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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Growing annual flowers
 Annual flowering plants for special...
 Herbaceous perennials
 Rose growing














Group Title: Bulletin, New series
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014602/00001
 Material Information
Title: Flowers for Florida homes
Series Title: Bulletin, New series
Physical Description: 100 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1949
Copyright Date: 1949
Edition: Rev.
 Subjects
Subject: Flowers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August, 1949".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014602
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7077
ltuf - AMT2427
oclc - 44572954
alephbibnum - 002566146

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Growing annual flowers
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Annual flowering plants for special uses
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Herbaceous perennials
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
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        Page 60
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        Page 63
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        Page 67
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        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Rose growing
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
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        Page 88
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        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text



Bulletin 59


New Series


August, 1949


FLOWERS

FOR FLORIDA HOMES
(Revised)
By JOHN V. WATKINS

S








(Reprint)


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee
LUNIVERSlTO F FLORIDA LIBRARIES

THE E. O. PAINTER PRINTING CO., DELAND, FLA.-13543


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INDEX
Page
Introduction .--..-.....--- -- ----------...........................---...........- 3

Growing Annual Flowers ..--..-------.--................................... 3
Securing Seeds -.......--. ---. .....--........................ ..... 4
Sowing the Seeds -----.........-------------.... ....--................... 5
Annuals From Cuttings -------......................................- 8
Culture of Annuals -- -----...................... .................... 8
Cultivation --....-........------- ............. ....- .............- ....----- ... 8
Spraying ..-..... ---...---...---.............----..... ............--...- ...... 9

Annual Flowering Plants for Special Uses ........----.........-- .. 10
Varieties and Species -----..-.. ------- --..................... ..- ....... 13

Herbaceous Perennials --......--...-...........----- ..-- ....--------- .. 45
How To Use Them ..-....--..-....--.............-......................... 45
Propagation ................-....--- --..................... --............... 45
Culture --....-- ....--... .........--- ... ...--...-..- .......-......-- ... 48
Species and Varieties --......----.. .................................. 49

Rose Growing .......-... ---.. .......................... .................... 78
Roses for Cutting ...-..-......-----....................--......... .... 78
Climbing Roses ----..... --...............---....--.............. .. 93
Watering -................---------------..............--- .......... 96
Pruning ........----------.....---.................. --...--.......... 97
Commercial Growing ..-----... ----...... ......-----......... ..... 98
Summarized Suggestions -----.........-... --..---........... ....... 99









Introduction

Florida has the largest and most varied plant life of any state in
the nation. Many beautiful exotic plants thrive in our oceanic climate,
which is characterized by heavy rainfall, high humidity, comparatively
mild winters and predominately acid soils. From foreign lands the
world around, plant hunters have introduced some of the most beautiful
plants known to horticulture and many of these become dependable com-
ponents of our home ground plantings. In Florida, gardening is a twelve
months job, and we are fortunate that a long 14st of native and exotic
plants may be grouped together to assure satisfying, though changing,
compositions every month in the year.
Science has contributed much to the art of gardening through plant
breeding. Annuals, perennials and roses available today are a far
cry from those of grandmother's garden. Sze has been increased,
new, bright, cear colors have been introduced, the plants are more vig-
orous and resistant to diseases and, apparently their ability to tolerate
adverse conditions has been much improved.
Many aids have been developed during recent years that make
gardening less laborious and much more of a certainty. War-born
chemicals are seen to have great potentialities in reducing the ravages
of insects and losses by disease. Soil fumigants, eficacious in con-
trolling the root-knot nematode, weeds and disease will undoubtedly be
much less expensive in the future. Hormone-like and chemical weed
killers are great aids in lawn making and post-war power mowers
have taken the drudgery out of lawn maintenance.
The faot that it is possible to establish gardens quickly and main-
tain them in attractive condition the year around makes a lasting im-
pression upon first-time visitors. Permanent residents are conscious
of the value of beautiful settings for their homes and they consider
well spent, the time and effort that they expend in gardening. Many
expert hobby-gardeners in all sections of our state have developed skill
in growing specialized groups of plants.
Trees for framing and background, a lawn for foreground, base
plantings to relate the house harmoniously with the ground, and annuals,
perennials and roses for seasonal color and for cutting will all contribute
immeasurably to the attractiveness of our homes.



GROWING ANNUAL FLOWERS
Annuals are especially valuable in Florida, as many of them are
in bloom during winter months, contributing splendidly toward a colorful
garden and producing endless blossoms for cutting.
Other more tender annual species are depended upon to give us








4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

flowers during the trying months of June, July, August, and September,
persistently blooming through the heat and heavy rains that come
during summertime.
One may literally have a colorful garden and cut flowers every
month in the year by judiciously selecting varieties and planting seeds
at intervals to give a succession of plants for bedding.
Annual plants may be roughly divided into two groups as to sea-
sonal adaptation. First, and possibly most important, are those hardy,
frost resisting, cool-weather plants, the seeds of which are sown in
autumn, that they may take advantage of the temperate climate of the
months of November to May.

Second are those tender, heat-tolerant, pest-resistant plants that
defy the high temperatures, heavy rains and numberless garden pests
of summer. Seeds of this second tender group are best planted in the
months of February through August in those portions of the state that
experience freezing temperatures, but in frost-free areas they are
planted at any time of the year.
The uses of annuals are endless. The variety of colors, the dif-
ferences in height and habit of growth, the ways in which they lend
themselves to effective flower arrangements, account in part for the
tremendous popularity of this group of blooming plants. Indeed it
is a drab garden that does not display annuals as edgings, as bold but
incidental color masses in shrubbery bays or in the bright striking
borders that are so essential in our modern gardens.
Although the permanent woody shrubs are always to be preferred
for foundation plantings about buildings, and to enclose the garden,
sometimes a temporary planting is desirable and then the annuals,
especially the tall growing sorts, will serve the purpose admirably.
As window box materials and porch plants, annuals are indis-
pensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a sunny
piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy, pest-resistant
annuals whose seeds may be sown broadcast and forgotten. Many of
our flowers such as annual phlox, annual blanket flower, periwinkle,
coreopsis, and petunia can be used in this manner; they will volunteer
each year, supplying endless numbers of colorful blossoms with the
least possible care.

SECURING SEEDS

It is an established fact among successful growers that the best
seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of course
there is no best source or seed house, but an old reliable concern
that has a big turn-over, that buys large quantities of seeds from






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 5


established producers, can be depended upon to distribute fresh seeds
of excellent quality. In many cases, experienced flower growers buy
seeds direct from the specialist who produces them and who has spent
years of careful work and study developing good strains. Fresh seeds
from true-to-name, robust parents contribute in a large way toward a
successful garden of annuals.
Most novice gardeners think that they will get the widest range
of colors and most interesting forms if they plant packets of mixed
seeds, those bargain mixtures that appear at the end of each listing
in their seed catalogs. It is true that there is a color range, but these
colors are so often inferior, size is sacrificed and the plants may not
be robust growers. After long experience, it is the firm conviction of
this gardener that the most expensive seeds sold by separate colors will
produce the best flowers.

Seedsmen publish impressive descriptions of their novelties each
year, and as these annuals have won places in the All America Trials
they deserve the prominence that they are given in the seed catalogs.
You are urged to try a packet or so of new varieties that seem especially
attractive. It should be borne in mind that perhaps these new annuals
have not been tried in your section, and they may not be adapted to
your local conditions. On the other hand, almost any annual will grow in
Florida if it is fitted into the season that fills its needs, and, therefore,
success should attend your trial of most novelties. Our gardens would
certainly be commonplace if no one ever tried the newer annuals and
it can be said that the standbys of today were the novelties of yes-
terday.
When you buy started seedlings from your florist or nurseryman
they are usually from mixed packets of bulk seeds, so you cannot ex-
pect to grow the choicest prize winning annuals unless you sow top
quality seeds yourself.


SOWING THE SEEDS

To get a good stand of seedlings and to protect them from the dread
disease, damping-off, requires planning and careful management.
During August, September and October when most annuals are planted,
the warm weather is very favorable to the growth of damping-off
organisms and one may lose a considerable portion of his seedlings.
Sowing seeds in flats is preferable to open ground planting
because conditions may be more easily controlled.. -A flat is.a:.shal-
low box of any convenient size that has plenty of drainage holes, or
cracks in the bottom. to allow water' to -pass freely! out of. the: ,oni-
post. Thorough drainage is important as young garden .plants :cannot
grow in a water-logged soil. In the bottom.' of .the flat-should .'be
placed a layer of pine straw, fallen leaves, dead grass clipping.s Oi








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


other coarse material so that soil will not wash through the drainage
holes.
The earth used in seed flats may be any fertile mixture that has
a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such as oow manure,
oak leaves or peat. If a compost' pile can be laid up with alternating
layers of hammock soil, and one of the materials listed above, an excel-
lent compost should be the result. Earth taken from a heavily wooded
area should be comparatively free of root-knot.
Pasteurization of soil for seedling flats is highly recommended.
Moist soil cooked at about 160 degrees for a couple of hours should be
free of damping-off, root-knot and most weed seeds. If pasteurization
by heat is not feasible, the soil may be treated with formalin or one of
the soil-fumigants obtainable at your seed store.
Several organic materials prescribed for the control of damping-
off are also for sale at your seedstore. Semesan, Spergon, Fermate,
Karba-m and others, when mixed in water and used exactly as di-
rected, should prevent damping-off, arrest its development if it has
started in your seedlings.
Within recent years several novel substances have been introduced
as media for germinating seeds. With these, chemical damping-off
controls should not be needed. Sphagnum moss is one of the best of
these because of its high water-holding capacity, excellent aeration and
freedom from damping-off. The usual soil mixture is filled in to about
half the depth of the flat; over this is screened a one-inch blanket of
sphagnum moss. After this is soaked, the seeds are sewn and -then
they are covered with an additional half-inch of the screened moss.
Because harmful fungi do not grow well in this spongy medium, garden
seedlings will usually be quite free of damping-off.
Supplementary feeding is recommended if seedlings are left in
the sphagnum moss medium for several weeks. Simply mix an ounce
or so of your favorite balanced fertilizer in a gallon of water and
sprinkle this between the rows just as the seedlings begin to look
yellow and stunted.
As sphagnum moss is native to Florida it may be gathered along
drainage ditches in flatwoods areas and on the low mucky shores of
cypress ponds.
Another remarkably useful medium for germinating seeds is
vermiculite. This is a form of mica that is expanded at very high
temperatures to make a flaky, granular substance that is sterile,
retentive of moisture yet well aerated and very pleasant to handle.
Vermiculite may be used in the method described above for sphagnum
moss, but it must be allowed to remain loose and fluffy. If vermicu-
lite is packed, good aeration is sacrificed and proper drainage is
impaired.






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 7

Vermiculite may be purchased from your seedman or hardware
dealer.

Firm the soil to within half an inch of the top with a block of
wood and flood with water. After the liquid has drained through,
sift the seeds on the wet surface. Some growers broadcast the seeds,
others like to drill them in neat rows. Cover lightly by sifting sand,
sandy-loam or peat through a screen over the seeds. Covering seeds
too deeply is a common error. Generally speaking, if the seeds be
just barely hidden, good results may be expected. The final operation
is to cover the flat with a pane of glass or a moist newspaper. The
latter is preferred by many growers because water flooded in on top
of the paper will seep through gently and evenly to soak all of the soil
in the flat yet the seeds cannot be washed out. In any case, the wet
newspaper or the pane of glass must be removed as soon as the seeds
commence to germinate or the seedlings will be leggy and misshapen.
Place the flats on boxes or benches that are protected from ants, and
during the warm weather of early autumn select the coolest possible'
location. The north side of a building, under a tree or an open shed
should do nicely.

After germination, the flats must be placed where the seedlings can
get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade, the seedlings
will grow into weak, leggy plants. A muslin shade, such as is used for
celery or tobacco seed-beds, allows sufficient light to penetrate to the
young plants. Shortly after germination, the flats may receive an
application of a compound for the control of damping-off. Water
should be carefully applied through a fine spray.

When the seedlings show about four true leaves, they may be
transplanted to well prepared beds where they are to bloom. Choose
a cool, cloudy afternoon for transplanting if it is at all possible, and
set the plants about 12 to 18 inches apart. Close planting is desirable to
assure bold color masses. Great care should be exercised in watering
the young plants until they are well established. Over-watering can
be as harmful as under-watering.

Annuals which have very large seeds and those which do not
transplant readily are planted in the open ground where they are to
bloom, much the same as vegetables are handled. Sow the seeds
thinly in shallow drills or trenches. Cover lightly with soil and sprinkle
with a damping-off control. The drills or rows may be covered with
wet strips of burlap. If this material is used, water will not wash the
seeds out of the soil, and the earth stays uniformly moist. If ants are
abundant, DDT or rotenone or chlordane dust should be sprinkled
liberally along the rows. As soon as the seeds germinate, the burlap
must be removed, and a second application of the damping-off control
may be made if necessary. When the plants are well established, thin
so that they stand about 12 to 18 inches apart.







8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ANNUALS FROM CUTTINGS
Although the majority of annuals are grown from seeds, it is
sometimes desirable to propagate a particularly fine individual by
cuttings. Tip cuttings about 3 inches long inserted in clean, coarse
sand should root in two or three weeks. A box with plenty of drainage
holes may be used to contain the sand. The sand should be kept moist,
the cuttings protected from sun, wind or cold. When the roots are an
inch or so in length the cuttings may be potted up or planted where
they are to bloom. Some annuals that will grow readily from cuttings
are carnations, chrysanthemums (annual), petunias, pinks, snap-
dragons, torenias and verbenas.

CULTURE OF ANNUALS

Special preparation of the soil is usually necessary if thrifty
plants which produce large numbers of flowers of good substance are
expected. If the native soil be light, sandy and low in organic matter,
it should be built up by using good quantities of rotted manure, rotted
leaves, hammock soil, or peat moss. If the soil, on the other hand,
is low and subject to flooding, adequate drainage should be provided.
Beds raised about 12 inches with ditches between them should be
satisfactory for annuals. Much evidence points to the value of mulch-
ing and after the plants are set where they are to bloom, a blanket of
peat moss, rotted manure or oak leaves will preserve the moisture, keep
the roots cool, and discourage weed growth.
After the plants have been growing in their permanent positions
for about six weeks and are well established, a schedule of regular
feeding may be started. A balanced vegetable or lawn and garden
fertilizer which contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potash together
with traces of the minor elements should be used to insure robust plants
and an abundance of blooms. A light sprinkling of this balanced fer-
tilizer every two or three weeks is much preferred over heavier feedings
at greater intervals. If annuals are growing under a mulch of leaves,
the fertilizer can be sprinkled on top and watered in; if you are using
a hoe for clean cultivation, the fertilizer should be lightly hoed in,
followed by ample irrigation. Ordinarily annuals are not fed in punch-
bar holes as are trees and large shrubs.

CULTIVATION

While most authorities \insist that annuals will grow best under
a mulch of leaves or compost, most gardeners prefer clean cultivation
for this group of plants. Annuals grown in drifts in front of shrub-
bery for garden decoration are usually set quite close together so
that an over-all effect of solid color results. A long handled scuffle
hoe is the best tool for stirring the ground between the closely set
plants. When annuals are grown in straight rows, the middles may






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 9


be kept free of weeds and grass most efficiently with a garden plow.
However, if the garden is not large enough to justify this implement,
a scuffle hoe will do an excellent job. The old-fashioned goose-
neck garden hoe is a poor third choice, yet many gardeners still employ
this ancient chopping tool. A blade that cuts no deeper than an inch
or so will not injure the root systems to any great extent.

Frequent cultivation is indicated while the plants are small and
during the warm weather of springtime. When the plants touch to
shade the ground, cultivation is discontinued.
Choose a clear afternoon to work in your garden of annuals so
that the bright sun and the wind will assure prompt desiccation of the
weeds as they are turned out of the earth.


