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 Florida, land of health














Group Title: Bulletin New series
Title: The priceless dietetic value of Florida's tropical fruits
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014600/00001
 Material Information
Title: The priceless dietetic value of Florida's tropical fruits the citrus, the avocado, the papaya
Series Title: Bulletin New series
Alternate Title: Florida, land of health
Physical Description: 30 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1934
 Subjects
Subject: Fruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tropical fruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: "Address delivered by John Harvey Kellogg, at meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami Springs (Miami) Florida, June 1934."
Statement of Responsibility: by John Harvey Kellogg.
General Note: Running title: Florida's tropical fruits.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014600
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7075
ltuf - AMF8750
oclc - 28551847
alephbibnum - 002453443

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    Florida, land of health
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Full Text


-- .,- -- Z .--- ^
S'New Series Number 73.-


S TIhe Priceless Dietetic :
Value of Florida's

| Tropical Fruits
I The Citrus The Avocado The Papaya I
By
DR. JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG
|I Battle Creek, Michigan, and C:
SMiami Springs, Florida ce


At Meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society,
SMiami Springs (Miami), Florida,
June, 1934.

Ii I
FLORIDA, LAND OF HEALTH
Iq By
DR. JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG
(Reprint)


STATE OF FLORIDA
SDepartment of Agriculture
SNATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Tallahassee, Florida
I IO

--^O.- --5 -
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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES









Dietetic Value of Florida's
Tropical Fruits


Address Delivered by John Harvey Kellogg, at Meeting of
Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami
Springs, (Miami) Florida


Florida's unique climatic and soil conditions adapt it
to the cultivation of a very great variety of tropical as well
as subtropical fruits. In this respect it is unique. South
Florida is even more consistently tropical than Cuba. The
temperature is much more equable and extremes of tem-
perature less pronounced than in any other part of the
United States. This fact adapts it to the cultivation of ex-
otic fruits which thrive nowhere else in continental Ameri-
ca. I am informed by Dr. David Fairchild that at the
present time there are growing and fruiting in Florida not
less than 150 tropical fruits, less than half of which are
grown in any other state. Many of these are choice prod-
ucts which possess qualities which in time may give them
commercial value. The limits of this paper permit me to
discuss only those few of our choice tropical fruits, the
production of which have already become large and growing
industries, the citrus, especially the orange, graepfruit and
lemon, the avocado and the papaya.
Citrus Fruits
The United States possesses the advantage over all
other countries of comprising within its own continental
borders climatic and soil conditions adapted to the produc-
tion of the finest food products of both temperate and
tropical regions. Thanks to its peculiar relation to weather
making factors, a considerable part of the Florida peninsula
is like what one would expect to find in a bit of the tropics
which had been picked up and transported a few hundred
miles to the north. In circumscribed regions the avocada,
the papaya and the various varieties of citrus fruits grow
and flourish as in countries 10 degrees farther south' in
fact, under the magic touch and the preserving labors of
American horticultural experts, these fruits have been with-
in the short half century during which special attention
has been given to their culture here, so greatly developed
and improved that they have reached a degree of perfec-
tion which they have seldom elsewhere attained.








4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Through the growing of these choicest of tropical horti-
cultural products Florida is making and will continue to
make for ages to come its greatest contribution to the wel-
fare of our country and the world. The climatic advantages
enjoyed by the hundreds of thousands who annually seek
protection under these sunny skies from the killing Artic
blasts of the North are priceless, but they are small com-
pared with the benefits conferred by the use of its tropical
fruits upon millions who are denied the privilege of basking
in Florida sunshine and breathing its balmy air while winter
storms are devastating every other portion of the United
States.
The citrus has saved more human lives than has any
other fruit, perhaps more than all other fruits together.
Its life saving value is not a new discovery. More than 200
years ago, when scurvy was a scourge to which thousands
of sailors, soldiers and others confined to a monotonous
diet, annually fell victims, Kramer wrote, "If you have
oranges, lemons, citrons or their pulp and juice preserved-
in whey in a cask, so that you can make lemonade, or rather
give to the quantity of three or four ounces of their juice
in whey, you will, without other assistance, cure this dread-
ful disease."*
In 1804, the British government banished scurvy from
its navy by issuing rations of lemon juice, and since 1867
British shipmasters have been required by law in provision-
ing their ships to include an adequate quantity of lime or
lemon juice as a protection against scurvy; but only in
recent years has it become known that scurvy is not con-
fined to sailors, soldiers, prisoners and other isolated groups
of men, but is a widespread disease, a malady, in fact, which
in latent form affects more or less whole nations and espec-
ially the more civilized portions of the human race.
The Discovery of Vitamins
One of the most brilliant and life saving discoveries
ever made in relation to human nutrition and one in which
American investigators have played a very prominent part,
is the fact that in addition to the starch, protein, fats and
food minerals which by the marvelous alchemy of digestion
and the miraculous transfiguration called assimilation are
converted into human flesh, all wholesome foods contain
certain subtle substances known as vitamins, which serve
as catalysts, chemical bodies which by their mere presence,
*"The Vitamins" by Sherman and Smith, The Chemical Catalog Comp-
any, N3ew York.








FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS 5

even in exceedingly minute quantities, cause changes so
striking as to be quite unbelievable without the most incon-
trovertible proof. It is the absence of one of these chemical
prestidigitators, known as vitamin C, which gives rise to
scurvy, a disease in which all the vital functions fail, the
gums become sore, the teeth loosen and fall out, dropsy
develops and terrible ulcers appear at various parts of the
body, and finally death occurs.
When vitamin C is present, but in insufficient amount,
nutritive distriburbances appear, the nature and intensity
of which depend upon the degree of the deficiency.
Twenty years ago, Drs. Hess and Fish made a study
of the children of an orphan asylum where a large number
of the children were suffering from undoubted scurvy
caused by the use of sterilized milk. Vitamin C is easily
destroyed by heat. The children quickly recovered when
given small amounts of orange juice.
Millions of Americans Suffer from Scurvy
This experience led to extensive and thoroughgoing
research which has demonstrated the widespread prevalence
of scurvy not only in infants, but in young children and,
even in adults, due to the use of foods in which vitamin C
is naturally lacking or in which it has been largely or wholly
destroyed by cooking or other processes. It has been proven
that pasteurizing milk lessens its vitamin C content. Pres-
sure cooking destroys vitamin C. Prolonged fireless cook-
ing greatly lessens the vitamin C content of vegetables.
Oatmeal, cornmeal and other cereals contain no vitamin C.
The same is true of such dried legumes as peas, beans and
lentils. Meats of all sorts, fresh as well as smoked, salted
or canned, and also eggs, according to Sherman, contain
practically no vitamin C. It is evident, then, that the staple
foods in common use in America, bread, meats and break-
fast foods, contain practically no vitamin C. It is inevitable
that a large part of the population of the United States
must be suffering because of this deficiency.
The researches of Hess and many others have shown
that a deficiency of vitamin C causes an arrest of growth
in infants and young children. An infant that had been
fed to the age of 9 months on pasteurized milk and gruels
gained only half a pound in weight in 4 months, whereas
it should have gained nearly half a pound a week. When
given orange juice it began to gain at once and in a month
had added two pounds to its weight.








