Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 References and acknowledgments

Group Title: Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin
Title: The home vegetable garden in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014590/00001
 Material Information
Title: The home vegetable garden in Florida
Alternate Title: Bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 52
Physical Description: 64 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stoutamire, Ralph
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida State Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: October, 1931
Copyright Date: 1931
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph Stoutamire.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1931"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014590
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7064
ltuf - AKD9403
oclc - 28539564
alephbibnum - 001962726

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    References and acknowledgments
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text

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A Bulletin No. 52 New Series October, 1931

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? Bulletin No. 52 New Series October, 1931




NATHAN MAYO; Commzi.ssiojner

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W hy a Garden ......... ...-..- ...-- --.......... .....---- --- ..- ... ...-...... .- 5
Soils ...-....-.... -................ .....--------- ... -------. 9
Fertilizers -- - --......--...... --................-......... -~. ... ............... 10
Seed and Seedbeds .....-- .......... -------..........---- ---... ....... .....-- 12
Seed Supply, Seed Testing, Seed Treatment --------------- 14
Planting the Seedbed .-....--....-....---- -.- -... ....-- ... 16
Planting the Garden .------...---. --- .. .. ............ 17
"\ Cultivation ...-....-.....- .. ...-......... -- - ......... 20
Harvesting .--...-....- - --.~...-.......--.--.....................---..--- 21
Storing .... ...... ..... ... ... ... ........ 22
'V.What Shall I Plant?" ---......-......--- .. ----- --. ..-...... ..... -- ----- .. 23
Asparagus .......--. -....-------. .... ---------..... ......- 24
Globe Artichoke ------..---...... .. -------..- ..- ----. - ----...---.... 25
Jerusalem Artichoke ................... ---- ..... -...--.. ---...... 25
Lima Beans (or Butter Beans) ............... 26
Snap or Green Beans .-----~-........--.-...-...-... ---- -----.27
Beets --------.......-....--....-..... ----- -..-- .... ....------- 28
Broccoli .--........----..---_--....--...- ....----.----.-.. --------- ..... 28
Cabbage -- -.~.-. .. -------------- 9
Chinese Cabbage -.....-- ..--.-- --....---------...-.-.--- 30
Cauliflower .---------.. ----.........-----------....---- -- .. 31
Carrots ..-..........-----------. _--------.. ---- _.------..... 30
Cassava ................---- ~~._.--...-.. ...... .....--- -.-............. ..-....- 31
Celery -----.-------. -.. ..-- -----........ -- 33
Chard ---....-------...-.--.. ..-.....-_..--- -----.---- --. ..--..............- --. 34
Chicory ....... .....--- ... --..~.~....... 35
Chives .-.---.----------...-..----------..-.- -...---.-. 36
Collards --....--_--.... -...-.......---.. -- .--------... 36
Sweet Corn ...--......--..-............. -.----...-..---- .. --...... ......--- -. 36
Cucumbers -.-....--._.-..----...---........--.-------- .. ..---...- 37
Dasheen ... ----...._..... ............-.-----.-.-- .....--.----.--.... 38
Eggplants -.---.----- .- -.-- --..----- 40
Endive -----...-.....- ...--.....----. -...........-- -. ...- ...... 41
Garlic .... -.. ..-..._- ...-...-....--....---.......... .. 41
Horseradish --..--.. ..--- .-.- ........-------......-.-.---. -... 41
Kale --...--.. .----......-.. -.-..... -.-. .... --....... -... ....- .... 41
Kohlrabi .- ..----....-..-.. --..-... --..--- ---- ...-....- .... ........-........-..- 42
Leek -..---------------.............. ....--..-..-....-.--... --... -------- ----- 42
Lettuce ._.:_- .. .... ...........-..-.-. -. ..--. -..-... ... ....-........... --. 42
Muskmelons and Cantaloupes ...--..- _----..... ...-...-.... 44
Okra .......- ........-........-.. -.....- ----.-.. -...-...-- 44
Onions -...------...--..-..--...--..--- ...---..---- -- -.. ---.---- ............... --- 45
Parsley ---..----.....-......-------..-..... ~ ......- ...----..--.... 47
Parsnips ....--..--...---.. ..-....- - -------- .-- -.....---.. 47
English Peas .-.....---......-..-- ...--- --.----.- .....----- 47
Peppers .-.. ..._.-.-... ..- .. .. ...- ---..... - ... .... ......... .....-- 48
Potatoes, Irish .....-.- ....-.. -- .-- ...--.-- .--. _-. ----...--.......... 49
Potatoes, Sweet -..----.-------..... --.--- --..- --......----...- 50
Radishes _..-. ............------...... ----- ---... 51
Rhubarb --_.-..--....-......-....- ....----.. ....-- .. .. ... .-. -..- .. .. ---- 52
Roselle --...--.-- .... ....-. ...... .....-.... .---------- 52
Salsify .-....... ..--..... ..... ..... .. ........... ....-.... 53
Spinach .... ..------........------- ------ -- 53
Squash and Pumpkins ........--.....--- -.....----. 55
Strawberries .----....-..... .....---- ........-..........-.....--- 56
Tomatoes ...---...------..-....--..---- -_...._... _.. .-_----.......- -.. 58
Turnips, Mustard, Rutabagas --..-..... -- ...-...-.....- -.. 60
Water Cress ...... --. ---- - .------.--..... 61
W watermelons --......................... - . ..-......---- ....... 61
Disease Control .--..-.... ..--- ....--- ..----- .- --.----....-..-....- 62
Insect Control -- --------... -.. --.......----.......... --........ -... 63
References and Acknowledgments .........--- ------.........--....-.. 63

The Home Vegetable Garden.


/7LMOST every family in Florida should have a vege-
table garden. It would serve two chief purposes: 1.
Provide a variety and an abundance of fibrous, green
food materials which are rich in minerals and vitamins-
2. Provide a pleasant and profitable diversion in the form
of mild exercise, which makes this a rmost vital point in the
case of so many office or inside workers who have not the
means or the inclination to engage in athletic sports.
Times and conditions change-as inevitably, if not as
regularly, as the tides. In view of the present business de-
pression point No. 1 above is most important. Millions
of men are out of work and without visible means of liveli-
hood. Their families must eat. The home garden can be at
least half the solution of this immediate need. So true and
apparent is this that many communities throughout the
land have converted vacant lots and fields into great big
family or community gardens, worked by the idle and
their produce fed to the needy.
Never within the last decade or more has it been so es-
sential that every farm feed itself. Look around among your
farmer acquaintances. Which are faring best? Which
worst? Almost invariably those who consistently think of
and plan for a well-laden table of their owvn produce for
themselves are best off now. The home garden unquestion-
ably is. the biggest contributor to the family table of the
In the case of the city business man (as well as many
who live in the country) the home garden opens a wonder-
ful avenue for the expenditure of surplus physical energy,
for an escape from crowds and for the exercise of the in-
norn tendency to "dig in the earth." Many a business man
has found his nerves and mental faculties steadied and
rested by half an hour's escape to his garden from the
office grind, thus the better able to cope with hard prob-
The garden offers as much as anything else-perhaps
more-for one to exercise a play hobby. Few of us lack the
"urge to the soil," and rare is the man who can not easily


work up genuine enthusiasm in whatever project he may
start in his small backyard patch which may range in size
from a bed sheet to an acre or more. There, for perhaps
an hour each day, he can be king.
Not the least in importance by any means is the spiritual
aspect. No normal person can work in the soil with seed or
plants or crops without becoming a better person. It has
been said that he who takes himself to his garden or
orchard for a brief spell each day spends that time in the
greatest of all cathedrals and in the closest possible com-
munion with God.
The point the author wishes to make here is that the
little bit of food secured from a small garden plot frequent-
ly is not the main excuse for its existence and mainten-

-* < ^ ^.-- .- a'--:
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Fig. 1. Corner of a home garden in Florida.
ance. In this age vegetables are grown on such an exten-
sive commercial scale the average family can purchase its
supply for less than it would cost to grow it. And if you
are to consider the average business man's time as a fac-
tor in determining the value or the cost, certainly no home
garden can be regarded as a good investment. But that is
not the point; the backyard garden should equip the average
man with a healthier and stronger body, with a keener and
quicker mind and with a finer appreciation of the higher
things of life.
But there is another reason why a garden may be worth
the time and effort devoted to it, and that is the opportunity
of experimenting. There are so many unsolved problems
connected with agriculture and horticulture in Florida that
of experienting. here areso many 'unsolvedproblems
connected with ao-riculture ad horticulture in Florida tha


this should provide for many a most interesting study or
research hobby. Some of the most obvious problems are
here noted for the sake of those who may be interested.
1. Most Florida soils lack sufficient organic matter for
maximum growth of plants. This can best be provided by
(a) cover crops such as crotalaria, vetch, peas, beans, beg-
garweed and rye or oats, or (b) compost. Compost is best
provided by having a concrete vat covered with a roof. All
S weeds, leaves and other organic waste is thrown into this
vat. By mixing with it at intervals some superphosphate
and keeping it moist, a most excellent and inexpensive
fertilizer is provided. Start a compost pile today.
2. During late spring, summer and early fall Florida
usually has a superabundance of light and heat. These fac-