SPRAYING

It has been said that it is possible to grow almost any garden
annual in Florida provided that it is fitted into the season that
fulfills its needs. While we are fortunate in being able to grow many
annuals to perfection, our climate is favorable to the rapid develop-
ment of many virulent diseases and noxious insects. Because of the
prevalence of garden ills it is necessary for Florida gardeners to
protect their charges constantly with effective fungicides and lethal
insecticides.
Formerly, either copper or sulphur was the standard element for
the control of leaf-diseases, latterly, however, several war-born chem-
icals have come into prominence as effective fungicides. Ferric dimethyl
dithiocarbamate sold under the trade names Fermate and Karbam is
highly effective against leaf spotting diseases when it is used exactly
according to directions. Dithane and Phygon have many uses too. The
new compounds are frequently combined with other fungicides such as
wettable sulphur and with insecticides like DDT, rotenone, or pyre-
thrum to be sold as one-shot, all-purpose sprays.
Insofar as insecticides are concerned, DDT, the most spectacular
and widely publicized, is already quite widely employed. As noted
above, it is frequently mixed with other chemicals. It must be remem-
bered that DDT is not recommended for aphids. For these and some
other sucking insects, nicotine, pyrethrum or rotenone are for sale
in ready-mixed formulas as sprays or dusts. For chewers, arsenate
of lead is still often used with hydrated lime as a dust or in a spray
with a sticker such as calcium caseinate. Research now in progress
will undoubtedly bring to the fore many new and extremely potent in-
secticides.
If your garden is a large one, you will want to invest in a wheel-
barrow sprayer. These efficient implements are available in single-
or double-wheeled models, with or without rubber tires. Wheel-







10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

barrow sprayers operated by hand are simple machines, easy to clean,
easy to repair. Those with pumps driven by little gasoline engines or
electric motors are capable of producing very high pressure and they
do an excellent job of atomizing the liquid.
If your place is of medium size and you have a regular yard
man, perhaps a five gallon brass, knapsack sprayer would be a good
type to own but if you must do the work yourself, much less messy
to use are the war surplus pumps that pull the liquid out of a water
bucket that stands nearby on the ground. Theese pumps are simple,
inexpensive and they give very good coverage.
Small inexpensive dusters are an abomination. Post-war all-
aluminum knapsack jobs with plastic bellows should be satisfactory
for a large garden, while a very small plot of flowers can be dusted
with one of the little cardboard expendible tubes that are for sale
ready-packed with a shot-gun mixture.
In general it can be said that the cartridges that are screwed on
the end of your hose to dispense a chemical in the water that rushes
past are not too effective. Though they are attractive little gadgets,
they are not highly effective in their killing powers.


ANNUAL FLOWERING PLANTS FOR SPECIAL USES

Annuals for Cutting
Aster, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
blue lace-flower, Browallia, butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy,
calliopsis, candytuft, cape marigold, carnation, chrysanthemum (an-
nual), clarkia, cone-flower, cornflower, cosmos (both species), crotalaria,
cup-flower, cuphea, dahlia, delphinium, Flora's paintbrush, floss flower,
gilia, godetia, globe amaranth, hollyhock, hunnemania, larkspur, lupine,
marigold, mignonette, mourning bride, nasturtium, painted tongue,
pansy, pholx, pink, poppy, strawflower, scarlet flax, snapdragon, spider-
flower, stock, statice, sunflower, Swan River daisy, sweet pea, tithonia,
zinnia.
Annuals That Readily Re-seed Themselves
Alyssum, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy, California poppy,
calliopsis, Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos (sulphureus), crotalaria, floss
flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroccan, toadflax, rose
moss, nicotiana, petunia, phlox, poppies, spider-flower, sunflower, tithonia,
wish-bone flower, zinnia.

Annuals for Window Boxes or Porches
Alyssum, balsam, begonia, carnation, cuphea, cup-flower, double
English daisy, floss flower, lobelia, mignonette, rose moss, nasturtium,
pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, verbena, wish-bone flower.






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 11

Annuals for the Rock Garden
Alyssum, begonia, butterfly flower, California poppy, candytuft,
cape marigold, cuphea, cup flower, double English daisy, Flora's paint-
brush, floss flower (dwarf), lobelia, mignonette, Moroccan toadflax, rose
moss, pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, pink, snapdragon (dwarf), stock,
verbena, viola, wish-bone flower.


Annual Vines

Cypress vine, gourd, morning glory, nasturtium (climbers), sweet


Asters


Annuals for Edgings
Alyssum, begonia, calendula, cone flower, cuphea, Dahberg daisy,
double English daisy, floss flower (dwarf), phlox, snapdragon (dwarf),







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Tagetes, lobelia, marigold (dwarf), Moroccan toadflax, rose moss,.
pansy, viola, wish-bone flower, zinnia (lilliputs and Mexican hybrids).

Plant These Annuals in the Fall for Winter
and Spring Bloom

Alyssum, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,.
Browallia, butterfly flower, calendula. California poppy, calliopsis, candy-
tuft, cape marigold, carnation, Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia, cornflower,
cone-flower, cuphea, cup-flower, Dahberg daisy, delphinium, double Eng-
lish daisy, Flora's paintbrush, gilia. godetia, hollyhock, hunnemania,
larkspur, lobelia, lupine, mignonette, Moroccan toadflax, mourning
bride, nicotiana, painted tongue, pansy, petunia, phlox, pink, poppy,.
scarlet flax, snapdragon, spider-flower, stock, statice, Swan River daisy,
sweet pea, viola.

Plant These Annuals in the Early Spring
for Summer Bloom

Aster, balsam, begonia, blue lace-flower, celosia, chrysanthemum
(annual), cosmos (both species), crotalaria, cypress vine, dahlia, floss
flower, globe amaranth, gourd, marigold, morning glory, rose moss,
nasturtium, strawflower, sunflower, Tagetes, tithonia, verbena, wish-
bone flower, zinnia.


Baby's Breath






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 13


VARIETIES AND SPECIES

Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) *

The several varieties of sweet alyssum, with white or lilac flowers,
are among the best of annuals for edging. Low-growing, seldom ex-
ceeding a height of 12 inches, this plant should have a place in every
garden and window box.
Of easiest culture, extremely hardy, sweet alyssum may be sown
every month in the year, except during mid-summer, and will bloom
in four to six weeks. Volunteer seedlings are usually abundant about
older plants.
The scuffle hoe will be needed often to keep alyssum edgings
neat and trim. As a window box plant it will benefit from a light
mulch of peat. Annual alyssum in Florida is usually free of insect pests
.and diseases.

Aster-China Aster (Callistephus chinensis)
The annual aster as we know it today is a highly developed horti-
cultural plant. This annual is not to be confused with the smaller flowered
perennial aster native to America.
The annual China aster is an old favorite, prized as a cut flower
on account of its variety of color and form and its grace in a cut
flower arrangement. Unfortunately, a host of insects and diseases
prey upon the China aster and for this reason great care should be
taken to grow the plant in new soil each year, to give the plants a
bit of shade and to keep them in a vigorous growing condition at all
times. Even the most careful grower frequently experiences difficulty
with his asters.
Aphids and plant bugs carry yellows and other diseases and con-
sequently aster plants should receive frequent applications of sprays
or dusts that will keep the plants clean.


Baby's Breath (Gypsophila elegans)

The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three varieties of annual
baby's breath are handy to have for fill-in material. The tiny flowers
on wiry stems add a daintiness to an arrangement that might be lacking
in grace.
Baby's breath blooms quickly from the time of sowing and un-
fortunately passes quickly into seed production so several plantings at
monthly intervals are to be recommended if the blossoms are wanted
over a long period.

SThe nomenclature used in this bulletin follows that of Dr. L. H. Bailey,
Hortus Secon,. 1941.







14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Balsam (Impatiens balsamina)
Of easy culture, the quick growing, cheerful balsam is well worth
using as a window-box subject, porch plant or as a border in a shady
place. The newer kinds of this old favorite are striking in form
and color. The seedlings should be pinched several times so as to
assure stocky, well-shaped plants, the tips of the finest ones stuck in
sand as cuttings.

Begonia (Begonia semperflorens)
Of great value for winter gardening in tourist sections of extreme
southern Florida are the fibrous-rooted, brilliant-flowered begonias
of the semperflorens class. In other sections, these tender annuals
should not be bedded out until danger of frost has passed.


California Poppy


There are excellent standard varieties in your seed catalog, and,
in addition, novelties appear intermittently. Seeds may be sown in
flats of pasteurized, coarse, leafy compost in the autumn. If you prefer,
the dust-like seeds can be sown in sphagnum or vermiculite as described
on page 6. The seedlings should be potted as soon as they are large
enough to handle and then bedded out from the earthen containers
before they become potbound.
Subject to attack by the root-knot nematode, bedding begonias






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 15


are not recommended for soils which are known to be infested with
these parasites and so they are frequently grown in beds of specially
prepared soil.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pulchella picta)
The annual forms of the blanket flower, single, semi-double and
full double, are of great value in any garden. The red and yellow
daisy-like blossoms are desirable for cutting on account of their
cheerful colors, long stiff stems and excellent keeping quality. The
blanket flower is cosmopolitan, volunteering annually and produc-


Candytuft


ing abundant flowers persistently, even on the light sands of the sea-
shore.
Frequent hoeing of the soil and liberal applications of fertilizer
are helpful in getting the maximum number of large, full-double
blossoms from your blanket-flowers. Keep the flowers coming by re-
moving the heads as soon as the petals fade.






16 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Blue-Eyed African Daisy (Arctotis stoechadifolia)
Graceful, light blue, daisy-like flowers about 2% inches across
with steel blue centers are profusely borne by the plants of Arctotis.
One of the most easily grown of the hardy annuals, it succeeds in
trying situations, volunteering year after year. The flowers close in
the afternoon, so it is best not to use blue-eyed African daisies in
flower arrangements for the evening. The new hybrids, (A. breviscapa)
have cheerful blossoms in tones of buff.

Blue Lace-Flower (Trachymeme caerulea)
The globular blossoms of the blue lace-flower are composed of
many tiny light blue florets and resemble a sky blue scabiosa flower.
As the plants are not attractive as garden subjects, the merit of this
annual lies solely in the blossoms as cut flowers which are rather out
of the ordinary and lend themselves to attractive arrangements. Ap-
parently sometimes difficult to grow, the blue lace-flower is not at all
widely planted.
A mulch of oak leaves around the plants is recommended and
insects must be forestalled by the applications of the proper chemicals
at the Very first sign. Frequent syringing should keep the foliage free
of red spider mites.

Browallia (Browallia in several species)
This tropical American genus contains several species that have
long been popular with professional gardeners. Of easiest culture,
Browallias grow from seeds or cuttings to blossom in a very short
while. Usually grown as pot plants and for massing for color effect,
the plants should be kept stocky by pinching and staking as necessary.
Volunteers often occur about old plants.
Singularly free of insect pests and diseases, the browallias are a
pleasure to grow as a change from those plants which require constant
coddling.
Butterfly Flower (Schizanthus pinnatus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is covered
with tiny, orchid-like blooms and always attracts a great deal of at-
tention. Perhaps because it requires constant care and the most
favorable conditions, the butterfly flower is not often seen in Florida
gardens. Perhaps pot culture might be preferable to open field
planting, certainly a mulch of leaves or peat and constant protection
against parasites is needed to bring butterfly flower into bloom satis-
factorily.

Calendula (Calendula officinalis)
A universal favorite, the calendula is one of our most important
winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers in shades of







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


orange and yellow are not only excellent as part of the garden
picture but they are unsurpassed as cut flowers. If the seeds are sown
in August-September and the seedlings are protected from the direct
sun for a month or so before bedding out, blossoms may be cut in
December and throughout the winter into the early spring. The
plants will stand considerable cold; even though the blossoms are
blasted by the heavy frosts, others will quickly open with the advent
of warmer weather. When low temperatures are expected, the plants
may be protected with piles of Spanish moss.


Early Cosmos


Caterpillars which chew the leaves in early autumn are liquidated
with a dusting of a stomach poison made up of arsenate of lead one
part, hydrated lime eight parts or a modern 3% DDT dust which is avail-
able at your seed store. Aphids must be eliminated in winter time with
a nicotine, rotenone or pyrethrum spray or dust.







18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica)
The California poppy is especially effective when grown in large
groups in a sunny garden. Recently seedsmen have offered varieties
in creams, white and reds that are striking deviations from the typical
yellows. Very hardy, easily grown from broadcast seeds, the California
poppy should have a place in every garden. The blooms are excellent
as cut flowers when arranged in low containers with their own foliage.
Unfortunately, the flowers close in the evening.

Calliopsis (Coreopsis-several species)
The calliopsis or coreopsis is another type of the numerous daisy-
like flowers that play an important part in Florida gardening. The


*irl_.


Flora's Paintbrush

flowers in shades of yellow, some varieties with maroon or terra
cotta, are borne in profusion on stiff, wiry stems, and are valuable
both in the garden and in bouquets. Of easy culture, growing in difficult
places and often naturalizing in large colonies, the calliopsis can be
most highly recommended to beginning gardeners.







FLOWEINGaua PL.\ NTS Gio Fu x [ nEu m


This annual grows to perfection when the scutle hoe is used Ire-
quently to keep the earth well stirred. Adequate fertilizer must be
furnished yet little or no attention in the matter of spraying or dusting
is required.
Candytuft (Iberis in two species)
Candytuft in its varieties with white, lilac, crimson umbels of
flowers, is a good subject for edging, for the rock garden or for
cutting. It is similar to sweet alyssum, but is a taller plant and the
flowers are larger. Hardy and not difficult to grow, candytuft can fill
the need, as does sweet alyssum, for a hardy dwarf, much branched
flowering annual.
An occasional attack of aphids will be noted, and these insects
must then be dispatched with a contact insecticide.


The Floss Flourm


Cape-marigold (Dimorphotheca an rcntiaca)
Daisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in shades of yellow.
buff, orange and salmon, are produced in abundance by the dwarf
spreading plant of Dimorphotlh(( The plants do not always succeed
and the flowers close in the evening.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Carnation (Dianthus in several species)
The hybrid annual carnations which have been so highly devel-
oped by plant breeders, will supply everything save size, for which
the perfect florist carnations are prized. The delightful spicy fragrance,
the charming variety of colors, the way in which the flowers lend them-
selves to arrangements certainly makes the annual carnation worth
growing. Crown rot should be combatted by watering tne rows with a
solution of Spergon, Fermate or Karbam as soon as the first infected
plant is discovered.

Celosia (Celosia in several species)
The red or yellow plumes of the celosias or cockscombs, borne
on robust, quickly growing plants, are often seen in summer gardens
and occasionally as dried bouquets. Tender, but of easiest culture,
the celosias succeed during the summer months. However, the root-
knot nematode is a serious pest and will sometimes take a heavy toll
of the seedlings growing in infested soil.

Chinese Forget-Me-Not (Cynoglossum amabile)
For blue flowers in the late spring garden, one should certainly
consider the Chinese forget-me-not. Although it is injured by frost,
it is easy to grow, volunteers readily and blooms in a comparatively
short time. This charming annual deserves a place in everyone's
garden. Possibly its greatest use is for blue color masses in the
spring border, because the flower spikes may wilt when they are used
as cut flowers.

Chrysanthemum-Annual (Chrysanthemum-several species)
The perennial chrysanthemums are among the most important
of the flowers for cutting, yet for daisy-like blossoms that come
earlier than the perennial sorts, we might take advantage of the
annual varieties. These are tender and must be sown after danger of
frost has passed. The plants, which attain a height of 2 or 3 feet,
should furnish abundant yellow, white or banded, small daisy-like
flowers during summer time. As the plants are robust growers, they
should stand about two feet apart.

