• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The mandarin orange in Florida
 Culture of the satsuma
 Selecting and buying trees
 Starting the young grove
 Care of trees
 Fertilization
 Its uses
 Citrus grove practices for summer;...
 Data on citrus for 1932-33 and...
 Citrus plantings in Florida














Group Title: Bulletin New Series
Title: The mandarin orange in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014595/00001
 Material Information
Title: The mandarin orange in Florida with special reference to the satsuma
Series Title: Bulletin New Series
Physical Description: 213 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1934
 Subjects
Subject: Tangerine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Satsuma orange -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "August 1934"--cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014595
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7069
ltuf - AKC8790
oclc - 28551865
alephbibnum - 001952225

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The mandarin orange in Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Culture of the satsuma
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Selecting and buying trees
        Page 11
    Starting the young grove
        Page 12
    Care of trees
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Fertilization
        Page 16
    Its uses
        Page 16
    Citrus grove practices for summer; controlling of insects and diseases
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Data on citrus for 1932-33 and 1933-34
        Page 20
    Citrus plantings in Florida
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text
2/'


NEW SERIES NO. 69





The Mandarin Orange

In Florida
+ +
With Special
Reference
to the
Satsuma










of' OCT


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER

August 1934
irvna n u annn nnnn


I-_









NEW SERIES


The Mandarin Orange

In Florida
+


With Special
Reference
to the
Satsuma


Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner


NO. 69













1.


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A Satsuma Tree in Bearing


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
THE MANDARIN ORANGE-
Botanical Classification ............................................................ 7
V a rieties ...................................................................... .................... 7
H isto ry ....................................................................................... ... ...... 8
C u ltu r e .............................................................................................. 9

SELECTION OF GROVE SITE ............................................ 9
H e a te rs .................................................. ........................................ 1 0
S o ils ........................................................................................................... 1 0
B an k in g T rees ................................................................................. 11
Shipping .............................................................................. 11

SELECTING TREES ................................... .... ........... 11
STARTING A GROVE ................................ .... ...................... 12
P lan tin g ...... ........................................................................................... 12
Soil Preparation ..................... ...................... 12
S ettin g T rees .................................................................................... 13
CARE OF TREES ........................................................................... 13
Culture of Young Trees ...................................................... 13
Culture of Bearing Trees ......................................... ...... 14
P ru n in g ................................................... ....................................... 1 4

FERTILIZATION ............................................... 16

IT S U S E S .......................................................................... ................... 1 6

CITRUS GROVE PRACTICES ................ ........................ 17
C ov er C rop ................................................. ............................... 17
M u lch in g ................................................. ..................................... 1 7
Soil Conditioning .................................................................. 18
In sect C control ............................................. ........................... 18

DATA ON CITRUS ...................... ... .................... 20













THE MANDARIN ORANGE IN FLORIDA
Botanical Classification

In 1914, Walter T. Swingle determined that the botanical
name, Citrus nobilis, according to the original description,
should apply only to the King orange, and that this variety
was, and is now, the only one representing the species in gen-
eral cultivation in America. Under deliciosa as a botanical
name for a variety of C. nobilis, he placed the mandarin and
tangarine oranges, and under Unshiu he placed the Satsuma
orange and its horticultural variations. This disposition is an
improvement over the older classifications, and would leave
little to be desired if these varieties had been raised to specific
rank.
The reason for adopting the group-name "Mandarin" is that
it has been longer in use and is probably more widely in use
than any other. As used here it is intended to include the
loose-skinned oranges classified under Citrus nobilis, and its
botanical varieties. Many have referred to the tangerines a
group, or sub-group, distinct and separate from the mandarins.
There may be reasons of greater or less weight for this division,
but no distinction can be made between the so-called tangerine
and mandarin oranges, more than between any two distinct
varieties of fruits, in recognized pomological groups. In most
of the world's citrus-growing districts the two names are used
interchangeable.