Fig. 2. Illustra.ting jposts and wires for supli orting x slats or cheese-lofh
sha de, eontruction similar to that for tobacco shade. AWith such a. shade
to temper mid-su)mmer's sun rays and to give sonie protection against frost,
it is believed the 'Florida m ome garden c;an become a yrear-around institution.
tors are no doubt partly responsible for the difficulty of
growing most of the common vegetables during summer.
There are two ways of modifying the temperature excess;
first, by using a mulch on the soil around the plants, and,
second, by a shade-slat house or cheesecloth.
Such things a. moss, waste hay, excelsior, etc., may be
used as a mulch and they effectively reduce soil tempera-
tures several degrees and also increase soil moisture near
the surface of the ground.
But mulches do not effectively reduce excessive light
relations, so that slat houses or cheesecloth structures have
much to commend them. Not only do they effectively reduce


temperatures but they cut down light intensity. The cheese-
cloth structure is the most economical to build. By stretch-
ing No. 9 galvanized wire over posts set at 10-foot spaces,
high enough so one may work unhindered, the cheesecloth
(made for the purpose in wide strips and almost any
length desired) may be fastened by threading a No. 14
wire over and under the cloth and the larger wire s. (See
Figure 2.)
iThe slat house should be made of cypress slats about 21,,
or 3 inches wide, spaced the width of the slats apart. This
provides so-called "half-shade."
3. Cold weather kills many gardens that might be saved
by using the cheesecloth covering described above and pro-
viding artificial heat by the use of one or more oil heaters,
the number depending on the are; enclosed. The cheese-
cloth itself cuts down the rate of r: elation and makes the
heaters many times more effective than in the open where
air currents carry off the heat rapidly. This is especially
true where a solid wall is made at the north and west sides
of the inclosure as a wind break.
Another device that may be used as a protection against
cold is the paper caps sold under various trade names as
"hotcaps," etc. By placing these just to the north side of
the plants, except when damaging cold threatens, they pro-
vide considerable protection to the plants as a wirdbreak.
As soon as the air begins to warm up after a cold night the
coverings should be taken off the plants, or damage to
the foliage is apt to result.
A modification of the paper cap is the trough made of
1 x 12-inch cypress boards. These are inverted over the
rows of vegetables requiring protection. The rows should
run east and west so that when the troughs are removed
they may be tipped back for protection against cold north
Irrigation water either from an overhead sprinkling
system or in ditches provides considerable protection against
low temperatures, especially if the water is relatively warm.
It is important that it be used plentifully as the sun rises,
since a too sudden rise of temperature often results se-
riously to chilled vegetation.
There are many other interesting problems connected
with vegetable culture such as n.;w kinds and varieties,
methods of fertilization, seed selc':-ion and breeding which


might well engage the attention of members of the..family.
Good books are available along these lines, and an interest-
ing study or studies could be easily and profitably pursued.*
Soil is just a medium in which plants anchor them-
selves and from which they secure moisture and food in the
form of dilute mineral salts. If the soil is dark in color
it indicates an abundance of good organic matter and ne-
cessary plant food. Hence we may reasonably expect to
find such a soil more productive than lighter soils.

i. 3'. M -t a little effort d..'' '', f-h tt on s ll, (1- --. T. onl,' da.ffere- e he- .

cover crops and by applying compost and commercial fer-
tilizers. Hence, if you have a soil that nature failed to pro-
SThel reader is here referred to Bulletin N. 23 o the State Depart-
m t of Ariculture, entitled Florida Truck Crop. In my instances

it is more comprehensive than this publiceatlion.
tilizers. Hence, if you have a soil that nature failed to pro-

m.-, en.t. of Agricultur-e, ent-.tled Florid. Truck Crops. In many instances
~- ,- -- =- 7 .;I ; d : : ; ,; .7 .,,: ---
"-.: -: ".7.. .--,, :" -= .'% -i-::. i: .',--: ? -: .2 ,, < : :---"---.. L' :
'-- -, .' .5 -, # ',.,1 # 4 - ~ ,
U . '.'; "'_ `. -- i- -. ... ". '- -',--" -
; : '< ';-.-.- :. ,:' { .. .. .-_, -f ;:... : :I
[ 7 : ..:'',.. ,. ,. '. .',.. ... 73. > -- '. .. . .. ... ,
r, : ,,.,-L ;:. -:7,u : .. .,i ... ; :i. -,. ," . ..- . r ." .':,'

'ig 3.:r~ .'ha :,ltl fota d: t.t1 ild .Th nydfeec
tween~~~~~ ~~~~ th ,ol: ,- ni ).~ ..4 the lakftterim h mr-etl.:~
"a. r e deel y rn utv td ot u e o ;h tk e ,tn w e s o e
wa rk n .h ~w n a e'ie i~i atenin
But lighter soils may be tilled succesul o eeal
prodctio by sing lagrqatte o omrilfr
tilizrs an yinsingL a cosatwte upyb i rr igt
ion ..,t Then thi sol a egetyipoe ygoing
cove crops and by aplyng ops n o rilfr
tilzer. Hnce ifyouhav aso.iltha aur ald opo
The reader is~~here reerdt uleh.N.2 th tt eat
mcn; ofArcluentile Flri t rckCo. nmayistne
i . is~ moeCmrhniethnti ulto.1


vide with fertility, here is your opportunity to show what
you can do through scientific practLces.
In preparing the soil for your garden all vegetation and
compo. : shouldd be turned under several weeks before you
are re;dy, to plant. If you use compost only, much less
trouble will be experienced since no large stems and trash
will interfere with planting and subsequent cultivation.
Most Florida soils need not be plowed or turned as deep-
ly in preparing them for planting as do the soils of most
other states. They are naturally loose and roots readily
penetrate to lower depths with ease. However do not get
the idea that soil breaking is unimportant. The making
of a good seedbed before the planting of the crop is one of
the most vital steps in any growing of plants. The land
should be broken thoroughly and reasonably deep at least
twice a year in case of the ho:ei garden.
A spade or shovel probably is adequate for breaking
and preparing small family gardens or units of larger gar-
dens, but a horse and plow should be secured where the
garden is of considerable size. .In spading or breaking
the land, pulverize it thoroughly and as deeply as the nature
of the soil will permit, else plant roots can not easily pen-
etrate to the lower depths of the soil and the plants -will
suffer in dry weather. As much organic: matter as pos-
sible-certainly all that is present on the surface-should
be turned under in breaking.
If the land is broken two or three weeks prior to plant-
ing, it will permit settling and penetration of moisture
uniformly through the soil, which are advantages. How-
ever, this means that weed seed in the soil have time to
germinate and get ahead of the garden plants. This ob-
jection may be overcome by handraking the surface once
or twice in the interim. Raking not only destroys young
weeds but also levels the land and aids in its reaching that
real seedbed condition which the true gardener loves.'
The use of commercial fertilizers in considerable quan-
tities is almost always necessary in growing the home gar-
den in Florida. It is essential to realize that a quantity
inorganic fertilizer will in all probability cause a greater
injury to plants on thin, light soil than the same quantity
will cause on a heavier soil containing a great content of
organic matter. It is true that more fertilizer is required
on thin soil, but it should be in an organic 'form-as bone
meal, cottonseed meal, guano, tankage-rather than in an


inorganic form, as nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia,
or any of the high-analysis, synthetic compounds.
I One of the functions of organic matter is to hold water
- in the soil, much as a sponge does. Naturally, then, the
fertilizer salts in solution are held until the plant roots can
Iuse them and little or no injury to the roots results. In
thin soils-the nitrates and ammonia salts are rapidly lost
by leaching. Therefore, it is desirable to use them in small-
er quantities per application, but to increase the number
of applications.

soll s in i
.*. .- .i -

q ,- 'Pe:. --: -

i 4. Sweet corn wanted l n the rows about the time abbae
tofollow.ormostveetbLecrop,. exce.. tomato, sw e

finishes its growth' keeps the hand at -work.
Very little experimental evidence has accrued regarding
the best fertilizers to use for different crops on different
soil types in Florida. But there is a a gea l practice amon
Commercial vegetable growers that has merit and is safe
S:to follow. For most vegetable crops, except tomatoes, sweet
S potatoes and celery, the fertilizer most commonly used is
one made up to contain 5 percent nitrogen, 7 percent of
phosphoric acid and 5 percent of potash-commonly desig-
nated as a "5-7-5." There is a large assortment of fertili-
zer materials that various fertilizer companies use in mak-
Sing up such a formula. This is especially true of the sources
Sof nitrogen. But for most cases practically any of them
S serve very well. For crops such as onions, eggplant, pep-
per, etc., that have a long growing period, nitrogen from
some organic source seems preferable.
Ii -mtrasta aiu feriie opne s nmk



Most commercial vegetable growers use from 800 to
12,000 pounds of commercial fertilizer per acre. It is doubt-
ful if most home gardeners will need to use the maximum
quantity, especially if they use compost, cover crops and
other natural fertilizer materials, such as rabbit and poul-
try manures which are available to many who have home
Poultry manure is low in phosphoric acid as indicated
by its analysis given below:
Nitrogen Phosphoric Acid Potash
1.31% 0.40% 0.50%
In order to make up a fertilizer analyzing 5-8-5, it is
necessary to add other materials to whatever manure
or compost one has as a base. A satisfactory and economi-
cal mixture is indicated in the following table. For every
100 pounds of fresh poultry manure, indicated amounts
of other materials are weighed out and the several mixed
together to form 1,000 pounds of fertilizer. The table shows
not only the weight of each ingredient but also the nitro-
gen, phosphoric acid and potash content of each and of
the final mixture.
Ammonia Acid Potash
NH:> P-O_- K2O
100 lbs. poultry manure -.........--........---- 1.31 0.40 0.50
300 ]bs. cottonseed meal ..-......... .. 24.00 6.00 0.50
100 lbs. ammonium sulphate .-.........-----........ 25.00
460 lbs. 16% phosphoric acid ...........-- ......... ...--------- .. 73.60
100 lbs. muriate or sulphate of potash............. --- ...... 50.00
1,060 lbs. TOTALS .......--...-..-- ....--... 50.31 80.00 53.50

Seedbeds are not used in Florida to the extent that they
are in northern latitudes. Most vegetable seed may be sown
directly in the row where they are to develop, since the soil
here is usually warm enough to start growth. However,
with such crops as eggplants, celery, pepper, lettuce, cab-
bage, broccoli and cauliflower or other small seeded plants,
it is desirable to make use of a seedbed.
The seedbed is quite a simple affair, requiring in most
instances no bottom heat. It is desirable to make the bed
from 3 to 4 feet wide and any length desired. In order to
prevent flooding the bed should be elevated several inches
above the level of the surrounding ground.
Whether boards or other retaining materials are used


-:o o around the bed is a matter of choice. There are some ad-
..t- vantages in their use, and in case it is necessary to protect
n the plants against cold winds or frost such an inclosure
d built of boards is quite indispensable.
1- By running the bed east and west the north side may be
e built up to a height of 18 inches'and the south side to a
height of 6 or 8 inches. Glass as a covering is not neces-
d sary and is expensive. However, an excellent and inex-
pensive cover which permits the entrance of ultraviolet
light is to be had in "flexoglass" or "celloglass." By their
use light intensity is greatly reduced. By making a
frame to fit over the seedbed these "glasses" may be
Handled readily. Another satisfactory cover may be made
Se from muslin by wringing it out of lindseed oil. This ren-
ders it quite waterproof which helps prevent the entrance
:i of organisms which cause mildew.

