• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Market hints
 Prices of poultry and eggs and...
 Marketing eggs
 Truck buyers
 Average price
 U. S. grades for eggs
 Eggs production in Florida
 Candling eggs
 Terms defined
 Chart of U. S. standards for individual...
 Poultry marketing methods
 Cooperative poultry sales
 The turkey market and grades of...
 Statistical data














Group Title: Bulletin new Series
Title: Marketing Florida poultry and eggs
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014598/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marketing Florida poultry and eggs
Series Title: Bulletin new Series
Physical Description: 35 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Risher, F. W ( Francis Washington )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1940
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Eggs -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.W. Risher.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 1940."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014598
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7072
ltuf - AMF9712
oclc - 41483311
alephbibnum - 002454399

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Market hints
        Page 6
    Prices of poultry and eggs and the care of eggs on the farm
        Page 7
    Marketing eggs
        Page 8
    Truck buyers
        Page 9
    Average price
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    U. S. grades for eggs
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Eggs production in Florida
        Page 18
    Candling eggs
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Terms defined
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Chart of U. S. standards for individual eggs
        Page 25
    Poultry marketing methods
        Page 26
    Cooperative poultry sales
        Page 27
    The turkey market and grades of dressed poultry
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Statistical data
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text
New Series


MARKETING

FLORIDA POULTRY

and EG6S



By F. W. RISHER, SPECIALIST
State Marketing Bureau

1111




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


June, 1940


1~---I-- ----PL-------------- - -- ~-- --
t r i


No. 72




New Series


MARKETING

FLORIDA POULTRY

dnd EGGS


By F. W. RISHER, SPECIALIST
State Marketing Bureau
*--





DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner


June, 1940


No. 72






CONTENTS

Page
Market Hints-------------- 6

Prices of Poultry and Eggs ------ 7

Care of Eggs on Farm -------- 7

Marketing Eggs------------- 8

Truck Buyers---------- 9

Average Price----------------_ ----------------------------------- 10

Egg Production in Florida ----- 18

U. S. Grade for Eggs ------ 15

Candling Eggs ----------19

Terms Defined----------- 21

Chart of Standards ------------ 25

Poultry Marketing Methods --------- 26

Co-operative Poultry Sales ------ 27

The Turkey Market-- ----------------------- 28

Grades of Dressed Poultry --------28

Statistical Data------------------- 33






MARKETING

FLORIDA POULTRY

dnd EGGS

MARKET HINTS
Good quality eggs is not an accident but the result of care-
ful management. When an egg is laid by a normal, healthy
hen it is a perfect food, provided she has had a balanced
ration and good water from clean vessels.

GOOD PRODUCTION PRACTICES
1. Keep strong, healthy, vigorous stock.
2. Gather eggs twice a day.
3. Cool the eggs before casing. Pack small end down.
Hold in a cool, moist place like a cellar free from strong
odors.
4. Never produce fertile eggs except for hatching.
5. Prevent dirty eggs by having clean nests and clean
houses. Confine layers when yards are muddy.
6. Feed properly.
7. Cull out hens laying thin shelled or misshaped eggs.
GOOD MARKET PRACTICES
1. Always grade or sell to some one who will grade and
pay for eggs on a graded basis.
2. Pack eggs in clean, strong cases with new flats and
filters.
3. Sell eggs twice a week or more often if economically
possible.
4. Candle eggs before shipping and eliminate defective
eggs.
5. Pack one color to the case.
6. Keep very large or thin shelled eggs at home. They
often break in transit.
7. Make the package neat and attractive.
6





PRICES OF POULTRY AND EGGS
The Jacksonville price of eggs and poultry, as quoted by
the Florida State Marketing Bureau, is the average of job-
bing price to the retail stores, as reported by producers and
dealers each market day. This price does not represent any
particular dealer's price since it is an average. There may
be sales above this figure as well as below.
The prices as reported by the Bureau are always influ-
enced by the supply of eggs and poultry being offered as
well as by the demand for eggs and poultry in Jacksonville
and other Florida markets. Not only the supply of fresh
Florida eggs must be taken into consideration, but also the
supply and price of shipped eggs and cold storage eggs must
be considered. If the price of fresh Florida eggs is quoted
too high, it has the effect of "killing the goose that laid the
golden egg," for the Florida market will be flooded with
eggs from nearby markets and soon the local producer finds
it impossible to sell eggs except at a great discount, then the
market breaks to lower levels than if it had been quoted
correctly.
There is always a strong market at a premium price for
quality products. Consumers, many of them, prefer a fresh
egg and will pay a premium in price of from 2c to 5c and pos-
sibly 10c over just eggs-however many Fresh Florida eggs
are just eggs. It may be a Florida egg but not always fresh.
Too many eggs are sold to small stores and held perhaps a
week or so, then sent to market. Often the eggs were held
on the farm a week before they were sold, therefore they are
two weeks old by the time they reach the consumer. A fer-
tile egg at a temperature of 70 degrees or above is incubating
whether it is in a nest or in a basket in the kitchen. Of course
infertile eggs do not show germ development, but they do
break down in quality when kept at high temperature. In
some states they class a fresh egg as one that makes the
grade of U. S. Extra or better. While weight of an egg is not
a quality factor, yet it must be considered in grading, for
nice, large, white or brown eggs, uniform in size and color,
will find the most ready sale and command a premium.

THE CARE OF EGGS ON THE FARM
In order to produce quality eggs for the market it is neces-
sary to properly care for them on the farm, for quality eggs
are produced by healthy hens, in clean quarters, fed the
right kind of feed with plenty of pure water to drink. When
these conditions are met it is then necessary to gather the
eggs often and allow them to cool in trays or wire baskets
before packing them in the egg crate. The best temperature
to hold eggs at is somewhat below 700 and above freezing.





Not many farmers can keep them cool unless they provide a
special egg room or cellar. In many places they have found
that iceless refrigerators are very good, and as they are easy
to construct, most any farmer could build one for keeping
eggs in until time to market. In tests in Massachusetts it was
found that eggs lost weight twice as fast when held at 85 as
compared to those kept at a temperature of 650. One hun-
dred per cent of these eggs graded Fancy the first day but
when held at grocery store temperature, around 850, for 9
days, only 8% or 8 out of 100, graded Fancy. "Fancy" in this
case was the equivalent of U. S. Specials. The storage room
or cellar should be free from musty or strong odors, and the
air should be moist, for remember the eggs are composed of
approximately 66.5% water and the shell is porous, which
allows evaporation if held in a dry, hot room. Other ele-
ments and their percentage of the whole egg are as follows:
Shell or calcium, 11.2%, protein, 11.8%, fat 9.6%, ash .9%.
New flats and fillers should be used since old, soiled fillers
and flats spoil the appearance of the eggs and often cause
them to get dirty and are responsible for many broken eggs.
In mid-summer 14,000 cases of eggs arriving in the New
York market were graded in a recent test to see what effect
distance from the market and source of origin had on egg
quality. It was found that the nearby eggs graded from 81 %
to as high as 93% U. S. Extras to Specials, while those com-
ing from states like Pennsylvania, Washington, Virginia,
Utah and Tennessee graded out 65% to 75% Extras to
Specials, and those from the Cornbelt states graded from 5 %
to 12% Extras to Specials.
There is no use to produce quality eggs unless they are
sold to dealers who buy on a grade and quality basis, and
advertise the good qualities of nearby eggs to the housewife
and give her an identified product. When eggs are sold di-
rect to the consumer, a regular delivery must be maintained,
otherwise the customer will gets eggs from someone who
can be depended on.