VARIETIES
Including the two hybrid varieties there are twelve varieties
of mandarin oranges. These are the Owari Satsuma, which is
the one most commonly grown in Florida, Beauty, China,
Cleopatra, Dancy, King, Kinneloa, Kino Kuni, Mikado, Oneco,
and the two hybrids Tangerona and Temple. Some of these
varieties are not raised in Florida to any great extent, and
some of them are not raised at all. The two that seem to be









the most profitable are the Owari Satsuma and the Dancy.
There are 12,00 acres of Florida land planted to the Satsuma
alone. Statistics on satsumas will be found in the back of this
bulletin.
When the satsuma ripens it is yellow, and is from 2 to 3
inches in diameter; oblate in form; rind 1/s inch thick-thicker
than tangerine but thinner than King; oil cells large; sections
individually enclosed by fibrous covering; flesh deep orange
color; juice abundant; acidity and sweetness delicately bal-
anced; pith open with sections; generally seedless, though
from 1 to 4 seeds are occasionally found. Season October and
November.
The tree is thornless, low, and bunchy, rendering the fruit
easy to gather. Young trees should be banked in the winter.
At present the satsuma is planted in various parts of the state,
but for the most part they are grown in an irregular strip
extending from St. Johns county north-westerly to Jackson
county and thence in all the Florida counties westward to
Alabama; thence along the gulf counties of Alabama, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, and Texas. It is the leading orange grown
commercially in this belt.
HISTORY
According to all available accounts the mandarin oranges
originated in Cochin-China, at an unknown date. From there
they have been carried to many parts of the world.
One of the varieties of this group is the Satsuma. There
are several types of this variety. Some authorities say that
the Satsuma is of Japanese origin. One variety that is the
most popular of this strain is the Owari. (There is a province
in Japan of the same name.)
No complete history has been kept of these oranges. Many
times they have appeared at different places in the world with
no explanation as to how they got there. It is known that
they existed in Egypt at an early date, and they were intro-
duced into England as early as 1817. They appeared on con-
tinental Europe about 1828. The cultivation of mandarin
oranges in the vicinity of Genoa dates back to 1849.









Bonavia writes that the mandarin orange was introduced into
India from Egypt in about 1847, and that he himself made a
second introduction in 1863.
According to the best information which can be secured, the
Chinese mandarin was brought to Louisiana by the Italian
consul at New Orleans some time between 1840 and 1850.
The introduction of the first mandarin orange from Louisiana
into Florida is credited, by the committee of the Florida Fruit
Growers' Association to Major Atway. The exact time of the
introduction is not known, but it is believed to have been only
a few years after the introduction into Louisiana. The Satsuma
variety was introduced into Florida by George R. Hall in 1876,
and again by Mrs. Van Valkenburg in 1878.
At the present date Florida raises more satsumas than any
other state, possibly more than all of them.

CULTURE OF THE SATSUMA
Satsumas are raised only in northern and western Florida,
and not in south Florida. The reason for this is that sweet
oranges can be grown in the southern parts, and there is a
much greater demand for these oranges than for the satsuma.
Consequently, a man anticipating setting out a grove in south
Florida will invariably choose the sweet orange in preference
to the satsuma, since the orange brings a better price. How-
ever, since the orange is an evergreen tree it cannot be grown
in northern and western Florida because it will freeze in the
winter months. It is here that satsumas are raised.

Selection of a Grove Site
A few years ago thousands of acres were planted to satsumas
in the north-western counties of Florida and were doing well.
Those which reached bearing age were proving to be very
profitable. A cold wave which registered 14 degrees below
freezing killed a large percentage of them and the industry
received a serious backset. With this fact in view we should
suggest that anyone contemplating entering the business on a
commercial scale should visit the groves that escaped the









freeze and study the local surroundings. Protection from frost
is one item which must be provided if a success is to be made
of this fruit the same as other semi-tropical fruits.
A thick woods, or a large lake on the north side of a grove
may save it from freezing. It is also largely a matter of air-
drainage as to whether the frost will damage the trees. Con-
trary to what one might think, a grove on a hill top will escape
when one in a valley will be frozen. The free play of the air
and the less humidity renders the hill grove safer than the
one between the hills. This was demonstrated in the freeze
which we have just spoken of.
Heaters-The question of the use of various kinds of heating
appliances for satsuma groves has often been a problem to
many growers. It is possible that such appliances could be
used to advantage, but the growers of Florida do not take any
stock in them. Their initial cost is not a little, and they are
expensive to operate. Moreover, there may be a period of five
or ten years when they will not be needed. During this time,
however, they must be cared for, and they are very troublesome
and inconvenient. Therefore, although grove heaters may be
desirable during rare cold spells, the majority of the Florida
citrus growers are prone to do without them, and take a
chance on their groves not being frozen.

Besides protection from frost there are several other im-
portant considerations in the selection of a site for a satsuma
grove.