.. .. - -.- .- . .

Sig. A. A suggested seeded fr;tinm '.This may le e covered over with
slats, *heiesef-lth or gl ss.
Where protection from too great light and heat is de-
sired the type of cover shown in Figure 5 is very effective
It is easily assembled and stored for future use. If the bed
Sis 3 feet wide, then construct out of Ixl-inch strips equi-
1 lateral triangular frames. These are placed over the bed
from 6 to 8-foot intervals and held in position by stretch-
ing a No. 14 galvanized wire along the top held by small
staples. Similar wires are stretched at both sides of the
bed but 2 or 3 inches above the ground. A muslin cover
is then thrown over the wires and held in position .by
clothes pins. The wires are anchored by driving stakes at
the ends of the beds.
The soil in the seedbed should receive liberal applications
Sof composted materials and commercial fertilizers. From
1,500 to 2,000 pounds of a 5-7-5 fertilizer per acre applied



and thoroughly incorporated into the soil should be made
about a week prior to the sowing of the seed.
In many Florida soils a small eel-like worm, called nema-
tode, is prevalent. This tiny creature attacks the roots of
most vegetable crops, causing "root-knot." It is quite im-
possible to grow a vegetable garden successfully where
there are many nematodes. They are especially harmful in
a seedbed. Methods of control may be had from Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 136. See Fig. 6.
If the presence of nematodes is suspected, steps should
be taken to either reduce their number by treatment or
move the seedbed to uncontaminated soil.

.' ^ -..... -,. .-: i". : -: "

Iig. in t m o

"-" ee" d p- Se.e. T, -, -...- ,. ea men .

%sr. -
",.:. .. .-- -- W ., *

Yg- .. I lustr .tin neinitode danrge. Note tie nlots on tie carrot root
to the lef!. The wilting- conditionn of lhe toni:to plant to the right is char-
cteristic of wiat happens when root-knot begins to starve the plant by
shutting off its water and food supply.
Seed Supply, Seed Testing, Seed Treatment
There is no other item connected with the home vegetable
garden that should receive more careful consideration than
the seed supply. How good the soil is, how much fertilizer
is used, or how much labor is expended are of no conse-
quence, if the seed are not good. If they are poor, results
will be di:.-,ppointing. Therefore, beware of cheap seed
and of unknown seedmen. Unfortunately high-priced seed
is not in itself a guarantee of high quality or adaptability,
but well-established seedmen are usually to be depended
upon for fair dealing.
There are two important factors to be considered in se-



Selecting seed: 1. The viability or percentage of germination;
S2. Whether the seed are adapted to the region or not. In
Neither case may we expect perfection.
SNo seed should be planted until the percentage of germi-
: nation has been determined. This is important, first, for
your protection and, second, to indicate the relative num-
Sber of seed to be planted to secure a perfect stand. It is
obvious that more seed must be planted in a given area
when the percentage of germination is 60 than when it is
90 or more. In case the germination is poor the seed ought
to be returned at once to the seedman for financial ad-
4 Seed may be tested in several ways, but one of the most
satisfactory methods is as follows: Set a brick (not the
glazed kind) in a pan of water with one of the large sur-
faces up. The water may nearly cover the brick. On top
of the brick lay a blotter and then count out 100 seed of the
lot to be tested and distribute them over the blotter. Now
place them in a warm place. The water will rise to the
blotter through the brick by capillary action, so that with-
Sin a week or ten days all of the seed that will germinate will
have done so. These may be discarded as they sprout, and
when no more will grow count those remaining. This num-
lber, subtracted from 100, gives the percentage of germi-
It is the experience of seedmen and vegetable growers
that many seed lose their viability rapidly when subjected
to summer climatic conditions in Florida. It is very im-
portant, therefore, to require fresh seed. This is especially
true with onions and celery. Such seed should not be pur-
chased until the ground or seedbed is ready to plant.
Many vegetable seed may have adhering to their seed
coats the spores of certain organisms which cause plant
*'. diseases. When the seed sprouts and the plant begins to
grow, these spores also grow. Soon they produce a growth
which attacks the plant and causes serious losses. It is,
therefore, very essential that such seed be treated for the
destruction of these spores before being planted. If they
are treated at the time the germination test is made time
will be saved.
The usual and best-established method is to soak average
seed for from 10 to 15 minutes in a solution of bichloride
Sof mercury (corrosive sublimate) at a concentration of 1
part of bichloride of mercury to 1,000 parts of water. This
chemical is most conveniently purchased in tablet form,
I when only a few seed are to be treated, and when a tablet

is dissolved in a pint of water the required strength is ob-
tained. Not more than three separate lots of seed should
be treated in the same solution, since it loses strength
every time it is used.
It will be found convenient to put the seed to be treated
in a cheesecloth or other similar cloth bag. If several lots
are treated at the same time, care should be exercised to
prevent mixing or forgetting the identity of the various
lots. It is also important to discard the original packages,
for the treatment would be of no value if the seed were put
back into them. Some seed firms sell only treated seed which
is a great convenience to small growers.
Bichloride of mercury is a violent poison with caustic
properties. Only glass or wooden containers should be used
in handling it. Precautions must be exercised to prevent
children or animals from drinking any of the solution.
WThe( the seed are removed from the solution they should
be well rinsed in clean water and then spread out in a cool
place to dry prior to planting.
Seed treatment is the first step in disease control. It costs
so little in time or effort that it is extremely cheap insur-
Planting the Seedbed

Seed should be drilled in rows running across the beds.
These should be from 4 to 6 inches apart, depending on the
type of growth. But crowding is to be avoided, since compe-
tition among the plants causes them to grow spindling and
Weeds must be kept out of the seedbed, but these should
be pulled as they appear so as not to disturb the roots of
the young plants. It is essential to keep the soil from dry-
ing out. It is a common practice among many gardeners to
cover the seedbed with wet burlap bags at the time the seed
are sown, allowing them to remain until the seed begin to
sprout, when they must be removed.
The seed should be sown from four to six weeks prior
to the time the plants are to be set in the garden. And then
about 10 days before transplanting time the plants should
be "blocked off." This is done by cutting down through the
soil along the row of plants at about 2 inches from them
with a sharp blade or long knife. Only one side of the row
is cut at first. Allow three or four days to elapse before cut-
ting the other side. This operation cuts the long lateral roots
and stimulates new and much-branched roots to form near-
er the plant. These new roots are ready to function as soon




)b- as the plant is set out, especially if care is taken to carry
.ld as much soil on each plant as possible when removing it
th from the seedbed. Never permit the roots to dry out while
to Planting in the Garden
es, Seed should not be planted too deep. Small seed have a
pt ssmall reserve of food to start the plant until it produces
ch leaves and roots of its own. Therefore, if they are planted
Stood deep, they exhaust this reserve before getting through
tic the soil.
ed In case of sandy soil, such as we have in most parts of
.nt Florida, it is desirable to firm it slightly after the seed have
been sown in order to insure contact of seed with soil par-
d tidces and hence insure the necessary moisture for germina-
)ol tion. It is possible to make the soil too compact, in which
case the seed may not be able to push through and come
;ts up. A heavy driving rain just before germination some-
.r- times makes it necessary to replant for this reason.
The question is frequently asked whether to plant on a
ridge or at ground level. The latter is the usual method in
most northern states. But in Florida one must be governed
Is. in his method by the soil and moisture relations. Where the
he watertable is near the surface, as it is in many "flatwoods"
e- soils, ridge planting is imperative to prevent flooding at
ad times of heavy rains. Where drainage is adequate and the
soil has a tendency to be dry, flat planting will no doubt
id be found easier and most satisfactory.
of Sow enough seed to insure a 100-percent stand. From
Vf the germination test you will be guided as to the relative
to amount of seed to sow per foot of row. Seed that show a
d high percentage of viability may, of course, be sown more
to sparingly than seed showing low germination.
I Newly set plants should be placed in a hole large enough
or to prevent cramping the roots. The soil must be firmed well
rn by the fingers and water must be applied. It is desirable
Id to provide shade for a day or two. Scrub palmetto leaves
ae for this purpose are excellent.
nt The accompanying table of planting chart gives the best
w available information regarding time of planting, varieties,
t- spacing of hills in the row, distances between rows, and
ts I time eatable vegetables may be expected. Climatic and soil
r- differences are so great in various parts of Florida that it
>n is impractical to attempt more specific information.

It is impossible to be exact in designating the time to plant garden crops in particularly this state with its very vary-
ing conditions. And in preparing a chart of this kind it seems next to impossible to specify exact distances, depths, etc. Also
the exact length of time from planting to maturity can not be exactly specified. And definite figures do not lend them-
selves to generalizations. however, effort is made below to, specify as nearly as possible planting information for the garden-
er, but it must be insisted that the information given is general.