6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Modern research has thus shown that while the sev-
eral forms of scurvy are very rare, this disease in its mild
or incipient form is very common. Not only retarded
growth, but loss of appetite and other evidences of malnu-
trition are due to this cause, also anemia and pain or sore-
ness in the joints or muscles, and so-called growing pains.
Vitamin C is a product of plant growth. Its presence
in cow's milk is due to the fact that the cow feeds on green-
stuffs rich in this vitamin. Dutcher found that in summer
the milk of cows fed on grass contained three times as
much vitamin C as in winter. Meats of nearly all sorts
are almost wholly lacking in vitmin C. In the Artic regions,
the natives instinctively utilize every available source of
vitamin C. They regard as a great delicacy the half digested
moss which they find in the stomachs of the musk-ox and
deer which they kill, but get most of their vitamin supply
from the liver of the seal which stores vitamins, and which
they eat raw and frozen. Knud Rasmussen wrote in report-
ing his experience at the end of his trip through the North-
west Passage that when he caught sight of the first ship
he was on board in ten minutes and had his teeth sunk in
an orange, for which he had the most intense craving af-
ter having eaten raw seal livers for a whole year.
The primitive Eskimos seldom suffer from scurvy be-
cause they instictively take the utmost care to avoid the
cause. But through ignorance and lack of instictive guid-
ance millions of American men and women and especially
young children are continually suffering from the dwarf-
ing and weakening influence of vitamin C deficiency and
various forms of malnutrition, for which Florida offers in
its superior citrus fruits a sure and soverign remedy.
Florida Citrus Fruits May Save Americans from Becoming
a Toothless Race

Forty years ago, I discovered that people who had lost
their teeth had lost their gastric juice as well, and I once
greatly amused a convention of dentists by reading a paper
in which I presented evidence that decay of the teeth was
not a purely local disease but was a local symptom associat-
ed with other evidences of general physical deterioration,
and hence that the tooth brush and dentrifices and even
dentists could not be expected to save the race from ulti-
mately becoming toothless. All dental authorities admit
this to be true, and Howe and other eminent investigators
have shown by experiments upon animals that the teeth are







FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


profoundly influenced by the absence or deficiency of vita-
min C.
Mrs. Mellanby of London, England, a noted physiologist
and for many years widely known as a keen investigator
of nutrition problems, has recently published a final report
and summary of the results of an intensive study of the
causes of decay of teeth extending over more than 16 years,
the most exhaustive research of the sort which has ever
been undertaken. Examination was made of more than
30,000 teeth in situ and 200 microscopically and dietary
studies extending over 2 years were made involving over
400 children. One of the main conclusions reached and sup-
ported by convincing evidence is that errors in diet and
especially the too free use of cereals is a definite and pot-
ent cause of dental decay. Of course the injury is not due
to any thing which cereals contain, but to the absence of
the vitamin C which they all lack. And so while the use
of the tooth brush may retain its place as a wholesome
sanitary measure, the orange and its citrus cousins offer
real salvation from threatened racial toothlessness; and
the manufacturers of breakfast foods should put upon every
package the legend,
"An orange a day
Keeps the dentist away."
The curative value of orange juice was demonstrated
by Hanke in a research conducted in connection with the
Chicago Dental Research Club. The addition to the diet of
a pint of orange juice and the juice of one lemon daily was
found to cause prompt arrest of decay and marked im-
prvement in cases of pyorrhea with tightening of the
Icose teeth.
Citrus Fruits the Most Dependable Source of Vitamin C
Of course vitamin C is found in other foods besides
citrus fruits. Nearly all fresh fruits, such as apples, peaches,
cherries and berries of any sort contain vitamin C, as do
also fresh vegetables and especially such leafy vegetables
as cabbage, lettuce and greens; but the amount is variable,
changing very materially with the season and degree of ma-
turity, some vegetables, containing considerable vitamin C
when very young but little when fully mature. The vitamin
content in very many instances diminishes notably with pro-
longed storage. The vitamin content is also influenced by
the soil. But careful research has shown that oranges
and other citrus fruits are not subject to this variability in


7






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


vitamin C content so that orange juice and grapefruit juice
are stable and thoroughly dependable sources of this preci
cus food factor on which anxious mothers may always de
pend and certain to afford infants and young children th
protection which they require.
Orange and Grapefruit Juice Cure Anemia
Although dental decay is perhaps the most common
manifestation of latent scurvy, another almost equally pre
valent condition is anemia or impoverished blood. In
health survey which I made at the first Chicago exhibition
in which the blood of more than 6000 persons was tested
the average hemoglobin content was found to be only 8
per cent of the normal, 81 for males and 79 for females,
indicating an almost universal anemia Since "the blood is
the life," this means that average citizens are only four-
fifths alive and a very large minority are less than half
alive. These half-alive people are a heavy burden which
must be largely carried by the few who are possessed of
100 per cent red blood and are fully alive.
Another study made of 5000 school children reported
at the First Race Betterment Conference held at the Battle
Creek Sanitarium in January 1914, showed nearly all to be
anemic. The diet of the average American is deficient in
available iron, but the deficiency is not sufficient to account
for the almost universal anemia which exists. It is a valid
inference that the ironeation is not well utilized. A group
of eminent French scientists recently reported the discovery
that by the free use of fruit juices, especially orange, lemon
or grapefruit juice, the number of red blood cells and the
amount of hemoglobin may be rapidly increased. They very
justly attributed .the good results observed to the richness
of citrus fruits in vitamin C, which, although it contains no
iron itself, by the magic of its presence enables the blood
making organs to make use of the iron and copper which
are needed in the making of blood cells by the bone marrow
and other blood making structures. If every anemic per-
son in the United States could be induced to drink daily
three glasses of orange juice or an equivalent amount of
grapefruit juice or lemonade, the demand for calves' livers
would soon fall off and the number of deaths from neph-
ritis due to poisonous liver protein would likewise diminish.
Citrus Fruits An Efficient Remedy for Acidosis
Another and most important nutritional value of citrus
fruits is due to the large percentage of alkaline salts, chief-


8







FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


ly potash, which they contain. The body is constantly
making acids, the production of which is enormously in-
creased during work, especially during muscular activity.
For example, a sprinter produces when running, a dram
of lactic acid per second, or nearly half a pint of this strong
acid per minute, in addition to the great volume of car-
bonic acid gas which is eliminated through the lungs.

To neutralize and carry to the lungs this great amount
of acid, it is necessary that the blood should be alkaline
and that its alkalinity should be constantly maintained. The
necessary alkaline or basic elements must be obtained from
our foods. Unfortunately, many of our common foods con-
tain an excess of acids and so, when eaten lessen instead
of increasing the alkalinity of the blood. This is true of
all foods which leave an acid ash when burned. In the list
of acid-ash foods are found all the meats, eggs, the cereals,
and two or three vegetables. Two or three fruits also must
be put in this class because of unoxidizable acids which
they contain; but with these few exceptions all fruits and
vegetables are alkaline or basic-acid and when eaten in-
crease the blood alkalinity. Near the head of the list of
alkalinizing foods are found citrus fruits and fruit juices,
the most convenient and agreeable means of alkalinizing
the blood. Each pint of orange juice cohtains 13 .grains
of potassium, one of the most powerful and readily soluble
alkalies. Lemon juice contains 9 grains of the alkali to
the pint and grapefruit juice 7 grains. Some varieties of
citrus are much richer in alkali, the lime containing 24
grains and the sweet lemon 31 grains to the pound.