MARKETING EGGS
The majority of eggs from the large commercial poultry-
men, who live near the centers of population in Florida, are
delivered direct to grocery stores, cafes, hotels, and to the
wholesale buyers. Some of the smaller producers have egg
routes where they deliver to the consumer, but this requires
a lot of time and expense; although the price received is
higher it nets them very little above that received by those
who sell in large quantities for a lower price. Several co-
operative marketing associations have developed in Florida
the last few years and are rendering a real service.





TRUCK BUYERS

Many of the poultrymen who live a good way from the
market sell to truckers who make from one to two calls per
week to pick up eggs. These truckers pay several cents un-
der the market for eggs, most of them sort the eggs by size
and color. There are a few poultrymen who ship eggs to
city buyers by express, these are also graded to size and
color. Nearly all the larger dealers buy on a graded and
candled basis; this has done much to improve the quality of
Florida eggs.
In some sections however, the small farm flock owners still
sell to the county merchant on an ungraded basis. These
eggs are very heavily discounted at all times on the Florida
market, and can only be sold to a very cheap class of trade
at a very much lower price. Most market improvement must
come among the small producers for a careful study and
analysis of the 1935 United States census shows that the
flock owner who has 200 hens and less produces 53% of the
Florida egg supply. More than 50% of all eggs are produced
in the four months-February, March, April and May.





























-14
-IE-iL


LA-

ft-


10








New York City
Egg Prices
Nearby Hennery
White Specials

Cents per Dozen

59.4
55.6
53.6
52.3
54.1
50.7
46.0
46.9
49.1
39.3
31.5
26.5
24.6
33.0


Jacksonville
White Egg Quote
Yearly Average
Price

Cents per Dozen

48.1
40.6
42.8
44.4
48.3
45.9
40.0
40.4
41.5
35.5
27.9
23.6
23.7
27.4


Florida
Heavy Hens
Jacksonville
Quote Prices
28.8
25.6
24.2
27.1
28.1
30.7
26.9
24.3
28.5
25.3
22.0
16.9
18.7


Jacksonville
Quote Price
Fryers

37.2
32.6
33.1
35.4
40.3
41.1
37.4
36.3
36.1
30.9
30.6
21.0
22.3


Year

1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
7931
1932
1933
1939


New York
Hen
Prices


Year


1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1939


29.4
27.6
25.7
23.7
25.1
26.6
25.6
26.3
27.6
23.5
20.2
16.9
17.0


11




















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T-T- T I I iI I F


44






MONTHLY AVERAGE POULTRY AND EGG PRICES

White Eggs Hens Fryers
Grade A Large (Heavy Breeds) (Heavy Breeds)


Months 1939 0 4 g g |

January 30.8 31.3 35.1 21.4 19.1 24.5 23.4 19.1 24.3
February 24.3 24.7 27.3 20.7 17.8 23.6 21.6 17.9 24.7
March 21.6 26.6 24.3 20.4 17.9 24.0 21.9 19.8 26.0
April 21.9 23.4 25.0 21.1 17.9 23.3 24.8 20.8 25.0
May 22.6 23.4 24.9 19.3 17.5 21.5 22.0 18.6 23.4
June 23.0 25.1 18.8 17.4 21.8 18.8
July 29.1 30.7 17.8 17.7 22.5 19.3
August 29.6 29.0 18.2 16.0 21.8 18.2
September 28.8 31.6 33.8 16.9 16.6 21.7 21.0 18.6 23.9
October 32.4 34.3 37.2 16.9 17.2 24.0 22.0 19.4 25.0
November 33.9 35.8 39.5 17.9 17.1 23.5 22.3 19.9 24.5
December 30.9 32.9 36.5 15.3 16.7 22.8 22.1 19.3 23.8
Average
Quote 27.4 29.1 31.5 18.7 17.4 23.2 22.3 19.1 24.5





YEARLY PEAK EGG PRICE PERIOD

Day Prices Highest Pt.
Year Reached Day Prices Reached Cts. Doz.
Highest Pt. Dropped in Prices Dropped


Dec. 2
Dec. 13
Oct. 9
Oct. 14
Nov. 7
Oct. 30
Oct. 22
Oct. 18
Oct. 23
Oct. 8
Nov. 27
Nov. 7
Nov. 3
Nov. 22


Dec. 13 37c
Dec. 28 36c
Dec. 8 38c
Nov. 5 48c
Nov. 19 56c
Nov. 8 58c
Nov. 28 55c
Nov. 5 65c
Jan. 6-1926 67c
Dec. 9 67c
Dec. 8 62c
Nov. 27 65c
Dec. 5 65c
Dec. 29 85c


2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
2c
5c
5c
2c


13


1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921
1920


-






EGGS PRODUCED ON FLORIDA FARMS
(By Dozens)


County 1919
Alachua --- 290,866
Baker 51,727
Bay --- 22,243
Bradford 210,271
Brevard 64,746
Broward 17,439
Calhoun 58,113
Charlotte
Citrus 18,336
Clay 73,089
Collier _
Columbia 144,709
Dade 97,258
DeSoto- 184,316
Dixie ----
Duval _-- 169,601
Escambia 112,415
Flagler -- 29,673
Franklin 734
Gadsden 163,492
Gilchrist ----
Glades --
Gulf ___-_--
Hamilton __ 121,980
Hardee -----------
Hendry ---
Hernando 55,713
Highlands


1929 1932
415,861 386,000
116,235 109,000
71,394 64,000
166,369 165,000
115,811 59,000
81,853 301,000
100,795 69,000
19,370 36,000
80,694 60,000
247,001 353,000
100 51,000
253,798 168,000
276,709 1,397,000
82,739 350,000
30,842 5,776
888,360 1,653,000
253,790 516,000
64,166 99,000
5,022 62,000
262,082 296,000
138,120 138,000
104,222 113,000
8,211 26,000
123,679 282,000
241,245 101,000
30,352 500
121,415 64,000
103,427 291,000


