-... 18,000,000 Ibs. 4,730,000
Corn - ......... ....- 9,000,000 bu. 6,500,000*
Hay ------... --..... ..- --- 250,000 tons 2,750,000

Total imports of above items represent .............----------$48,274,600

Florida has 1,273,000 head of cattle valued at approximately
$52,000,000. Florida producers have invested in cattle and equipment
and land about $165,000,000, of which about $40,000,000 is invested
in dairy cattle and equipment.
Florida ships from 10,000 to 15,000 stocker and feeder cattle to
other states annually.
Florida feeds from 10,000 to 15,000 head of cattle in her feed
lots; this includes short and long fed and does not include dairy cows
fed.
Florida producers sell from 280,000 to 350,000 head of cattle
and calves annually.
Opportunities in Florida for sales of cattle cover selling of
calves, stocker and feeder cattle, breeding stock, the production of
pure breds, the finishing of cattle on grass and in the feed lots in north
and west Florida; the finishing of cattle in the winter on grass in the
muck lands around Lake Okeechobee and south; and the finishing of
cattle on grass during the summer in all of the State.
As to marketing facilities, there are 20 or more meat packing
companies and abattoirs in the State, 18 livestock auction markets,
and about 6 cooperative sales organizations, as well as a number of
butcher and dealer buyers.
Climatic conditions are such as to make for long grazing season,
having well distributed rainfall, mild winters; with the smallest
amount of rain falling during the winter months, which makes for
low cost wintering.
The greatest need is to produce feed for the livestock grown in
the State. Some of the old feeds must be expanded or increased, or
new feed crops must be developed to properly finish the livestock
produced.
* This State needs equivalent of 30,000,000 bushels of corn or corn equivalent to
feed the present livestock in a good productive program, to say nothing of the
hay which should be about 500,000 tons.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PLANT IMMIGRANTS EAGERLY SOUGHT
By T. J. Brooks,
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture.
Many nations have ransacked the continents and the isles of the
sea in search of plant immigrants. As a result the largest crops of some
countries come from plant immigrants. The same is true of animals
but not in so marked a degree.
The centers of origin of cultivated plants are limited to a few
areas of the earth. But it is at these centers that we find the great-
est varieties of each species. From these places the plants spread
naturally, and by man, over the entire globe where plants thrive.
However, each fruit and vegetable has been found to thrive in other
parts of the world than the point of origin. This is illustrated by
the Irish potato, which is a native of South America, but it thrived
so well in Ireland that it took on the name by which it is known
throughout the world.
The distribution of plants and animals over the world has made
it possible for the human race to be distributed also. Were all plants
and animals restricted to their indigenous countries it would neces-
sitate the redistribution of the inhabitants of all countries. Some
would not be habitable at all which are now densely populated.
Florida's leading crops are fruits and vegetables which are im-
migrant species of the vegetable kingdom. To illustrate this point
the following Florida crops came from the countries mentioned:
From Southeastern Asia-Citrus, mango, banana, yam.
From East Central Asia-Oats, millet, cabbage, tung tree.
From Western Asia-Carrots, melon, certain grapes, onion.
From Southern Asia-Rice, sorghum, sugarcane, eggplant, cu-
cumber, ramie.
From the Levant-Lands bordering the Mediterranean sea-
Turnip, certain peas, fig, celery, asparagus, beet, lettuce, pepper,
cauliflower.
From South America-Irish potato, cassava, peanut, tomato.
From tropical America-Papaya, avocado, pineapple, chayota,
cocoa, vanilla.
From various parts of the United States-Corn, tobacco, beans,
pumpkins.
Some native crops-Guavas, blueberries, pecans, sugar apple,
wild grape.








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


TIME DIFFERENCE
Twelve O'Clock Noon United States Standard Eastern Time as
Compared with the Clocks in the Following Cities
of the United States


Atlanta, Ga ..--...---..11:00 a.m.
Baltimore, Md ... ..-- 12:00 noon
Birmingham, Ala..... 11:00 a.m.
Boston, Mass...-......- 12:00 noon
Buffalo, N. Y ....... 12:00 noon
Charleston, S. C....-..12:00 noon
Chicago, Ill........-.11:00 a.m.
Cincinnati, Ohio-.. 12:00 noon
Cleveland, Ohio..-....12:00 noon
Dallas, Tex.....--.....--11:00 a.m.
Denver, Colo. -....10:00 a.m.
Detroit, Mich.. -.. ....12:00 noon
El Paso, Tex .......---. 10:00 a.m.
Galveston, Tex.....-.. 11:00 a.m.
Indianapolis, Ind.... 11:00 a.m.
Kansas City, Mo...... 11:00 a.m.
Los Angeles, Calif.--. 9:00 a.m.
Louisville, Ky .........11:00 a.m.