Clarkia (Clarkia in several species)
Native to the Western United States, hardy and comparatively
easy to grow during the cool weather of the winter and early spring,
the Clarkia, although seldom seen in Florida gardens, is worthy of trial.
The plants, attaining a height of about two feet, produce spikes of
single or double flowers in shades of white, pink, salmon or red, that
are worthwhile additions to the annual border and to flower arrange-
ments.
Coneflower (Rudbeckia spp.)
These attractive native American members of the daisy family,
also called black-eyed Susans, will grow well on fertile soils in full







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 21

sun. Seeds may be sown in flats in January or February or in the
open ground in March. The plants may stand about two feet apart.
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
The cornflower has long been a favorite and somehow seems
characteristic of the old-fashioned garden. The single and double
flowers of white, pink, red, blue and purple, borne in profusion in
early spring, contribute beautiful clear colors to the border and are
excellent for cutting. Especially pleasing color combinations may
be obtained by planting good seeds in separate colors. Soil-borne
diseases in the late spring sometimes are fatal to the plants and for
this reason it is well to sow the seeds early and thus have plants
that bloom before the advent of hot weather. Except for this trouble,
the plants are of easy culture, germinating promptly, transplanting
well, and withstanding considerable frost.
Cosmos-Early (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Single, crested or double daisy-like flowers in white, pink or red
that are particularly good for cutting, may be had during June and
July if the seeds of the early cosmos are planted in March. Tall
growing, tender and seldom very attractive as a garden plant in
Florida, the chief value of the cosmos lies in the excellence of its
blossoms for summer flower arrangements. The seeds germinate
easily, especially in the single varieties, the plants grow rapidly and
bloom quickly. Staking and careful tying are recommended to pre-
vent the wind from blowing the plants over or breaking off the heavy
branches.
Cosmos, Late or Klondyke (Cosmos sulphureus)
Yellow flowers are produced in the autumn by many members of
the Compositae or Daisy family, and with us, one of the most depend-
able of this class is the late or Klondyke cosmos which blooms in
autumn. This cosmos is apparently not at all particular as to its
requirements, as it succeeds without any care whatsoever, thriving
in abandoned dooryards or very often escaping from cultivation. New
varieties with anemone-type flowers are popular.
Crotalaria (Crotalaria spp.)
Principally used as a green manure crop for agricultural lands,
several species of crotalaria bear very attractive golden flowers in
the autumn and are often seen in flower arrangements. The hard,
pea-like seeds are sown in the open ground in March and the seedlings
thinned to stand about a foot and a half apart each way. Volunteer
seedlings which appear in great numbers may be thinned and fertilized
when they are a few inches tall.
Cup-flower (Nierembergia caerulea)
While HORTUS designates this plant as a perennial, it is listed
as an annual in your seed catalog and so grown in Florida gardens









22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

quite often. The diminutive plants, to one-foot in height, bear showy
pale lavender, cup-shaped flowers that have purple centers. The
small leaves, wiry stems and closely-packed blossoms combine to
make this an annual of fine texture that makes a superior edging,
facing down plant, pot plant or window box subject. Seeds should
be planted in flats in the autumn, desirable forms perpetuated by
tip cuttings. The novely Purple Robe is worth growing.

Cuphea (Cuphea spp.)
If you are attracted by the seed catalog description of the cuphea
Firefly, be assured that it will grow quite well in Florida. The com-


Gilia

pact plants of neat habit which freely produce attractive red flowers
make an excellent edging to follow pansies. Seeds germinate well and tips
taken as cuttings, will root quickly in white sand.

Cypress Vine (Quamoclit pennata)
This is a graceful vine whose finely cut foliage and attractive







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 23

tiny blossoms of white, red or salmon make it a good subject for
temporary small screens or trellises. It is said that the seeds are so
hard they do not germinate readily unless they are scarified, but
given fair conditions, volunteers often grow where the vine has seeded.
Ordinarily, the best and most heavily flowered cypress vines are those
that are mulched with cow manure or oak leaves and frequently
watered.
Dahlia (Dahlia spp.)
Almost as easy to grow as zinnias, the dwarf annual cutting
dahlias listed in your seed catalogs as Unwin Hybrids, should suc-
ceed on rich organic soils that are well supplied with moisture. Seeds
may be planted in flats or in the open just as danger of frost has passed,
the plants transplanted to stand 2 feet apart. then heavily mulched with
leaves. Blossoms should be produced in mid-summer. As with all
dahlias root-knot, red spider mites, aphids and flower-thrips are to be
contended with.

Delphinium (Delphinium in several species)
Several species of Delphinium are widely grown as annuals in
Florida. Fresh seeds, comparatively cool weather, a constant moisture
supply, and a soil that is free from diseases seems to be essential to a
good stand of healthy seedlings. If sown in early autumn, Delphin-
ium should be blooming in March and April. Always popular in
flower arrangements and as subjects for the spring border, annual
delphiniums are certainly worth growing. A serious crown-rot disease,
Sclerotium rolfsii, may be held in check by drenching the delphinium
rows with a solution of New Improved Ceresan.

Dougle English Daisy (Bellis perennis)
Although the English daisy or Bellis is really a perennial, in
Florida usually it will not thrive after the advent of warm weather
in May and is grown as a winter annual so that it may enjoy the
cool growing season. The charming double flowers of white, pink or
red are borne singly on stems about four inches above the flat, tight
rosettes of shining green leaves. If plants are properly grown and set
in close masses, the effect is particularly delightful.

Flora's Paintbrush (Emilia sagittata)
Clusters of gay scarlet, tassel-like or brush-like flowers on stiff
stems about 18 inches long are produced by Flora's paintbrush in the
spring. Of easiest culture and ordinarily quite free of pests, this
annual is commended to beginning gardeners. Numerous light hoeings
together with the usual applications of fertilizer and generous watering
will make for success.

Floss Flower (Ageratum in several species)
For blue flowers during the summer, nothing surpasses the floss
flower or ageratum. Equally desirable as garden material or for








24 DEPARrMENT OF AGRICULTURE

cutting, the soft lacy flowers are an adjunct to every garden and lend
themselves very well to color combinations and special effects. There
are dwarf sorts as well as tall varieties in white, pink, or shades of
blue. The plants are of easiest culture, seedlings usually volunteering
in abundance about old plants. Ageratum is injured by frost so
bedding out should not be done until tip cuttings root readily in early
summer.
Pests and diseases are usually not of great moment, though liberal
watering during periods of drought will result in best growth by
these shallow-rooted, warm weather annuals from south of the border.

Gilia (Gilia spp.)
Another blue flower of merit that blooms in the late spring is
gilia. The foliage lacy, and fern-like is an attractive feature in itself.
The flowers are rough, globular heads, about an inch in diameter, and
are borne in profusion all over the plant. As yet something of a novelty
in Florida, the blue-flowered hybrid gilia has proved its ability to thrive
here and should be more widely grown. Standing cypress, (Gilia rubra)
is a tall red-flowered, spire-like perennial that is native to Florida.

Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa)
As this plant is sometimes called bachelor's button, it should
not be confused with the cornflower (Centaurea) which also goes by
that common name. The globe amaranth thrives during hot weather,
producing myriads of white or red, globular flowers that resemble
clover heads. In texture they are harsh, woody, like strawflowers
or statice and are used for permanent or dried bouquets. Tender, but
of easy culture, volunteering in great profusion, the globe amaranth
can be depended upon to succeed under almost any conditions during
the summer.
Godetia (Godetia spp.)
Although the godetia or satin flower, like the gilia and clarkia,
is not often seen, it will succeed in Florida, especially in a partially
shaded situation, and it undoubtedly deserves consideration as a spring
flowering annual. The open, primrose-like flowers of white, rose or
red are borne on spike about 18 inches long. The seeds germinate well
in the autumn and the young seedlings, which closely resemble snap-
dragon plants, grow off quickly and the losses from transplanting are
negligible.
Shiny black beetles that attack godetia plants may be held in
check by dusting liberally with a stomach poison such as the lead
arsenate-lime mixture or 3% DDT mentioned on page 9.

Gourd
The gourd in their many varieties are too well known to war-
rant descriptions or discussions. Interesting, unusual fruits of mul-







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


titudinous shapes are borne by the rampant annual vines. For
temporary screens during the summer or to cover stumps or small
buildings, they are very useful. The seeds should be sown in a well
drained, sunny location when danger of frost has passed.
Many times aphids will congregate on the undersides of the
leaves in great numbers and for this reason the vines must be sprayed
at regular intervals with an approved contact insecticide. As gourd
vines are attacked by root-knot they should be grown on new ground,
heavy land or in earth that has been treated with one of the new soil
fumigants available at your seed house.


Hunnemania


Hollyhock (Althaea rosea)
For many years it was thought that hollyhocks would not grow
in Florida, but the introduction of an annual strain in the thirties,
made it possible for us to have hollyhocks with single or double blos-
soms that are the equal of those found in northern gardens. Seeds
of an annual strain should be sown in September. Hollyhocks will be
benefited by positions near buildings so that the roots may be
protected by the structure. Occasionally hollyhocks will live over







26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

and sometimes volunteer seedlings will appear, but generally speaking,
fresh seeds should be sown each autumn.
Red spider mites may put in their appearance during spring dry
spells, so syringe your hollyhocks frequently, yet if the mites become
established, dust the plants thoroughly with fine dusting sulphur.
Hunnemania (Hunnemania fumariaefolia)
The hunnemania, sometimes called tulip poppy, resembles a
sulphur-yellow California poppy of giant size, coarser and of greater
substance. The plants, about two feet in height, are very prolific,
hardy and easy of culture after germination. Difficulty in getting a
good stand is the general rule. Like the poppies, the seedlings do not


Delphinium

transplant readily and for this reason the seeds should be sown where
the plants are to bloom.. Hunnemania is an excellent source of sulphur
yellow color in the late spring border and as a cut flower it excels
because of its attractive tulip form.
Larkspur (Delphinium spp.)
The well known larkspur is so popular, so widely grown, that it
seems hardly necessary to describe this valuable annual. Single and






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


double flowers of white, buff, rose, blue, lavender and purple are
borne on tall spikes during the early spring. Some of the newer crea-
tions, named varieties having very double flowers of clear colors, are
very charming, and should find places in every garden. These are es-
pecially desirable if color combinations are to be worked out. Fre-
quently larkspur seeds fail to germinate if they are planted early in the
fall. Because this is a distinctly cool-weather plant, it is probably best
to wait until November, then sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills,
firm them into the ground and water with a fine spray without covering.
Volunteer seedlings usually appear in late fall where plants bloomed the
previous season. These seedlings, however, usually produce single
flowers in colors that are not so clear nor so attractive as are those pro-
duced from fresh seeds. The young plants are hardy, transplant very
readily and react very favorably to good care. Drench the rows with a
solution of New Improved Ceresan as soon as you discover the first
plant dying from infection by the crown rot known as Sclerotium rolfssi.

Lobelia (Lobelia erinus)
Lobelia, in their beautiful shades of blue, may be had in dwarf
compact forms, which are desirable for edging and also in trailing
or hanging forms which are used in pots, boxes and baskets. The
charming dwarf plants, under six inches in height, of many tiny
branches, are covered with tiny blue flowers throughout the blooming
season. Unfortunately, they demand cool weather, but cannot stand
freezing, so they must be grown during the winter and receive protec-
tion on cold nights. The seeds germinate well and quickly produce
good stands of robust plants. For good color effects the plants should
be set no farther than 4 to 6 inches apart.

Lupine (Lupinus spp.)
As subjects for a tall border, the annual lupines are very effec-
tive, and they are no less striking as cut flowers. Their keeping
quality is excellent. Long spikes of pea-like flowers of white, pink
and shades of blue are numerous in the spring. Sow the seeds where
the plants are to stand and thin the seedlings to 12-inch intervals in
the row. Usually the plants grown from Florida-grown seeds are en-
tirely satisfactory.
While it is the consensus that most annual flowers will grow best
with a mulch instead of mechanical cultivation, the lupines will grow
and bloom very satisfactorily when they are lightly hoed enough to keep
the rows free of weeds and grass. These hardy annuals need little
attention in the matter of spraying.

Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
The African marigold is tall, erect, attaining a height of three
feet and bears large globular flowers that range in color from lemon
yellow to orange. This type is valuable at the back of borders where







28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

height is desired. The blossoms are among the best for cutting during
summer and fall.
The French and Mexican marigolds are compact dwarf, rarely
exceeding 16 inches in height, and are good subjects for edging and for
positions in front of other, taller plants.
In late September through October, when most annuals are out of
season, the marigolds, in their many forms and varieties, contribute
their striking yellow and orange flowers to our gardens whose bright-
ness has begun to wane. Withstanding heat and drought, thriving
where many plants would perish, free from pests, the marigolds are
exceedingly useful both in the garden and in the home. Annually,


Annual Lupine


new sorts are introduced by the seedsmen and these are all worthy of
wide trial. Seeds germinate well and quickly, and the seedlings are
easy to handle.
Mignonette (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for mignonette a place in every-
one's heart. The dwarf plant which bears the odd flower trusses of
this old favorite grows well during cool weather. Of no particular
beauty so far as color or design is concerned, the chief value of
mignonette is its use in bouquets of flowers which have no odor of
their own. Difficulty is often encountered in getting the seeds to
germinate and hot weather is fatal to the plants.






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


Possibly this old-fashioned annual will succeed best in our state
if it is grown in containers that do not stand in direct sunlight. A
mulch of peat on the surface of the soil is superior to mechanical
stirring.
Aphids can be kept in check by spraying with a suitable contact
insecticide.
Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea)
As an annual vine, nothing can surpass the morning glory, a
vigorous rapid grower which is covered with glorious flowers through-
out the summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds offered by the


Marigolds
seedsmen will produce plants that bear large flowers of beautiful clear
colors. Volunteer seedlings usually have flowers of inferior quality.
The morning glory will make a good screen or covering for the summer
if seeds are sown in February.
A gross feeder, this vine must be provided with liberal quantities of
fertilizer, a thick mulch should protect its roots to discourage root-knot
nematodes and frequent watering should keep the soil moist to assure
robust growth.

Moroccan Toadflax (Linaria maroccana)
In Florida gardens this little toadflax from Morocco has gained
the popularity it so rightfully deserves. It is a dwarf grower of exceed-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ing hardiness that bears its spikes of tiny snapdragon-like flowers
throughout the winter and early spring. The small dark green leaves
are narrow, delicate in texture; the flowers are white, lemon, pink,
blue and purple. The plant self-sows and volunteers grow most readily,
being used as planting stock year after year.
Blooming profusely, even during frosts, in poor sandy soil, the
toadflax is very much at home with us and can be most highly recom-
mended for edgings, borders, and for rock gardens. Most seed houses
offer new improved strains that are characterized by delicate pastel
shades.
Looking best when grown on clean soil that is frequently stirred,
this diminutive annual succeeds when it is repeatedly worked with a
scuffle hoe.
Uncommonly free of pests, the sprayer is seldom needed for the
toadflax edgings.

Mourning Bride (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the mourning bride or pin-cushion
flower furnish a range of color found in no other annual. From white,
through yellow, blue, rose, red, maroon, to an almost black purple, the
colors are most charming, and are, of course, always harmonious. The
plants, which attain a height of about three feet when well grown, are
prolific, thrifty and hardy. The keeping quality of the blossoms is good,
the long stiff stems make for artistic flower arrangements.

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums, if planted after the danger of frost has passed, in
the early spring, will furnish an abundance of delightful color for a
period of about two months. The many flowers of yellow, orange and
maroon make an attractive addition to the garden and are good for
cutting. The new races of double flowers have met with consid-
erable favor. Climbing varieties make interesting small vines, al-
though only for a short time. Free from pests, and enjoying light
soils, and frequent stirring, the nasturtium well deserves its popularity.