Soils-Satsumas will do well on a variety of soils. Those
most desirable are the rolling pine lands with a clay subsoil
20 to 30 inches from the surface. This clay subsoil is for the
purpose of holding moisture during drought periods. The
land should also be well drained. Plantings made on low wet
soils have not been successful; they may start off nicely and
look promising for the first few months, but later they turn
yellow and quit growing. Nor are sandy oak ridges likely to
produce good groves, since such lands are too loose and the
trees will suffer from a lack of moisture in dry weather. Par-
ticularly should one avoid the poorer types of loose sandy


10









soils, as satsumas will not grow satisfactorily unless the soil
is fairly compact and moist.
Banking Trees-It has been found advisable to bank up the
earth around the base of young trees for the winter season.
These banks should be high enough to be well above the points
where the buds were inserted. This should be done in No-
vember or December; at the beginning of the cold season. A
good quality of dry, clean soil should be used for banking since
soil containing trash might cause injury to the tree trunk by
wood lice.
According to reports from satsuma growers, banks should
not be made out of heavy clay, since such banks are packed
by the tree trunks as a result of their swaying in the wind.
This leaves a space between the tree and the bank into which
cold air can settle. Sandy soil will settle around the tree
trunks and leave no space for the air. It is a good idea to
loosen up this soil with a hoe or a rake before a freeze. Allow
the banks to remain until it is time for the sap to rise. Usually
by this time the danger of freezing is over. This banking may
save the tree from freezing, and will prevent injury to the
bud from frost.
Shipping Facilities-It is a decided advantage to have a
grove near a railroad line or shipping point. Long hauls are
expensive and inconvenient. When citrus fruits are to be
shipped in carlots, a packing house is necessary. A properly
constructed packing house of fair capacity can serve several
hundred acres of groves. An association owning such a pack-
ing house can well afford to equip it with the best kind of
machinery and supervision, and thereby the fruit can be
marketed to the best advantage. This puts a small isolated
grove at a decided disadvantage in marketing its fruit.

SELECTING AND BUYING TREES
Buds-The only kind of satsuma recommended for cultiva-
tion in Florida is the Owari, since it is a hardier strain and a
satisfactory bearer. Its fruit is an excellent quality.
Stock-There is a worthless orange of the citrus species
known as the trifoliata, which is a deciduous tree. It does not
11









grow large, and therefore is not suited to graft the large-tree
varieties on. The satsuma is a small growth and will do well
on the trifoliata stock. This deciduous stock will not allow
the tree to put out buds so early in the spring as the evergreen
stocks. The later the sap rises in the spring the safer the
tree from the late spring frosts. For this reason they can be
grown further north than other oranges.
Buying Trees-In purchasing young trees it should be re-
membered that Florida still maintains a quarantine against
the importation of citrus fruits from outside the state. This
quarantine is primarily for protection against citrus canker.
In the past few years the nurseries have been unable to meet
the large demands for satsuma trees, but they are rapidly
increasing their capacity for growing these trees and are pre-
paring to take care of future demands. It is as important for
every citrus grower to buy from only reputable concerns as it is
for any other business man. Generally he must rely on the
honesty of the nurseryman in securing true-to-variety, thrifty,
and well-grown trees.

STARTING THE YOUNG GROVE
Planting-The most advisable time for planting satsumas is
in the winter season when the sap is dormant. (December
15 to March 1). They may also be planted during the rainy
season in July, but the winter season is decidedly better. The
trees should never be planted closer together than 22 feet. The
preferred distance is 25 feet each way. This gives 69 trees to
the acre. The trees may be planted in several arrangements.
The two most common of these are those planted in hexagons
and those planted in squares. In some cases the square has a
slight preference over the hexagon.
Soil Preparation-The first step in the preparation of the
soil is, of course, to thoroughly clear the land, removing all
stumps. It should then be ploughed. Very little raw land
contains any bacterial life, which is essential to plant growth.
For this reason it is advisable to grow some crop like velvet
beans or cowpeas on it the year before the trees are to be set
out. Almost anything that can be made to grow on the land
will improve the soil for the succeeding citrus crop.
12