Memphis, Tenn.... 11:00 a.m.
Milwaukee, Wis...... 11:00 a.m.
Minneapolis, Minn...--11:00 a.m.
Nashville, Tenn...-....11:00 a.m.
New Orleans, La...-...11:00 a.m.
New York City.... 12:00 noon
Norfolk, Va......-...----12:00 noon
Omaha, Neb......... ...11:00 a.m.
Philadelphia, Pa... ...12:00 noon
Pittsburgh, Pa....-....- 12:00 noon
Richmond, Va.........-12:00 noon
Salt Lake City, Utah 10:00 a.m.
San Francisco, Calif. 9:00 a.m.
Savannah, Ga. ..--.....12:00 noon
Seattle, Wash..--..... 9:00 a.m.
St. Louis, Mo.....-.....11:00 a.m.
Toledo, Ohio.......-----..12:00 noon
Washington, D. C.....12:00 noon


VITAMINS AND NUTRITION IN THE HOME
Scientists tell us there are four principal vitamins, A,
B, C, D, that are directly concerned with the proper
growth, skeletal development and general physical well-
being of our bodies.
Vitamin A, the growth vitamin, is found in butter, egg
yolk, milk, liver, various other foods and cod liver oil.
Vitamin B has its chief source in whole grain products;
oranges and tomatoes are an excellent source of Vitamin
C, while some of the other fresh fruits and vegetables
also contain large amounts. Vitamin D is found in sun-
shine and also in butter, egg yolk and cod liver oil.
Vitamin A is perhaps the most important of the group
because it is essential for the proper growth and develop-
ment. It aids in building up resistance to colds and other
infections.
Cod liver oil contains much vitamin A, but one of the
most pleasant ways to get our supply is in our daily food,
suggests Miss Ada Lockhart of the National Dairy Coun-
cil.








92 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

It is a simple matter to include vitamin A each day.
Many of our recipes call for milk, butter and eggs-three
important sources. If we follow the advice of nutrition-
ists and include in our daily diet fruits, fresh vegetables,
milk, butter and an egg a day or three times a week, we
may be certain we are getting that important vitamin.
The necessary precaution is to have enough of these basic
foods. Use one quart of milk for children under fourteen
and at least a pint for adults. Whole grain cereal for
breakfast and at least some of the bread made from
whole grain; fruit at least once; two vegetables beside
potatoes, one of them raw; and two ounces of butter per
capital per day is recommended.
"The child whose parents will allow him to play with
his food at the table, to refuse spinach, green beans, or-
ange juice, milk and some of the other essentials in the
well-rounded diet, is being harmed in two ways. Not only
is the health question involved, which the absence of
these elements in the diet all through life, means, but
there is also the mental or social risk," warns Miss
Gabriel.
"The child who is pampered and who develops pecu-
liar taste, likes and desires, is apt to become a misfit in
sccety in more ways than one. A little wholesome dis-
cipline of the right kind, positive firmness instead of nag-
ging, and above all, the parent's own appreciation of
nourishing foods, is most important during this pre-school
time."
"Milk as the source of calcium, the real foundation
for tooth building, and the importance of a quart of it
every day, especially for prospective mothers, is a big
truth we have learned about tooth architecture. The
ability to enjoy fresh, green vegetables the year round
in the present market season is also responsible for an
improvement in the soundness of our teeth."
"Dr. Thurman Rice of the Indiana University School
of Medicine tells of the breakfast which he feels is suit-
able for school children and which contained all those
qualities for health. I think it is the breakfast which is
worthy of broadcasting to every American home:
"Orange or other fresh fruit, buttered toast, cereal
with milk or cream, cocoa made with milk, bacon or an
egg, an attractive dining room, a smile from Dad or
Mother."







READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 93


AMOUNT OF PAINT REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN
SURFACE
It is impossible to give a rule that will apply in all
cases, as the amount varies with the kind and the thick-
ness of the paint, the kind of wood or other material to
which it is applied, the age of the surface, etc. The fol-
lowing is an approximate rule: Divide the number of
square feet of surface by 200. The result will be the num-
ber of gallons or liquid paint required to give two coats;
or divide by 13 and the result will be the number of
pounds of pure ground white lead required to give three
coats.