Nicotiana (Nicotiana spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of ornamental tobacco
remain closed and are of little beauty during the day, the principal
value of this plant is for its perfume which is delightful when the
flowers open in the evening. Very much like commercial tobaccos,
the ornamental forms are large, coarse annuals, to three feet, that
succeed during the late spring and summer. Several different colors are
available.
Painted Tongue (Salpiglosis sinuata)
The striking, highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers
of the painted tongue resemble ornate petunias. A wide range of






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


bright, bizarre colors is exhibited by the funnel-shaped blossoms.
Germination of the seeds is satisfactory in cool weather, but even
under good cultural conditions, the small plants perish in such
large numbers that continual replacement is necessary. Painted
tongue is probably most successful in the northern and western
part of the state on the heavier soils. In pensinsula Florida the plants


Nasturtiums






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


should be given a northern exposure, the best possible soil and the
protection of a heavy mulch over the roots.
Aphids must be combatted upon occasion, and for this purpose, a
contact insecticide is indicated.

Pansy (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach pansies for edging or for bedding in the
late winter and early spring. The newer, highly-developed strains
are characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking brilliance
and endless variety of design. The pansy is distinctly a cool weather


Z,"-I
**m\ ^^ 1s


Pansies probably are the best annuals for winter edgings and borders

plant, seeds will not germinate well in the warmth of late summer,
the young plants that are produced are sickly and slow-growing.
However, if fresh seeds are planted in a cool, shaded place in late
autumn, no difficulty should be experienced. Set the plants 6 to 8
inches apart so as to obtain a continuous border without breaks.
A stock of plants should be kept on hand for a while so that dead
or unthrifty individuals in the edging may be replaced. The loss
from moving, when properly done, is negligible. Pansies will stand
considerable cold without injury.
As neatness of an edging is of paramount importance, the rib-
bons of pansy plants are usually hoed clean. A scuffle hoe is the
best tool to run down both sides, but, to get between the plants, a
finger weeder may be needed. During warm autumn weather pansy






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 33

plants occasionally succumb to attacks by Rhizoctonia. A solution
of wettable Spergon, Fermate or Karbam applied through a sprinkling
can should halt the spread of the soil-borne disease.

Petunia (Petunia hybrida)
No garden would be complete without petunias. The humble,
small single sorts are valuable for color effects, while the more pre-
tentious, single and double fringed and veined giants always attract
a great deal of attention because of their unusual texture, size and
colors.
The small single varieties are very easily grown from seeds, if
the flats are protected from ants. Seeds of the large, fring-d types
are rare and expensive, especially in the double flowered varieties,


Petunias

because they are the result of hand pollination. Not only are the
seeds expensive, but germination is often slow and uncertain. Poor
stands of small, weak plants usually result from the sowing of the seeds
of the giant fringed petunias unless the greatest care is observed in
planting, watering and transplanting. The smaller single sorts are
more hardy than are the giants, which should be protected when sub-
treezing weather is expected. The full, double-fringed varieties are
propagated by placing tip cuttings in coarse sand in order to secure
plants that are identical with the parent.






34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Either clean cultivation or a mulch of rotted manure will make
for success with these easy-to-grow, hardy annuals. Pests and
diseases are not likely to be troublesome, but the occasional plant
that shows the yellow mottling that is a manifestation of mosaic
disease, must be destroyed.

Phlox (Phlox drummondi)
Annual phlox is one of the easiest of all plants to grow from
seeds. As an edging for ribbon beds, as a ground cover for a sunny
expanse, and for naturalizing, annual phlox is widely appreciated.
Self-sown volunteers are numerous in the vicinity of old plantings and
even in places where discarded plants have been piled. If true. rich,
clear colors are wanted, it is best to plant fresh seeds because the colors
deteriorate after about two years.


Phlox


Annual phlox is relatively free from pests, transplants most easily,
and succeeds in dry, light, sandy soils. The star phlox, with its irregu-
lar, pointed petals, and the new giant flowered types are novelties that
should be more widely grown.

Pink (Dianthus in several species)
Pinks are very much at home with us, numerous kinds thriving
as annuals, very often producing a second period of bloom if they
are cut back and fertilized. No attempt will be made to distinguish
the species or hybrids of Diantluts, but it is suggested that different
kinds be tried, so that the gardener can select those which are best






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 35

suited to his conditions. The hardiness of the plant, the old-fashioned
quaintness of the fragrant blossoms, the many clear colors, the ease
with which the seeds sprout and grow, commend the annual pinks to
everyone who has a garden. New hybrid Dianthus are charming an-
nuals of considerable merit. New Improved Ceresan and wettable
Spergon may be needed, upon occasion, to stop the onslaught of soil-
borne diseases.

Poppy (Papaver in several species)
Poppies have long been garden favorites, and certainly they can
never lose the universal popularity they have always enjoyed. The


Annual Pinks


bold, bright colors of the opium poppy and the fragile, fine-textured,
delicately tinted flowers of the Shirley group, offer us variety in sub-
stance, color and design. Poppies do not transplant well, the seeds
do not sprout in hot weather; hence, it is best to sow the seeds in No-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


vember, where the plants are to grow. As ants are very fond of poppy
seeds, DDT or rotenone should be sprinkled along the rows, as protection.
Thin the seedlings to stand a foot or a foot and a half apart. Some
varieties of opium poppy volunteer readily to occupy the same garden
spot year after year.

Rose Moss (Portulacca grandiflora)
For the summer edging or rock garden plant, probably nothing else
equals the Rose Moss. The leaves are narrow, thick, succulent, and
are completely hidden in a blanket of gay colors in the mornings when
the flowers are open. Shades of buff, salmon, pink and red are character-
istic of the double and single flowers.


Rose Moss


The Rose Moss flourishes under the most trying conditions of
heat, drouth and poor soil. The seeds germinate best during warm
weather. The young plants can be moved with very little loss. Volun-
teer seedlings should not be used because of the poorer quality of
their flowers. Seeds of the best double strains will give the most






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 37

satisfactory color effects. As the blooming season is short, it is well
to have small plants available by sowing seeds at intervals of six weeks
during the summer.

Scarlet Flax (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered, species of flax is a hardy, bushy annual, of
about two feet in height. Of graceful habit, it is covered with charm-
ing red open flowers throughout the spring. The clear scarlet is good
in the border or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings are easy to grow,
they can be moved with little or no loss, and they are quite free of
pests and diseases. Clean cultivation is usually the rule for the annual
scarlet flax.


Statice


Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the snapdragon is really a perennial, in Florida it is
treated as an annual because it rarely survives the high temperatures
and heavy rains of our summers. Like the pansy and the larkspur it is
distinctly a cool weather plant and is really successful only when it is
grown through the winter and early spring months.
The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place which is







-38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

protected from ants. After germination, culture is easy, as the seed-
lings transplant easily and grow off quickly, producing their spikes
of delightful blossoms in the early spring. Invaluable as a cut flower,
as well as a border subject, the snapdragon is indispensable in Florida.
In order that the spikes will be straight and of first quality,
snapdragons should be staked and tied after they reach about eight
inches in height. Frequent shallow stirring with a scuffle hoe is
recommended.
As snapdragons are subject to nematode invasion and crown rot
caused by Rhizoctonia, fumigated soil is recommended. Lacking
facilities for fumigation, new sites are urged. It will be recalled that
Karbam, Fermate and wettable Spergon will halt the ravages of
Rhizoctonia.

Spider-flower (Cleome spinosa)
This is a tall garden annual, tropical American in origin, which
finds conditions in Florida much to its liking. As a background in a
flower border where height is needed, spider-flower is very satisfactory.
Seeds may be sown in the open ground during autumn. Volunteer seed-
lings are usually numerous where old plants have grown.
When it is grown in front of shrubs as a landscape plant, spider-
flower will succeed with a generous mulch of leaves or rotted manure.
Pests are ordinarily of little concern.

Statice (Limonium in several species)
The annual kinds of statice are well adapted to our gardens,
thriving, if necessary, under difficulties. Limonium sinuatum has tall
spikes of blue or white flowers arising from dwarf, tight rosettes of
lobed, spatulate leaves. L. bonduelli is very similar in habit, but pro-
duces yellow flowers, while L. suworowii, the rat-tail statice, bears tall
graceful spikes of delicate pink flowers.. This last-named species de-
serves wider trial as it is especially good, and receives favorable
comment wherever seen. All of these kinds are desirable garden plants,
excellent for fresh bouquets or as everlastings. Like straw-flowers,
they may be hung in bundles, blossom end down, to dry. Germination
is slow, but the plants are easily handled, once they become established.
Clean cultivation is general, care being exercised to make sure that soil
is not pulled in to cover the growing point in the center of the very
flat rosette of foliage. Insects and diseases are usually of little concern.

Stock (Mathiola incana annual)
Stocks are old favorites that have developed wonderfully at the
hands of plant breeders. Full double varieties in many delightful colors
are offered by the seed houses.






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 39

The seeds give a good stand and transplanting is easily accom
polished. The plants should stand 8 to 12 inches apart. Aphids or
plant lice are fond of stock and are sometimes very troublesome. A
tobacco spray or dust is used in controlling these pests. Several
soil borne diseases that are prevalent during warm weather in old
garden sites, may be reduced by the use of soil-sterilizing compounds.
Warm weather, typical of the usual Florida autumn, may prevent flower
bud formation and thus create a barrier to the successful flowering of
stock.

Strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust annuals which attain a height of some three feet,
and produce many blossoms for dried bouquets, the strawflowers
grow well in Florida. When the buds are about half open, cut them.
strip off the leaves and hang in bundles, blossom end down, in a
shady, well ventilated place until dry. A range of gay colors is avail-


The Strawflower







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

able. Though the plants will stand some cold, it is best to grow straw-
flowers after danger of frost has passed.
Clean cultivation is the rule for growing these large annuals which,
ordinarily are quite free of insect pests.

Sunflower (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is available
in this group of heat-tolerant annuals. They are good material for
sceens, boundaries and for cutting during the months of May through
September if successive sowings of seeds are made. These should be
sown where the plants are to stand, and the seedlings should be thinned
to two or three foot intervals, depending upon the habit of the variety.
Refined types are being sold by the seedsmen that are a far cry from
the old-fashioned, coarse kinds. Mildew attacks some varieties but
does little harm, apparently.. It can be controlled by dusting with
sulfur. Insect pests create no problem in growing small-flowered sun-
flowers for cutting.
Clean cultivation is the general rule and abundant plant food and
water are needed to supply the needs of these gigantic annuals.

SwAn River Daisy (Brachycome iberidifolia)
An andtal of very fine texture whose blossoms are admirably
adapted to use in miniature arrangements is the Swan River daisy.
The plants grow about a foot in height and bear daisy-like blossoms
that are blue, white or rose in color. The plant may be used as an
edging subject, but it is probably best adapted to cutting. It is sug-
gested that Swan River daisy be grown in a protected place and that
the roots be insulated by a fertile organic mulch.

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus)
Sweet peas are, without doubt, among the most important of our
winter and spring blooming annuals. Their fragrance, delicacy
of texture and design have won for them a place in everyone's heart,
but at the same time it must be conceded that the host of pests whicn
prey upon them are most alarming and often most diffic-lt to control.
Until the mid-thirties, the most popular group of sweet peas
for Florida was that great class known as the winter-flowering
Spencers. Seeds of these, sown in September, should produce plants
that come into production in time for Christmas. In Florida, Spencer
sweet peas oftentimes produce but one or two blossoms on the rather
short stems.
In the mid-thirties, there was introduced by one of the large
seed houses, a strain of sweet peas named the Cuthbertson, in honor
of the man who had been instrumental in their development. During
their first trial in Florida, it was evident that the Cuthbertson sweet
peas were of outstanding merit for our soil and climate. Vines







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 41


growing in fertile trenches grew very tall and thick and the unusually
long stems very often contained four perfect blossoms of remarkable
substance. The Cuthbertsons, following the Spencers in March. April
and early May, extend the flowering period of this popular annual.
Some seedsmen, other than the originators, list this group as Early
Spring Flowering, and offer the dozen or so colors separately.
There are many ways of planting sweet pea seeds, many ideas,
often at variance, as to how to prepare the seedbeds. The meth.jd
described herewith, although not necessarily the best, should be
satisfactory. If the soil is light, sandy, infested with root-knot,
remove it from a trench 16 inches deep where the trellis is to stand.
In the bottom of this trench place six inches of rotted cow manure,
fill to the ground level with a good compost of rich hammock soil


The Zinnia


that is made alkaline by sprinkling in lime as the trench is filled.
Root-knot will probably not be troublesome for the first season if
the soil is taken from a heavily shaded, wooded hammock. It is
important to treat the bed with a soil-sterilizing compound. Plant
the seeds in a staggered double row, so that the trellis may be erected
between rows. When the seedlings emerge treat the bed with the







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


soil-sterilizing compound to control damping-off. It is best to thin
the plants to stand a foot apart. When the sweet peas are six
inches high apply a balanced fertilizer, then stir lightly. A mulch of
oak leaves or peat is valuable in conserving moisture. When tendrils
appear some sort of support must be provided. This may be poultry
netting stretched between posts, a trellis of cotton cords running ver-
tically over horizontal bars at top and bottom, or a line of brush stuck
firmly into the ground between the rows.
Frequent cutting of the blooms is essential to prevent formation
of seedpods which will materially reduce the period of flowering. When
the stems begin to get short, apply nitrate of soda in a water solution
at the rate of one tablespoon to the gallon.
Aphids, frequent visitors to sweet peas, are controlled by tobacco
sprays, and red spiders are forestalled by dusting with sulfur or
springing the vines with water under high pressure.
The vines will stand considerable cold but the flower buds are so
easily injured that protection on cold nights is suggested. A mulch of
rotted manure is much preferred to mechanical cultivation.

Tithonia (Tithonia sp.)

Of the many excellent garden flowers that Mexico has con-
tributed, certainly not the least important for Florida is this "Golden
Flower of the Incas." Large sunflower-like seeds may be sown in
the open garden in March, then seedlings thinned, later to stand three
feet apart from their neighbors. In full sun and a fertile soil the plants
will surpass six feet in height during the rainy season. Deep orange-
yellow, daisy-like flowers on long stiff stems are available for cutting
through most of the long, hot summer, into the autumn until the plants
are cut to the ground by frost. Little troubled by pests, an occasional
infestation of red spider can be halted by sulphur dust.
Like the cutting-type sunflowers, these huge annuals thrive when
they are supplied with liberal amounts of plant food and water and
given repeated cultivation during the summertime.

Wish-bone Flower (Torenia fournieri)
As an edging or rock garden subject that will withstand heat and
succeed with little attention, the torenia deserves consideration. The
plants, about a foot tall, are covered throughout the summer with
masses of unusual white or lavender, yellow blotched flowers. The
habit of this sun-tolerant annual is creeping, the runners or stems root-
ing where they come into contact with the ground. The rooted tips,
of course, may be separated and used as new plants. Chance seedlings
are present under favorable conditions. It is hoped that torenia will
receive wider trial in Florida gardens.





FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 43


Verbena (Verbena hortensis)

The modern verbena, with its globular heads of large individual
flowers, is a particularly desirable garden subject. Although ordi-
narily a perennial in Florida, it may be treated as an annual. Strong,
clear colors are characteristic of this hardy, low growing herb. If no
particular color is wanted, the plants may be grown from seeds, how-
ever, propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings.
Because verbenas root where they touch the ground, perhaps a
mulch of rotted manure would be the best treatment for the bed where
they grow. Cultivation, obviously, should not be resorted to.