Hillsborough 511,906 1,085,797 3,000,000
Holmes 142,068 218,338 299,000
Indian River__ 65,978 13,000
Jackson 397,201 467,094 475,000
Jefferson 168,982 219,194 103,000
Lafayette 96,633 111,710 11,000
Lake _134,001 376,697 373,000
Lee __56,790 116,898 220,000
Leon 125,036 216,878 425,000
Levy 83,244 115,651 138,000
Liberty 8,277 45,210 21,000
Madison 205,861 251,552 256,000


14


Eggs Produced
1939


U. S.
Census
1934
309,000
58,000
34,000
144,000
75,000
94,000
58,000
12,000
19,000
67,000
1,770
242,000
585,000
40,000
36,000
630,000
243,000
71,000
2,000
277,000
44,000
65,000
6,400
116,000
129,000
8,000
117,000
190,000
680,000
200,000
35,000
359,000
125,000
36,000
270,000
123,000
142,000
121,000
36,000
233,000


1,240,133
65,657
185,292
187,232
331,664
441,708
614,433
56,060
45,528
109,576
226,800
671,965
1,234,451
114,208
45,400
1,129,478
168,466
10,701
148,070
361,365
146,028
29,265
60,147
167,160
428,833
30,472
93,583
264,475
2,303,025
283,285
17,525
633,568
163,007
133,803
441,390
347,149
352,728
226,970
204,350
461,899


$ 310,371
16,415
46,483
37,714
97,950
132,512
153,608
16,818
11,379
27,392
56,687
136,986
363,777
28,602
9,079
531,829
42,116
2,477
49,285
72,659
33,008
7,316
15,036
41,089
108,208
7,548
24,357
72,204
599,104
70,635
4,454
126,642
35,794
26,780
110,349
94,537
71,316
45,390
40,774
95,458





EGGS PRODUCED ON FLORIDA FARMS-(Continued)
(By Dozens)

U. S. Eggs Produced
Census 1939
County 1919 1929 1932 1934
Manatee -- 90,200 189,015 180,000 118,000 240,128 79,490
Marion ----- 235,743 675,184 700,000 583,000 509,890 140,871
Martin --- --- -- 79,393 62,000 6,400 30,420 7,855
Monroe ---- 5,214 2,041 2,000 1,440 5,825 2,038
Nassau --_-- 66,487 786,272 538,000 582,000 884,084 245,468
Okaloosa --- 120,623 137,123 51,000 100,000 197,995 39,599
Okeechobee 8,048 39,041 55,000 18,000 39,844 10,777
Orange -............ 127,297 396,748 115,000 508,000 118,622 38,369
Osceola 39,545 86,666 29,000 62,000 96,944 29,951
Palm Beach -..... 109,859 130,792 297,000 140,000 260,178 80,240
Pasco -- --- 136,609 515,744 259,000 698,000 766,240 194,157
Pinellas --- 149,082 329,900 321,000 178,000 150,816 49,934
Polk ---...----..-__.-. 267,914 697,927 1,319,000 556,000 1,600,827 405,960
Putnam ----- 119,002 490,106 846,000 264,000 372,406 99,809
St. Johns ---- 52,142 94,648 157,000 173,000 157,303 39,405
St. Lucie --- 68,146 57,197 5,000 16,000 55,303 19,761
Santa Rosa ------- 75,702 155,898 285,000 115,000 241,532 60,382
Sarasota --- ----_ 42,446 12,000 28,000 43,872 10,970
Seminole ......... 85,149 170,769 275,000 256,000 160,549 47,479
Sumter --- 130,994 174,900 71,000 95,000 206,262 57,194
Suwannee ----- 279,762 461,270 342,000 168,000 365,413 91,354
Taylor --.---- 54,607 66,115 24,000 52,000 75,861 15,171
Union -------- -__ 218,762 167,000 79,000 200,280 46,135
Volusia 229,983 278,640 810,000 514,000 265,806 79,740
Wakulla --- 50,895 68,383 88,285 36,000 33,804 6,760
Walton ............... 101,332 178,288 524,000 148,000 192,637 49,589
Washington -- 109,308 206,241 114,000 143,000 354,484 73,851

22,804,174 $5,796,447


U. S. GRADES FOR EGGS

In order to have a yardstick to measure egg quality, the
following standards of qualities for individual eggs have
been adopted by the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
They have not been put into practice yet by the large city
Market Boards, however some dealers on every market rec-
ognize them and handle eggs so graded. Besides the quality
factors, three sizes are recognized under each grade. -- -
Large-Those that average 24 oz. or better to dozen, with
no individual egg weighing less than at the rate of 22 oz. to
the dozen.
Medium-Eggs that average 2052 ounces to the dozen, with
minimum weight of 19 ounces per dozen for individual eggs.
Small-Eggs that average 17 ounces to the dozen, with
minimum weight of 15 ounces per dozen for individual eggs.


15






CHICKENS BY COUNTIES, 1937


Alachua
Baker ___----
Bay ----
Bradford -_ _----.........................---- .._---
Brevard __-_ --------- ---
Broward .-. ..---- ----
Calhoun --..----------
Charlotte -- -- --
Citrus -------
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade ________-_-------
De Soto __
Dixie ___ -__ -------_
Duval ___-____-____
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin __. ---.. .. ...--------.
Gadsden ____ --- --------.
Gilchrist (1) -- --- ---------------------------- --. --... --..
Glades ____-------------
Gulf ...----------_..--
Hamilton __----------------.
Hardee --- ---
Hendry (2) ----
Hernando -
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes ______--___ -----_--
Indian River
Jackson -----
Jefferson ____
Lafayette -----_-- ----- .
Lake -----___---
Lee
Leon
Levy -- -
Liberty --------
Madison --------.- -------.
Manatee --- -----
Marion __ __----
Martin ------
Monro e ____ -
Nassau ____
Okaloosa
Okeechobee - ----
Orange -----
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco- --- ---
Pinellas ____
Polk -...-- ----- ---------
Putnam ___ -............---.- _-----_---- .---------
St. Johns -- -------- --
St. Lucie -_ ___ ---__-------- -----------------
Santa Rosa -__.-----.----.
Sarasota --
Seminole --------------
Sumter - --.--------.
Suwannee --- -------
Taylor -------- ----
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton ---
Washington --------------.
Total ------.. -.---


308,540
25.063
---------- 30,476
48,604
- ----------34,539
- -............. ....... 73,618
.-------...-----------.--------- 115,609
. -------- 11,212
7,958
S ---- 19,923
--------- 37,797
205,243
204,957
16,716
11,350
561,360
------ 36,347
1,785
. ----------- 29,635
..--------.- 74,006
. - 38,203
.-------- 6,003
--- ------- 33,405
------------ 73,112
-- 6,885
14,819
S -- 41,115
- - 358,343
76,696
1,975
-- ---159,342
55,539
.---------- 30,859
73,565
---------- 39,785
59,879
---- --- 56,744
---------27,239
91,431
48,640
120,953
-- -- - -- - 7,855
974
162,864
36,938
---------11,328
21,001
44,738
44,738
--- .------ 153,648
25,136
----------.-..-.--.---------- 286,967
-... ... ------ 50,358
.-. ----------24,155
.---------- 8,444
.- -- -- 52,935
-- 7,368
. ----------- 31,194
----------47,420
71,657
-- -------- 19,171
34,302
45,951
8,451
46,976
. .---------- 41,789
...........-------.....-.------ 4,541,665


(1) Includes 13,461 turkeys. (2) Includes 1,615 turkeys.