BUILDING WHITE WASH
Slake one-half barrel of fresh lime with boiling water,
covering it to keep in the steam.
Strain liquid through a fine sieve and add seven
pounds of fine salt, previously dissolved in warm water;
three pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin paste and
stirred in boiling hot; one-half pound bolted gilders whit-
ing; one pound of white glue which should first soak in
cold water until swollen up, then melt over a slow fire,
avoiding burning it. Add five gallons of hot water to the
mixture, stir it well and let it stand a few days covered
up. When ready to use the wash make it boiling hot,
which can be done over the kitchen stove or a portable
furnace. A pint will cover nearly a square yard. It is a
very white and durable wash for outside work. It is
almost equal to good paint.


REMOVING GREASE SPOTS FROM SHOES
Grease spots on shoes, especially tan shoes, are very
hard to remove, and when gasoline or other cleaning
fluids are used a conspicuous light spot with a ring around
it is often left. A better method, which will be found en-
tirely satisfactory, is the application of ordinary rubber
cement, which is customarily used for patching inner
tubes. Put a thick drop of cement on the grease spot and
rub it down evenly with your finger, tapering it to a thin
edge. After it has thoroughly dried, rub it off and repeat
the process until the spot has disappeared. This method
leaves no ring or light spot.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TO REMOVE MILDEW FROM CLOTH
Put a teaspoonful of chloride of lime into a quart of
water, strain it twice, then dip the mildewed places in
this weak solution; lay in the sun. If the mildew has not
disappeared when dry, repeat.


THE MOON
The mean distance of the moon, our nearest celestial
neighbor, is 238,862 miles, though it may approach us as
near as 221,466 miles, and it may recede as far as 252,715
miles. Its diameter is 2,160 miles. It would take 49
moons to make a body as large as the earth. A body
weighing 150 pounds on the earth would weigh only 25
pounds on the moon. The moon always keeps the same
side towards us. No one ever saw the other side of the
moon.
The moon has no atmosphere, no water, no fire, no
animal life and no vegetable life. It is a dead world. It
has a day two weeks long with intense sunshine, and a
night of two weeks with intense cold. Its surface is very
rough and mountainous with many extinct volcanoes,
some of which are five miles high and more than fifty
miles across. The telescope shows huge cracks in the
surface many miles long. It is a dark body with no light
of its own. Its light is reflected from the sun.
The moon has no appreciable effect upon animal or
vegetable life, nor does it affect the weather in any way.


CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS
The year 1935 of the Christian Era comprises the lat-
ter part of the 159th and the beginning of the 160th year
of the independence of the United States of America, and
corresponds to the year 6648 of the Julian period.
January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar, corresponds to
January 14, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 7444 of the Byzantine era began on Septem-
ber 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.
The year 5696 of the Jewish era began at Sunset on
September 27, 1935, Gregorian Calendar.
The year 2688 since the founding of Rome, according
to Varro, began on January 1, 1935, Julian Calendar.









READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS


The year 2684 of the era of Nabonassar began on
April 27, 1935, Julian Carlendar.
The year 2595 of the Japanese era, being the 10th
year of the period Showa, began on January 1, 1935,
Gregorian Calendar.
The year 2247 of the Grecian era, or era of the Seleu-
cidae, began in the present day usage of the Syrians on
September 1, 1935, or on October 1, 1935, Julian Calen-
dar, according to different sects; but in the ancient usage
of Damascus and Arabia Petraea the year began with the
vernal equinox.
The year 1652 of the era of Diocletian began on Au-
gust 30, 1934, Julian Calendar.
The year 1354 of the Mohammedan era, or era of the
Hegira, began at sunset on April 4, 1935, Gregorian
Calendar.
2,427,804 is the Julian day number of January 1,
1935, Gregorian Calendar.


CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS


Name
Grecian Mundane Era-..............
Civil Era of Constantinople ........
Alexandrian Era.....---------.. -------
Julian Period..... .........--------- .
Mundane Era...........---.......
Jewish Mundane Era ......--
Era of Abraham .......---. ---
Era of the Olympiads.. --.....--------
Roman Era (A. U. C.) --....-.....
Era of Metonic Cycle. ......---------.-
Grecian or Syro-Macedonian Era.
Era of Maccabees -...-..-...-..-.
Tyrian Era --. .........
Sidonian Era.------------
Julian Era -..-----.-.. -...... -----
Spanish Era ............ --. ...
Augustan Era ......-------
Christian Era.................... .
Destruction of Jerusalem ...------
Mohammedan Era................ ----