Viola (Viola cornuta)

As a change from mixed pansies for edgings, the smaller-flowered,
self colored violas can be employed with striking effect. You may sow
your own seeds in September, or buy plants of a wanted variety in No-
vember. The diminutive plants should stand about eight inches apart so
that a continuous ribbon of a single, solid color results.. The best ef-
fect is attained when there are enough plants to set a staggered, double
row.
Zinnia (Zinnia in several species)
When one considers the remarkable thriftiness, the heat tolerance
of the zinnia, the facility with which it grows in adverse conditions,
it must be awarded a place of importance' on our list of summer
blossoming annuals. Our gardens, from July to November, would be
much less colorful if it were not for this most admirable of flowers.
Plant breeders have worked long and patiently with the zinnia
and now we may have many charming clear colors, in blossoms that
range in size from tiny Mexican hybrids to giant dahlia-flowered
kinds that are, perhaps, eight inches across. There are pompon sorts,
curled and crested, picotes, quilled and others that contribute variety
to the flower arrangement.
The seeds may be planted either in flats or in the garden after
danger of frost has passed. Sowings should be repeated every eight
weeks so as to have a succession of new plants to replace those which
have ceased blooming. The liliput kinds should stand a foot apart,
while the dahlia-flowered giants should not be set closer than two feet,
if they are to receive proper care. Abundant plant food and water
should be available to these gross feeders. Shallow cultivation is recom-
mended. As garden subjects, as well as for cutting, the zinnias cannot
be excelled during the summer and early fall months. The Mexican
hybrids and liliputs are especially good as edging plants.
Powdery mildew which looks like a frosty coating on the leaves, is
controlled by dusting at first signs with 300 mesh sulphur.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


PLANTING GUIDE


When to Sow
Name Seeds
Alyssum* -------------- -- Aug.-Jan.
Aster ------------------Feb.-April
Baby's Breath --------..-Aug.-Dec.
Balsam ------------------Feb.-April
Begonia* .-------------- -S-ept.-Dec.
Blanket Flower* ------ ept.-Dec.
Blue-Eyed African Daisy'*Aug.-Jan.
Blue Lace-Flower ---------Feb.-April
Browallia -----------------Aug.-Oct.
Butterfly Flower _------...Aug.-Feb.
Calendula --------------- Aug.-Oct.
California Poppy* --------Sept.-Dec.
Calliopsis -..-------------Oct.-Dec.
Candytuft ----------------Aug.-Dec.
Cape Marigold _--------_- Aug.-Feb.
Carnation ..---- ---------Aug.-Dec.
Celosia ------------------Feb.-April
Chinese Forget-Me-Not* --Aug.-Feb.
Chrysanthemum (annual) _Feb.-March
Clarkia ------------------- Sept.-Nov.
Cone Flower* ..-----------Jan.-Mar.
Cornflower --------------Aug.-Oct.
Cosmos (bipinnatus) --- Feb.-April
Cosmos (sulphureus)* _-- May-Aug.
Crotalaria* -----------Mar.-Aprll
Cup-flower ----------------Sept.-Dec.
Cuphea ----------------- Jan.-Feb.
Cypress Vine* _---------- March-May
Dahlia __-------------Mar.-April
Delphinium ---------Oct.-Nov.
Double English Daisy -__Sept.-Oct.
Flora's Paintbrush* ----Aug.-Dec.
Floss Flower* -----------Feb.-April
Gilla ---------------------Sept.-Dec.
Globe Amaranth -----------March-April
Godetia, .... Sept.-Dec.
Gourd -------------------- Feb.-April
Hollyhock -----------------Sept.-Dec.
Hunnemania ------------- Nov.-Dec.
Larkspur* -.--------------Oct.-Dec.
Lobelia ------------------Sept.-March
Lupine ------------------- Aug.-Dec.
Marigold* ----------------Feb.-May
Mignonette .--.....-------Sept.-Nov.
Morning Glory -----------Feb.-April
Moroccan Toadflax* _-----Sept.-Nov.
Mourning Bride ----------Sept.-Dec.
Nasturtium --------------.Feb.-March
Nicotiana -----------------Aug.-Nov.
Painted Tongue ----------Aug.-Nov.
Pansy -------------------Aug.-Nov.
Petunia* .--.-------------Aug.-Jan.
Phlox* -------------------Aug.-Feb.
Pinks --------------------Aug.-Feb.
Poppies* -- -. .-----------Nov.-Dec.
Rose Moss* -------------- Feb.-July
Scarlet Flax __----.------ Sept.-Nov.
Snapdragon ---.-------...Aug.-Dec.
Spider Flower* -----------Sept.-Dec.
Statice -------------------Aug.-Dec.
Stock ---------------------Aug.-Dec.
Strawflower -------------Oct.-April
Sunflower ---------------Feb.-April
Swan River Daisy --------Sept.-Nov.
Sweet Pea --------------Sept.-Nov.
Tagetes -------------------Feb.-April
Tithonia* -----------------March-April
Torenia* -----------------Feb.-May
Verbena ----------------- Aug.-Dec.
Viola ---------------------Sept.-Dec.
Wishbone Flower* ----...Feb.-May
Zinnia* -----------------FFeb.-Aug.

*He-seed and volunteer readily.


Approximate Tender or
Time in Bloom Hardy
Oct.-June Hardy
July-Aug. Tender
Jan.-June Hardy
April-Nov. Tender
March-June Tender
April-Aug. Hardy
March-June Hardy
July-Aug. Tender
Dec.-May Hardy
April-June Tender
Dec.-June Hardy
March-June Hardy
April-June Hardy
March-June Hardy
April-July Hardy
March-June Hardy
May-Sept. Tender
April-July Hardy
May-July Tender
April-June Hardy
April-July Hardy
Dec.-June Hardy
May-Aug. Tender
Oct.-Nov. Tender
Aug.-Oct. Tender
March-June Hardy
April-July Hardy
July-Sept. Tender
June-Sept. Tender
March-May Hardy
March-May Hardy
March-June Hardy
May-Aug. Tender
April-June Hardy
May-July Tender
A'pril-June Hardy
Tender
March-June Hardy
April-June Hardy
March-May Hardy
Nov.-May Tender
March-June Hardy
Sept.-Nov. Tender
March-May Hardy
May-Nov. Tender
Dec.-May Hardy
April-June Hardy
April-June Tender
March-June Hardy
April-May Hardy
Jan.-May Hardy
Jan.-July Hardy
March-July Hardy
Jan.-July Hardy
March-May Hardy
May-Oct. Tender
April-June Hardy
Feb.-June Hardy
April-Aug. Hardy
April-Aug. Hardy
Feb.-May Hardy
Feb.-Aug. Tender
June-Aug. Tender
Jan.-April Hardy
Jan.-April Hardy
April-July Tender
June-Sept. Tender
April-Sept. Tender
Feb.-July Hardy
Jan-May Hardy
April-Sept. Tender
May-Oct. Tender


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FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 45


Herbaceous Perennials

Florida gardens depend largely upon annuals for color, with the
result that herbaceous perennials are often entirely lacking in the
design. This is unfortunate in view of the fact that a wealth of mid-
summer and early fall bloom is available through the use of well
selected herbaceous perennials. Annuals and exotic flowering shrubs
are recommended for winter and early spring blossoms, but cheerful
colors during the late summer and early fall will be filled in adequately
by perennials when many of the showiest annuals are through blooming.
For Florida planting the choice of herbaceous perennials is quite
restricted as compared to the North and East. Nevertheless, there
are many kinds that thrive in Florida. Many more perennials, such as
common garden irises, delphiniums, foxgloves, hollyhocks, columbine,
hardy phlox, phlox subulata, perennial pinks, thyme, mallow and lily of
the valley, have been tried and have, for one reason or another, proved un-
satisfactory in peninsular Florida. In the western part of the state,
.some of these are worth-while perennial garden plants.


HOW TO USE THEM
Considering our wealth of hardy broadleaved evergreens and
beautiful flowering shrubs, it is best to use herbaceous perennials in
shrubbery bays subordinate to the woody things rather than by them-
selves, excepting in the case of borders in enclosed formal gardens.
Certainly herbaceous perennials alone should not be depended upon
for foundation plantings, but they do add a completeness, a finishing
touch, to any design.
By a judicious choice of materials one may have perennials in
bloom from April until frost.
Herbaceous perennials are most valuable in bold, closely planted
masses for the color effect and are really most successful when grown
thus rather than spotted about with a great deal of distance between in-
dividual plants.

PROPAGATION
A decided advantage in favor of this group of plants is that once
the garden is laid out, the plants need not be propagated every year.
Furthermore, the foliage of many perennials is delightful in itself
when the plants are out of bloom.
This group is, as a whole, extremely easy to propagate by divisions,
seeds or cuttings. A note regarding the common methods of propaga-
tion of each plant will be found under the discussion of species.
Division: Propagation by the division is the easiest, quickest and
best way to increase most herbaceous perennials. Dig the plants,





46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

shake off the dirt and it will be apparent that they will divide up into
units or small plants all having roots, stems, buds or leaves. These
units may be separated and planted. The beds should be thoroughly
prepared beforehand by spading in rotted manure or rich compost
and abundant water should be added to pack the soil well about the
roots. Most herbaceous perennials are best divided after the blooming
season or when frost cuts the plants to the ground, but with care
they may be so increased at any time.
Cuttings: This method also is much used in the propagation of
perennials and it is not at all difficult if a good grade of sharp, clean
sand and plenty of water are used.
Old stems are cut in three or four-inch lengths, just above and


F










/


Dividing a herbaceous perennial to provide more plants


just below convenient nodes or buds. The leaves on the upper node
should be left intact. A sharp knife that will make a clean, neat cut is
the best tool to use in making cuttings.
A flat or box of any convenient size in the bottom of which several
holes have been drilled to allow the free passage of water is an ideal
receptacle for the rooting of cuttings. Cover the drainage holes witn






Fio)XvEPN \ P1.\N\TS 1-;' xi FlmIlmn.


coarse material so that the sand will not wash through. Fill the box
with coarse sand to within an inch ot the top: pack well, insert the
cuttings to the upper nodes, and water to firm the sand about the cut-
tings. Cover the flat with a pane of glass or a piece of doubled cheese
cloth and ieep the sand moist at all times. When the roots are about
one inch long, set the young plants in fertile soil that can be readily
watered, and protect them from the hot sun or cold until they are well
established.
Seeds: The plants discussed herewith vary a great deal in facility
of propagation by seeds. Some set seed readily and are so much at
home that chance seedlings are found scattered about the vicinity of
old plantings. Others seldom or never set seed and propagation of
these must be by division or cuttings.
Under most conditions the seeds should be planted as they become
ripe. They may be sown in open seedbeds protected from cold or the
direct rays of the sun, or better still, in shallow boxes as described


Vinca major varieyata is a good window box subject for northern Florida


on pages 5 to 7 in the section on annuals. In any case, the soil should
be well supplied with humus, such as rotted cow manure or peat moss.
A good mixture for seedbeds or seed boxes is loamy soil and fine peat
in equal amounts. Plant the seeds very thinly and lightly cover
with sifted soil, peat or sand to a depth of about four times
their diameter. Very small seeds may be dropped in rows and pressed
into the soil with a board. It is a desirable practice to cover seedbeds







48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

with sacks until the seeds germinate. A very fine spray under light
pressure is used in watering. It is important that seedbeds have an
adequate water supply at all times.
The young plants should be potted off or set out before they
crowd, as over-crowding greatly reduces the vigor in young seedlings,
causes them to become leggy and often encourages damping-off.

CULTURE
For a successful garden of herbaceous perennials, the land must,
in most cases, be especially prepared. The soil of the beds should
be enriched with well rotted cow manure and good woods soil. A
balanced fertilizer, tankage, cottonseed meal, a sprinkling of a min-
eral mixture and peat should be spaded into the beds. Thorough
preparation in advance is essential, as the plants in a perennial


The native Florida coontie is well adapted to shady locations

garden will often stand as long as three or four years without being
moved. Applications of complete commercial fertilizers furnishing
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash should be made before growth
starts each spring, and again at the beginning of the rainy season.
A heavy mulch for this type of garden is strongly recommended
and for the purpose, peat, well rotted manure, or oak leaves are
excellent. The mulch preserves moisture, keeps the roots cool during
the heat of the summer, and discourages weed growth and the root-
knot nematode. Each spring when commercial fertilizer is applied,
new mulch should be added.


Alth








FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 49

Weeds must be checked when very young and should never be
allowed to gain a foothold. Hoeing is often impossible or dangerous
where the plants are grown very close together, so hand-weeding is
to be preferred in the perennial garden. Small plants in nursery
rows, or hobby collections, spaced widely, should be lightly cultivated
with a scuffle hoe sufficiently often to eliminate weeds and grass while
they are very young and tender.
One great disadvantage of this type of garden is that maintenance
is a 12 months' proposition and the gardener is often inclined to
neglect weeding, mulching, and applying the essential side-dressings of
complete fertilizers during the summer when this work is most im-
portant.
SPECIES AND VARIETIES
In the following pages are listed a number of species and varieties
of herbaceous perennials which can be grown successfully in Florida.
The common name appears first, with the scientific name of each species
immediately following.

Adam's Needle (Yucca filamentosa)
This yucca is native to Florida, hardy and. perfectly at home.
The unusual habit of Adam's Needle makes it useful for landscape
work here and the tall spikes of white flowers, produced in summer,
are particularly striking in the garden picture. The thorns at the
ends of the leaves may cause painful wounds and for this reason
they should be cut off as the leaves unfold. Adam's needle usually is
propagated by means of offsets that arise about the old plants. A
variegated form is sometimes used as an urn or pot subject.

Angelonia (Angelonia salicariaefolia)
This graceful Latin-American perennial grows about two feet in
height and has lance-pointed, toothed leaves about three inches long.
The flowers are dark blue, white centered and bloom from May until
frost. In the spring it is advisable to cut the plant black for new,
fresh growth.
Artillery Plant (Pilea microphylla)
This Mexican herb has found a congenial home in southern Flor-
ida and has escaped from cultivation in many places there. In
almost any soil, in sunlight or shade, the artillery plant is one of the
very best edgings and window box plants.
Cuttings, taken at any time when there is abundant moisture, may
be set directly where they are wanted to grow. Seedlings abound
in the vicinity of old plantings.

Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior)
The Aspidistra has long been a favorite pot plant and window box
subject. It probably can withstand as much abuse as any other plant,








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


as shade seems to be its only requirement. The stiff, shiny green
leaves, 15 to 20 inches long, grow in thick masses. It is very hardy. Out
winter may kill the plants in the colder sections if not protected.

Asystasia (Asystasia coromandeliana)
For tropical Florida, one of the most attractive little perennials is
this flowering scandent herb from the tropics of the old world.
A garden spot in full sunlight that is reasonably well supplied
with moisture suits the Asystasia quite well and it will produce its
tubular lilac flowers almost the entire year around.
Divide heavily matted beds into fertile soil every 4 or 5 years. A
leaf mulch is preferred to cultivation.


Native Adam's needle used as a border for a drive


Banana (Musa spp.)
These large herbaceous perennials are grown in many Florida
gardens for fruit and their tropical effect. In northern Florida they
are valuable as garden plants when used behind hardy evergreen







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 51

shrubbery or walls, then the frost-injured plants are hidden until
new growth is well advanced in the spring. Bananas are usually de-
pendable for a year-'round effect in the southern part of the Florida
peninsula.
Propagation is by division of the suckers from the parent plant.
Mulching is preferred to clean cultivation.

Begonia (Begonia spp.)
The Begonias are among the most popular of plants for the house
and conservatory, but with good conditions and proper care, their plant-
ing extends to the out of doors in Florida. They must have shady situa-
tions, a soil rich in humus and plant food, a leaf mulch and an abundant
of water supply at all times. Protection from frost is important.
Propagation is by division, cuttings or seeds.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia aristata)
An erect perennial growing to a maximum height of two feet,
bearing showy yellow and red daisy-like flowers two or three inches
across, on stiff straight stems. It is difficult to distinguish this species
from the annual varieties.
The blanket flcwer requires full sun for best results and thrives
in almost any soil that is not too wet. Clean cultivation with a scuffle
hoe should contribute to good growth and heavy flower production.
Blooms may be had the first year from seed and during the second
or third year the plants may be divided.