16


$ 218,978
15,038
21,333
36,453
26,570
59,575
75,145
7,849
5,748
12,405
26,476
123,326
174,106
12,630
6,810
459,988
30,886
1,160
20,745
51,804
50,426
4,397
9,356
21,713
60,962
7,586
9,632
28,800
304,592
46,018
1,481
97,072
38,918
18,690
55,173
34,937
47,904
36,883
16,243
59,421
39,028
84,699
5,499
828
122,148
22,162
7,930
19,445
12,641
39,481
99,871
21,365
215,223
37,647
18,944
6,756
31,761
6,279
25,894
30,823
42,994
11,796
20,582
36,761
5,071
28,239
25,074
$3,356,178




















iAN* A. G.*..N ..~
BAY'' ROSA L WAS AH .
SWAKULLA A U BAKE u


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Chickens by Counties. BROWARD
Lr L




























1 dot 2000 chickens COL.iE R
"MARION 0 0 ..














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CITRUS :M,



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Chickens by Counties. BROWARD
1 dot 2000 chickens# COCLLIER

0 D~ A D'E


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4'


17









DOZENS OF EGGS PRODUCED BY COUNTIES, 1937
(Each dot-20,000 dozen)


18





MEASURING THE AIR CELL


The air cell is usually at the large end of the egg. As the
shell is porous, the size of the air cell is increased by evap-
oration. The depth of the air cell when in its natural posi-
tion, is the distance from the end of the egg to the level of
an imaginary line drawn through the lower edges of the air
cell where it touches the shell.
A simple method of measuring the depth of the air cell
with reasonable accuracy consists in placing the air cell
gauge over the big end of the egg when it is held in front
of the chandler. When the air cell is abnormally located, as
at the side, it is necessary to estimate its depth. In com-
mercial candling of eggs it is not necessary to measure the
depth of the air cell of every egg. An experienced chandler
soon fixes in his mind the measurements of the air cell or
the difference in standards of quality. It is only the ques-
tionable eggs that need to be measured.



AIR CELL GAUGE
Place over large end of egg before
the candle to measure depth of the
air cells.




S
I I
I

I


19





PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION OF AN
EGG CANDLING BOOTH

DESIGNED IN THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
U DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




I
wL W A-- LL


LIGHT PLUC lo zto (

gry Co4d/|
FOR uCHr 4


FROM U. 5 TRADES
:H EGGS STANDARDS AND
CANDLD, CHEX1


II

*I

ArQOY 'r-ii





EXPLANATION OF TERMS


TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF SHELL
1. Clean-A clean shell is one which is free from foreign
matter and stains or discolorations. Eggs which show traces
of processing oil on the shell are considered clean when
classified as processed or shell treated eggs unless the shell
is otherwise soiled.
2. Sound-A sound shell is one that is free from checks,
cracks, or blind checks.
3. Normal-A normal shell is one which approximates
the usual shape and which is of good, even texture and
strength and free from distinct ridges, rough areas, thin
spots or other conditions not common to good shells.
4. Slightly Abnormal-A slightly abnormal shell is one
which may be somewhat unusual in shape or which may
be somewhat faulty in texture or strength. It may also
show distinct but not pronounced ridges, thin spots or rough
areas.
5. Abnormal-An abnormal shell is one which may be
decidedly misshapen or which may be decidedly faulty in
texture or strength or which may show pronounced ridges,
rough spots or other defects.

TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF AIR CELL
6. Depth of Air Cell-The depth of the air cell when in its
natural position is the distance from the end of the egg to the
plane passing through the egg at the lower edge of the air
cells where it touches the shell.
7. Regular-A regular air cell is one which shows a prac-
tically even, smooth outline (without any movement) when
the egg is twirled.
8. Slightly Tremulous-A slightly tremulous air cell is
one which retains a practically fixed position in the egg but
shows a slight movement, not to exceed 1/ inch, at any one
point where its lower edge touches the shell.
9. Movement Not in Excess of 2 Inch-An air cell which
shows a movement at one or more points where its lower
edge touches the shell, but not in excess of 2 inch.


21





10. Movement in Excess of 2 Inch-An air cell which
shows a movement at one or more points where its lower
edge touches the shell may be in excess of 2 inch.
11. Bubbly-A bubbly air cell is one which has several
rather small bubbles within or beneath it which gives it a
bubbly appearance.
12. Free-A free air cell is one which moves freely about
in the egg. Such an air cell will seek the uppermost point
in the egg, no matter in what position it may be turned.

TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF YOLK
13. Well Centered-A yolk that occupies the center of the
egg without much movement from that position when the
egg is twirled.
14. Fairly Well Centered-A yolk that occupies the center
of the egg without much movement from that position when
the egg is twirled.
15. Plainly Visible A plainly visible yolk or yolk
shadow is one which has a plainly discernible outline before
the candle and may appear as a dark shadow.
16. Dark Shadow-A dark shadow results when a freely
mobile yolk closely approaches the shell, when twirled be-
fore the candle, and is distinctly discernible as a dark
shadow.
17. Outline Indistinct-A yolk or yolk shadow, the out-
line of which is not clearly discernible when viewed before
the candle.
18. Outline Moderately Defined-A yolk or yolk shadow,
the outline of which may be seen but which is not well
defined before the candle.
19. Outline Well Defined-A yolk or yolk shadow, the
outline of which is plainly discernible before the candle.
20. Motion Sluggish-A yolk which moves slowly and
which does not move far from its normal position in the
center when the egg is twirled.


22





21. Slightly Mobile-A yolk which moves somewhat but
not freely from the center of the egg when it is twirled.

22. Mobile-A mobile yolk is one which shows consider-
able movement away from the center of the egg when it is
twirled before the candle.