Began
.B. C. 5598, Sept. 1
.......-- B. C. 5508, Sept. 1
.---B. C. 5502, Aug. 29
...---.....- B. C. 4713, Jan. 1
...-B. C. 4008, Oct. 1
- -.....- .. B. C. 3761, Oct. 1
.- B. C. 2015, Oct. 1
-......-.. B. C. 776, July 1
-..-...--B. C. 753, Apr. 24
.......-- B. C. 432, July 15
...-- B. C. 312, Sept. 1
..--- B. C. 166, Nov. 24
.---..... B. C. 125, Oct. 19
-........B. C. 110, Oct. 1
.--.....B. C. 45, Jan. 1
.----.....B. C. 38, Jan. 1
...----..B. C. 27, Feb. 14
......A.---. D. 1, Jan. 1
..--- ..A. D. 69, Sept. 1
.---.....A. D. 622, July 16


The year 1931 corresponds to the year 7539-40 of the
Byzantine era; 5691-92 of the Jewish era, the year 5692
commencing at sunset September 11; 2684 since the foun-
dation of Rome, according to Varro; 2707 of the Olym-
piad or the third year of the 677th Olympiad, commenc-
ing July 1, 2591, of the Japanese era, and to the sixth








96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

year of the period entitled Showa; 1349-50 of the Mo-
hammedan era, the year 1350 beginning at sunset May 18.
The 156th year of the independence of the U. S.
begins on July 4, 1931.


THE ANCIENT AND MODERN YEAR
The Athenians began the year in June, the Macedo-
nians in September, the Romans first in March and after-
ward in January, the Afghans and Persians on March 21
(beginning of Spring) ; the ancient Mexicans on February
23, the Mohammedans in July.



THE CHINESE YEAR
The Nationalist Government in China decreed that
the Gregorian Calendar should go into effect on January
1, 1929; but owing to internal conditions, its practical
enforcement has been limited to the great ports and to
official activities and agencies.
The old Chinese year began late in January or early in
February and was similar to the Mohammedan, in having
12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately; but in every 19
years there were 7 years, each of which had 13 months.
This did not work out quite right, so the years were ar-
ranged in 60-year cycles with 22 extra months distributed
through each cycle.
Each year of the old years in China had an animal for
its symbol. There are 12 of these animals, coinciding in
number and order with the signs of the Zodiac.
Symbolic Zodiac Symbolic Zodiac
Year Animal Sign Year Animal Sign
1928 Dragon (Shan) Leo 1934 Dog (Hsu) Aquarius
1929 Serpent (Ssu) Virgo 1935 Boar (Hai) Pisces
1930 Horse (Wu) Libra 1936 Rat (Tzu) Aries
1931 Sheep (Wei) Scorpio 1937 Ox (Chou) Taurus
1932 Monkey (Shan) Sagittarius 1938 Tiger (Yin) Gemini
1933 Cock (Yu) Capricornus 1939 Hare (Mao) Cancer
This 12-year animal-cycle of year has persisted in
China and also in Japan. The superstitious oriental be-
lieved each of the animals named rules events in its cor-
responding year.








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 97

THE FIRST RECORD OF CHRISTIAN ERA
"Why did not 'Anno Domini,' of the Christian Era,
begin at the Birth of Christ?"
Luke declares that Jesus "began to be about 30 years
of age at the time of His ministry."-Luke 3:23. But ac-
cording to the Christian Era now (A.D.), He was bap-
tized of John A. D. 27, and at once began His ministry.
The intention was to mark the time from His birth;
but the first record of the use of the Christian Era was by
a Scythian by birth, but a Roman abbot, who flourished in
the reign of Justinian. His name was Dionysius Exigiuus,
and he was the inventor of the Christian Era. He marked
that date A. D. 532; and at the same time, marked the
year of the founding of Rome A. U. C. 753. A. U. C. are
the initials of "Ab Urbe Condita," Latin to designate the
year since the founding of Rome, just as A. D. is the ab-
breviation for "Anno Domini," or the Year of Our Lord.
This abbot fixed the time with reference to Herod, be-
lieving that Christ was born after the death of Herod, in
which he made a mistake of history; for Christ was born
during the reign of Herod. It was known that Herod died
in April A. U. C. 750 of the founding of Rome, whereas,
by close observation, it will be seen that he should have
marked Christ's birth U. C. or A. U. C. the latter part of
749, which leaves an error between the date of His actual
birth and the present marking of the Christian Era, of
between three and four years. Therefore, Christ was
thirty years of age in A. D. 27, as stated by St. Luke.
Authority-The vulgar (meaning common) era
(Christian), began to prevail in the West about the time
of Charles Martel (Karl the Hammer) and Pope Gregory
the Second, A. D. 730, but was not sanctioned by public
act until the first German synod in the time of Carola-
mannus, Duke of the Franks, which, in the preface was
said to be assembled "Anno ad incarnatione Dom. 742,
11 Calendas Maii." But it was not established definitely
until the time of Pope Eugenius IV, A. D. 1431, who or-
dered this Era to be used in the public registers, accord-
ing to Mariana and others.-"Hales' Chronology, Vol. 1,
pp. 83, 84; see also 'Life of Jesus,' by S. J. Andrews; see
also 'Daniel, The Responsive History to the Voice of
Prophecy,' by Uriah Smith."