The potassium of orange juice is combined with citric
acid and so does not act as an alkili in the stomach, neutral-
izing the gastric juice and arresting digestion as do soda and
other alkalies. After the orange juice is absorbed in the
blood, the acid is oxidized and used as food the same as
starch or sugar, thus setting the alkali free to help alkali-
nize the blood and tissue fluids. In this way orange juice
combats acidosis, one of the most common predisposing
causes of both acute and chronic disease. An excess of acids
in the blood and tissue fluids lowers resistance to disease
and predisposes to colds, which cost the people of the United
States many millions of dollars annually. The common prac-
tice of dosing with soda to combat acidosis is objectionable.
Soda upsets gastric digestion and imposes an unnecessary
burden upon the kidneys.


9







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Acidosis leads to rheumatism, Bright's disease, prema-
ture old age, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, skin ma-
ladies, and various degenerative disorders. Its presents
is shown by excessive acidity of the urine, which is an ex-
tract of the tissues. Not infrequently the urine is found to
be 50 or even 100 times as acid as it should be. A pint or
two of orange juice daily will often cause complete disap-
pearance of the excess acidity in four or five days and with
the acidity will also disappear a host of disagreeable symp-
toms, such as headache, loss of appetite, soreness of the
muscles, neuralgic pains, nervousness, depression and a
host of other miseries.
Every year not less than 500,000 persons in this coun-
try die of chronic disorders in which chronic acidosis may
be an active or predisposing factors. No doubt the daily use
of orange juice might prove the means of saving many
thousands of those lives.
Besides a full assortment of vitamins, A. B, C, D, and
E, which are powerful nerve tonics, real vital stimulants,
which actually energize the nerves, orange juice contains
a notable amount of actual tissue building nourishment,
nearly one per cent of protein of the choicest sort (8%)
and 11.6% of invert sugar, similar in composition to honey,
but absolutely free from contamination of any sort and pre-
digested and so ready for immediate absorption and utili-
zation.
Orange and Grapefruit Juice are Liquid Foods
A glassfull (8 oz.) of orange juice contains 120 food
units. A few comparisons will give a clearer idea of its food
value.
Four glassfuls of orange juice equal in food units 3
glassfuls of milk.
Two glassfuls of orange juice equal three of skimmed
milk in food units.
One pint of orange juice more than equals in food units
1 pint of oysters or clams
1 pint of beef tea, chicken broth, or mock turtle soup.
1 pound of egg white
1 pint of red raspberries
11/4 pints of strawberries
3/4 pints oatmeal gruel


10









1 pound of carrots
1% pounds of cabbage
11/ pounds of turnips
V1 pound of green peas
11, pounds fresh peaches.
The delicious predigested nourishment afforded by
orange juice together with its rich store of vitamins explain
the remarkable refreshing qualities which make it a favor-
ite beverage the world over. Its remarkable properties en-
title it to a higher position than that of a mere palate tick-
ler. It is a life-saver and should replace a long list of harm-
ful beverages which are dispensed at soft drink counters
under various alluring titles, some of which promise false-
ly, "Rest you in 5 minutes," and only produce a drug euph-
oria through the poisonous effects of caffein while destroy-
ing the power of rest normally by natural sleep and caus-
ing chronic "nerve tire" and insomnia.
Orange Juice Should Replace Tea and Coffee
Orange juice or lemonade, hot or cold, may well re-
place those harmful poison-containing table beverages, tea,
coffee, cocoa and mate, all of which contain blood-pressure
raising caffein or its cousin thobromin. A government
bulletin warns the farmers against the use of cocoa resi-
dues as a food for cows because it lessened the flow of milk;
as food for fowls because it diminished egg production; as
fertilizer because it lessened soil fertility. Cocoa is just as
bad for children and nursing mothers as for chickens and
cows. Caffein is used medicinally to raise blood pressure.
One grain is a dose. A cup of tea or coffee contains 4 to 6
grains of this poisonous drug. Orange juice is not only
delectable and harmless, but a powerful nerve stimulant.
Its predigested food is ready for absorption and assimila-
tion and its vitamins feed the nerves and aid the digestion
of other foods.
Common Errors About Citrus Fru'ts
There are several popular errors which undoubtedly
to some degree detract from the universal popularity which
citrus fruits deserve, to correct which a definite effort
should be made. One of the most harmful of these is that
fruit acids tend to cause acidosis and rheumatism. This is
not only untrue, but the fact is the very opposite. This has
long been known to science, but the prejudice against the
use of acid fruits in rheumatism is so deeply seated little


11


FLORIDIA'S T'ROPI[CAL FRUITS'






12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

progress has been made toward its removal. There are sti
many physicians who advise against the use of lemon
grapefruit and even oranges in rheumatic affections at
in all conditions in which acids are known to be present
excess. The use of orange juice to the extent of one or tV
pints a day is one of the best known means of combat
acidosis.
Because milk curdles on the addition of lemon or orange
juice, many persons avoid the use of milk and citrus fru:
juices at the same meal. This is quite unnecessary since th
curdling of milk by an acid does not in the slightest degree
impair its quality or digestibility. The gastric juice itself
is highly acid and coagulation of the milk is the first ste
in its digestion. I learned many years ago that the digest
ability of milk is, in fact, increased by the addition of lemo
juice, as by this means fine curds are formed which ar
readily dissolved by the gastric juice, whereas the strong
gastric acid, especially in cases of hyperacidity, is likely t
produce large thought curds which are long retained in th
stomach. The addition of lemon and orange juice to th
milk is an excellent remedy in cases in which undigeste
curds are found in the stools.
Mixture of Citrus Fruits with Starchy Foods Not
Unwholesome
An error which in recent years has become quite pre
valent is the idea that oranges and grapefruit should no
be eaten at the same meal with starchy foods, such as breach
breakfast foods or potatoes. This error, I think, grew ou
of an observation made many years ago by Sir Willian
Roberts, an English physiologist, who discovered that cer
tain acids hinder the digestion of starch. He found tha
one part in 10,000 of oxalic acid, acid of pieplant, and on<
part in 2,000 of acetic acid, the acid of vinegar, would com
pletely arrest the salivary digestion of starch. From thi,
the erroneous conclusion was drawn that all food acid,
hinder starch digestion. Careful laboratory research,
have demonstrated that this is not true of the mild norma
food acids, such as the citric acid of the lemon and th<
orange and the malic acid of apples, but only applies to th<
strong unwholesome non-food acids, oxalic and acetic. Evei
lactic acid is free from objection on this ground.
Another erroneous idea is that fruit acids must b(
avoided in cases of hyperacidity or so-called sour stomach
the supposition being that fruit acids tend the excessive.






FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


secretion of acid by the stomach. The acidity of so-called
sour stomach is not due to fermentation. Fruit acids never
cause gastric irritation, but when the stomach and duoden-
um are hypersensitive as the result of irritation from the
use of mustard, pepper, pepper sauce, the excessive use of
salt, hot sauces and vinegar, the free use of cane sugar, con-
fectionery and other gastric irritants, concentrated acid
fruit juice may give rise to temporary discomfort, but
they neither cause nor aggravate the diseased condition.
In such cases the use of acid fruit juices may be restricted
temporarily till the existing irritation is relieved by remov-
al of the cause. Fluid of any sort, either with or without
acids, taken freely at meals, it is said by Pavlov, may cause
hyperacidity by overstimulating the gastric juices.
Orange Juice Excellent for Young Infants
Still another popular error is the idea that orange juice
should not be given to young infants. Hess has shown
that orange juice may be given in teaspoonful doses to in-
fants a month old or even younger not only without injury
but with great benefit. An infant three months old should
take regularly at least two tablespoonfuls of orange juice
daily.
The Grapefruit
Practically all that has been said in the foregoing pages
about the orange, applies -equally to the grapefruit. The
latter contains less acid than the lemon, less sugar than
the orange, and a smaller amount of solids. The grapefruit
also contains a little less of the vitamins A and C, but fifty
per cent more of precious blood-building iron.
The nutritional and refreshing qualities of this excel-
lent fruit entitle it to a place on every breakfast table in
America. Its free use would constitute an insurance against
rheumatism and other chronic disorders to which acidosis
is a predisposing cause.
Many persons prefer the grapefruit to orange because
of its pleasant acid flavor and its appetizing qualities.
The Lemon
This fruit leads all the members of the citrus family in
its richness in iron, of which it contains three times as
much as does the grapefruit.
The composition of lemon juice varies considerably, ac-
cording to the time of picking and the length of time the


13






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


fruit has been kept, together with the manner of keeping.
The chief constituent of lemon juice is citric acid, of which
the average lemon contains 7.5 per cent. A lemon picked in
April contains only about two-thirds as much acid as one
picked in November. From April on, the percentage of acid
steadily diminishes until by July there is little left, the
citric acid being converted into sugar (dextrone) and car-
bondioxide. This is due to the vital activities of the living
cells of the fruit. If oxygen is excluded, by varnishing the
fruit, the change may be prevented, as also to a large ex-
ten by cold storage.
Lemon juice also contains a notable amount of salts
(2 or 3 per cent) chiefly potash and phosphorous.
The percentage of potassium in lemon juice is greater
than in either apple juice or grape juice. This abundant
and unusual supply of food minerals makes the lemon an
important source of this highly essentials food principle,
and brings clearly to view the fact that the nutritive effect
of lemon juice is that of an alkali instead of an acid, as sup-
erficial knowledge would suggest.
It thus appears that the lemon is worthy of a much
larger place in our national dietary than it has heretofore
enjoyed.
The lime, the Persian lime, the kumquat, and the vari-
ous other varieties of the citrus family all share the extra-
ordinary vitrues of the orange and the lemon and will in-
crease in usefulness as they become known.
The Papaya
Its delicious, spicy flavor and its wholesomeness entitle
the papaya to a prominent place among our breakfast and
dessert fruits, but it is hardly to be expected that it will
fully meet the expectations of those who have read the
enthusiastic accounts of the fruit by some of the earlier
writers. Sturtevant's "Notes on Edible Plants" tell us that,
according to U. S. Allen, "The fruit is used extensively in
South Florida and Cuba for making tough meat tender.
The toughest meat is made tender by putting a few leaves
or green fruit of the pawpaw tree into the pot with the
meat and boiling. In a few minutes the meat will cleave
from the bone and be as tender as one could wish." A Mr.
Luger stated that "the leaves have the property of mak-
ing meat wrapped up in them tender" and, according to
.Brandis, "Meat becomes tender by washing it with water


14







FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


impregnated with the milky juice or by suspending the
joint under the tree." According to Williams, the Chinese
make use of the fruit "to soften the flesh of ancient hens
and cocks by hanging the newly killed birds in the tree or
by feeding them upon the fruit beforehand."
It is true that the milky juice of the green fruit or
stems of the papaya plant contain a digestive principle,
payotia, which acts upon protein in a manner similar to
pancreatin or pepsin; but this digestive action is not dis-
played under any of the conditions named in the above
fantastic descriptions, and no just claim can be made for
either the ripe fruit or its seeds as a digestant. This proper-
ty is possessed only by the milky juice of the green fruit.
When the rind of the green fruit is incised a milk-like juice
exudes which resembles in appearance the juice of milk-
weed, which contains a protein digesting ferment; but in
the process of ripening, this ferment disappears.
The extravagant claims made by many of 'hose who
have undertaken the exploitation of the fruit have no doubt
to some degree stood in the way of the progress of this ex-
cellent fruit in winning public favor.
Another serious obstacle which remains to be over-
come is the lack of standarization of the fruit as regards
quality. As is the case with the apple and many other
fruits, the papaya is not true to seed. One authority states
that from a hundred seeds one may hardly expect to get
more than a single plant producing really good fruit. With-
in recent years considerable advance has been made toward
standardization by a few careful growers, some of whom
are producing fruit of uniformly excellent quality, and
within a few years this obstacle will be overcome. When
this is accomplished, the next step will be to educate the
fruit consuming public concerning the special food values of
this excellent tropical fruit which presents in solid but
readily liquefiable form much the same kind of nutriment
found in the orange, although its vitamin C content is very
considerably less. However, this deficiency is compensated
for by the fact that it contains other vitamins lacking in
the orange.
Some years ago at the suggestion of Prof. Mendel of
Yale University, I sponsored a research by Blatherwick for
the purpose of determining the alkalizing effects of various
fruits by noting their influence upon urinary acidity. It
was soon discovered that while nearly all fruits lessen uri-


15







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


nary acidity, the cantaloupe was far more active than any
other.
In a recent feeding experiment in which I was efficient-
ly assisted by Maurice Howe, chemist, and Miss Angie Estill
and Mrs. Marie Allwardt, dieticians, I found that the papaya
is probably equal, if not superior, to the cantaloup as a
means of combating acidosis and is likely to prove much
more dependable than the spicy melon as a means of com-
bating our national acidosis because of its availability at
all seasons of the year. In this experiment two subjects
were placed upon a fixed dietary and the pH or acidity of
the urine accurately determined. No. 1 showed an acidity
of 80 times the normal (pH 4.8). The acidity of No. 2 was
100 times the normal (pH 4.7). Each subject ate daily in
addition to the fixed ration three pounds of papaya, in divi-
ded portions. By the third day the acidity of No. 1 had fal-
len from 80 times the normal to 12 and of No. 2 from 100
to 1, or normal.
During the last four years in the treatment of sev-
eral hundred patients suffering from various forms of
chronic disease, I have made large use of Florida's tropical
fruits and found them invaluable aids in combating the
various nutritive disorders generated by the deficiencies and
redundancies of the current American diet.
Citrus Fruits Correct Injurious Effects of Bread and
Meat Diet
The importance of this property of the papaya will be
appreciated when it is realized that practically the whole
American nation is suffering seriously from the excessive
use of acid-ash foods. McCollum and Sherman have for years
been uttering warning against the ill effects of the too
exclusive bread and meat diet of the average American.
The fact that the papaya as well as the orange is an effi-
cient antidote for this acid poisoning, ought to give it a
large place in the American bill of fare, since the disaster-
ous results of a national endemic of acidosis are becoming
more and more evident in the yearly increase of the mort-
ality rates of heart affections, Bright's disease and other
degenrative disorders.
The Avocado
Of all edible fruits, the avocado stands preeminent as
a source of concentrated nutriment adapted to human use.
With the exception of vitamin C, the avocado contains