23. Freely Mobile-A freely mobile yolk is one which
shows a wide movement or swing away from the center of
the egg when it is twirled before the candle and comes suf-
ficiently close to the shell to cast a decidedly dark shadow.

24. Practically Free from Other Defects or Blemishes-
A yolk which is mottled, is slightly spread, or which shows
moderate heat spots.

26. Other Serious Defects-A yolk which is decidedly
spread or weak or which shows well developed heat spots
or other spots, or areas of a character which do not render
the egg inedible.

27. Free from Visible Germ Development-No visible
development of the germ indicates that there has been no
development of the germ spot or if slight development has
occurred that it has not proceeded to the point where it can
be distinguished by candling.

28. Slightly Visible Germ Development-Slightly visible
development of the germ indicates that there has been some
development of the germ and that it has proceeded to the
point where it is visible before the candle as a deeper colored
area on the yolk.

29. Clearly Visible Germ Development-Clearly visible
development of the germ without blood showing, is a condi-
tion that indicates that the development of the germ has pro-
gressed to a point where it is plainly visible before the
candle as a deeper colored area or as a bubble or spot on
the yolk.

30. No blood-As used in connection with condition of the
germ refers to blood which shows before the candle and
which has formed as the result of embryo development. It
does not refer to blood spots which occur in fresh eggs not
due to embryo development.
23





TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF THE WHITE
31. Firm-A firm white is one which is sufficiently
thick or viscous to permit but little movement of the yolk
from the center of the egg. A firm white is one of the prin-
cipal causes of an indistinct or moderately defined yolk
outline.
32. Reasonably Firm-A reasonably firm white is one
which has a weakened viscous condition and thereby allows
the yolk to move freely from its normal position to the
center of the egg and to approach the shell more closely
when the egg is twirled. When the white is reasonably firm,
the outline of the yolk may be well defined, but the yolk
does not approach the shell closely enough to cast a dark
shadow.
33. Weak and Watery-A weak and watery white is one
which is thin and generally lacking in viscosity and therefore
permits the yolk to move freely from its normal position in
the center of the egg and closely approach the shell when the
egg is twirled. A weak and watery white is indicated by
the free movement and the decidedly dark shadow of the
yolk as the egg is twirled before the candle. Eggs with
weak and watery whites often develop a tremulous, bubbly
or free air cell.
34. Clear-A clear white is one which is free from discol-
oration or from any foreign bodies in it which, before the
candle, appear as dark bodies. Prominent chalazae should
not be confused with foreign bodies.


INEDIBLE EGGS

Under the Federal Food and Drug Act, eggs which are
filthy, putrid or decomposed in whole or in part are adulter-
ated. The following are regarded as inedible eggs: black
rots, white rots, mixed rots (addled eggs), sour eggs, eggs
with green whites, eggs with stuck yolks, moldy eggs, eggs
showing blood rings, eggs containing embryo chicks, and
any other eggs which are filthy, decomposed or putrid.
Inedible or adulterated eggs shall not be considered as
conforming to the requirements of any of the Official United
States Standards for Individual Eggs.
Eggs containing small meat spots or blood clots of such a
character that they can be readily removed shall be consid-
ered edible eggs but not of a quality higher than U. S. Trade,
U. S. Trade Dirty, or U. S. Check.


24







CHART OF U. S. STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL EGGS
(The figures in parentheses refer to explanations of terms on the preceding pages)

Quality SPECIFICATIONS OF EACH QUALITY FACTOR
Factors U. S. Special U. S. Extra U. S. Standard U. S. Trade
Shell Clean (1); sound (2); Clean (1); sound (2); nor- Clean (1); sound (2); may Clean (1); sound (2);
normal (3). mal (3). be slightly abnormal (4). may be abnormal (5).
Air Ys in. or less in depth (6); 2-8 in. or less in depth (6); %/ in. or less in depth (6); May be over 3/ in. in
regular (7). regular (7).* may show movement not depth (6); may show
Cell in excess of 2 inch (9). movement in excess of Y2
in. (10); may be bubbly
(11); or free (12).
Yolk Well centered (13); out- Fairly weak centered Outline well defined (19); May be plainly visible
line indistinct (17); mo- (14); outline moderately may be mobile (22); may (15); may be freely mo-
tion sluggish (20); free defined (18); ma y be show slightly visible germ bile and cast dark shadow
from visible germ devel- slightly mobile (21); free development (2 8 ) a nd (23); and show clearly
opment (27) and other de- from visible germ devel- other definite but not se- visible germ development
fects or blemishes (24). opment (27) and practic- fects (25). 29 but no blood (30); may
ally free from other de- show other serious defects
fects or blemishes (24). (26).
White Firm (31); clear (34). Firm (31); clear (34). Reasonable firm (32); May be weak and watery
clear (34). (33).

"Eggs which otherwise fully meet the specifications of U. S. Extra but have slightly tremulous (8) air cell (a move-
ment in excess of 1/in.) may be classed as U. S. Extras in the retail grade of U. S. Extra.





POULTRY MARKET METHODS

Most of the poultry produced in Florida, as elsewhere, is
sold alive, as this seems to be the most practical under pre-
vailing conditions. Not many farmers can afford to go to
the expense of equipping a dressing plant, and then, too,
very few are trained in the art of properly killing and dress-
ing poultry. This industry is very much different from
the meat packing industry in that it is carried on by many
small establishments located in the producing centers or in
the large centers of population.
PRODUCER TO CONSUMER

Some live and dressed poultry is sold by the producers
direct to the consumer; this is especially true of turkeys
in some cities in Florida. The quantity though marketed
in this manner is only a small per cent of the total that is
marketed; the price received is usually good, however a lot
of necessary expense and extra time is involved in making
delivery.
PRODUCER TO DEALER

The most common method of marketing live poultry is
to ship to a dealer either by express or truck. Perhaps the
itinerant peddler that goes through the country and buys
at the farm handles more live poultry than almost any
other agency.

GOOD QUALITY BRINGS BEST PRICES

To sell to best advantage, poultry must be of the heavy
type, properly fed and in healthy condition. Quality of
poultry is influenced by the breed, age, and sex as well as
feeding, housing and maangement. Perhaps it is to the ad-
vantage of most producers to feed a heavy grain ration a
week or ten days before selling, as this will give some
added weight; especially is this true of hens that have been
laying heavily or of those not fed very heavily on the general
farm. In case of broilers, if they are receiving full feed no
special feeding is necessary.
Poultry should be shipped to arrive on the market by
the middle of the week, as Friday and Saturday are very
busy days at most poultry plants. Coops or shipping crates


26





should be strong and made of light material, they should
be tagged on both ends and show the name and address of
the shipper and the name and address of the party the ship-
ment is consigned to.





