Before planting begins the ground should be measured off
carefully, and each place where a tree is to be placed should
be marked with a stake or other marker. This will insure,
first, proper distance between the rows, and second, straight
rows, both of which give the grove a better appearance and
make it more convenient to cultivate.
In planting the trees care should be taken not to plant them
lower than they were in the nursery. This is often the ten-
dency when planting in very loose ground. As a result of too
deep planting the trees will grow slowly. The holes should
not be dug until the trees are ready to be planted since the
earth will become dry.
Setting Trees-If the trees must be kept out of the ground
for several days they should be heeled-in. This is done by
unpacking the plants, placing the roots in a furrow and cover-
ing them with moist soil. They should be watered regularly.
If the occasion demands it they may remain in this condition
several weeks. However, the sooner they are planted the
better. The roots should not be left exposed to the sun or wind.
In planting the tree it is essential that the bud be well
above the surface of the ground. The tree should be set
straight and the soil worked carefully around the roots. When
the tree is thus set a bucket full of water should be poured
around the base of the tree. When the water has soaked into
the ground, dry earth should be raked over the wet surface
to prevent evaporation. If the soil is poor, about a pound of
complete fertilizer may be mixed with the soil at planting.
However, if the soil is naturally fertile this is not necessary.

CARE OF TREES
Culture of Young Trees-The object of every citrus grower
for the first few years of his grove is to produce large healthy
trees upon which he will later grow fruit.
To accomplish this end it is necessary that the groves be
given frequent and shallow cultivation. In order to establish
a good root system the young trees should be constantly sup-
lied with water. The trees should be cultivated regularly
between March and the middle of August. This will allow
13









maximum growth, and will still give time for hardening before
cold weather. A harrow used around the trees about every
twelve days will accomplish excellent results. It is advisable
that grass and weeds be kept away from the trees since they
take up moisture and fertility that should go to the trees.
This is particularly true the first two or three years. After
being carefully ploughed and harrowed in the fall the grove
may be left until spring.
Truck crops may be grown between the trees for the first
few years without injury to them unless they are planted too
close to the tree roots, and unless they are such crops as
watermelons, sweet potatoes, peanuts, or other crops which
require too much water. As a summer cover crop, crotalaria,
cowpeas, beggarweed, and bunch velvet beans are all excellent.
Culture of Bearing Trees--As soon as the trees are old
enough to bear, all intercrops should be discontinued, leaving
all the ground to the trees. Until the rainy season starts
they should receive shallow cultivation.
Pruning-Heavy pruning and severe cutting-back of young
trees is very unadvisable. The tree should be allowed to form
a low head, since it is advantageous to have the fruit near the
ground. A low tree also has a better chance of escaping a
freeze.
Do not try to confine a tree to its original nursery form,
but give it a chance to show how it is inclined to grow and
then train it accordingly. Cut off any dead or undesirable
branches. Long weak limbs should be cut back in order that
the fruit will not break them off and injure the tree. Pruning
should be done close to the tree or limbs in order that the cut
surface will heal over readily.
In case of injury from cold the trees should be cut back to
good sound wood. This should be done as soon as possible,
or as soon as the extent of the damage can be determined.
During the second year of the grove it is a good plan to
inspect the trees and replace any that have died or become
stunted. A weakened or stunted tree seldom recovers, if ever
and should be replaced.


14








































































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FERTILIZATION
No hard and fast rule can be set down, in regard to fertiliz-
ing citrus trees. The trees will require more fertilizer as they
grow older. Different kinds of soil and different grades of
fertility will require different amounts of different kinds of
fertilizer.
Stable manure is a good fertilizer, but must not be used too
early in the spring or too late in the fall. If used too early in
will tend to make the soil dry, and if used too late it will tend
to make the trees bear too early in the spring. This might
subject them to injury from late spring frosts.
Commercial fertilizers are also widely used on satsumas.
Usually this kind of fertilizer is applied three times during the
year (February or March, June or July, and sometimes in
August). A good fertilizer should contain about 4% ammonia,
6 to 8% phosphoric, acid and 3 to 5% potash. On groves that
are bearing, the ammonia content may be reduced and the
potash increased to 6 or 8%.

ITS USES
Aside from the use of the satsuma for the same purpose as
that of other oranges there has developed a c.old-drink-stand
use in the form of a substitute for lemonade and limeade.
The fruit is gathered before it ripens and it makes a wholesome
drink.
The satsuma is a favorite as a part of the lunch of school
children as they can peel them without a knife and eat them
without soiling their hands. The same is true of office workers
who want fruit during office hours.