Distances Apart
Vegetable Varieties IWhen to Plant Days to Where Mainly
[ I of Plants I of Rows Maturity Grown in Florida
Asparagus Mary Washington I Fe. to Mar. 18 in. 4 ft. 1 to 2 yrs. Little grown
__ |Martha Washington I ._ I
Beans (lima) Early Leviathan, Lewis, Dailey-, July to Sept.! 8 to 18 in. -2 to 3 ft. 45 to 60 Southern and
Challenger, Ford Hook (a bush) I I Central
Bountiful, Giant Stringless. -| East Coast and
Beans (snap) Burpee Stringless Greenpod, I Feb. to Apr. I 8 to 18 in. [ 2 to. 3 ft.' 45 to 60 | Central
I Wardell Kidney Wax _____
Beets Detroit Dark Red, | Oct. to Jan. 1 2 to 4 in. -' 18 to 24 in. 50 to 70 Little grown
Crosby's Egyptian I___
Italiant Green Sprouting, Mam-1 I
Broccoli moth White, White Cape, I Oct. to Jan. 15 to 18 in. | 3% to 4 ft. [ 80 to 90 I Central
Autumn Protecting I |
j Charleston Wakefield. Jersey T I I -
Cabbage Wakefield, Premium Flat Dutch, I Sept. to Jan. I 15 to 18 in. 3 ft. 60 to 80 | Central ;
SCopenhagen Market I ______
-Cauliflower Early Snow Ball 1b Oct. to Jan. 15 to 18 in.[ 3 ft. I 60. to 70 [ Little grown
Cantaloupe or Rocky Ford, Old Georgia r Feb. to Apr. 30 in. ~G ft. 70 to C100 Central and
Muskmelon (muskmelon) I I 1 ;northern
Carrots I Chianlcnay -- I O6ct. to Mar. 3 in 14 1to160 | ie-but
cr-io-..... --c intiiay l- Oc- o Lr.-! 3 ....... tO--ini. i- to .. Everglades, but
______i_______ grow generally
Celery Golden Self Blanching, Easy I Aug. to Feb. I 3% in, 2 to 2% ft, 120 I Central
_____ Blanching, Green Top [____
I Snow Filake, -Couni:y Gentleman, | ( I~ Central and
Corn, sweet I Long Island Beauty, Truckers' I Jan. to Apr. I 18 to 24 In. | 3 to 4 ft. 70 I northern
SFavorlle I |
Cucumbers Improved White Spine, Kiriby Sept. to Oct. --24 -to 30 I 4 to 5 ft. [70 to 80 Central and
I Staygrcen, Davis Perfect 1 Feb. to Mar, I I southern
D aslic~ i .. .. T ri id ad ,..-S a cra lm en to .. .' h .n...* I .'..'h i ...r-, .h,, . . . .

Dasheen.R 'i 11 Trilti(d, sacra mcnto

' pniii. I F'lorida Highbushl, New Odrlcans i J
| Market M
1 White Curled, Green Curled.
Endive Moss Curled, Broad-Leaved 0
I Batavia
LcTtuice Big IHo .ltin, B1::lc: -:...r,II SI poll'l:,i | ""0
Cream Butter, Paris White Cos
Okra I Perkins' Mammoth Podded, A
( White Velvet, Long Green

I Vcb. IC) AU '.9 IJV1Z 4 to 3 in. 1 t 8 ft

.~-.ly to ug

:ly too Aug. (
,r. to May

ct. to Feb.

ct.to Mar,

!k15 I o h

36 in. I 4 to 5 It. I 120 I Central and
____ I southern

12 to 15 in. 12 to 15 in. I 50 to 60 Central

12 to 15 i. ]12t~o15 in.| 70.......cntral

pr. to June 12 in.

S3 It.


Onions I Bermuda (Yellow, White, Red), Oct. to Jan. 5 in. 12 to 15 in. 150 Southern, central
___ Spanish Valencia I __ and northern
Parsley I- HaanburgI Oct. to Nov. 10 to 12 in. 2 ft. I Little grown
Parsnips HIollow Crown | Oct. to Mar. 4 in. 15 to 18 in. | 120 j Little grown
Peas, English Alaska Extra Early, Thomas Sept. to Nov. 2 to 4 in. 2 l, to 3 ft. 60 to 70 I Central and
SLaxton, Laxtonia I southern
I Ruby King, World Beater,
Peppers ( Anaheim, Mexican Perfection, Sept. to Nov. 18 to 20 in. 3 ft. 70 to 90 | Central and
; Tomato Apr. to June southern
Potatoes, Irishi Irish Cobbler, Bliss Triumph, Jan. to Mar. 12 to 14 in. 2 to 3 ft. 60 to 90 Central and
Spaulding Rose Sept. to Oct. I southern
Sweet Porto Rico, Nancy Hall, Big Mar to July 12 to 14 in. I3 to 3% ft. 90 to 120 Northern, central
Potatoes, Stem Jersey and southern
Radishes | Long Scarlet, Long White Oct. to Mar. I 1 to 4 in. 12 to 15 in. "30 Little grown
Icicle, Scarlet Turnip __
Ros~lle L March I 18 in., 4 ft. 120 to 130 LLittle grown
Spinach, Improved Curled Savoy I Oct. to Feb. 12 to I18 in. 1 to 3 ft. 550 to 70 Little grown
Connon ._______ .. |
Spinach, IMar. to Aug. 12 to 18 in. 1 to 3 ft. II Little grown
New Zealand I
Cocozello, Patty Pan, Crook Jan. to May ..
Squash Neck, White Bush, Hubbard, Aug. to Oct. 4 to 6 ft. 4 to 6 ft. 45 to 60 Central
Giant Summer
Strawberries I Missionary | Sept. to Oct. 10 to 14 in. 3 or3 to ~ 80 to 100 Plant City but
I 4 or 5 ft. I grown generally

Tomatoes Marglobc, Livingston Globe, I Jan. to Mar. i 20 to 30 in. 3 to 5 ft.
S Ponderosa, Break of Day | Aug, to Sept. I
Watermelons Stone Mountain, Kleckley Sweet, Jan. to Apr. 8 ft. 8 ft.
Florida Favorite, Tom Watson I

I 50 to 80 1 Central and
SI southern

I 70 to 100 Southern, central
| and northern

i' P y y ~


----;--;--:- --;--i-_?;----:l~----?--_~--;-~----


- , . .


Not all the seed of any one kind of vegetable should be
planted at one timn,. A number of plantings should be made
for several reasor.ns Some plantings may fail or yield poorly
and may be compe-. ated for by subsequent or earlier plant-
ings. In case all succeed, several plantings at weekly inter-
vals will provide vegetables over a longer period of time.
This emphasizes the necessity for a garden plan made to
scale indicating kinds of vegetables, length of rows of
each, as well as interplanting or companion cropping and
succession cropping schemes. In small areas such plans are
a necessity in order to use the available space economically
or to best advantage.

;:.: i p:-; "- :' ^^ F ^ .^ \ 4: --

-' ,- .c-,& .'/...7 ..e. \

: F i|g. (;;r CULTIVATION

There is a rather deepset idea or tradition among farm-
ers that frequent cultivation is desirable, especially in
times of scanty rainfall. There have been advocates of deep
and of shallow cultivation. But scientific research does not

for most vegetable crops .have very shallow root systems.
In fact, the tendency is to reduce cultivation frequency to
t7i 41 1

the minimum-working thel soil only often enough to keep
own weed and grass growth. ost of this work should be

dor., prior to planting the crop. Shallow cultivation is ad-
ervis that frequent cultivation is desirable, especially after the plants begin to put out roots.


These appear to be logical facts, since the root systems
of practically all of the vegetable crops show a strong
tendency for shallow feeding roots to radiate out from the
plant from 12 to 24 inches in every direction. When these
are continually disturbed or destroyed much of the plant's
equipment for making large yields is reduced if not ac-
tually destroyed.
The home gardener will do most cultivating by hand. He
will find that the easiest way to keep down weeds is to
stir the surface of the soil with a fine and short-toothed
rake at intervals of once a week or every ten days, or as
often as he notices tiny grass or weeds breaking through
the surface. An ounce of energy at this time will prevent
several pounds of it later by providing against tough
growths of grass and weeds.
If your garden is large or if you use the plow, be very,
very careful in your first cultivation to let the earth lap
or thoroughly cover the soil surface in the drill. If neces-
sary, stop and use the foot in brushing fresh earth over
uncovered portions in the drill around the young plants.
Do not be afraid of covering up the young plants; when
this is done, merely remove the earth from over them
with the toe or fingers. Remember to stop grass and
weeds before they get too great a start.
Whatever faith you have or whatever system you fol-
low, some cultivation is necessary. Therefore, one must be
equipped with the tools for doing it. Every home gardener
should have the following tools at least A wheel hoe (large
wheel), a combination seeder and cultivator, a garden
rake, a spade or shovel, a push hoe, an ordinary hoe. These
usually will be found adequate.
It is, of course, taken for granted that most of the pro-
duce of the backyard garden will be harvested at its prime
and consumed immediately on the family table. This is one
of the great advantages of the home garden, for fresh vege-
tables have a savor that can be appreciated only by the
SMany vegetables are better when eaten raw-better in
flavor and of more value to the consumer, since nothing is
lost in the cooking. It often happens that excellent vege-
tables are practically ruined by over-cooking or improper
methods of canning. The old recipe of "Cook until done"
has given way to scientific "processing" where the object
is to preserve the natural vegetable color, vitamins, min-
erals and quality. Here the presence or absence of acids