COOPERATIVE POULTRY SALES

These sales, for all classes of poultry and turkeys, are con-
ducted in co-operation with County and Home Agents, Vo-
cational Agricultural Teachers, Railroad officials and other
interested parties. Wherever farmers have a surplus and
are co-operatively minded, the Poultry Marketing Specialist
of the State Marketing Bureau has been holding these sales.
Sometimes a poultry car is run from one point on the rail-
road to another until filled, other times a dealer will send
a truck and buy at one or two points.
These sales are sold to some poultry dealer on a bid a week
in advance, then these prices are advertised. When the day
of the sale arrives, the farmers bring their poultry and it is
weighed and graded and the cash paid on the grounds at
the time of delivery.
These sales have proven popular, especially among the
turkey producers, for often times the prices received at the
car are as good as those being paid delivered to the large
markets.


27





THE TURKEY MARKET

Production of turkeys in Florida has actually increased
every year for the last three or four years. Careful esti-
mates indicate that Florida poultrymen raised in 1939 almost
250,000 turkeys for the market, and they produced a revenue
of approximately $700,000.

The Crop Census of the Florida Department of Agriculture
for 1939 shows that the five leading turkey producing coun-
ties, named in order of importance, are Gilchrist, Suwannee,
Levy, Jackson and Lafayette.

Because of the early spring and the long growing season,
the Florida turkeys are finished earlier in the fall than those
grown in other sections. Their quality is unexcelled; in fact
most dealers prefer them to turkeys from other sections,
because of their superior quality and finish, and feature
the fact in their ads that they carry in stock at Thanksgiving
and Christmas, Florida peanut fed turkeys.

Prices, though low the last few years, have ruled several
cents over that secured by producers in other sections.
Despite the fact that Florida offers, no doubt, the best mar-
ket for turkeys, production is not nearly up to consumptive
demand and thousands of dressed turkeys are imported each
year to supply the trade. The fact that this good market ex-
ists in Florida is responsible for the production of turkeys
increasing in recent years despite the depression.


GRADES OF DRESSED POULTRY

(From Farmers Bulletin 1377 U. S. D. A.)
The following market classes of dressed poultry are in
common use and some or all of them will be found in every
important market:

Broilers-Broilers are young chickens, approximately 8
to 12 weeks old, of either sex, of marketable age but not
weighing over 21/2 pounds or 30 pounds to the dozen and
sufficiently soft-meated to be cooked tender by broiling.
The lighter weights are sometimes quoted as squab broilers.


28




Fryers-Fryers are young chickens, approximately 14 to
20 weeks old, of either sex, weighing over 21/2 pounds but
not over 31/2 pounds each or 31 to 42 pounds to the dozen
and sufficiently soft-meated to be cooked tender by frying.

Roasters-Roasters are young chickens, approximately
5 to 9 months old, of either sex, weighing over 31/2 pounds
each or over 42 pounds to the dozen and sufficiently soft-
meated to be cooked tender by roasting.

Stags-Stags are male birds, of any weight or age, with
flesh slightly darkened and toughened, and with comb and
spur development showing the bird to be in a state of ma-
turity between roasting chickens and cocks. Stags are less
desirable and bring a lower price than soft-meated chickens.

Capons-Capons are unsexed male birds weighing over 4
pounds, usually from 7 to 10 months old and with soft and
tender flesh. The heavier capons are usually quoted at a
higher price than the lighter capons.

Slips-Slips are incompletely caponized male birds, weigh-
ing over 4 pounds, with comb, spur, and flesh development
similar to stags. They are sometimes called "capon roasts."
The-price of slips is considerably below that of capons.

Cocks-Cocks are mature birds of any weight with dark-
ened and toughened flesh. Sometimes they are quoted un-
der the name of old roosters.

Fowl-Fowl are mature female birds of any age or weight.
They are generally divided into several subclasses according
to weight and the lighter weights usually bring a lower price.

Ducks-Ducks are often quoted as such without any other
distinction but are quite commonly quoted as young or old
ducks. Old ducks are mature birds of either sex with tough-
ened flesh. Young ducks are immature birds, usually from
10 to 12 weeks old, with soft-meated flesh. At times young
ducks may be referred to as spring or "green" ducklings.
The Pekin ducklings produced on Long Island and on duck
farms in other sections have become widely known and are
commonly quoted as "Long Island ducklings."


29





Geese-Geese are commonly quoted as such but may be
referred to as young or old geese. Old geese are mature
birds of either sex more than 1 year old and of any weight.
Young geese are immature birds of either sex and of any
weight, usually less than 1 year old. Young geese quickly
grown and fattened for market are occasionally separately
quoted as "green" geese. The actual condition of geese in-
fluences the price considerably and specially fattened geese
usually bring a premium. Mongrel geese, a name applied to
birds produced by crossing the wild gander on domestic
geese, are particularly favored on the Boston market and may
bring a premium of 10 cents per pound. Wisconsin noodledd"
geese (fattened by hand feeding with noodles) generally
command a substantial premium. Chinese or swan geese
are usually quoted separately and bring a lower price.
Geese that have been partly plucked for feathers or down
within two weeks of the time they are slaughtered, usually
show small red spots on the skin and usually bring a lower
price than do full-feathered geese.

Turkeys-Turkeys are commonly quoted as young and
old and as hens and toms. Old turkeys are those over __
year old with toughened flesh and hardened breastbone.
Turkeys classed as young are usually less than 1 year
year old, are soft-meated and have flexible breast-bones,
Young tom turkeys generally sell for the highest price,
followed by young hens, old hens, and old toms.

Guineas-Guineas may be quoted as young or old. Young
guineas are immature birds of either sex, are soft-meated
and usually weigh less than 2 pounds. Old guineas are
mature birds of either sex, with toughened flesh and usually
weigh 2 pounds or over. Guineas are used largely as a sub-
stitute for game. They are often quoted by the pair. At
certain seasons guinea broilers may be quoted. In some
markets guineas are called "keets" or "guinea keets."

Squabs-Squabs are young pigeons of either sex, usually
from 31/2 to 41/2 weeks old, with muscle fiber undeveloped
by flying. At this age they retain their softness of flesh
and baby-fat. They are commonly quoted by the dozen. The
best grades run 10 to 12 pounds to the dozen.


30





KILLING AND DRESSING POULTRY

The farm method of killing for home use is to chop off the
head. This will not do in case of killing for the market
for the head is left on, as evidence the bird was in good
health when slaughtered.

A simple method of killing consists of looping a cord
around both legs and hang with head down; another is to
use shackles made of wire to hold the legs. The head is
grasped with the left hand, the mouth opened and the
jugular vein is cut at the base of the skull with a long, nar-
row blade of a sharp knife. This produces free bleeding and
results in a better quality.