16









FERTILIZATION
No hard and fast rule can be set down, in regard to fertiliz-
ing citrus trees. The trees will require more fertilizer as they
grow older. Different kinds of soil and different grades of
fertility will require different amounts of different kinds of
fertilizer.
Stable manure is a good fertilizer, but must not be used too
early in the spring or too late in the fall. If used too early in
will tend to make the soil dry, and if used too late it will tend
to make the trees bear too early in the spring. This might
subject them to injury from late spring frosts.
Commercial fertilizers are also widely used on satsumas.
Usually this kind of fertilizer is applied three times during the
year (February or March, June or July, and sometimes in
August). A good fertilizer should contain about 4% ammonia,
6 to 8% phosphoric, acid and 3 to 5% potash. On groves that
are bearing, the ammonia content may be reduced and the
potash increased to 6 or 8%.

ITS USES
Aside from the use of the satsuma for the same purpose as
that of other oranges there has developed a c.old-drink-stand
use in the form of a substitute for lemonade and limeade.
The fruit is gathered before it ripens and it makes a wholesome
drink.
The satsuma is a favorite as a part of the lunch of school
children as they can peel them without a knife and eat them
without soiling their hands. The same is true of office workers
who want fruit during office hours.


16










CITRUS GROVE PRACTICES FOR SUMMER;
CONTROLLING OF INSECTS AND DISEASES
By E. F. DeBUSK, Citruculturist Florida Experiment Station
(Broadcast Over WRUF, Gainesville, July, 1933)
A well-planned citrus grove management program provides
for certain things to be done during the summer months, com-
monly referred to as the "rainy season."
The Cover-Crop

The first thing is to make sure of a cover-crop. Where a fair
stand of crotalaria has been obtained and it is struggling with
the grass, the grass crop should be mowed, just above the top
of the crotalaria if practicable, and thus give the crotalaria
a chance to get ahead of the grass. The mowed grass will
shade the ground and provide a more favorable condition for
growing the crotalaria. When a poor stand of crotalaria has
been obtained or when none was planted, attention should be
turned toward producing a heavy natural cover-crop of
grasses and weeds. Any form of vegetation is desirable in
supplying the organic matter needed in the soil. During the
rainy season, when there is usually a surplus of water and
nitrogen in the soil, is the time to grow it. When the grass
cover-crop does not grow vigorously and uniformly over the
middles, results of tests during the last three years justify the
application of 75 to 100 pounds per acre of sulphate of ammonia
or some other cheap nitrogen carrying material. This should
be applied broadcast, preferably early in July.
It is hoped that no grower will destroy a good young cover-
crop by "working in" the summer application of fertilizer.
Apply the fertilizer right on the cover-crop and let the rains
take care of "working it in." Apply enough for the cover-
crop to have a little. It will return it later with big interest.
Mulching
Where tree-mulching is practiced, a good time to apply the
mulching material is in July and early August. If not applied
too heavily, this will give time for the material to become
17









fairly well rotted down by the time the fall drought period
comes on. Apparently it is desirable to have the mulch thin
enough during the periods of light rainfall to permit the light
rains to penetrate through into the root zone of the tree.
Under many conditions it is good practice to mow the natural
cover-crop in July or early August and rake it to the trees for
mulching. Where this is practiced the middles should receive
at least one application of nitrogen a year, expressly for the
c.over-crop.

Soil Conditioning
The rainy season is a good time to touch up the areas of
poor soil condition in the grove. The production can be greatly
improved on poor spots by hauling in stable manure, leaf mold,
grass, muck or any other form of vegetable matter. Where
the supply of such material is limited the best results may be
obtained by applying it from within a foot or two of the trunk
of the tree outward as far as the supply will go. In some
cases it is needed worst on bare spots in the middle to stimu-
late a uniform growth of cover-crop. An application of raw
phosphate all over the ground may be very desirable. More
attention should be given to supplying organic deficiencies,
and probably mineral deficiencies, especially in our light sandy
soils. The poor tree condition found in certain sections and
groves is very probably due to a deficiency of rare plant
nutrients or a lack of availability of these nutrients because
of the loss of tree roots resulting from prolonged and intense
drought. To rejuvenate these trees may require a long and
tedious process of soil conditioning and soil building. It is
time to take warning and try to find out how to prevent such
tree conditions, This is a problem for research.