or alkalis play an important role, as well as the time of
cooking, the "open" or "closed" vessel, the use of water
or "waterless" cooking and other factors.
But there is usually a surplus in every garden. This
should be preserved by canning or storing. Expert advice
is available with respect to canning operations in numer-
ous publications. Suffice it to say that it is not only prac-
tical but economical. With care much of the flavor and qual-
ity of the fresh product may be preserved. These and many
other matters are discussed at length in Florida State De-
pa rtment of Agriculture Bulletin No. 46 by Mary Stennis,
ac well as in many bulletins of the United States Depart-
menit of Agriculture.
There are some vegetables which may be stored and pre-
served to better advantage than by canning. Onions, squash,
sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, rutabagas and carrots are
High temperature, together with much rainfall during
the summer, attended by a relatively high humidity, is
favorable to the development of rot-producing organisms.
Under such climatic conditions it is very difficult if not
impossible to properly cure the product without artificial
means. A few tests made by growers in which onions were
cured by "firing" them, as they do in the curing of tobac-
co, seems to point the way to successful storage. Where
only a few onions from the garden are to be preserved,
an oil stove or other heating device might be used in a
room that could be more or less closed during the drying
process. By hanging the onions up by their tops or suspend-
ing them in a poultry-wire basket, the curing could be done
rather effectively.
So far as the storage of carrots, rutabagas and Irish po-
tatoes and other similar root crops is concerned, prelihi-
nary tests indicate that burying them in dry sand and
keeping them in a cool place, such as prevails under a
house, is a satisfactory method. Dry saw dust and moss-
peat have also been tried as a storage medium with con-
siderable success.* .Hampers or boxes may be used in
which alternate layers of either of these substances are
placed with the vegetables. They have two advantages
worth consideration: First, they keep insect pests or rats
or mice from feeding on the vegetables; second, they greatly
reduce the loss due to drying.
Preliminary unpublished information from the Hort. Dept., Fla.
Agri. Exp. Sta.



The successful storage of sweet potatoes in Florida pre-
sents a rather difficult problem, compared to such storage
in cooler areas. The best storage temperature for sweet
potatoes has been found to be between 45 and 55 degrees
Fahrenheit after they are cured. Such temperatures con-
tinuously in Florida are impossible without refrigeration.
Hence, the only other method of storage now known is to
"bank" them. This is not entirely satisfactory- because
moisture and temperature can not be controlled with the
consequent large loss due to decay. But if proper care is
taken in culling out the cut and bruised potatoes and then
following the directions given below, fairly good results
may be expected. The following is from Farmers' Bulle-
tin No. 1442:

: "Storage pits should be located where drainage is good.
In making a pit a little of the surface soil is thrown back
to form a level bed of the size desired. It is a good plan to
dig two small trenches across the bed at right angles to
each other to provide for ventilation at the bottom. Lay
boards or place troughs over the trenches, and at the point
Where the trenches cross set a small box on end to form a
flue up through the pile of potatoes. The earth floor of the pit
is covered with 4 or 5 inches of straw, hay, leaves, or pine
needles, and the potatoes are placed in a conical pile around
S the flue. A covering of straw, hay or similar material is
put on the pile and over this a layer of soil. The covering
of soil should be only a few inches thick at first, but in-
creased as the weather gets cold. Keep the ends of the
trenches and flue open until it is necessary to close them
to keep out frost. It is better to make several small pits
rather than one large one, because it is best to remove the
entire contents when the pit is opened."

The average family garden will seldom face the need
of such storage pits. Particularly is this true in Florida,
even in the Northern part. However, several root crops
may be stored as described above, or somewhat similarly,
and for that reason this information is given.

The amateur gardener inevitably asks, "What shall I
plant?" The charts shown and the discussion given on these
pages are guides only. He who chooses to plant a garden is
S urged to consult his own inclinations as much as the pages of




any book or bulletin. He will derive the greatest material
benefit and personal satisfaction from "wandering in the
great valley" of vegetable growing and working out his
own crops, methods and ideas. This is especially true in
case of those who make gardening a hobby and who are not
particularly concerned with the dollar-and-cent outcome.
If you are inquisitive by nature, do not hesitate to try
growing any plant you take a fancy to. It may be you will
discover a method or how to grow plants we have hereto-
fore regarded as "impossible" for this region, and thus
contribute scientific knowledge to the age. At least no
harm will be done and you probably will get a great kick
out of your ventures into the unknown or questionable.
On succeeding pages are descriptions and discussions of
the growing of vegetables adapted to Florida. Many'are
on the border line of success but under certain conditions
they will do reasonably well in parts of the state. The
space given to each naturally has to be limited and this
certainly is not to be regarded as a complete text on any
of the plants mentioned. Most of them are discussed more
or less completely in text books or in state or federal gov-
ernment bulletins which are usually sent free for the asking.
This plant is not well adapted to Florida, largely on ac-
count of too high temperature. By planting one-year-old
roots in soil rich in organic matter some edible stalks may
be secured for two years at least.
The roots should be.planted deep enough that the crown
of the plant is from 6 to 8 inches below the level of the
ground. They should be set from 24 to 30-inch rows, allow-
ing about 18 inches between the hills.
- Apply about 1 pound of a 5-7-5 fertilizer for from 5 to 8
feet of row. Work half of this amount into the soil prior
to planting and apply the other half as a side dressing about
June. The planting should be done as soon as plants can be
secured in spring.
Each year an equal amount of fertilizer should be ap-
plied in two applications in spring and early summer.
The rust-resistant varieties, Mary Washington and Mar-
tha Washington are advised for planting in this state.
Additional information concerning asparagus culture may
be had from Florida State Department of Agriculture
Bulletin No. 36.
Preliminary unpublished information from HorL. Dept., Fla.
Agri. Exp. Sta.


Globe Artichoke (Cynara)
Globe artichoke must not be confused with Jerusalem
artichoke, to which it is distantly relatc-d. The Globe arti-
choke plant looks like a thistle while the Jerusalem arti-
choke resembles the sunflower. The former produces its
edible portion in the form of a large bud, while the latter
produces a tuberous-like growth under ground.
Globe artichoke is not well adapted to Florida climate,
although a few are grown here. It is a plant that might
be tried in a small way, more or less as a curiosity.
It will withstand temperatures several degrees below
freezing and should produce edible buds during late winter
months-February and March. The buds are of better
quality when produced during cool weather.
The plant is propagated from suckers or offshoots from
the tap root of the parent plant. These form late in the
growing period and may be removed by a spade and set out
during fall.
Little is known as to the life of the plants in Florida. In
regions where they are native they are perennial plants.
Likewise nothing is known with respect to fertilizing it, but
the use of a 5-7-5 mixture at the rate of 1 pound to from 10
to 15 feet of row will not be far wrong. This should be ap-
plied in two or more applications during the growing period.
The plants when full grown have considerable spread.
It is therefore desirable to allow about 4 or 5 feet each way
between plants.
It is quite probable that a slat or cheese cloth shade
would be a helpful factor in the growth of the Globe arti-
choke in Florida. A mulch of moss, grass or leaves should
also be used around the plants.
Nothing is known regarding varieties best adapted to
Florida. Plant several of them and then keep the most prom-
ising, if you would find the best for your conditions.
This crop affords an excellent opportunity for experi-
mentation, especially with respect to breeding and selection.

Jerusalem Artichoke
This crop, like Globe artichoke, is little known in Flor-
ida. It has some qualities which make it worthy of trial
and, like the Globe, make it suitable for experimental work.
Most of the varieties now known show wide variations, and
it is not unlikely that selections may be made that would
See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 36.



prove adaptable to Florida. At the present time they must
be grown during the short days of the winter months which
do not apparently afford enough hours of light during the
day fo~s 'proper tuber formation.
Jerusalem artichoke is used in large quantities by dia-
Any good garden soil enriched with compost and the
usual amount of fertilizer (about 1 pound to 10 feet of
row) of a 5-7-5 mixture in two applications would seem
satisfactory. The rows should be about 30 inches apart and
the plants from about 9 to 12 inches apart in the rows.
Plant them as yo,. would Irish potatoes.
Lima Beans (or Butter Beans)
Lima beans grow best in warm weather and produce
well even into the summer months. The later plantings do
particularly well if grown under partial shade.
At times considerable
difficulty is experienced ; ._ .-
in getting fruit to set. .*-
The reasons for this are '-
not well understood. But
sudden changes of temper-
ature as well as heavy '. :
rainfall during blossoming
time seem to be partly
responsible. Another rea-
son sometimes given is that
too great amounts of ni-
trogen tend to the produc-
tion of foliage instead of
fruit. It is not unlikely ;
that the number of hours .' .
of daylight per day may '' : -
also be a factor. '

Care must be taken not ,'' .-'-"-
to plant bean seed too ''
deep, since the seed is ". -" ':
raised up out of the ground *;.' ... J
in germinating. Where -
much compost is used the
soil is kept moist and does i9S. 8. Pole lima (or butler) beans.
not become compact, thus providing better conditions for
high germination.
Either the bush or climbing variety of lima bean will


prove satisfactory for the home garden. The latter yields
better than the bush, and may be used to an advantage
along fences. Plants should be spaced from 8 to 10 inches
apart in the row, depending on the variety planted. Small
bush sorts may be planted closer -than pole types.
Some of the best known pole varieties are Early Levia-
than, Lewis Dailey and Challenger. The commonly accept-
ed bush type in Florida is the Ford Hook variety.
Beans will use about 1 pound of fertilizer to 25 feet of row.
A mixture not too rich in nitrogen is thought to be de-
sirable-a 3-6-5 or 4-6-4 will probably be satisfactory al-
though no experimental evidence is available to support
the idea.

r . - . .