Blue Flag (Iris spp.)
The bearded irises do not thrive in Florida excepting on the clay
hills of the western end of the state where a few varieties may be
grown. Seven native species of irises together with those from
southern Louisiana are particularly graceful and may be successfully
transplanted and grown in the garden. They are water-loving herbs,
two feet in height, that bear lovely white, violet or purple flowers
in the spring. Large numbers should be planted as but few flowers are
borne by each plant. The native irises will thrive in or near the lily
pool and with a little extra attention to watering they may be grown in
any good garden soil that is well supplied with humus.

Blue Sage (Salvia spp.)
The Salvias are propagated by division, cuttings, or seeds. Several
varieties of Blue Sage are excellent perennials for Florida gardens. The
attractive spikes are produced in summer and early autumn.

Bugle-Weed (Ajuga genevensis)
For gardens in western Florida this creeping perennial is quite
well adapted and is considered a first rate ground cover. In early









52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

summer, the terminal spikes of blue flowers are borne on stems that
reach above the mat of green that is formed by the prostrate nDants.
Either sun or shade suits the plant but it prefers a heavy soil and is not
recommended for the light sands of peninsular Florida. Because Bugle
grows in heavily matted clumps, a light mulch of leaves should be
supplied; mechanical cultivation omitted.
When plantings become overcrowded, lift out the plants, fertilize
the bed and replant with single divisions set about six inches apart.















































The Blank.t Flower






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 53


Cacti (Opuntia, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, etc.)

As a result of the present day seeking of the unusual, the Cacti
have become quite popular. The kinds of Cacti available from col-
lectors and nurserymen are almost endless and they can be grown quite
easily if given full sun and poor soil that is well drained.

Canna (Canna, many species)

Canna varieties that have flowers of red, yellow, white, buff or
pink with foliage of green or bronze are available at most seed stores
in season. Varieties vary in height from 18 inches to seven or eight


Giant night blooming cacti thrive out of doors in southern Florida







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


feet. Cannas do well anywhere in the -,un if there is an abundant
supply of water and plant food.
Frequent shallow cultivation and abundance of plant food and
water are requirements.
A pyrethrum spray frequently applied controls the canna leaf
roller (Geslina cannalis), an insect that causes unsightly injury to the
leaves.
The root stocks should be divided every two or three years to
prevent undue crowding. This is best done when the plants are killed to
the ground by cold.

Cardinal's Guard (Pachystachys coccinea)
A tropical American herb which grows to five feet, with large,
remarkably shiny, green, opposite leaves and abundant showy spikes


Epiphyllum Cactus






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 55

of crimson tubular flowers. The plant is an excellent source of bright
red and is most effective when it is grown in large clumps.
Of easiest culture, Cardinal's Guard requires little attention, but
it responds favorably to frequent cultivation and abundant water and
plant food. Propagation is by cuttings or division.

Century Plant (Agave spp.)
The Century Plant is so easy of cultivation that it is found, in
many varieties, growing almost everywhere in Florida.
Century Plants are valuable when used sparingly to lend an exotic
effect.
Propagation is by suckers arising from the old plants and from
plantlets which are formed in the inflorescenses.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
Chrysanthemum flowers, in multitudinous forms, range in size,
from single daisy-like blooms through the pompons, anemones and
spidery Japanese varieties to the huge globular flowers so popular at
football games.
Many varieties, from all of the groups listed above, have been
successfully grown out of doors in Florida.
Probably the most troublesome insect pests are the flower thrips


Canna







56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

which are usually present in great numbers during the warm, dry
weather of early autumn. Control by a contact insecticide such as
nicotine sulphate, pyrethrum, DDT or rotenone has been urged re-
peatedly, but many backyard gardeners find it impracticable to spray
or dust the few plants that they grow. It is suggested, there-
fore, that varieties be grown which mature during November and
December. At this time of the year lower temperatures usually aid


Cardinal's Guard


t.4



Ira,







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 57

materially in reducing infestation by flower thrips, and the blossoms
are of much better quality.
At this season there is the real danger of frost injury in many
parts of Florida. Several methods of protecting chrysanthemum
plants have been used with success.

1. A muslin-covered frame can be built over the plants prior to the
date of expected frost.

2. The plants may be carefully lifted and transplanted into a green-
house or similar well lighted structure until the blossoms are
cut.


Century Plant in the foreground


3. The plants can be potted in large containers, staked and carried
into the garage on cold nights.

Leaf spotting of chrysanthemums, the result of infection by sev-
eral different fungi, is particularly serious in Florida, and in certain
years clean foliage is restricted to small rosettes just beneath the
blossoms. A copper fungicide such as cuprous oxide or Flordo or







58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

one of the newer materials like Fermate or Karbam if applied fre-
quently with a suitable spreader will assure healthy, green foliage.
Unfortunately, casual gardeners seldom apply spray materials at
frequent intervals throughout the season and as a result, heavy infection
by the leaf spotting diseases may result.
One hand-picking of diseased leaves in September and another in
October has kept many varieties relatively free of spotted foliage.
It has been observed that plantings maintained by division of old
clumps are much more severely attacked by the leaf spotting diseases
than those which are renewed each season by fresh tip cuttings. For
this reason, it is suggested that the plants be destroyed after cutting,
and a fresh start be made each year.
Rooted cuttings, secured from a wholesale grower each May,
should mature into plants that show remarkably little leaf spot.
While this practice is more expensive than the usual method of increas-
ing garden chrysanthemums by division, the improvement in quality
will more than pay for the planting stock each season. Of course it is
possible to retain your old plants and keep them free of leaf spot by
frequent application of a fungicide. In springtime tip cuttings are made
and dippA4 immediately in Fermate solution.
As artirther precaution against the leaf diseases, it is suggested that
rotation between several plots be practiced. Two or three sunny areas
that can be used in alternating years will give good results and these
may be planted to annuals or bulbs in the interim.
Heavy applications of cow manure well in advance of planting,
supplemented by light, bi-weekly feedings of a balanced fertilizer.
should provide adequate nutrients for garden chrysanthemums.
Frequent shallow cultivation is the rule.
A square wooden garden stake should be driven close by each
plant, with the plant being tied to this support every eight or ten inches
with heavy cotton cord. Wire stakes are likely to whip in the wind and
bend under the weight of water-filled blossoms, when used in outdoor
plantings.

SUGGESTIONS

1. Use November-flowered varieties to avoid serious thrips injury.
2. Avoid leaf spot diseases by stroying old plants each season
or by protecting the foliage with a suitable fungicide.
3. Replant each spring with fresh stock grown from clean tip
cuttings.
4. Spade manure into the bed well in advance of planting, and
apply a balanced fertilizer in small amounts every two weeks.
5. Tie the plants to stakes so that the stems will not bend and
break from the weight of water-filled blossoms.







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


Coontie (Zamia floridana)
This is a hardy Florida perennial with long pinnate leaves, valu-
able in the sub-tropical plan, and as a ground cover for shady places.
Coontie can be propagated by seeds, division or offsets, or the
plants may be collected from their native habitat in the open pine
woods.
Cyperus (Cyperus spp.)
These graceful sedges are useful for striking foliage effects when
used in or near water plantings as they actually grow well in water
a few inches deep.
Although low temperatures usually cut the stems to the ground
they quickly rally in warm weather.


Daykilies







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


There are two important species.
The Egyptian paper plant (C. papyrus) is probably the more
desirable, although more tender. Stout triangular stems to a height
of eight feet bear attractive clusters of small, wiry leaves, about five
inches long, at their tips.
The umbrella plant (C. alternifolius) is the more widely grown,
probably because it is more robust. It is not so striking in appear-
ance as the Egyptian paper plant. The variety, gracilis Hort., is smaller
and more slender, the variety, variegatum Hort., is striped with white.
Propagation of both species is by division or seeds.


Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.)

No perennials are so well adapted to Florida gardens as are the
Daylilies. Their hardiness, long blooming period, brilliant coloring
and freedom from pests make them indispensable for the Lower South.
There is certainly great satisfaction in growing plants that are not in
constant need of dusting, spraying and replacement. Many old plant-
ings are known where Daylilies have bloomed profusely each season
without any care whatsoever save for one spring feeding and an occa-
sional soaking during periods of drought.
For greatest numbers of large blooms over an extended period,
liberal feeding and watering and frequent light cultivation is suggested.
Most varieties of Daylilies are cosmopolitan plants that thrive on
the muck of the Everglades, the oolitic rock of Dade County, the light
sands of central Florida and on the red clay hills of the western part
of the state.
Over most of Florida the Daylily season opens in early March,
reaches its climax in April and extends well into June. Certain types
will bloom a second time toward the end of the rainy season. In
northern Florida, flowering dates are some two months in advance
of the dates published in northern catalogs. In western Florida the
dates will be a week or two behind those for Gainesville, while toward
the tip of the peninsula, all types bloom a couple of weeks earlier.
By carefully compiling one's varietal list, these hardy perennials can
be enjoyed over a period of some four months.
Daylilies are most effectively grown in clumps of three or more
plants in the bays of shrubbery borders. If the colors are grouped
separately, perhaps the best effects will be attained.
The genus Hemerocalis has received much attention from plant
breeders and now we have huge blossoms that are bi-colored or two
toned, flowers that are a bright cardinal red and other choice vari-
eties whose blossoms are a deep glowing purple. Indeed the color







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 61

range in Hemerocallis is remarkable and it is expanding every year
as further generations of carefully bred seedlings come into flower.

False Dragon-head (Physostegia virginiana)
This is a vigorous, hardy herb, about three feet in height, that
has the characteristic square stems and toothed leaves of the mint
family. The white, pink or lilac flowers are borne in a striking four-
sided spike and are useful by virtue of the fact that they bloom in the
autumn.


False Dragon-head


It is not particular as to soil, but responds
Propagation is by division.


well to good culture.


Ferns
Ferns in variety are valuable for moist, shady locations. Splen-
did kinds such as the cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), and
the different maidenhair ferns (Adiantum spp.) may be collected in







62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Ferns and other tender herbaceous plants


the woods. Scores of horticultural varieties of ferns are grown in
Florida. They should be protected from extremely low temperatures.
Thoroughly enriched beds or borders containing peat or muck on
the north side of walls are ideal locations for ferns.
Soil moisture is of prime importance in fern-growing. Propagation
is by division.

Fig Marigold (Glottiphyllum depressum)
This is a prostrate herb from South Africa that is very desirable
as a ground cover for seaside gardens. Revelling in full sunlight, well-
drained sandy soil and thriving in spite of salt spray, the fig-marigold
is of value on Florida's coastal sand dunes. The old clumps can be
lifted and cuttings taken in mid-summer.

Four-o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa)
An erect bushy herb that is easily grown from the large black
seeds. The fragrant funnel-shaped flowers in shades of red, yellow,







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


white or striped, borne in late summer and early fall. open in cloudy
weather or late afternoon and close in the morning.
Four-o'clocks are killed to the ground by light frosts, but they will
quickly recover in the spring.
Chance seedlings that are usually found about parent plants are
easily transplanted.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
The gingers are striking perennial herbs, which are widely used in
cooking and medicines. In Florida, the gingers find their greatest
use in the ornamental field, but have long been grown to a limited
degree as culinary herbs. They thrive in shady, moist locations and
should be provided with a leaf mulch in lieu of cultivation. Usually
winter-killed in colder sections, ginger is evergreen in southern
Florida.
Propagation is by division of the rhizomes.


Native Iris








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Golden Glow


Ginger-Lily (Hedychium coronarium)

The ginger-lily is an herb with canna-like leaves, about three
inches across, that grows to a height of four to six feet. A water-loving
plant admirably adapted to use in the lily pond planting. The leaves
are killed by a temperature of about 25' F.







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 65

The long-tubed, white flowers which appear in September and
October are extremely fragrant and are much admired.

Golden Glow (Rudbeckia laciniata)
A hardy perennial whose flower stalks in the late fall rise to a
height of four or five feet and bear large, full, double, lemon-yellow
flowers in great profusion that are excellent both for garden decora-
tion and for cutting.
Golden glow prefers the climate and soil of the western part of the
state and is not recommended for peninsular Florida.
A half day's sun with shade in the heat of the afternoon suits the
plant very well. When used in bold clumps, on the east side of a
north-south hedge or wall, the effect is very striking.
An abundance of plant food and water is required and frequent
stirring with a scuffle hoe is beneficial.
Propagation by division should be repeated every year or two.
Mildew may be checked by dusting with 300 mesh sulphur.

Japanese Snake's Beard (Ophiopogon japonicus)
This is a perennial stemless lily-relative of about a foot in height
that grows from rootstocks and soon forms large clumps by means
of stolons. The tiny spikes of white or violet flowers are incon-
spicuous.
Like its close relative, the Liriope, this grass-like plant is very
useful as a ground cover, for window boxes, or as an edging. It grows
well under the most trying conditions of sun or shade, heat or cold,
drought or moisture. As a ground cover under oak trees where grass
will not thrive, this attractive little perennial excels.
There is a variegated variety and a larger species known as
0. juraban.
Propagation is by division.

Justicia (Justicia secunda)
This is a large, coarse herb attaining a height of 4 to 8 feet, that
bears, during spring and summer, loose terminal spikes of red, pink
or orange tubular flowers. They are most useful as a background in the
herbaceous border.
Propagation is by cuttings and division.

Lily-turf (Liriope spp.)
A member of the lily family with graceful grass-like foliage a foot
high, the Liriope is exceptionally fine as a ground cover, for the
window box, or as an edging plant. The Liriope grows well in most
soils but seems to thrive best in the shade. It bears its spikes of tiny
blue flowers in the summer. Tolerant of heat and cold, all of the lily-








66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

turfs must be protected from scale by an occasional spraying with a
summer oil.
Propagation is by division.
L. muscari, the wide-leaved Liriope, attains a height of 15 inches
and is an excellent species for its lilac flowers which appear in June and
July. There is a variegated form.
L. spicata, creeping lily-turf, does quite well in Florida and is
recommended for densely shaded spots.

Cultivation is impossible so a leaf mulch is used instead.

Moraea (Moraea spp.)

As a. substitute for iris on sandy soils, this perennial is hardy,
vigorous and easy to grow. M. iridioides, the species illustrated, is
better known than M. bicolor which is occasionally seen in peninsular


The Moraea can be grown on light sandy soil


Florida gardens. The clumps should be divided every two or three
years.
Propagation is by division or seeds.







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


Pampas Grass (Cortaderia selloana)
Pampas Grass is popular in Florida where it is usually found as
a lawn specimen. It grows in large, graceful clumps to 10 feet in
height, bearing, in the fall, striking plumes which rise to a height of
12 feet. A gross feeder that requires full sun for best development.
Valuable as a screen or when used in connection with clumps of
bamboo. Often the leaves are browned by low temperatures, but this
does not impair the screening value of pampas grass. New growth
quickly starts in warm weather.
The variety Rio des roses has rose colored panicles.
Propagation is by division.

Pentas (Pentas lanceolata)

Pentas has become very popular in extreme southern Florida,
where it thrives out of doors with little care. Colorful, attractive


The periwunkle thrives where many flowers would perish

heads of tubular flowers in lilac, pink, white or red are borne throughout
most of the year. Pentas is prized for cutting a.s its keeping quality is
excellent. Cuttings root quickly if they are simply set where they are
to mature and are watered frequently.

Periwinkle (Vinca rose)
A robust, erect, ever-blooming perennial growing to two feet, that
;f seen everywhere in Florida. Of easiest culture, it has escaped
cultivation; and may be seen in old fields and about abandoned houses.