16










every element required for human sustenance, and vitamin
C is present in superabundance in the orange which flourish-
es beside it in South Florida, and in its luscious fruit pro-
vides the needed complementary vitamin, together with
the sugar needed to balance the avocado's surplus fat. Half
a good hard shell avocado and four or five good sized or-
anges supply adequate nourishment for a substantial meal
and a royal feast.
The avocado contains more fat than any other fruit
except the olive, and its fat is of the highest quality, wholly
free from the unpleasant butyric acid with which many fats
are contaminated, and containing a sufficient amount of
vitamin A to maintain high resistance against bacterial
infection, a quality possessed by few vegetable fats and
lacking in olive oil. Some varieties of the fruit, especially
those of Guatemalan origin, contain 25 to 30 per cent of
fat, so much in fact that they are often used by the natives
of Guatemala like butter as a spread for bread. The Cuban
varieties of avocados contain only about half as much fat
as the rough skin fruits of Guatemalan origin.
The carbohydrate content of the avocado is an invert
sugar such as is usually found in fruits and flowers and is
gathered by bees to form honey. This sugar needs no di-
gestion, being ready for utilization as soon as absorbed.
The protein of the avocado is the same as the potato
and nearly double that of the banana and is of the finest
quality, much superior to the protein of bread and other
cereal foods. Its composition is almost identical with that
of milk. In fact, the pulp of the fruit is so free from fiber
that it forms with water a fine emulsion which closely re-
sembles milk in consistency and appearance, and with the
exception of an excess of fat and the lack of vitamin C may
serve as a very satisfactory substitute for dairy milk. Pro-
posed thus, the avocado may be given safely to young in-
fants and to the feeblest invalid.
The gustatory and nutrient porperties of the avocado
entitle it to a large place in human dietaries. Instead of
appearing only on rare occasions as at present and as an
expensive luxury except in localities near where it is grown,
the avocado should become a staple factor in the American
bill of fare. In composition it more nearly resembles a nut
than a fruit proper, and like the nut may be properly re-
garded as a vegetable meat, not as a substitute for meat,
but as one of the original protein and fat rich products


FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS~


17







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


which made up the bill of fare of primitive man when, ac-
cording to Prof. Ami of Montreal, Prof. Elliott of Oxford
and other paleontologists, not only man but all other land
animals were exclusively plant eaters.
The Avocado Is Vegetable Meat
Prof. H. C. Sherman in his book, "Chemistry of Food
and Nutrition," suggests that meat should be regarded as
the substitute rather than these fine original food prod-
ucts especially adapted by the low content and high quality
of their protein to serve the nutritive needs of HOMO
SAPIENS as well as his forest relatives, the anthropoids,
who are held by instinct to the original bill of fare assigned
to them and other primates, but from which man, resenting
the guidance of instinct, has incontinently wandered away.
This is a matter of. grave importance in relation to the avo-
cado industry! for if this fruit is to occupy the major place
in the American dietary to which its qualities entitle it,
room must be made for it. That is, if Americans are to eat
more avocados, they must eat less of something else. and
the things to be omitted from the menu must naturally be
those of similar composition. Meats and dairy products are
the only class of foods of which fats and protein are the
chief constituents. It is not suggested that a: drive should be
made against any class of foods, but the people have a right
to full information concerning the merits and the demerits
of the various foodstuffs purveyed to them, and when this
is' brought to them in a campaign of education, they will
make such use of it as will create for the avocado a large
and growing demand in all the markets of the land. Milk
is of course needed for its lime content.
Misleading Information Should Be Corrected
In the marked tendency of meats to acidify the blood
and tissue fluids is found a strong biologic objection to the
free use of flesh foods in the dietary. A full appreciation
of the influence of flesh foods upon nutrition and the risks
attending their use in general will lead to their elimination
from the diet altogether. The strenuous efforts being made
recently by the great packing companies to increase the
consumption of meat by an "Eat-More-Meat Campaign,"
although professing an altruistic interest in the physical
welfare of the American people, is purely commercial in its
aims and must be regarded as an unscrupulous attempt to
exploit the ignorance of the public in matters pertaining to
human nutrition. Fortunately, the effort thus far has shown_


18






FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


no marked evidence of success and it is gratifying to note
that it has not received support and encouragement from
any physiologist of established standing.
All physiologists are agreed that the highest degree
of physical vigor and efficiency may be maintained on a
diet which excludes flesh foods and physiologists the world
over are unanimous in advising a curtailment rather than
an increase in meat consumption. Sherman quotes with ap-
proval the statement of Tigerstedt that the extractive sub-
stances found in meat-urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatine,
etc.-may produce disorders of one kind or another in the
body. Says the Scandinavian physiologist, "The metabolism
might also take an abnormal or unfavorable form if the
fluids of the body were flooded with too much protein,"
and Professor Sherman adds, "This moderate and conserva-
tive warning against too free use of meat as food was
written, it is important to remember, in a Scandinavian
textbook, and was therefore addressed to those whole aver-
age rate of meat consumption was less than half as much
as ours."
The high food value of the avocado is shown by its
calory content of 73 calories per ounce, nearly 3 times that
of the banana, 50 per cent more than that of an equal
.weight of beef-steak or sweetbreads, 3 times that of fish,
such as bass, trout, or pickerel, and 5 times that of oysters.
An ounce of avocado pulp has a calory value of 73 of
which 86 per cent is fat of the finest quality. This is more
than the same weight of egg, more than ten times the food
value of an ounce of beef juice, 50 per cent more than that
of round steak, six times the value of clam chowder, more
than twice that of chicken broilers or boneless codfish, and
nearly twice that of the famous fish, pompano.
In quality the avocado is infinitely superior because
of its freedom from bacterial infection, while fresh and
smoked meats of all sorts are always swarming with colon
germs identical in character with those that are always
found in the colon. All slaughtered animals are infected
with colon germs during the slaughtering. Not infrequently,
in long hung meats the infection becomes so intense that
there may be counted more colon germs in a bit of liver or
a Hamburger steak than are found in the fresh droppings
of animals. To this source of infection may be traced appen-
dicitis, colitis, duodentitis and other intestinal disorders.
No germs at all are to be found in the avocado, and when