Fi' F. Ford Hook bush ltl a bei ns. (butter beans?. Thlis type slves one
lhe trouble of staliin g, besides being a good 3-Jetler alnd rapid gro\wr.
Snap or Green Beans
The snap or green bean crop is one of the most satisfac-
tory for the home garden. By making several plantings
this quick-growing vegetable may be held over a long
period in both spring and fall. Where partial shade is
used the growing period can be extended in both directions,
since it will afford protection against too great light and
heat in summer and against cold damage in early spring
or late fall.
Both pole and bush sorts may be used to advantage.
Where a shade is used a suitable trellis is readily made. The
Kentucky Wonder makes an excellent growth even well
into summer. Its only disadvantage is its susceptibility to
bean rust.
Bountiful is the best flat-podded variety for Florida
among the bush or dwarf types. Giant Stringless and Bur-
pee Stringless Greenpod are also excellent growers. If one
likes wax beans, the Roundpod Kidney Wax, also called
Brittle Wax, has many good qualities.
Its fertilizer requirements are similar to those of limas,
except that larger amounts of nitrogen do not seem to be
prejudicial to fruiting. A 5-7-5 mixture at the rate of 1
pound to 20 or 25 feet of row ought to be sufficient.


The garden beet is essentially a cool season plant, since
experimemns show that duri,,, cool weather it attains its
best color, texture and quality. The seed germinates best at
about 51 or 52 degrees f'ahrenheit. This fact may partly
explain why growers in Florida secure poor stands.
A loose soil is desired for beets, if one is to produce sym-
metrical roots. This again emphasizes the necessity of
using large quantities of
cover crops or compost ma- 4. -
terials. Rows ma y be --.
placed from 18 to 24 inches i
apart. Beets may be used d..
as a succession or compan- -
ion crop with radishes or ..- I
other quick-growing plants. .-:- :'
Radish seed, if' planted ,
with beets, mark the rows
and keep the soil from .
packing. Seed should be .
sowed rather thick in the
row to insure a good stand. -
The young beets may be .....:-.. .-
thinned, the tops being rn e
used as greens.
Best varieties are Crosby's Egyptian and Detroit Dark
Use about 1 pound of a 5-7-5 fertilizer to 3 feet of row
in two applications. Apply half of this in the row prior to
seeding and apply the other half as a side dressing just as
the roots begin t show increase in diameter.
Beets must be used either fresh, stored at near freezing
temperature or canned. If stored at ordinary temperatures
they soon lose their crispness and are subject to decay.
Broccoli is one of the newer plant creations and has only
made its appearance in the vegetable gardens of Florida
within the last few years. It is closely related to cauliflower
and some varieties resemble it very much in appearance
and taste. The chief differences lie in the greater hardiness
of broccoli as well as its somewhat coarser curds. But it is
the green varieties that have been grown most extensively
in Florida where it seems to do very well. i
For more detailed information regarding broccoli see Bulletin
44 of Florida State Department of Agriculture.

: 1



It must be grown during
the cooler months of the
year-about the same as -.- ----
cabbage. In fact, soil and .
fertilizer requirements for V .
the two are quite the ..
same. Broccoli produces a
larger plant than cabbage, -. ,.
hence it is necessary to; '-".
plant it in 3, or 4-foot
rows, allowing from 24 to .--' '.-
30 inches between plants.
It will be necessary to
plant the seed in a seedbed -
or in flats, transplanting
to the field when the .
plants are about six weeks 'h ,
old. '' -
The Italian Green. .
Sprouting variety has -.. s
shown its adaptability to }ig. 1,. ,ein Green Spr,,utin
Florida conditions best. iroi.ei
Varieties producing white curds are Mammoth White, Au-
tumn Protecting and White Cape.
This plant is so universally known and grown that it
scarcely needs to be discussed. It will grow on a wide varie-
ty of soils but grows best on a well-drained, though moist,
soil that is rich in organic matter. In hot weather it usually
fails to head or produces an open, loose head. It is, there-
fore, desirable to grow it during cool weather.
Plant the seed in seedbeds or flats in August. If fresh
cabbage is desired over the whole growing season, seed may
be planted at six-week intervals thereafter until February.
Cabbage makes economical use of large quantities of fer-
tilizer. From 1 to 11/4 pounds of a 5-6-4 mixture to 7 or 8
feet of row would not be too much. About half of this
amount should be placed in the row from a week to 10 days
prior to setting the plants. Use the remainder as a side
dressing in one or two applications about the time heading
Most of the cabbage planted in fall is of the pointed-head
type of which Charleston Wakefield and Jersey Wakefield


varieties are most common. They are desirable from point
of earliness. Copenhagen Market or Early Flat Dutch,
which are flat-headed types, are midseason and spring-
Cabbage may be planted from 15 to 18 inches apart in.
3-foot rows.

Chinese Cabbage

This is not a true cabbage although there are varieties-
which produce rather firm heads. It is used much as let-
tuce or cabbage-in salads or as a cooked vegetable.
It seems quite well adapted to Florida's climate, being
some.wiat less sensitive to temperature changes than let-
Atuce or cabbage. It may therefore be planted earlier in fall
and .? hold up later in spring than either cabbage or
lettuc.. *
Cultural requirements of Chinese cabbage are so much
like those of common cabbage that further discussion of
these are unnecessary. Instead of planting the seed in a
bed to be transplanted, they are usually sown where the
plants are to be grown. Thin -ing the plants to .12 to 15
inches apart in the row is advisable.
Pe-Tsai variety is the one most commonly used. This is
a compact-head type.


This is one of the easiest crops to grow and has a rela-
tively short growing season.
A deep loam or muck soil makes best carrots. The crop
is quite tolerant of acid conditions. Put the soil in fine

?-U.C~~;~;'~S L 4L
Fo c*
po( ,Jhr~l
e -r-- N~c~jS~ .~~ ~,L

Fig. 12. Chanlcnay carrots producing abundantly.



physical condition, for the seed are small and the seed-
lings are delicate.
Sow the seed plentifully since the percentage of germi-
nation is usually rather low. Sow in the row where the
plant is to grow. Rows may be made from 14 to 18 inches
apart. Thin the plants evenly and it is well to do this in
collecting plants for the table. Allow from 2 to 3 inches
between plants at maturity.
Plantings should be begun in October and continued
through January at intervals of a few weeks in order to
have fresh, crisp carrots over a long unbroken period. Car-
rots can be held in storage only at temperatures near the
freezing point, since they are susceptible to soft rot.
Fertilizer requirements are not well known, but the
usual practice is to use from 800 to 1,000 pounds per acre
(about 1 pound to 16 feet of row) of a 4-6-7 mixture. This
may be applied in two applications, half at planting time
and the other half when the plants are well started.
Chantenay is one of the best varieties for Florida.
Cassava is a tropical plant extensively used for food by
Indians as well as other inhabitants of the tropics. It pro-
duces a root rich in starch that is made into a meal from
which cassava biscuits and bread are baked.
There are two chief varieties of cassava, bitter and sweet.
Both contain a very poisonous chemical; namely, hydrocy-
anic prussicc) acid. This acid is found only in the peel or
rind of the roots in the sweet variety. Since this is the only
variety grown in Florida, it is important only to note how
th:' difficulty is solved in preparing it for food. Since the
dangerous poison is confined to the peel of the roots, it is
necessary only to peel them before using to make them safe
for food. Stems and leaves may be fed to animals raw with-
out danger of poisoning.
Cassava is grown from short pieces of thick stems or
canes, which are planted from 4 to 6 feet apart each way
in well drained soil. Planting is usually done in fall. In
from eight to twelve months the roots are ready for use,
but may be left in the ground for some time without
Where freezing weather occurs the canes should be
banked much as one would bank sweet potatoes.
This is one of the aristocrats of the garden. Conditions
See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin 44.


of moisture, temperature, humidity and soil must be ideal
for the successful production of cauliflower. But it is worth
trying. It should be planted so as to head during the cooler
weather: i. e., plant in the period from October to January.
Young plants are tender and it is best to start them in
flats or in a seedbed. Spacing and fertilizer usage as indi-
cated for broccoli or cabbage probably will prove satisfac-
tory for cauliflower.


I 7.,; .- .... .- ..... V

I .

ripeness. The le .s If this head were uti- Ia-k in ordhr o .,. ow the curd:
** t I- St. (I

they would not be rut for marketing. (I'.hoto by courtesy f lil
As soon as the head begins to form the leaves surround-
ing it should be drawn together and tied so as to protect
the curds from direct sunlight. Give them this protection
until harvest time.
Fertilizer and spacing directions given for cabbage will
apply to cauliflower.
Early Snowball is the variety most usually grown in


Celery can not succeed on thin, poor soil. It demands
rich, loamy sand, muck or peat. Such soils are easy to work
and have a high water-holding capacity-a prime neces-
sity for a quality product. On the other hand, the soil must
be well drained so that an even water supply is insured
throughout the growing season. Blackhart develops most
readily when moisture extremes prevail.
Celery seed may be sown in flats or in the seedbed, be-
ginning in July or August and continuing at intervals up
to January, thus providing a constant supply of celery for
the table.

A J-^-^

i t 1. Celery i. e of Flori. .' -1 l .truck rops. . )., A. ih t-

use up to 12,000 pounds of a mixed fertilizer per acre and
: -] ,' *", : yi ''. .'.,:

pound for every 5 feet of row. About 40 percent of this
should be put in the row prior to setting the plants and the
remainder put on in two or three applications during the
growing period. This may be supplemented with several
light applications of nitrate of soda, 1 pound for each 100
or 150 feet of row.
The rows should be about 2 or 2%' feet apart and the
j? plants set every 3% inches in the rows.


Plants should be about 4 inches high when transplanted.
Both roots and tops ought to be trimmed at this time and
only the strongest, sturdiest plants should be used.
Boards from 10 to 12 inches wide may be used for
blanching. The soil, if banked against the plants, will in-
duce decay rapidly. Commercial gardeners use a specially
prepared paper for blanching. This is placed on edge as
you would the boards and held in place by wire staples
placed over both strips to hold them firmly against the
plants. It usually requires from 10 to 14 days to properly
blanch a stalk of celery.
Most varieties are the so-called "self blanching." Those
grown by commercial gardeners are Golden Self-Blanch-
ing, Easy Blanching and Green Top.