Insect Control
A very heavy infestation of whitefly is noted in a good many
groves over the state at this time. It has been amply demon-
strated that whitefly can be controlled economically by spray-
ing infested trees with cultures of whitefly fungus-Red
Ascharsonia-during the rainy season. Infested trees should
be examined at this time, and if the red ascharsonia does not
appear quite generally on the under side of the leaves cultures
should be obtained from the State Plant Board, Gainesville,
18









and sprayed according to printed instructions sent out with
each order. One spraying should be effective two or three
years or even longer under favorable conditions.
The grove should be inspected for rust mites every week or
two even during the rainy season, especially where the dusting
program is followed. In many instances sulphur dust applied
at the beginning of the rainy season is washed off by a heavy
rain soon after it is applied, and consequently gives protection
against the mites only to the extent of killing the adult mites
present at that time. The eggs present hatch later and these
mites may nullify the results of the dusting.

I might call attention at this time to two serious weaknesses
in the dusting program in rust mite control. In the first place,
as a rule, not enough sulphur is applied -to-the--tree. -Bearing
trees should receive from 34 to 1/4 pounds each. In the sec-
ond place, those applying the sulphur dust seem to lose sight
of the fact that gravity acts on particles of sulphur as well as
on falling leaves, fruit and other objects. In other words,
they apply the sulphur dust to the lower part of the tree
branches and expect it to just float right up through the
branches and cover all parts of the tree. As a matter of fact
the sulphur particles are attracted to the ground just like
other objects and the result is poor coverage of the tree and
consequently poor rust mite control.


19













DATA ON CITRUS
for
1932-33 and 1933-34

The following is furnished by F. H. Scruggs, specialist, Market
News, Florida State Marketing Bureau.

We submit the following as our own estimate of citrus fruit shipped
out, canned, or consumed in Florida for two seasons.

1932-33 1933-34
(Preliminary)
Commercial* ---...-----------...........-....... ......... 23,186,930 24,028,398
Canned ......----------- --------.. ............-... 2,800,000 2,860,562
Consumed ..--------..........-- ---------.................. 2,422,700 2,450,000

28,409,630 29,338,960
*Commercial includes rail, boat and truck shipments.

Our estimates are some higher than the federal estimates but our
figures are more comprehensive and is the best figure to use for a
production estimate. Rail cars were loaded heavier this last season
averaging about 420 boxes to car as compared to approximately 363
boxes per car in 1932-33 season.

1933-34 (Preliminary)


Rail
Boat
Truck


28,359 carlots or 11,910,078 boxes
24,647 carlot equivalent or 8,872,920 boxes
9,015 carlot equivalent or 3,245,400 boxes


or
or
or


24,028,398
Total Citrus Shipped or Used in 1933-34 Season.


49.6%
36.9%
13.5%

100.0%


Boxes
Rail, boat, truck
Mixed cars*


Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines
12,814,518 6,594,000 1,283,400
1,668,240 1,401,322 266,918


Total Commercial 14,482,758
Canned 60,562
Consumed in Florida 1,225,000


Total
20,691,918
3,336,480


7,995,322 1,550,318 24,028,398
2,800,000 2,860,562
980,000 245,000 2,450,000


15,768,320 11,775,322 1,795,318 29,338,960

*Converted on basis of Oranges 55 percent, Grapefruit 20 percent,
Tangerines 15 percent.


20















CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA

Statistics Compiled by the Grove Inspection Department-State Plant Board
of Florida
TABLE 1
Showing Increase in Total Plantings since 1919

Year Total Total Total I Total Total J Total
Orange IGrapefruitl Tangerine I Satsuma Misc., All Citrus
19192 -......-- .I .--- ..._.--- ----- ---. -- -- ,3- 11,356,414
1923 ---- 10;912,716 4,780,496 609,1071 s 374,908 16,677,227
1928-- 13,660,461 5,592,187 1,677,042 528,823 568,201 22,026,714
1931 14,549,074 6,412,268 1,987,894 724,768 649,846 24,323,850
SLemons, Rough Lemons, Limes and Kumquats.
2 Figures as to varieties not available.
a Included as "oranges".