The most popular method of removing the feathers is to
use the semi-scald process, whereas dry picking was once
used. The proper temperature for semi-scalding is about 125
to 128 Fahrenheit. The birds are held in the water for one-
quarter to a minute, depending on the class of poultry. A
more recent development is the paraffine method of picking.
This consists of dipping the rough picked semi-scalded
chicken into a vat of melted paraffine; after which the
chicken is immediately dipped in cold water to set the par-
affine, then the feathers are peeled off with the paraffine.
This takes off most of the feathers, however it is necessary
to have the pin feathers plucked by hand.


POULTRY AND EGGS IMPORTED INTO FLORIDA
(12 Months Period)

Records of the inspection service of the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture show that trucks hauled into Florida in
12 months, 4,061,010 dozen eggs valued at $812,000, and 3,-
610,503 pounds of poultry valued at $541,000, or a total value
of $1,353,375.45.


31






TEN LEADING POULTRY STATES
1930-According to U. S. Department of Agriculture


Stai


Iowa
Misso
Illino
Ohio
Kans;
Texas
Penns
Indiar
Minn(
Oklah

Califo
Florid


Numerical
Rank


SIZE OF


THE POULTRY INDUSTRY
IN FLORIDA


Some kind of poultry is found on 60,000 farms. These
poultry farms produced, according to the Florida Depart-
ment of agriculture, 22,800,000 dozen eggs in 1937, and there
were raised on these farms at the same time somewhere near
4,000,000 chickens.

The value of poultry and eggs produced in Florida in 1937
was estimated to be approximately $8,600,000. If Florida
people consume anywhere near the average number of eggs
per capital for the United States, which is placed by some
at 241, it is necessary to import many eggs each year. We
know that there are many imported, for one year the city
of Miami alone imported 93 cars, and no records were avail-
able to show how many came into the city by truck from
out of the State. Many authorities estimate the importation
of poultry and eggs for normal consumption costs Florida
people anywhere from four to six million dollars.


32


Number head on
te farms Jan. 1, 1930

34,713,000
)uri 33,121,000
is 28,758,000
24,954,000
as 23,596,000
;22,834,000
sylvania 20,818,000
na 18,735,000
esota 18,627,000
loma 15,853,000

rnia 15,250,000
.a 2,314,000


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10






WHITE EGGS (Standard)-Jacksonville Quote


Year
1921-----
1922 .
1923--
1924 -----
1925--
1926---
1927 --
1928 --
1929 --
1930 ---
1931 --------
1932 --
1933 ---
c 1934 ----
C 1935 ---
1936 --
1937 --
1938 --
1939 ----------
AVERAGE:


Jan.
-- 74.3
48.0
49.6
-- 47.4
56.8
-- 57.2
47.6
48.0
42.2
47.1
.---- 32.0
26.5
23.5
-- 28.7
35.8
33.5
-- 29.8
32.5
.-.- 30.8


--


1921 1937 ------- 42.8 33.3 26.5 26.2 25.8 28.8 33.8 37.6 43.2 48.4 50.0 48.2 36.9
1932 1937 29.6 24.9 20.7 20.7 21.1 22.7 27.6 30.8 35.0 36.4 37.2 38.6 28.8
March, April and May are the average low market months for Florida eggs. Prices have advanced in June-ex-
cept May was higher in 1933-the advance continued consecutively in July, August, September and October. No-
vember averaged higher than October except in 1926, 1930, and 1933. The turning point away from high prices
comes in December, prices averaged lower than in November 11 out of the above 17 years. The trend contin-
ued downward in January, and still lower in February in all seasons, was lower in March than February,
except in 1929, 1931, 1932. April was below or equal to March 10 out of the 17 years, and May was under or no
higher than April 11 of the 17 years. On the average, prices begin advancing in June, continue upward regu-
larly each month to reach peak level in November, then usually break in December, and continue downward
to strike bottom in March, April, and May.


Feb.
48.6
40.7
36.0
44.6
45.3
42.1
35.9
32.4
34.5
35.4
22.0
16.5
17.0
25.6
31.8
31.2
27.5
26.6
24.3


Mar. Apr. May
36.0 31.3 30.5
26.5 29.4 28.3
30.0 29.5 29.0
26.6 25.8 28.5
30.2 33.5 30.3
31.3 34.1 32.5
28.0 29.2 27.9
30.0 29.7 28.2
35.1 29.2 30.2
28.5 27.0 27.0
23.0 22.0 20.0
18.0 15.5 14.7
15.5 15.5 17.3
19.2 19.8 20.1
23.0 24.9 26.3
23.5 22.9 24.1
25.1 25.5 24.2
22.2 22.3 25.0
21.6 21.9 22.6


June
31.9
34.7
33.8
32.5
38.6
36.1
29.7
33.4
33.7
27.0
21.0
18.3
16.3
23.5
26.8
25.7
25.8
25.7
23.0


July
42.7
37.5
39.5
39.0
44.4
41.6
33.9
36.5
39.3
30.6
25.0
21.0
22.9
28.0
31.5
31.9
30.1
31.5
29.1


Aug.
47.9
37.5
42.6
43.6
48.4
44.4
41.4
41.7
43.2
34.9
28.5
25.0
25.5
31.6
35.6
34.0
33.0
32.8
29.6


Sept.
50.0
52.8
49.8
52.1
55.2
51.8
49.0
48.3
45.2
38.2
32.0
28.2
31.4
36.8
39.0
37.5
37.2
36.3
28.0


Oct.
59.4
55.0
56.3
62.0
64.0
62.2
52.1
54.8
54.1
45.4
37.5
31.5
33.0
38.0
39.3
38.4
38.1
36.3
32.4


Nov.
64.8
62.8
59.3
66.2
65.6
61.0
55.0
55.0
55.3
43.9
38.0
32.6
32.0
40.0
37.0
41.9
39.6
36.8
33.9


Dec.
60.0
53.9
58.0
64.9
67.0
57.1
50.4
48.5
54.0
40.9
33.0
35.2
34.4
40.0
40.6
43.4
38.0
40.1
30.9


Yearly
Average
48.1
40.6
42.8
44.4
48.3
45.9
40.0
40.4
41.5
35.5
27.9
23.5
23.7
29.3
32.6
32.3
31.2
30.7
27.4










HENS (Heavy Breed)-Jacksonville Quote


Year
1921-----
1922 --
1923 .---.. ----
1924----
1925 ----
1926 -----
1927 ----
1928 -- -------
1929 ----
1930 ----
1931----
CA 1932 ----
A 1933 ---
1934 -------------.
1935 .---
1936 -- -----
1937 .------ -------
1938 .------- ----
1939 ..---------- --
AVERAGE:
1921 1937 ------
1932 1937 -------