Chard is closely related to the beet. It is cultivated for
its large leaves which are cooked as greens and for its
large fleshy leaf petioles and midribs which may be cooked
and served like asparagus. It is not generally known in
Florida but should find a place in the home vegetable gar-
.Cultural requirements of chard are very similar to those
of beets. Time of planting is also about the same as for
beets, from October to May. :
The leaves grow to a height of about 2 feet. As the
older outside leaves are pulled, new ones develop from the
Chayote belongs to the same family as cucumbers, squash-
es and melons. The plant is a climbing vine which pro-
duces a more or less pear-shaped fruit. It is a vigorous
grower and yields well. Some writers have referred to it
as a "5-in-1" vegetable, due to the various ways it may be
prepared and served. When cooked (steamed or boiled) it
has a delicate squash-like flavor. The large; single seed is
also edible and is cooked and served with the flesh. Boiled
chayote may be used extensively in salads. The raw- fruit
is very good when sliced and fried. It may be baked and
stuffed while the immature fruits are frequently pickled.
The whole fruit of the chayote is planted with the broad
(sprouting) end slanting downward, leaving a small por-
tion of the other end protruding through the ground. They
should be ,anted in spring after danger of frost is past,



ed. spacing the hills about 12 feet apart.
nmd The plant must be provided with some sort of trellis.
The porch, a fence, outbuildings, trees that are not too
for dense or a slat shade will serve well as such. The first
in- year the vine does not flower until toward fall, maturing
lly its fruit in about 25 days thereafter. The second year a
as late spring crop may be expected unless frost comes late in
les spring. Fruit seldom sets during summer months.
the A rich sandy loam is desirable for growing chayote. This
rl- should receive liberal amounts of compost or other organic
Smatter applied as a mulch. The use of some complete fer-
)se tilizer mixture, such as 4-6-8, applied in moderate amounts
zh- three times a year is advisable.
There are a good many varieties of chayote which vary
in color, shape and texture. The non-spiny, non-corrugated
types are preferred.
.or Chicory
:ed Whitloof chicory is an improved variety of the familiar
in, wild chicory but differs from the latter in having broad
Ir- leaves and a much larger tap root. It is grown for salad
purposes, but sometimes is used as a potherb. How well it
>se may succeed in Florida has not been fully determined, but
or it may be the object of experimentation by the home
gardener. It is a tasty salad crop and will add variety to
he the diet.
he In cooler northern latitudes the seed are planted in
spring. By fall the roots are well developed and are taken
up and stored in a cool place. At intervals during winter
the roots are removed from storage, placed in a slanting
h- position in moist soil and the crowns covered to a depth
o.- from 6 to 8 inches. This is done in the greenhouse where
us the forcing temperature can be kept around 65 degrees
it Fahrenheit. In a short time a head of succulent leaves re-
be suits and these form the edible portion.
it Some variations to the above cultural practices would
is undoubtedly have to be made in Florida and the most
ad plausible is to grow the plant during spring from Febru-
tit ar on, allowing it to grow as long into summer as it will.
id Take up the roots and place them in cold storage near freez-
ing and hold them until October or November.
id ,Rows should be about 2/> feet apart and the plants
r- should be spaced from 8 to 10 inches apart in the rows.
V Fertilizer recommendations-for beets will likely give satis-
t, factory results.


This plant has never been grown to any extent in Amer-
ica. In Europe it is cultivated for its leaves for salad pur-
poses, soups and flavoring. It is a perennial plant and sel-
dom produces seed, hence propagation is chiefly by means
of--a division of the plant clusters.
Collards belong to the same family as cabbage, which
they resemble closely in many respects. But collards will
grow during summer rather successfully, thus furnishing
green food at a time when it is relatively scarce.

_AN ..VN
~ ... -" . ... ..

"; is. 1.> ( , ll ar
pou IItry -to adva'ii ia'.
Cultural conditions which apply to the growing of cab-
bage will also apply to the growing of collards. Time of
planting, of course, depends upon the time the plant is
wanted for the table. They grow fairly well during winter
as well as during summer. The lower leaves, plucked from
the standing plants, are greatly relished by poultry.
Sweet Corn
Sweet corn is grown to a very limited extent in Florida.
There are, however, a number of semi-sweet varieties, com-
monly known as "roasting ears," which are grown exten-
sively. These, in contrast to the true sweet corn varieties,
have a much longer and tighter husk which affords con-
siderable protection against the corn ear-worm. It grows
much more luxuriantly than sweet corn and produces a
large, well-filled-out ear in contrast to the nubbins secured
from most sweet corn.
.'..-" "
.. .-. ,. .- .6Ce 41' ", -

4-. e,. r-;

Fig.I.C'ollards rw \vwell on a va riety o f coondit ons and is %; olithir
p luIt ry lo a (I vait Ini.a
Cultural conditions which apply to the- growing of cab-
bage will also apply to the growing of collards. Time of
planting, of course, depends upon the time the plant is
wanted for the table. They grow fairly well during winter
as well as during summer. The lower leaves, plucked from
the standing plants, are greatly relished by poultry.:
Sweet Corn
Sweet corn is gro-wn to a very limited extent in Florida.
There are,-.however, a number of Semi-sweet varieties, com-
monly known as "roasting ears," which are grown exten-.
sively. These, in contrast to the true sweet corn varieties,
have a much longer and tighter husk which affords con-
siderable protection against the corn ear-worm. It grows
much more luxuriantly than sweet corn and produces a
large, well-filled-out ear in contrast to the'nubbins secured
from most sweet corn.



Corn of good quality and high yields can not be secured
*er- from poor, thin soil. Much organic matter is necessary for
ur- the soil to produce sweet corn successfully. Available plant
sel- food in the form of a complete fertilizer, analyzing about
ans 5-7-5, should be put in the drill a week prior to planting.
1 pound to 25 or 30 feet of row should be sufficient.
It may be desirable to sidedress later vith nitrate of soda
at the rate of 1 pound per 150 feet of row.
sill e

'I. S Ilk hg
-[ '. -'. , . . .- -.. : . ": "

_9 o Fig. I ( o LoingI eaI rIet beauty L- n I ern.
r Co r can not -..-.be planted too closely on the poorer, soils
t-' 1 ild. will be sacrif .ic ace the ro -.- at from 3 to 4

ab- feet apart and the plants in the ros from S to 24 in ches

is Snown Flake has come to be recognized as one of the
te ,most satisfactory roasting ear varieties. Long Island Beau-
o- ty is alsu o a popular var ie .
da. cold weather, especially if accompanied by wind is one of
Sthe chief deterrents to its -rowth. Freezing temperatures:.--

es, and iCorn ordrcan not be p lanted too c losely on the poorer severaoils

a, fireet ofapart anuary ind the plants in outhe rows from 18of the state and con-hes
tinuing to arch farther north. In this way, if frost killsapart.
om ty is'also a popular variety.
; Cucumbers

-ed the earlier crop, little time is lost in getting another lot
of plants establis he d.
on- plantings are made at weekly intervals, beginning the
,ws first of January in the southern part of the state and con-

red the earlier crop, little time is lost in getting another lot
of plants established.


It is here that one or more of the methods of frost pro-
tection described on page 8 can be used to advantage.
Cucumbers grow well on a ny fertile soil where there is
a constant supply of moisture.
Plant an excess of seed so as to insure a stand and then
thin out the weaker plants. Where the seed are planted in
a flat or seedbed, transplant only the stronger plants.
Paper bands or cups can be used most effectively in trans-
planting cucumbers. In this case two transfers of the plants
will be necessary-first, from the flat when the plants are
small seedlings to the paper bands filled with soil;
second, from the bands or cups to the garden. In the latter
case it is not necessary to disturb the root system of the
plan~ for the band is not removed in the process.

-i ,, - 1 .f. ." a,.- ~.n... "

." ,:,'] ; . ... .

nt. 10rby S aygree ; riw'
.- -. ,.:-.- - ...- . : -o j .9 ;:. - j -'.. .. *._
'" .. . .... ..' -
... .-, y,-'-. '*". -- --- 1-.: .

I'ii. 17;. virly S"iygreei cuf nbers. -.

Improved White Spine and Kirby Staygreen are the two
varieties most widely grown.
The fall crop is difficult to produce on account of dis-
ease and insect enemies.
The dasheen is of Chinese origin and is related to the
"elephant-ear" which it resembles in appearance. Large
root-like corms or "bulbs" form under ground and each
plant produces one or more such corms, as well as a number
of lateral "tubers." Both corms and tubers are edible if
grown in well-drained, rich, loamy soil. Central corms
are not suitable for the table where plants are grown in
poorly drained areas.


.o- The dasheen resembles the sweet potato in composition,
except that it contains less water, and has 50 percent more
is protein and starch. The flavor is suggestive of chestnuts.
The fruit bakes to good advantage but should not be boiled.
en The dasheen produces an abundance of high-grade food
in very economically. It occupies a place that potatoes had
ts. some century or two ago. People came to know its food
is- value only recently and its popularity has grown rather
its slowly.
.re It requires a deep rich loam with a liberal supply of soil
il; moisture, although it will not produce high-grade corms
.er under poor drainage.

e_ .. an.." on weet potato. . . -
i ,'-may be done in February or A :h ---.. a-e

or 5 feet apart. Space the 'hills not closer than 2feet apart

Use a 18. f ertilizer of a 4-8-8 ane(l alysonis and ap potly it at thes.
Planting may be done in February or 20 feet of row. March. Large
pieces of corms or whole tubers may be used in propag-

STor 5 feet apart. Space the hills not closer than 2 feet apart
befrin the rows If s
Use a fertilizer of a 4-8-8 analysis and apply it at the
~ rate of 1 pound per 15 or 20 feet of row. A liberal supply
of compost or other similar mulching material will proba-
ne bly be very desirable. A second application of commercial
e fertilizer containing about the same amounts of plant foods
h as the first should be made as a side dressing in July.
:r Tops should be allowed to mature or be killed by frost
if before the roots are harvested. If so managed the roots will
s keep better. They may be kept in: small "banks" through
n the whole winter until April-a virtue that should commend
the dasheen to the home gardener.