21






CITRUS PLANTINGS IN FLORIDA
TABLE 2
Compiled by State Plant Board
Showing Number of Citrus Trees by Counties and Varieties as of
December 31, 1931


COUNTY ORANGE TREES GRAPEFRUIT TREES

bi b M be
Sa
q EM p M

Alachua -.-------........-- 53,783 2,325 56,108 3,847 192 4,039
Baker ............................ 679 57 736 89 21 110
Bay ---------.. -..-............ 639 2 641 483 10 493
Bradford ------ 2,534 50 2,584 71 1 72
Brevard............ 578,528 99,735 678,263 178,935 50,157 229,092
Broward --------------------. 25,015 71,923 96,938 14,841 3,612 18,453
Calhoun ------ ---------.- 706 706 51 5 56
DCharlotte ...---........... 3 38,813 5,120 43,933 16,222 2,119 18,34]
6Citrus -----. 40,193 6,504 46,697 6,203 539 6,742
Clay ---------------- 4,384 1,023 5,407 442 961 538
Collier ---- ..... 11,071 480 11,551 12,733 442 13,175
Columbia ------------- 1,149 272 1,421 102 31 133
Dade ----------- 193,829 12,076 205,905 403,858 3,983 407,841
DeSoto --- .-------.....----- 355,984 34,768 390,752 100,220 1,301 101,521
Dixie .-----------------..-- 359 33 392 9 3 12
Duval --------------....--- 22,469 4,026 26,495 2,224 556 2,78(
Escambia ----- -- 1,914 1,399 3,313 310 55 361
Flagler ----- ----- 19,603 1,578 21,181 2,148 107 2,25E
Franklin ---..------ 121 4 125 5
Gadsden ---- 313 48 361 288 99 387
Gilchrist ---.....-..-......--- 460 8 468 27 3 30
Glades ---------------.--. 2,727 487 3,214 1,080 143 1,22;
Gulf .----------------- -- .. 1,534 42 1,576 51 83 134
Hamilton ---- 449 194 643 19 6 25
Hardee -----.-- ----- 446,623 31,424 478,047 60,792 4,166 64,95E
Hendry --- --- 31,628 4,771 36,399 13,268 1,805 15,072
Hernando ---- 64,739 8,496 73,235 32,757 1,437 34,19,
Highlands -- .- 557,389 17,564 574,953 331,549 10,826 342,37,
Hillsborough 914,429 63,896 978,325 260,727 32,990 293,717
Holmes ---------------.-.. 257 4 261 29 2S
Indian River 241,601 37,381 278,982 334,739 70,720 405,45S
Jackson .-------------. -1 8651 865 362 78 44(


Total
TANGERINE TREES SAT-
SUMAS

S Bearing
4- & Non-
a Z a) H-p Bearing

) 8,135 571 8,706 19,758
0 6 6 25,184
S 164 164 66,125
2 51 3 54 12,959
46,328 5,152 51,480 48
2,128 4,523 6,651
S 31 3 34 3,551
1 5,886 318 6,204 33
2 3,757 1,475 5,232 1,864
8 364 123 487 57,981
S 292 1 293 6
14 38 52 2,128
S 24,425 2,056 26,481
L 43,200 3,236 46,436 887
2 2 50
0 937 276 1,213 16,088
S 16 1 17 79,915
i 9,275 901 10,176 761
5 4
S 9 9 1,479
S 6 6 20
31 159 210 369 3
4 19 5 24 1,395
5 7 1 8 3,429
8 55,930 3,278 59,208 768
3 1,402 134 1,536 26
1 56,889 4,376 61,265 2,001
5 70,161 1,274 71,435 80
7 102,579 1,892 104,471 3,967
9 10 10 2,851
S 35,903 3,382 39,285 25
0 83 83 174,254


Total
MISC.*

Bearing
& Non- Total
Bearing

1,011 89.622
213 26,249
357 67,780
86 15,755
6,109 964,992
8,492 130,534
113 4,460
2,994 71,505
3,848 64,383
333 64,749
1,422 26,447
48 3,782
79,187 719,414
8,132 547,728
4 460
965 47,541
1,308 84,918
166 34,539
7 141
92 2,328
13 537
865 5,674
59 3,188
7 4,112
11,470 614,451
1,448 54,482
10,554 181,249
16,315 1,005,158
99,139 1,479,619
55 3,206
4,518 728,269
S 176 175,818


h:
h:










TABLE 2-Continued


COUNTY ORANGE TREES GRAPEFRUIT

hU hf hD bo
; 0
0e 0 0 a

Jefferson -----------...I 1,3531 223 1,576 212 81
Lafayette -------------- 660 660 16
Lake -.-- -- 1,154,562 168,179 1,322,741 422,635 48,578
Lee ------....... ----- 179,288 20,095 199,383 221,555 11,803
Leon ..------. ------- 692 178 870 239 67
Levy --------... 3,431 41 3,472 132 6
Liberty -------..-------- 212 24 236 14 2
Madison --- ------------ 718 133 851 90 26
Manatee 226,442 25,266 251,708 267,810 55,681
Marion .---------- - 525,160 60,320 585,480 56,762 4,448
Martin -- ------------- 42,140 26,937 69,077 48,338 12,054
tDMonroe --------------------------- 4,671 38 4,709 3,330 12
NNassau ----------------- 1,303 177 1,480 64 28
Okaloosa ----------------- 90 90 62
Okeechobee ---------- 20,680 3,124 23,804 6,086 577
Orange 1,643,647 170,495 1,814,142 262,833 29,387
Osceola -...-------- 191,022 21,396 212,418 53,056 4,294
Palm Beach --------- 60,342 1,869 62,211 31,469 3,601
Pasco ----- --------- 273,347 36,765 310,112 89,899 14,253
Pinellas ----.--.--- 402,338 12,542 414,880 432,535 51,680
Polk --- 3,013,705 170,388 3,184,093 1,669,237 106,850
Putnam ------------- 268,490 23,774 292,264 32,777 3,161
St. Johns .---------- 29,940 9,932 39,872 3,149 664
St. Lucie 291,492 47,336 338,828 219,170 41,173
Santa Rosa .--..------------- 311 311 90
Sarasota 164,710 2,462 167,172 65,305 6,758
Seminole------------ 325,113 34,141 359,254 46,672 9,347
Sumter 92,910 2,180 95,090 10,668 253
Suwannee 1,279 346 1,625 651 54
Taylor ---------------------. 604 138 742 17 11
Union ..-. 790 166 956 61 56
Volusia ------------- 620,538 143,814 764,352 80,195 18,437
Wakulla 5------------ -- 143 46 189 34 14
Walton -------------------------.. 1,245 2 1,247 177
Washington ----- 2,662 40 2,702 91
TOTAL, Dec. 31, 1931 113,160,8171 1,388,257114,549,0741 5,803,3261 608,9421
"Includes Lemons, Rough Lemons, Limes and Kumquats.


TREES I


Total
TANGERINE TREES SAT- Total
SUMAS MISC.*


d C Bearing
S'o- o 4 & Non-
a z 0o Bearing
PQ Mq


293
16
471,213
233,358
296
138
16
116'
323,491
61,210
60,392
3,342
92
62
6,663
292,220
57,350
35,070
104,152
484,215
1,776,087
35,938
3,813
260,343
90
72,063
56,019
10,921
119
28
117
98,632
48
177
91


6
2
167,605
11,074
7
105
2
24
10,057
55,817
3,642
1,811
23
542
2,442
242,574
36,426
6,756
39,938
44,669
429,112
52,058
1,451
70,737
2
2,596
57,926
7,136
28
14
10
158,053
2
16
19


10,653
680
1
3

1,089
4,342
161
5

214
10,310
1,735
94
8,107
688
8,890
3,883
101
7,846

155
2,082
211

2
22,563


6
2
178,258
11,754
8
108
2
24
11,146
60,159
3,803
1,816
23
542
2,656
252,884
38,161
6,850
48,045
45,357
438,002
55,941
1,552
78,583
2
2,751
60,008
7,347
28
14
12
180,616
2
16
19


Bearing
& Non-
Bearing

226
10
18,285
9,974
297
38
22
43
15,337
4,601
11,980
146,652
55
213
5,243
19,282
10,704
17,706
15,686
9,079
57,769
2,075
746
15,411
153
9,775
7,265
2,829
126
31
20
8,349
13
195
147


6,412,2681 1,870,3261 117,0441 1,987,8941 724,7681 649,846124,323,850


Total


17,272
725
2,000,222
454,500
4,904
4,196
1,350
1,496
601,842
719,274
145,352
156,520
2,595
45,334
38,388
2,382,528
319.123
121,837
478,198
954,023
5,456,735
397,396
84,188
693,188
34,070
251,788
483,695
116,670
5,115
843
3,138
1,055,404
1,273
24,533
43,045


15,171
37
9,725
31
3,423
440
1,047
462
160
7,824
100
1
945
44,427
22
4,000
490
203
492
784
11,178
38,205
23
33,514
27
1,149
483
3,217
28
2,033
3,455
1,021
22,898
40.086


I


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.


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