"

CC ~
"
U








68 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

In spite of the fact that it is so common, the periwinkle deserves
a place in most gardens because it is sure to give a cheerful mass of
color, even without attention. In the colder sections of the state,
Vinca rosea is grown as an annual.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. Chance seedlings abound
year after year.
V. major variegta is a reclining or creeping perennial that is
used in window-boxes and hanging baskets and is easily handled in
Florida if it is grown in the shade and replaced occasionally with
freshly layered branches.
Vinca minor, running myrtle, is valuable as a ground cover in ex-
treme western Florida.

Sansevieria (Sansevieria spp.)

Various kinds of sansevieria are popular as pot plants, urn sub-


The Scarlet Sage






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 69

jects and in patio plantings. Although they are not sufficiently hardy
to withstand cold winters, in the warmer parts of the state they are
used extensively.
Tolerant of heat, sunshine, shade, and drought, the sansevierias
will thrive with very little attention. Some 50 species have been de-
scribed, but only a half dozen are in general cultivation in Florida.
The erect, thick, succulent leaves that arise from underground
rootstocks usually are mottled, sometimes variegated, and are admired
for their tropical character.
Propagation is by division or by cutting the leaves into pieces 2
to 3 inches long and inserting them in sand.

Scarlet Sage (Salvia splendens)

This perennial is widely cultivated in Florida. A vigorous peren-
nial that furnishes bright scarlet spikes throughout the summer until
cut down by frost. In cold districts, it is usually treated as an annual,
unless protected from cold. Almost 20 horticultural varieties have been
recognized.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.

Selaginella (Selaginella spp.)
This is the type genus of a large family of fern-like plants con-
taining many species that succeed outdoors in Florida. They are
much prized for their delicate, feathery effect. Closely allied to the
ferns, they enjoy practically the same culture.
Most of the Selaginellas require shade, an even supply of soil
moisture, and humid atmosphere for their best development.
Propagation is by division of old plants.

Shasta Daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum)
The Shasta Daisy is a perennial that is truly at home in northern
Florida, but often will not survive the summers and light sands of
the peninsula. Large, pure white, yellow centered daisies borne on
stiff leafy stems a foot and one-half in height, are produced in pro-
fusion during the spring. These daisies prefer full sun in the morning
with, perhaps, partial shade in the afternoon. The plants stand a tem-
perature as low as 25* F. without apparent injury.
Propagation is by division in the fall.
Within recent years, improved forms such as Marconi and Esther
Read have become very popular as cut flowers.

Shrimp Plant (Beloperone guttata)
This striking and unusual perennial attracts a great deal of atten-
tion wherever it is seen. The plant attains a height of two feet, and








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Spanish Bayonet

is prolific in its production of showy coppery-red flower bracts that
are somewhat similar in structure to Bougainvillea bracts. The shrimp
plant will survive mild winters, but it should be potted and taken indoors
in the colder parts of the state.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.

Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus spp.)
These are succulent herbs growing to six feet which exude a milky
juice when bruised or crushed. Although members of this group are
very tender, they stand adverse cultural conditions and are valuable
in southern Florida gardens when a tropical effect is wanted. There
are variegated varieties.

Spanish Bayonet (Yucca aloifolia)
This familiar native plant warrants no special discussion. Valu-








FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


able when massed for the sub-tropical effect, especially where it is
tco dry for many perennial plants to thrive. The many branched spikes
of fragrant white blooms are very striking.
The thorns on the tips of the leaves should be removed by pruning
shears to prevent injury.
Propagation is by offsets from old plants.
There is a variegated form.


Stokes' Aster (Stokesia laevis)

This plant is, without question, one of the best native American
perennials that succeeds in Florida.
The strong clumps about a foot in height, bear blue aster-like
flowers three inches across, on stout stems throughout the summer.
Although Stokes' Aster prefers high, well-drained, rich, sandy
loam, it vill persist in poor, light sand, blooming year after year
during summer time when flowers are needed for cutting.
There are pink, white and yellow forms, but they are not as de-
pendable as the blue type.


Stokes' Aster








72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Frequent light cultivation supplemented by several feedings during
spring and summer should make for heavy flowering.
Propagation is by division, which should be practiced every three
years.

Strawberry-geranium (Saxifraga sarmentosa)
As an unusual ground cover for densely shaded locations on the
heavier soil types of western Florida, this little perennial is highly
commended. It is frequently used also as a porch plant, hung so that
the drooping stolons carry the tufts of young plantlets as a part of the
decorative scheme of the porch.

Strobilanthes (Strobilanthes spp.)
A coarse, erect herb about three feet high that has attractive light
blue funnel-shaped flowers from May until frost. When grown in
large clumps the effect is very striking from sunrise until noon. Un-
fortunately, the flowers fade in the sun. Prolific and cosmopolitan,
Strobilanthes will endure almost any hardship and seems to succeed
anywhere in the state.
Propagation is easy by division, cuttings or seeds. Volunteer
seedlings are found in numbers about the parent plant.
S. isophyllus is larger, coarser, more hardy than is the more slender
8. anisophyllus.

Tall Cup Flower (Nierembergia frutescens)

A graceful shrubby perennial herb to three feet high. Handsome
cup-like white flowers tinted with blue are borne in profusion in early
summer. N. coerulea, is a dwarf species that can be grown as an annual
throughout the state.
Though the cup flowers are little used, they succeed here and
warrant more extensive planting.
Propagation is by cuttings, seeds, or division of the old plants.

Transvaal Daisy (Gerberia jamesoni)
This superb perennial is, justly, one of the most popular grown
in Florida. The plants, which grow in large clumps to ten inches in
height, are vigorous, deep-rooted and quite resistant to insects and
drought.
The large single or double daisy-like flowers, ranging in color
from white to cream to rose red, are borne on stiff stems a foot or
more in length. The flowers are produced continually if not cut down
by frost and have excellent keeping quality.







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 73

Employ the scuffle hoe frequently to stir the topsoil and dis-
courage weeds.
Propagation is by seeds or division. The latter method seems
best as there has been difficulty in germinating seeds, unless they are
absolutely fresh.
Divide at least every three years into well enriched soil.


Rhoeo discolor

Rhoeo discolor is a stiff, upright, tender foliage plant with long
lance-pointed, strap-shaped leaves that are green above and purple
below.
It is unusual in appearance and consequently prized in sub-


Rhoeo discolor








74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tropical gardens. In colder sections it is advisable to lift the plants
in the fall and carry them through the winter in pots indoors.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne in clusters protected by
purplish, leaf-like bracts close to the upright stem.
Pot culture or a moist, shady, deeply mulched bed is recom-
mended.
Propagated by separating the young offsets from the parent plant,
or by seeds.


*'. i' ..'
Umbrella Plant


Tradescantia canaliculata

The native spiderwort, sometimes called blue-eyed grass, is a
worthy perennial that can be transplanted to the garden. Flowers
of white, pink or rose are to be found, in addition to the blue type.

Tradescantia fluminensis

The Wandering Jew is valuable as a ground cover for a densely
shaded, moist spot, where it is allowed to cover the ground in a
deep mat.







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


Verbena (Verbena hortensis)
The present-day verbena, in many charming colors, is a result of
the hybridization of four species.
Usually perennials in Florida, verbenas are low, creeping plants,
of the simplest culture, that are dependable for strong color notes.
Attacks of red spider can be forestalled by dusting the plants with
sulphur or syringing them with heavy pressure from the water hose.
Valuable as a ground cover in sunny places, edgings, rock gardens
and for window box work, verbenas should not be uprooted by culti-
vation.
Propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings, but if no
special color is desired, the seeds may be planted.
Moss Verbena (V. erinoides) is valuable as a self-seeding subject
for bold masses of lilac color. It is similar to the above, but not so
highly developed as to flower size. Only one or two shades are known
in this sDecies.

Violet (Viola odorata)
Everyone loves violets and everyone can have them out of doors
in southern gardens. An acid soil abounding in humus and plant food,
moisture, shade and a mulch of leaves are requirements. The deliciously
perfumed flowers are numerous from December until May, unless ex-
tremely low temperatures are experienced.
Divide the old plants each year or two, in August or September.
The variety Princess of Wales is probably the one grown most widely
in Florida.

Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata)
This creeping perennial is one of the best ground covers for southern
Florida. Thriving on any soil type, in sun or shade, in moist or dry
locations, the worth of this yellow-flowered member of the daisy family
is widely appreciated and it is to be found growing abundantly in the
warmer sections of the peninsula.
The prostrate stems root readily at the nodes and abundant planting
stock is always at hand.
Cultivation is not possible because of the stem-rooting characteristic.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS

PERENNIALS FOR BLUE FLOWERS
Name Page Name Page
Angelonia .................................. 49 Stokes' aster ........................ .. 71
Blue flag .................. ......51 Strobilanthes ............................. 72
Blue Sage ................................... 51 Verbena ...................................... 75
Lily-turf ........................................65 Violet ....................................... 75

PERENNIALS FOR THE SUNNY GARDEN


Adam's needle ......................... 49
Banana ..................................... 50
Blanket flower ....................... 51
Cacti ......................................... 53
Canna ........................................ 53
Cardinal's guard ...................... 54
Century plant .......................... 55
Chrysanthemum ...................... 55
False dragonhead ................... 61
Four-o'clock .............................. 62
Justicia .................. ................ 65
Moraea ........................................ 66

PERENNIALS FOR
Blanket flower ........................ 51
Cacti ............................................. 53
Canna ......................................... 53
Chrysanthemum ..................... 55


Pampas grass ............................ 67
Periwinkle ............................... 67
Scarlet Sage .............................. 69
Shasta daisy .............................. 69
Slipper plant ............................ 70
Spanish bayonet ......... ..... 70
Stokes' aster ............................ 71
Strobilanthes .......................... 72
Tall cup flower ........................... 72
Transvaal daisy ...................... 72
Verbena ............................... .. 75


YELLOW FLOWERS
Daylily ........................................ 60
Four-o'clock ............................... 62
Golden glow .............................. 65
Wedelia ................................... 75


PERENNIALS FOR THE SEASHORE GARDEN
Adam's needle ........................... 49 Lily-turf ..................................... 65
Banana ....................................... 50 Periwinkle ................................ 67
Cacti .......................................... 53 Sansevieria .............................. 68
Cardinal's guard ........................ 54 Scarlet Sage ............................... 69
Century plant ........................... 55 Slipper plant -........................... ... 70
Coontie ....................................... 59 Spanish bayonet ...................... 70
Daylily ....................................... 60 Strobilanthes .............................. 72
Fig marigold ............................. 62 Violet .................................. ... 75
Four-o'clock ............................... 62 Wedelia ................................. ... 75
Japanese snake's beard ........... 65

PERENNIALS FOR FOLIAGE EFFECTS
Adam's needle ........................... 49 Century plant ........................... 55
Aspidistra .................................... 49 Coontie .... ............ ............. 59
Banana ....................................... 50 Cyperus ................................... 59
Begonia ...................................... 51 Daylily .............................. ...... 60
Blue flag ................................... 51 Ferns .................. ................. ... 61
Cacti .................... .................... 53 Ginger ..........................................63






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


Nam
Ginger
Japane
Lily-tu
Moraea
Pampa
Sansev


PERENNIALS FOR FOLIAGE EFFECTS--(Continued)
e Page Name PC
-lily ................................ 64 Selaginella ............................
ese snake's beard .......... 65 Slipper plant ...............................
rf ..................................... 65 Spanish bayonet .................. .
I ...................................-.... 66 Tradescantia .............................
.s grass .......................... 67 Vinca major variegata .............
ieria ................................ 68


ige
69
70
70
74
68


PERENNIALS FOR WINDOW BOXES

Aspidistra ..............................--...... 49 Japanese snake's beard ..........
Begonia ..................... ...---...... ... 51 Lily-turf ...... ...........................
Beloperone .................................. 89 Selaginella ............................
Coontie ........................................ 59 Verbena ............................
Ferns ......................................... 61 Vinca major variegata ........

PERENNIALS FOR THE SHADY GARDEN


Aspidistra ...............................-... 49
Begonia ................................----- .. 51
Beloperone ...............................- 69
Blue flag .............................-- ...... 51
Coontie ....................................... 59
Ferns .................................. ..... .. 61
Ginger ........................................ 63
Ginger-lily .................................. 64

PERENNIALS FOR

Bugle .......................-.................. 51
Ferns ........................................... 61
Japanese snake's beard ............ 65
Lily-turf ..................................... 65
Selaginella .................................. 69


Japanese snake's beard ..........
Lily-turf ..................................
Sansevieria ...........................
Selaginella ....................... ..
Tradescantia .........................
Violet ...... ....................
Wedelia .. ........................


GROUND COVER
Verbena ..................................
Vinca major variegata .........
V iolet ....... ............................
Wedelia ...........................


PERENNIALS FOR THE WATER GARDEN

Blue flag ..............................----....... 51 Ginger-lily ...............................
Cyperus ....................................... 59 Japanese snake's beard ...........
Daylily .......-.................... --- ......... 60 Lily-turf ...... ..............
Ferns ........................................... 61 Selaginella ............................
Ginger ......................................... 63

PERENNIALS FOR CUT FLOWERS

Angelonia .................................... 49 Shasta daisy ..........................
Blanket flower ............................ 51 Stoke's aster .......... ........... ..
Chrysanthemum ........................ 55 Transvaal daisy ...................
Daylily ......................................... 60 Verbena ..................................
False dragonhead ...................... 61 Violet .. ............................
Ginger-lily .......................... ....... 64







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Rose Growing

ROSES FOR CUTTING
Through the centuries man has held the rose in highest esteem,
and there is little reason to believe that this flower will not con-
tinue to hold first place among garden flowers. Color, form,
fragrance and tradition work together to justify this regard among
the people of the civilized worlds. The present day cutting varieties
are characterized by long, pointed buds, attractive colors, frequently


Red and Pink Radiance







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 79


blended and heavy, dark green foliage. Unfortunately, these modern
hybrid tea roses have been developed in temperate regions and all
too often they are not adapted to the Lower South. In peninsular
Florida the light sandy soils, the lack of winter rest, the high
humidity and prevalence of diseases make rose growing a difficult
business. While many old fashioned favorites like Louis Phillippe,
Minnie Francis, Marie Van Houtte, and Safrano may flourish like


The Edith Cavell is a desirable ox-blood red Polyantha









80 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

natives, the up-to-date fashionable varieties frequently are short-
lived. Some rose lovers have accepted this fact as inevitable, and
they candidly grow their cutting roses as annuals. They prepare fresh
beds each fall and buy just enough plants to furnish roses for the
house, discarding them in early summer when disease and senility
have reduced them to sorry, unproductive bundles of sticks. Actually,
in times of normal prices, this method is not extravagant, as roses may
be had for cutting much below your florist's prices.
Bush roses in close bed formation should not be employed as a
main feature of the landscape plan in Florida. When the plants are


Rev. F. Page Roberts





FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


dormant, when they are properly pruned, covered with fungicides,
and stripped of their buds daily, they leave a great deal to be
desired from the standpoint of aesthetic appeal. For much of the
time, it must be admitted, modern bush roses are anything but hand-
some shrubs. For these reasons, it is the feeling of this gardener,
that the rose beds should be in an enclosed portion of the grounds,
/




.,,j
^ l^..... -;""


Antoine Rivoire, a hybrid tea with creamy white blooms delicately
tinted with pink


I


N


I IN,









82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

perferably as a part of that utilitarian area that designers call the
cutting garden.
The prospective rosarian should choose plants that are known to
be free from crowngall, brown canker and black spot, if at all
possible, yet, these three very serious diseases are all too frequently
present in new planting stock.