Jan.
33.6
26.0
26.0
27.8
31.6
30.7
30.0
25.0
24.8
29.8
23.0
20.5
13.2
14.3
17.5
20.0
18.7
20.1
21.4


Feb. Mar.
32.6 31.7
26.0 26.7
26.0 26.0
26.0 26.4
29.2 29.7
30.2 32.5
30.0 29.8
25.0 25.0
26.4 28.8
30.0 28.5
20.0 22.0
18.6 18.7
13.5 13.0
15.5 16.0
17.8 18.3
19.9 19.5
19.3 18.6
19.0 19.9
20.7 20.4


Apr. May
29.3 26.9
25.5 25.4
25.0 23.0
26.0 27.0
28.0 28.0
31.8 31.9
29.1 29.0
25.0 24.5
28.8 27.4
27.5 26.6
24.0 23.0
19.0 17.5
14.7 14.1
15.5 18.8
18.0 18.0
20.3 20.8
18.5 19.0
19.7 19.0
21.1 19.3


24.5 23.8 24.2 23.8 23.6
17.4 17.4 17.3 17.7 18.0


June July Aug. Sept. Oct.
26.3 25.1 26.2 30.3 31.8
24.0 24.0 24.0 27.5 26.0
23.0 20.9 21.1 24.7 26.0
25.1 24.0 26.6 29.4 30.0
26.6 25.9 29.0 30.0 31.0
30.0 30.0 29.7 31.0 31.0
24.7 23.7 25.6 26.0 26.0
23.0 21.9 21.1 23.9 27.2
29.3 28.0 29.0 31.2 29.5
24.5 22.5 22.6 23.0 22.8
22.0 21.0 20.0 21.5 23.0
16.1 14.5 14.5 15.5 16.7
13.1 13.0 14.6 15.8 16.7
16.0 15.7 14.8 16.6 17.2
18.7 18.2 18.4 19.3 21.0
20.5 20.9 20.7 20.2 19.6
19.5 16.8 16.0 17.5 18.7
19.3 19.4 18.7 20.2 20.2
18.8 17.8 18.2 16.9 16.9


Yearly
Nov. Dec. Average
26.0- 26.0 .8
26:0 26.0 25.6
24.3 24.7 24.2
28.6 27.8 27.1
28.1 29.3 28.7
30.2 31.1 30.7
25.0 25.0 26.9
25.5 24.5 24.3
29.5 29.8 28.5
23.0 23.0 25.3
22.5 22.0 22.0
17.0 14.4 16.9
15.4 14.0 14.3
17.8 17.5 16.1
21.7 20.6 19.0
19.6 18.7 20.1
20.3 20.7 18.6
21.0 21.2 19.8
17.9 15.3 18.7


22.5 21.5 22.0 23.7 24.3 23.5 23.2
17.3 16.5 16.5 17.5 18.3 18.6 17.7


Hen prices on the basis of the above 17-year average, and also the recent 6-year average, have hit bottom in
July and August. The variation on the basis of a 17-year average in the high and low months is only 3c per
pound, and on the 1932-1937 6-year average only 2.1c per pound. After advancing in the period September to
November, prices break in December, then hold a fairly uniform range from January to June, declining in
June and July.


23.4
17.5


--







FRYERS (Heavy Breed)-Jacksonville Quote


Year
1921--
1922----
1923---
1924--
1925 -----
1926---
1927--
1928--
1929 --
1930--
1931--
, 1932.--
V 1933 -------
1934 -------
1935--
1936--
1937--
1938--
1939--
AVERAGE
1921 1937 -
1932 1937-


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
-- 39.1 39.7 46.9 49.5 46.6
29.0 29.5 38.4 40.0 40.0
29.5 31.0 36.5 37.0 39.8
32.7 36.6 37.8 42.0 42.5
------41.4 44.0 45.6 45.9 43.7
43.5 48.0 49.7 50.0 48.3
S 42.0 45.0 45.0 46.3 43.0
37.0 36.2 38.9 39.0 39.0
36.0 36.2 39.1 42.8 37.7
33.1 32.9 33.6 36.7 32.7
30.0 31.0 37.0 40.0 37.0
24.4 23.2 27.1 26.8 23.9
14.6 20.4 22.2 24.3 22.1
17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9
21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 22.8
25.5 25.6 27.0 27.2 25.7
22.3 24.0 24.1 27.0 24.1
25.8 24.6 27.2 27.8 24.0
23.4 21.6 21.9 24.8 22.0


--


30.5 32.2 35.2 36.8 34.9 31.7 27.8 26.8 28.4 28.6 27.9 28.5
21.0 22.9 25.1 26.1 23.9 23.0 20.6 19.9 20.6 21.1 20.6 20.6


Noting the above tabulation, on the basis of a 17-year average, and the last 6-year average, March, April and
May are the peak price months on fryers, the average declining regularly thereafter in each of the following
months: In June, July and down to the lowest monthly average of the year in August. Prices improve in Sep-
tember, hold steady to slightly advancing in October, drop less than an average of Ic per pound in November,
then usually move up in December, the higher average continuing in regular order in January, February and
March to the peak average in April.


June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
35.0 31.2 30.3 34.0 35.5 29.1 29.0
35.5 31.5 29.0 31.0 29.0 29.0 29.0
36.7 30.0 30.0 33.0 32.4 31.0 31.0
37.4 32.7 30.7 34.0 33.0 31.5 34.3
39.4 36.0 35.0 38.0 39.0 37.0 38.6
38.3 37.8 35.3 35.0 35.0 35.3 37.1
36.1 31.8 30.0 30.0 31.1 33.1 35.8
38.1 34.5 31.2 33.0 35.3 36.3 35.7
37.3 31.0 31.1 35.0 34.2 36.1 36.8
32.8 24.5 27.4 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0
35.0 29.0 27.0 27.5 26.0 24.5 24.5
23.5 18.0 17.3 18.0 18.7 17.3 14.9
18.0 15.4 16.1 17.0 17.0 15.7 16.1
22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.0 20.5 20.5
23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.4 23.2 24.5
25.5 23.1 22.6 22.3 21.2 20.5 20.0
25.3 25.5 24.5 25.8 27.1 26.7 27.7
21.8 20.5 21.6 22.9 22.9 23.0 23.6
21.8 22.5 21.9 21.0 22.0 22.3 22.1


Yearly
Average
37.2
32.6
33.1
35.4
40.3
41.1
37.4
36.3
36.1
30.9
30.6
21.0
18.2
21.2
23.0
23.7
25.4
23.8
22.3

30.8
22.1


::




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