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Quite a Different Question
Now, the belief was so universal, when the error of
history was discovered, it could scarcely be changed, and,
hence, it became the common acceptance; however, in
calculating time of so many years before Christ and so
many years after Christ, it makes no difference, because
three or four years are taken from one era and added to
the other. The result of the sum would be the same; but
when it is stated that 1914 marks the "exact number of
years of the Christian Era, or from the Birth of Christ,"
it is quite a different question.
Origin of Christmas
Under different names, Christmas was celebrated by
the pagans of ancient Rome for centuries before the birth
of Christ. Christmas as we know it today is simply a re-
birth in religious dress of this old pagan festival. Original-
ly called the "Feast of the Unconquered Sun," the festival
celebrated the solstice, December 21, which is the short-
est day of the year and the astronomical signal of ap-
proaching Spring. After the birth of Christ, approxi-
mately in the year 1, the Church of Rome waited 336
years before proclaiming December 25 as the birthday of
Christ. Nearly 100 years later the Christmas idea began
to take hold and it has flourished through the centuries
until today it is the most widely observed feast day on
the calendar.
Santa Claus
Santa Claus is the great American success story. He
was introduced to this country wearing the robes of a
bishop and riding a white horse. As America grew, the
Santa Claus legend grew proportionately. Soon he began
to look like Father Knickerbocker and toward the latter
part of the nineteenth century, given a sleigh and rein-
deer, he evolved into the twinkly-eyed, snowy-bearded
old gentleman with the red, ermine-trimmed coat whom
we see in the department stores at Christmastime. Today
Santa Claus stands for a billion-dollar industry.
Mistletoe
The practice of hanging mistletoe over the doorways
of homes at Christmastime is the survival of an old Scan-
dinavian custom by which mistletoe was regarded as so
sacred that enemy warriors would not hesitate to throw








READY REFERENCE FOR FARMERS 99

down their arms in its presence and maintain a truce.
Thus grew the practice of kissing under the mistletoe at
Christmas as a symbol of peace and good fellowship.
Tradition says that one berry should be plucked from the
mistletoe after each kiss.

Christmas Tree
Martin Luther, founder of the Lutheran church and
an apostate priest of the Catholic church, was the origi-
nator of the custom of decorating the home with small
trees at Christmastime.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


DIMENSIONS OF THE WORLD


Equatorial diameter ..--....-.....
Polar diameter ------.. ---------
Difference ..........-----.. .--- .----.-.
Mean diameter .-.... -----.... .
Equatorial circumference ----.-
Meridional circumference --
Difference ...............-.....- --
Area of surface ------- -..
W ater area ..--....... -------------
Land area .--.. ----........ -.... -----
Volume of land ...----...
Volume of water ----------.-..------


...-.-..- ..-. ... 7,926.68
-------. 7,899.99
--..-....-.... 26.69
------- 7,918.00
.---.--------. 24,902.37
.--- .--- .. --.. 24,860.44
---.. .- ....- .. 41.83
...-.... 196,950,284 square
-..-..-... 139,950,284 square
.....--..... 57,000,000 square
.....-.. 29,300,000 cubic
...-.....320,000,000 cubic


Continent


miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles
miles


Area Square Miles


Africa .--..... ---.....-.... ----..-....... 11,500,000
Asia ... ------........ ------------ ... 17,000,000
Europe ..------------------------....... 3,750,000
North America ----.....----....---.-......-----------.. 8,000,000
Oceania ........-.................--- --.. 4,000,000
Polar Regions --.... --.. - --........--------- 6,205,000
South America .....--------.. .......----- .. 6,800,000

Seas Area Square Miles
Andaman .......... .........------------- 300,000
Baltic --.........--.-----..------------ 160,000
Hudson Bay ---....------............ ----------472,000
Japan ...........---------------------.. 405,000
North ..----..... ---------- -.............------. 220,000
Okhotsk ----.-........... -------------- ---- 580,000
Red .......................--------------- 178,000
Yellow --...............----------- -.-... 430,000


Oceans
Atlantic ----.
Indian ---
Pacific .... .


Area Square Miles
-........ ............ ... 41,321,000
-.............--------.. 29,340,000
.........-....--- .........68,634,000




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