Mrs. Aaron Ward, a hybrid tea with Indian yellow blooms






FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


The rose bed should be prepared about two weeks before the
hushes are procured. It should not be situated near trees or large
shrubs whose roots will rob the soil of plant food and water and
whose foliage will intercept the sun's rays. In the event that it is
necessary to establish the bed near large plants, a root restrictor
made by burying metal roofing vertically along the edge of the bed


Frau Karl Druschki, often called White American Beauty

nearest the trees or shrubs will be beneficial in keeping out roots
for a year or two. The plates of roofing must overlap several inches.
An abundant supply of water is necessary, so some provision








84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

must be made for the proper irrigation of the rose garden. On the
other hand, roses cannot stand wet feet, so a well-drained situation
must be chosen.
In laying out the rose garden, narrow beds are preferred to
facilitate cultural operations without injuring the plants. Grass,


L. ^^ .-r'


W^HV '-'-


Duchess de Braoant, Tea rose
when properly grown and frequently mowed, makes a near-perfect
walk for rose gardens.
If the soil is loose, light, and sandy, remove it to a depth of
fifteen inches and replace it with a compost of rotted leaves, cow








FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 85


manure, and good hammock soil. The older this compost is the
better, but new compost is acceptable if the cow manure is well
decomposed. Do not use fresh manures when planting rose bushes.
In western Florida, if the garden is to be on a clay, or clay loam soil,


too


Rose Marie, hybrid tea with attractive rose-pink blooms

this preparation is not necessary. Adding three inches of cow manure
to the soil and turning it under usually is sufficient preparation.
The best planting time is when the nursery stock is completely
dormant (usually in late December to early February) but planting
time may vary with the season. Choose an overcast day for planting,
if possible, so that the stock will not be exposed to the sun. The


PPi~l
r~~





.1.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


plants should be carefully cut back to four or five eyes, and all
broken or bruised roots should be cut off clean and smooth with
sharp shears.
The holes must be sufficiently large to accommodate the root


Gruss an Teplitz, crimson-flowered hybrid tea


systems without crowding. In the bottom of each hole drop a hand-
ful of balanced fertilizer and cover lightly with top soil. Dip the
roots of each plant in a bucket of water just before planting. Insert
the new bush so that the root system maintains its former shape








FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


and position, and so it will stand at the same level that it stood in
the nursery row. With a slow, steady flow of water from the hose,
work the soil about the roots, filling the hold to the ground level.
Pack firmly by tramping with the feet, and put a large saucer of
earth about the plant to hold water.


The Duchess o Welington a afron hybrid tea
The Duchess of Wellington is a saffron hybrid tea


Cultivation is discouraged; and if a heavy mulch of leaves, peat or
rotted cow manure is used, the few weeds that appear may be pulled
easily by hand while they are still small. As the new growth pro-
duces the blossoms, it is evident that any cultural practices that will
break this new wood should be discouraged.
When flower buds appear, one-half a pound of a garden fertilizer
may be scattered on the mulching material and washed in with a









88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

strong spray from the hose. A second application of plant food
should be made in summer, and a third should be applied in September
to encourage autumn growth as the weather turns cooler.
Early morning, when the dew is still on the leaves, is the best
time to cut garden roses in Florida. Select buds with two or more


Betty-a coppery pink hybrid tea rose


petals open and cut them with as short stems as possible. Cutting
roses with long stems is sometimes necessary, but this practice
greatly reduces the leaf area, and thus causes a serious check to the
plant. A plant is dependent upon its leaves for its well-being, and
if it is to succeed, it must not be defoliated. Small, sharp, pruning







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


shears are best for cutting roses. The cut should be made at a slant,
just above an eye which points away from the center of the bush.
Flower arrangements should not be placed in direct sunlight, in
a draft or near heating appliances. Each day cut half an inch off
the end of each stem, and renew the water in the container.


Etoile de Hollande, a hybrid tea with crimson buds


Black spot is one of the most serious diseases with which the
rosarian has to contend. It is first evident in the form of minute,
irregular, black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. As the


'"
,~C:
i -I









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


fungus grows, the leaves turn yellow and drop off. When the leaf
area is thus reduced by attacks of this dreaded disease, stunted plants,
bearing a few small blooms, will be the inevitable result.
So far as we know there is no cure for black spot, so preventative
measures are the only means of control. Fermate, copper com-
pounds such as Bordeaux mixture and the several proprietary products
that your seed house will recommend, are efficacious if frequent appli-







































Francis Scott Key, large deep red, thrifty

cations are made. Spray first, on the day the plants are set, next follow
with another application when the shoots are six inches long and then
after each crop of buds is cut.
Finely ground sulphur (300 mesh) has been very successfully
used as a fungicide during the cooler months of the year. By the
middle of June it will be necessary to suspend the use of sulphur
as tender growth will be burned during hot weather. During the







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 91

summer months it is a good plan to use one of the copper fungicides,
or Formate. Karbam or Zerlate.
Brown canker or stem canker is another serious disease that
attacks rose plants. Small. purplish spots develop along the canes;
and as they enlarge, they become grayish or brownish in color. As


The Radiance is the easiest and most reliable pink hybrid tea.


the disease progresses, the cane is girdled, and death is the result.
The disease frequently begins around pruning cuts, so it is an excel-
lent plan to mop all pruning cuts with a thick paste of wettable
sulphur or Bordeaux mixture. The flowers, themselves, are often at-
tacked by the rose canker disease.


r








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


As with the black spot disease, a copper fungicide or a finely
divided sulphur dust or one of the new rose sprays should restrain
rose canker.


Paul's Scarlet Climber blooms profusely in the spring


Rose aphids, or plant lice, at times are serious pests in the rose
garden. They may gather in great numbers on the tender new growth
and about new buds. Stunted shoots and imperfect blooms are the







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA


result if the insects are allowed to go unchecked. Nicotine and soap
sprays or nicotine dust are efficient controls as are rotenone and
pyrethrum compounds. Some of the new insecticides such as Vapotone
and Gamtox are lethal to aphids when they are used as directed on the
labels.

Flower beetles occasionally feed on the tender buds. It is possible
that DDT sprays used for other insects may give a control, if not, hand-
picking is advocated.
Flower thrips are extremely troublesome during dry seasons.
They are tiny, light yellow insects that infest blooms in numbers
beyond estimation. Browned petals and balled buds that fail to
open (similar to the injury caused by rose canker) often result from
attacks of thrips. Some varieties of roses are more seriously injured
than others. All roses should be gathered as soon as they open
sufficiently. Two or three applications of DDT before and during
the flowering season should be helpful. As weeds and flowers of many
kinds harbor thrips, a careful cleanup program is recommended.
Pumpkin bugs often attack roses, especially during the fall, and
punctured buds of abnormal shapes result from their feeding in the
rose garden. Knocking them off into a pan containing a little
kerosene may be practiced. Spraying with Vapotone or Gamtox may
be helpful. Catch crops, such as sunflowers, may prove of benefit if the
bugs are systematically collected from them.
Cottony-cushion scale, when found feeding on the under sides
of leaves or on the canes, is best controlled by colonies of Vedalia,
a small beetle which is a specific predator. It is possible to reduce
the infestation by washing the scale from the bushes with 3 vigorous
stream from the nozzle of the garden hose.
Red spider mites may be kept in check by dusting with sulphur,
spraying with Vapotone or by heavy syringing with the hose.


CLIMBING ROSES
When a plant demonstrates its adaptability in a new country so
well that it naturalizes without aid from the hand of man, that plant
deserves our serious consideration. It seems to be a gardening tradi-
tion to seek the exotic, the unusual, the rare plants for one's garden,
and this trait is commendable in that it sets one's garden above the
commonplace, gives it distinction and charm. But all too often in our
seeking for the unusual, we overlook excellent material that is growing
at our very doorsteps. These tried and true materials should be used
as the firm foundations upon which the weaker growers, the tempermen-
tal garden plants, should be allowed to lean for stalwart support.
The roses that inspire this tribute to dependable, naturalized
plant material are the Cherokee rose (Rose lavigata) that native









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


of China that has found a congenial home in Florida, and the
Macartney rose (Rose bracteata) that contributes so magnificently
to the spring garden picture.
In addition to these naturalized oriental species, certain other


Marechal Niel is an old favorite climbing rose


members of this great genus, Rosa, which, although they do not
naturalize themselves, show a remarkable tenacity of life in our
trying semi-tropical climate. First place in this class might be given
to the Banks rose (Rosa banksiae). This robust, evergreen, thorn-
less climber exhibits an adaptability that is most heartening when







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 95

contrasted with the very short lives of modern popular cutting
varieties. That comparative newcomer to Florida gardens, Belle of
Portugal. a hybrid of Rosa gigantea, is almost assured of success
in the deep South. The vigor with which it grows and the myriads
of huge pink flowers that it produces each spring should satisfy the
most critical of rosarians.

Next in this class of persistent garden roses for the lower South
is the interesting Noisette group which contains that long-time
favorite, shade-loving Marechal Niel, which is indispensable in every
garden of the old South. In this group that was originated by John
Charnpney in Charleston, we find also Reve d'Or and Lamarque, two
varieties that are very tenacious of life in the semi-tropical climate
of Florida.

These rampant climbers and some of their descendants can be
depended upon to contribute to the garden ensemble year after year,
while cutting roses may have succumbed to the ravages of black-
spot, brown canker, the upsetting influences of light sandy soils, and
insufficient rest. Perhaps it is fortunate that things have worked
out this way: the rampant climbing forms, always to be used as
background materials are so well adapted to the Florida climate that
they are very long-lived and seldom need replacing, while the tempera-
mental bush hybrids that are demanded today for flower arrangements
can be grown in closely planted beds in front of the climbers and dis-
carded and replaced as need be.
If the garden design calls for a fence or trellis, one or more of
these striking roses can be trained on it at planting intervals of
eight feet. Very often a vigorous vine can be in the narrow space on
either side of the garage doors. When tied to horizontal wires it
covers, softens and adds interest to the gable end. The double yellow
Banksia is well adapted to this use.

Most of us have seen the delightful effect that can be attained
by planting vigorous climbing roses by pine trees so that the canes
may be secured to the tree trunks as they grow. Members of the
Noisette group are charming when grown in this way.
One of the most popular of garden appurtenances is the com-
bination gate and arbor with seats on either side. This structure, in its
many variations, lends itself to the planting of attractive climbing roses.
It displays them well and it permits easy maintenance.
A favorite way of growing choice garden plants is in the "standard"
form which the rosarian calls the "tree" form. Unfortunately. our
climate is not ideally adapted to this type of training, so that rose trees
are usually unsatisfactory here.
In a garden of formal design pillar roses are effectively em-
ployed. Posts of material and color that reflect the feeling of the









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


garden are set at strategic accent points, and on these posts are
trained climbing roses. By careful renewal pruning and tying, these
pillars are kept neat and compact. When they are in bloom, they
are very telling in the garden picture.
In the modern mode for white houses of brick or concrete block,
certain climbing forms are very effective espaliered against a garage
wall.


Reve D'Or, a climber of the Noisette group


WATERING
Watering is very important, as soil moisture must be abundant
to assure adequate growth. When there is no competition in the


t '-







FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 97

garden from roots of nearby trees, about one thorough watering each
week during dry weather will suffice. However, if roots from other
plants penetrate the soil of the rose garden, it may be necessary
to water oftener and some soils may require a daily application.
With certain clay soils that have a high water-holding capacity and
no outside root competition, less frequent irrigation may meet the
requirements of the plants. The grower must study the plant and soil
conditions and apply moisture as often as necessary to maintain ade-
quate growth and an abundance of bloom.
























Cherokee is well adapted for trellis or fence

In applying water it is better to flood the soil if possible, otherwise
use a good sprinkling system so as to give an even distribution over
the entire garden. Where the latter method is used a good type of
ordinary whirling lawn sprinkler will give satisfactory coverage if
it is set so as to water the entire area. It will be found convenient to
follow the practice of turning on the water in the morning after the
buds are cut, allowing it to run for as long a period as required.
The care of climbers does not differ greatly from that of bush
roses. With climbers the flowers are produced for show and are
borne on short stems on the canes, which are directed over and along
some type of support. Organic materials and commercial fertilizers
should be applied to meet the requirements of the climbing types at all
times.
PRUNING
The pruning of plants at time of setting has been discussed and
during the first year very little additional pruning will be required.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


In cutting the flowers there will be a certain amount of wood removed
and the stubs which are left should contain not less than two or three
vegetative buds and healthy leaves. If there is a tendency for the
plants to grow too rank, a certain amount of judicious heading back can
be practiced by pinching out the terminal buds.
After the first year, plants will continue to require adequate prun-
ing to produce by pinching out the terminal buds.
After the first year, plants will continue to require adequate pruning
to produce growth suitable for satisfactory cut flowers. This pruning,
which should be done during late Jaunary or early February, consists
in removing about half of the wood by cutting back the canes to an
outside vegetative bud at the proper location on the stem. All dead and
diseased canes should be cut out completely and under no conditions
should they be left in the garden. Climbing roses are pruned by the
renewal system. Each summer, after flowering, old unproductive canes
are cut out close to the ground and new canes of current season's growth
are trained to take their places.
Some dishudding will be required with certain varieties, if stems
containing *-.single flower bud are to be had. All lateral flower buds are
removed as'soon as they can be grasped between thumb and fore-finger.


COMMERCIAL GROWING

Usually there is a ready market for high quality rose buds on
long stems with healthy, attractive foliage. As a result, of this
demand, there are good possibilities for commercial production in the
vicinity of our larger towns.
In Florida it is common practice to purchase new rose bushes
each autumn as replacements for the stock that has become unpro-
ductive. Early orders for these plants are placed annually with the
large wholesale growers in northern or western Florida or eastern
Texas, so that shipment can be made as soon as the plants become
dormant in the fall.
As this is written florists in Florida favor the variety Editor
McFarland over all others for cutting. In addition, Radiance, Red
Radiance, Etoile de Hollande, Countess de Sastago, Better Times,
Texas Centennial and other varieties are grown in quantity.
A fertile, well drained location is important. Cow manure at
the rate of two to three tons per acre should be disced in at least
two weeks before planting. It is best to set the plants in rows three
feet apart spacing them one and one-half to two feet in the rows.
Mulching is not practicable for large areas, and so frequent applica-
tions of fertilizer and a limited amount of shallow cultivation should
be given. Cultivation may begin when signs of new growth appear








FLOWERING PLANTS GROWN IN FLORIDA 99

and a light stirring should be made at intervals to keep down weeds
and grass.
A suitable fungicide must protect the plants from blackspot at
all times. Fermate, Karbam, Bordeaux mixture, Flordo, 300 mesh
sulphur or one of the many proprietary rose sprays will give this pro-
tection, if it is carefully applied once every ten days during growing
weather.
At planting time, a handful of balanced commercial fertilizer
is dropped in the bottom of the hole and mixed with the soil, when
first flowers form a surface application at the rate of about 1,500
pounds to the acre is stirred in lightly. At intervals of two or three
weeks thereafter, additional light applications should assure con-
tinued growth and satisfactory production.


A productive rose garden


SUMMARIZED SUGGESTIONS
Locate the rose garden so that it receives at least five hours of
sun each day, and avoid trees and large shrubs.

Buy rose bushes of Number 1 grade that are budded or grafted
on a suitable stock.

Enrich the soil before planting.

Planting bush varieties in beds 18 to 24 inches apart each way, and
space climbers at least six feet apart.










100 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

To have ample buds of a given color for flower arrangements, set
several plants of a desired variety.

Plant as early during the dormant season as possible, setting at
the same level as the bushes stood in the nursery row.

Use a heavy mulch of some organic material

Give plenty of water and plant food. Fertilize several times during
the growing season. Remember that roses must grow to bloom.

Prune twice each season. Remove dead, infected and weak wood.
Give heaviest pruning when plants are dormant.

Dust or spray with a good fungicide and insecticide to control
diseases and insects.

Replace weak, unthrifty plants each dormant season.




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