19





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


eaten it resists to a marked degree, as do all vegetable pro-
teins, the attacks of putrefactive and other disease produc-
ing bacteria.
Prof. Newburgh, of Michigan University has demon-
strated that all meats contain a considerable proportion, 25
per cent or more, of toxic proteins which when fed to mice
produce acute inflammation of the kidneys and death. Dr.
Hindhede of Copenhagen, Food Commissioner of Denmark,
at the Race Betterment Congress held at Battle Creek,
Michigan, a few years ago, presented statistical evidence
that the death rate of Bright's disease of the kidneys is
three times as great in this country as in Denmark, which
fact he attributed to the much smaller per capital consump-
tion of meat in Denmark than in this country.
Avocado Eaters Will Live Longer
Dr. Arthur Hunter, actuary of the New York Life In-
surance Company, in a work on blood pressure, shows that
the Chinese, who eat little or no meat, have a blood pres-
sure 10 points lower than the average in this country. He
referred to the fact that the several hundred young women
students of Battle Creek College, where meat is not eaten,
have blood pressure 10 points lower than that of other
young women college students, and expresses the opinion
that the lower blood pressure will increase longevity.
The avocado possesses merits of an extraordinary
character. For purity, wholesomeness, ease of digestibility
and adaptation to human needs, it has few rivals and none
that can fill its place. I fully believe that in the not remote
future it will play as important a part in feeding the Ameri-
can people as does the orange at the present time. It is safe
to predict that when this happy era arrives, there will be
reported by the Census Bureau a notable lowering of the
death rate, an increase of centenarians and a considerable
lessening of the mortality from heart disease, which now
claims annually more than 500,000 victims and perhaps
also a lessening.of the mortality from cancer and diabetes.
All three of these grave maladies are now claiming annual-
ly scores of thousands of victims and the rate of increase
is accelerating. The avocado may prove to be a potent factor
in solving national health problems which for years have
baffled the ablest medical experts.
Dietary Uses of Florida Fruits
As dietary foods, citrus fruits with the avocado and.
the papaya fill a most important place and meet certain


20






FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS


important dietetic indications more satisfactorily than do
any other products. I will mention briefly some of these
and in so doing I am glad to be able to speak from prac-
tical experience. For many years I have wished for an op-
portunity to make use in a large clinical way of the special
therapeutic advantages offered by the genial climate of this
region as well as of its delicious tropical fruits. Four years
ago the opportunity materialized in the establishment of
the Miami-Battlecreek Sanitarium where I and my col-
leagues have had a good chance to test the virtues of citrus
fruits, papaya and avocados in the treatment of a large
variety of acute and chronic conditions, chiefly of the latter
sort.
In acute digestive disorders I find the avocado a most
excellent food remedy. Its blandness is comforting to the
hypersensitive surfaces of the stomach and duodenum and
its abundant vitamins reanimate the inflamed and crippled
cells.
As liquid nourishment the avocado is superior to milk
in that it does not form curds and also because it is abso-
lutely sterile, while milk at the best contains hundreds,
often many thousands, of putrefactive and other obnoxious
germs.
An orange or two half an hour before retiring and
again on rising will in many cases induce a bowel movement
night and morning. A third daily movement is desirable.
The orange, the papaya and the avocado are efficient aids
in changing the intestinal flora to combat autointoxication,
colitis and biliousness. They are far superior to any mouth
lotion or remedies for "halitosis," by inducing the disap-
pearance of intestinal putrefactions, the real cause of a
coated tongue and a bad breath.
In cases of hyperacidity with sour stomach, use well
ripened papaya with the avocado as a staple diet, avoiding
meats and condiments of all kinds and greatly restricting-
the use of salt. When the tongue is coated and the stools
highly putrid, as is usually the case, it is necessary to
change the intestinal flora, that is, to suppress intestinal
putrefaction, by the free use of lactose or Lacto-Dextrin.
In achylia, take several glassfuls of orange juice daily.
Always take a glassful half an hour before eating to cleanse
the stomach.
In cases of duodenitis, gall bladder disease, and duo-
denal ulcer, the papaya and the avocado are most appropri-


21.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ate foods because they are bland and soothing to the sensi-
tive membrane and pass quickly into the intestine.
Orange juice is a most excellent vehicle for Lacto-
Dextrin when an attempt is being made to change the
flora, to clear the tongue and to suppress intestinal putre-
faction.
The avocado, especially the Guatemalan varieties, is a
highly appropriate food for cases of diabetes because of
its large fat and small carbohydrate content.
In cases of arteriosclerosis, orange juice may be freely
used with advantage because of the pronounced acidosis
which usually accompanies this condition.
In cases of Bright's disease, orange juice, the papaya
and the avocado are all useful, the avocado capacity as a
staple food because of its small protein content with none
of the poisonous extractives always present in flesh foods
as shoWn by Newburgh and others.
As a food beverage in fevers, orange juice has no equal.
It supplies exactly the right kind of nourishment in the
best possible form. Here is an excellent formula: To two
quarts of orange juice add the juice of three lemons and a
quart of water. Sweeten with beta-lactose (known com-
mercially also as B-Lac), the improved form of milk sugar,
a tablespoonful for each glassful, added just before taking
Give at frequent intervals, usually every hour or half hour
when patient is not asleep.
In infectious fevers, such as measles, whooping cough,
scarlet fever, typhoid and flu, orange juice should be used
very freely and may be made to serve a useful purpose as
a vehicle for lactose, B-Lac or Lacto-Dextrin, excellent
means of changing the flora and at the same time supply-
ing the carbohydrates needed to support the patient.
For a person suffering from a hard cold, an attack
of flu, pneumonia, malarial or typhoid fever, or an intesti-
nal disturbance, this orange ration affords most admirable
nourishment and greatly facilitates recovery. It should
wholly displace beef tea, bouillon, chicken, oyster and ani-
mal broths of all sorts. The late Dr. Austin Flint discovered
that beef tea has the same composition as urine and an
eminent French physician describes it as a "solution of
poisons." Orange juice is a divine nectar concocted by the
sunshine which carries healing magic in every drop.
The papaya and orange juice are an excellent combi-


22









nation for use in colds. Twelve or 15 oranges a day with a
couple of medium sized papayas will soon dissipate a cold.
In reducing weight, care must be used to supply a
liberal amount of vitamins to prevent a nervous break-
down. The papaya is well adapted to such a use and should
be used daily in liberal quantities. It is well adapted to the
so-called mono-diet plan of feeding in obesity.
In cases of malnutrition, each member of the health
building trio, orange juice, papaya and avocado may con-
tribute actively to the reconstruction process.
In cases of sinusitis, in addition to suitable local treat-
ment, the papaya and the avocado aid in building up the
vital resistance and so preventing the disease from becom-
ing chronic. The late Dr. Stucky, of Lexington, Kentucky,
demonstrated the curability of sinusitis in the incipient:
state by changing the intestinal flora. Orange juice with
lactose or B-Lac in liberal doses is an excellent means of
accomplishing this.
The free use of orange juice is a far better means of
combating bad breath, or so-called halitosis, than any of
the widely advertised mouth lotions. The source of bad
breath is not the mouth but the colon. Eating six or eight
oranges a day or drinking several glasses of orange juice,
with the use of three or four ounces of sugar of milk-beta
lactose (B-Lac)-and the adoption of a meatless diet will
lessen the putrefaction which is the source of the noisome
aromas which find exit through the mouth after having
been absorbed from the colon and circulated throughout the
body.
In Graves' disease or exophthalmic goiter, there is al-
ways need for changing the intestinal flora to suppress in-
testinal putrefactions and hence the value of orange juice,
the papaya and the avocado, each of which contributes use-
fully to this end.
Feeble invalids and elderly persons are greatly profited
by the free use of orange juice and papayas because of
their superior nutrient properties, the ease with which they
are given, and the small demands which they make upon
the feeble digestive organs.
The lives of thousands of young infants who are sen-
sitized to milk may be saved by the use of an emulsion pre-
pared from the papaya used with or without soybean milk.
Orange juice is of course needed to supply vitamin C.


FLORIDA'S TRCOPICAL; FRUITS


23-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The avocado, the papaya and the orange are all valu-
able sources of iron of the highest quality and may render
service whenever a blood building diet is indicated. Their
rich store of vitamins promotes digestion and assimilation,
while the predigested nutriment which they supply is a
tissue builder of first quality.
The value of a food as a source of iron does not de-
pend altogether on the amount of its iron content. Tw
other important factors must be considered: viz: the quali-
ty of the iron presented and the amount of iron in propor-
tion to the total food value or calory content. For example
a pound of beefsteak contains four and a half times as much
iron as a pint of orange juice, but the iron of the beefsteak
is of inferior quality because it has been once used in ani-
mal life and is of the sort which the body throws away.
In other words, it is second hand iron and like second hand
goods in general is not first class. One can easily drink
several pints of orange juice a day, and so can actually and
without inconvenience ingest more iron in this liquid form
than could be easily eaten in the form of meat. Orange
juice contains almost nothing but an exceptionally whole-
some sugar which is ready for immediate absorption and
use, whereas the beefsteak is chiefly protein which must
be digested and may easily do much harm by over taxing
the liver and kidneys. It has been pointed out by Sherman
that animals that have been made anemic by bleeding re-
cover more rapidly when fed foods rich in iron of plant
origin than when given an equal amount. of iron of muscle
meat origin.
The iron of all citrus fruits is of most excellent quality
and the free use of oranges, lemons and grapefruit is a far
better means of combating ordinary anemia than are liv-
er and meats of any sort and should always be used in cases
of pernicious anemia in connection with the liver extract
now universally used in preference to liver. The appended
table shows the iron content of Florida's tropical fruits
and for comparison, some of the more common food staples.
From the above facts it is evident that there is a large
place on the American table waiting for the papaya and the
avocado and a larger place for the Florida orange.
In conclusion permit me to offer the suggestion that a
most convincing argument in behalf of the superior merits
of Florida's delicious tropical fruits as well as its incom-
parable climate would be the example of the great body


24







FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS 25


of people who compose the citizens of this state practicing
and profiting by the recommendations made to other peo-
ple. In other words, let us practice what we preach. And
let us in addition respect all the canons of normal, physi-
ologic living. Florida ought to be foremost in the ranks
of those who stand for health through temperate, sane or
biologic living. The balmy air of Florida will do little good
if inhaled through a cigar or a cigarette. Orange juice will
render no service if mixed with toddies or cocktails. Pap-
ayas and avocados will not antidote the toxic effects of put-
rescent meats or stomach blistering condiments. Florida's
precious contributions to a biologic bill of fare must be sup-
plemented by observance of the whole code of physiologic
living to validate their health promoting potencies.
A great drive, persistently pushed, to get Floridians
to drink orange juice and eat papayas and avocados as we
recommend the people of other states to do and to live
temperately and wholesomely, ought to result in the course
of a few years in making the people of this state so notably
superior to the people of other parts of the country in free-
dom from disease, vigor, endurance, as well as in physical
appearance, that the whole country would be eager to join
the Florida procession toward race betterment through eat-
ing its choice products and basking in its sunshine.


PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION AND) FOOD VALUE OF SOME OF
FLORIDA'S TROPICAL FRUITS
Food Units
Carbohy- Acid Min- Calories
Water Protein Fat drate (Citric) erals Iron per oz.
Orange 87.2 0.9 0.2 10.6 0.7 0.50 .00052 14.4
Orange Juice 90.0 9.0 1.2 .00024 15.0
Grapefruit 89.0 0.5 0.2 10.0 1.2 0.40 .00030 12.5
Grapefruit Juice 90.0 6.7 1.4 0.54 8.8
Lemon 89.3 0.9 0.3 7.8 5.1 0.54 .00060 12.5
Lemon Juice 89.4 2.3 6.0 .00015 8.0
Lemon Peel 87.5 .00075
Lime 86.0 0.8 0.1 0.5 5.9 0.80 8.4
Lime Juice 91.3 0.1 0.3 7.7 0.40 7.1
Pineapple 93.3 0.4 0.2 13.0 0.7 0.40 .00037 16.6
Pineapple Juice 86.2 11.8 1.0 14.5
Avocado 64.4 1.7 26.4 3.3 1.40 .00057 73.0
Papaya 88.7 0.6 0.1 9.0 0.60 11.3
Mango 81.4 0.7 0.2 16.2 0.5 0.48 21.0
Banana 74.8 1.2. 0.2 22.4 0.84 .00064 2S.0
Guava 80.6 1.0 0.6 11.0 0.62 0.70 17.0






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FLORIDA, LAND OF HEALTH


By
DR. JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG

Battle Creek, Michigan, and
Miami Springs, Florida

The World Is Just Beginning to Realize Inestimable Value
of Florida's Climate; Within Next 25 Years It
Should Be Most Popular of All States

LORIDA has a great future. Within the next 25 years,
probably in less time than that, it will be the most
popular of all the states since it possesses health-pro-
-moting and life-lengthening climate qualities not found so
highly developed nor in such well-balanced combination in
Jany other state. Indeed, after personally visiting and care-
tfully studying most of the great health resorts of the world,
and thoroughly informing myself concerning those which
I have not visited, I feel no hesitation in saying that Flor-
ida's climate is unique and probably the finest in the world
ifor promoting and prolonging life and health.
The protection of the Gulf Stream gives it a winter tem-
perature 10 to 15 degrees warmer than that of other sections
of the same latitude, while its peninsular form and the cool-
ing breezes which sweep over it from every direction except
the north insure a cooler summer than is to be found in
any other sea level region in the United States. The
weather bureau records show a summer temperature in
South Florida (Miami) so high as 94 degrees but once in
20 years. No more than three or four times a year does
the temperature at Miami reach so high as 93 degrees.
And sunshine is almost perpetual. In a large part of the
State there is sunshine practically every day of the year
and the temperature of the air is rarely low enough to
require artificial heat, even in midwinter. A notable climatic
quality is the small difference between the day and night
temperatures, which is rarely so much as 20 degrees, often
not more than 6 to 10 degrees.


.26


--








FLORIDA, LAND OF HEALTH


These climatic qualities are worth more to Florida than
coal or iron, or gold mines, oil deposits or similar natural
resources, for the reason that they are a monopoly which
the State may enjoy for all time and can never be taken
away, whereas diamond mines and gas wells sooner or
later become exhausted. Florida's climatic advantages are
a priceless natural endowment of which she can never be
deprived and which will endure without depreciation for
all time. Florida's assets are its climate, its sunshine, its
amazingly pure air, and its equable temperature. These
are commodities of inestimable value which the world is
just beginning to appreciate.
In Northern States, to say nothing of other countries,
there are millions who are suffering from disease and
dropping into premature graves who might be restored
to health by Florida sunshine, or enabled to live comfort-
able and normal lives for many years in spite of their
ailments.
In the United States; 300,000 die annually because of
diseased hearts or arteries, and for every one of these
there are ten more suffering from these maladies, an ag-
gregate of 3,000,000, half of whom might be saved by the
aid of Florida sunshine and the opportunity for out-of-
door living which this peerless climate affords. Professor
Plesch, of the University of Berlin, one of the world's
most eminent clinicians, has shown that a large proportion
of persons suffering from these diseases, usually regarded
as incurable, may be cured by fresh air, sunshine, rest,
proper diet and right living habits. I, myself, have seen
hundreds of persons suffering from these maladies snatched
away from the hands of the undertaker and given many
long years of comfortable, happy and useful life.
More than 100,000 persons die annually in this country
from Bright's disease, and a million persons are on the
road to the cemetery by this route. Extremes of heat and
cold are deadly to these persons with damaged kidneys, a
large proportion of whom might more than double. their
longevity by the aid of Florida's weather equanimity.
The United States loses more than 100,000 of its citizens
annually through pneumonia, a cold weather disease. In
January, February and March the New York Times often
publishes nearly a page of notices of the death of eminent
people, most of whom might have remained alive for many
years in Florida, but lacked the stamina to withstand the


27








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


attack of the pneumconi-. germ when their resistance was
-weakened by northern wii er hardships.
Twenty-two thousand die '.--ually of diabetis in spite
of insulin, and, according to Joslyn, a million more are
on the road to the same exit, more than half of whom
might in this climate, by the aid of Florida's wonderful
citrus products and miracle-working sunshine, be enabled
to double their longevity and in many cases to dispense
with insulin through the special dietetic advantages which
this region affords.
And there are several million victims of rheumatism, in
its various forms, to whom cold and temperature changes
bring crippling tortures, a large share of whom might find
deliverance from their sufferings through the warm, heal-
ing rays of Florida sunshine.
And, according to carefully considered estimates of sta-
tistical experts, not less than 50,000,000 suffer annually
from that most common of all infections, the common cold,
a disease which owes its origin to indoor confinement and
lack of the vitalizing influence of the ultra-violet rays.
In the northern parts of the United States the little sun-
shine which appears during the winter months contains
scarcely a trace of the essential ultra-violet rays, which
in Florida sunshine are always present in abundance.
Then, too, there is tuberculosis, which a quarter of a
century ago was "captain of the men of death," now ranks
fifth in the list of great destroyers in this country, and
might be made to disappear from the mortality lists.
There is that most formidable enemy of life and health,
senility, or old age, formerly regarded as a physiologic
state, but now known to be a disease against which one
may take precautions, the same as against smallpox or in-
digestion.
In ancient Rome the home of every citizen had a solar-
ium and Pliny, a naturalist and commander of the Roman
fleet, tells of his friend Firpo who kept himself young by
taking daily sun baths; and history tells us that the mes-
senger who was sent to him with an order to go with his
fleet to the relief of Pompeii and Herculaneum at the time
of the great eruption of Vesuvious which buried them, found
him taking his usual daily sun bath.
In less than a hundred years, the average length of life
in America has risen from 40 to 60 years, a gain of 50 per-


28








FLORIDA, LAND OF HEALTH 29

cent. A boy born today has 60 years ahead of him. But
this increase applies only to the young. The longevity
of persons past middle age has increased only 36 days
instead of 20 years, and in the case of persons past 60 there
has been an actual decrease. In other words, we are suf-
fering from an epidemic or endemic of old age. Old Father
Time is gaining on us. The best way to escape him is to
flee to Florida. Thousands of persons have found rejuve-
nation in the biologic out-of-door life, for which this fa-
vored region offers the finest opportunity in the world.
One evidence of this remarkable vitalizing influence of
the climate is an observation frequently made by smokers.
I have often heard this remark: "I can smoke more in
Florida than I could at home in the North without feeling
hurt by it." The reason is that the vitalizing sunshine
enables the body to tolerate a large amount of nicotine, so
the smoker has his choice to smoke twice as much or live
twice as long.
When the merits of Florida's climate as a means of
combating old age come to be known and appreciated,
millions of wealthy Americans who have retired from their
business or professional activities will find in the pellucid
atmosphere, health-promoting sunshine and tropical luxuri-
ance of Florida a refuge where the old man with the sickle
may be held at bay far beyond the average longevity fore-
cast. I do not know of another place in all the world where
a person past middle life who wants to prolong his existence
to the utmost limit can enjoy so favorable an opportunity
for attaining his goal. Florida is destined to become the
most popular winter resort in the world when its merits
.are fully understood. I received a few days ago a telephone
call from London from a wealthy Englishman who will be
bringing his family here shortly instead of going to Monte
,Carlo, where for many years his winters have been spent.
The real estate boom gave Florida a great boost in de-
velopment and prepared the way for the next thing in
order, a great health boom. If you will get your Legislature
to appoint a commission authorized to make a health survey
of all Florida, to establish thorough-going health inspection
in the public schools and to organize throughout the State
a real health campaign, you may prepare the way for a
boom that will not burst, but will grow from year to year
until your State becomes known the world over for its
achievements. It will be necessary to set your doctors and
other scientific experts at work collecting scientific data.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


There are already in this State thousands of persons
who have been rescued from the torturing clutches of rheu-
matism, who have found relief from high blood pressure;
who have been cured of lung tuberculosis or joint tubercu-
losis,.and who have found renewed youth and vigor througti
the healing virtues of Florida air and sunshine. Through
the co-operation of the medical profession the actual facts
in relation to all these individual experiences could be col
elected and validated and scattered broadcast as proofs of
what Florida climate can do.
Laws should be passed requiring every hotel, apart
ment house, hospital, asylum and every college or school
house to be provided with facilities for sun bathing anr
out-of-door exercise. Physical perfection contests in schooL.
and at county fairs should create at least as great an in
terest in the development of superior boys and girls ant
splendid men and women as in the production of fin:
horses, cattle, pigs and chickens. By proper effort, th.
whole State might be raised to a high pitch of enthusiasm
to make the people of Florida the healthiest and the long
est lived people in the world. Carefully garnered statistic:
would soon produce indubitable evidence of a gain in thi
direction, and such testimony in support of the claim'
made for Florida would be unimpeachable. If the peopi
of this region will join in a great health boom, it will pt
Florida on the map as the health center of the world'
which it may be and will be if its great health possibilities:
are utilized and properly exploited.


30




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