.. . ...... ....


Trinidad is the dasheen variety most usually grown. It
will yield up to 350 bushels per acre on good soil. Tubers
of the Sacramento variety are of excellent quality but the
corms are not so good.

Eggplants are native to tropical America and consequent-
ly are quite at home in Florida. It is a warm weather plant
and, therefore, must not be expected to grow well in cool
or cold weather.
The id(.al soil is a well-drained sandy loam with much
organic -;atter. This crop requires a continuous supply
of moisture.
It is necessary to plant the seed in a flat or'seedbed and
trarnsplant, although some commercial gardeners plant the
seed for the fall crop in the row where the plant is to grow.
But for the spring crop temperature relations at the time
the seed are planted are not conducive to quick and vigor-
ous growth.
The usual fertilizer practice is to apply a 5-7-5 mix-
ture at the rate of 1 pound
S"-'';: '-' .:-: ?to 4 or 5 feet of row where
K '..-^..",,;.- :-'" the rows are 5 feet apart.
.... -:.. ...... This should be applied in
S- two or more applications
-:.-- -about half of it 10 days
Prior to setting the plants
.' : ..---".:-- and the remainder after
S. : growth gets well started.
A third application about
,.. the time blossoming begins
S ?:-:.- ...-- is often practiced with

.- -.. ,- . -' -' trogenous fertilizer for
.... L . .. this last application is usu-
ally nitrate of soda or sul-
Fig. i. ma.rk .eanu.- ,.e,,lnt. phate of ammonia.
The plants should be spaced 3 feet apart in 4 or 5-foot
Florida Highbush is one of the best varieties, while New
Orleans Market is a close second. Black Beauty produces a
very good fruit, but is much more susceptible to disease
than the other varieties which have been mentioned.
A mulch of old hay, excelsior, moss or other similar ma-
terial has been used by some gardeners with excellent
., 1.


a. It Endive
Sthe Endive belongs to the same genus as chicory. It has b<
come increasingly popular as a desirable crop for Florid
S as well as an excellent food, used primarily for salad.
Cultural requirements are almost identical to those o
ient- The outer green leaves have a tendency to be bitter. I
)lant is desirable, therefore, to tie the outer leaves together, thi
cool blanching the inner ones and rendering them creamy whit
in color, crisp and palatable.
auch There are two types of endive-curled leaf and the broa(
pply leaf. White Curled, Green Curled and Moss Curled are th.
best known varieties of the former, while Broad-Leave(
and Batavia (escarolle) is the most commonly grown variety.
Sthe of the latter.
time .. Garlic
SGarlic is a plant producing a bulbous base which is com-
mix- posed of a large number of bulbils or cloves all inclosed in
Dund a common scale. The leaves are flat. It carries a very pene-
hee rating onion-like odor and is used mainly as a flavoring
art. ingredient in cooking meats.
d in Garlic grows best on the heavier soil types. In other re-
;ion aspects, as well as this one, it is quite similar to onions or
days leek in cultural requirements.
ants Horseradish
rted. Horseradish does not seem to be so well adapted to Flor-
bout ida. A fair growth of roots may be secured the first year
1gins from root cuttings when planted in January. But the sec-
with : nd season's growth has not proved satisfactory, chiefly
a ni- because of the prevalence of mosaic.
for R oot cuttings should be planted about 12 to 14 inches
usu- apart in rows that are from 30 to 36 inches apart. Fertiliz-
sul- er recommendations for beets will likely apply well to horse-
radish. When planted in January, roots are ready to harv-
-foot est in July.

New Kale
,es a
;ease Kale makes a very delicious potherb. It grows fast and
[. I is hardy, which makes it desirable for use in winter.
m It grows best in fertile, moist, non-acid, sandy loam.
llent The fertilizer requirements have not been determined for
Florida but, reasoning by analogy, it would seem that


fertilizer and cultural practices applicable to cabbag-
would probably make good kale.
There are two kinds-differing chiefly in hardiness.
These are Scotch and Siberian. The latter is the more
hardy. There are several varieties of each'kind.
Rows are usually made 30 inches apart and the plants
are thinned to 12 inches apart in the rows. Those plants
taken out in the ean!' stages in the thinnig process make
excellent potherbs or greens.
In September a row or two of some of the Scotch varie-
ties should be planted and later followed with some of the
more hardy Siberian varieties to supply greens during
colder weather. r Toward spring the Scotch varieties will
probably do better.
Kohlrabi is a member of the cabbage and turnip family
but has quite distinct characteristics that recommend it
to the home gardener. Like other members of this family.
it demands cool weather. It should be planted in from iS
to 24-inch rows and the plants thinned to 8 inches apart
in the rows. .
White Vienna is the most popular variety. Plant and
fertilize as you would cabbage.

Leek is not known very widely in this country. It has a
flavor somewhat like the onion but it is milder. It is a
.much stronger grower than the onion and so far no seri-
ous insect or disease damage has been noted, which fact
is in its favor. It grows well in cool or cold weather on
any fertile, loamy soil.
Place rows from about 14 to 18 inches apart. Plants
may be thinned as they are pulled for use. No bulb is form-
ed as in the onion, but the stems are blanched by banking
with soil as the-plants grow. These are used the same as
green onions are-as flavoring for soup, meats or for eat-
ing raw.
Use a 4-6-8 fertilizer at the rate of 1 pound to 10 feet
of row.

Lettuce is the main salad crop in the United States from
point of consumption. But Florida is not producing its
share, since the advent of the -"iceberg'. type of head let-


tuce. And until a strain of this type is produced that is
adapted to Florida, we must be content with the semi-head
or loose leaf kind such as Big Boston or Black Seeded
Simpson: The latter can be planted earlier in fall and later
in spring than Big Boston.
Lettuce seed often gives a poor percentage of germina-
tion, especially in warm weather. Therefore plant many
seed. Experiments show that if the seed are placed in the
refrigerator for two or three days at a temperature of
about 50 degrees Fahrenheit, germination will then pro-
ceed when they are taken out and given the necessary
moisture, even at higher temperatures.
Seed should be planted
in flats or in a seedbed
S" .about October. Set the
S.. -,. plants in the garden as
0...;'. soon as they are large
-.:. Z3 -1 enough when they have
... "" ..' four leaves. Plants should
Q. be spaced about 12 inches
'"- a pa part each way. The soil
'.,, -:-.- should be in good physical
.i'' .condition. Lettuce will not
:grow to any advantage on
S. : thin, dry or heavy, sour
Fin. 20. Lettuce iq the universal salad Lettuce requires large
plant. (U. S. D. A. photo.) Of av *i a
t ( D ot),, quantities of a v a i lable
food to make a quick growth of good quality. A total of
from 11/ to 21/" pounds of fertilizer for each 10 feet of
row will not be found too much. Experience indicates that
a 5- -5 mixture gives satisfactory results under most soil
conditions. Half of this should be thoroughly incorporated
into the soil 10 days prior to setting the plants. The re-
mainder should be worked into the soil about two weeks
after the plants are set. If the ground has been properly
prepared prior to setting, very little cultivation will be

Big Boston is the chief variety, although Black Seeded
Simpson, Cream Butter and Paris White. Cos or Romaine
are grown commercially. The latter is hardier than most
other lettuce varieties, withstanding both heat and cold
with less indications of damage.



Muskmelons and Cantaloupes

Muskmelons and cantaloupes-these names may be
used interchangeably-grow best on a sandy loam or a clay
loam soil, if it is not too compact. Best quality melons are
produced where there is not too much moisture. In years
of much rainfall the quality is usually low.
The crop is similar to cucumbers, so far as cultural re-
quirements are concerned. They may be planted.in the
garden or grown in flats and transplanted as soon as dan-
ger of frost is over. They are a little more difficult to
transp :-nt than cucumbers, but if they are not permitted
to get too large and if handled in bands or cups, no trou-
ble should be experienced.

3-. -: Ai

-- 0 ,

F iK OT. OJl r Virginia i sh melon.
Space rows about 6 feet apart and hills in the rows
about 3 feet apart. Thin the vines to not more than two per
hill. Use about 1 pound of a 4-6-8 mixture per hill. This
should be mixed thoroughly into the soil sometime p);ior to
Rocky Ford variety is desirable because of resistance to
a disease called "rust." Old Georgia produces a much larg-
er melon but its quality is not so high.

Okra is distinctly southern in nativity as well as usage.
It is closely related to cotton. Much of the prejudice
- . . . .
t .-',_ .. ... '~:'4- . .:.-., 7-,. .; ., -. -.. .
.-' "n; ~!- "-"" ,-- "' :- ----;~y~ "-'L ": -'.' ,:.. .: .' ;

should~ii~~i:; bemxdthruhy note olstime p;ior t
5/i.- i t 2plant~ f ~~uing.;v~r ;~
Rocky ~ h' Fod aieyisd sirable because eitnet
a'jL~~ dieae ale "us."Od eogi rodcs uh a
er melon but its qual$itisosohg. .
~~~cOkratti' C~ ~~:

-~:i 1~;:1


S -against okra is occasioned by the poor methods of cookie
and serving. It is almost universally over-cooked, whi(
De accentuates the stringy, slimy characteristic.
yi But okra has a good flavor and should be included in t]
re home garden, since it is very productive during the hott<
rs summer months when many other vegetables can not I
grown successfully in this climate, unless halfshade is pr,
e- vided. The growing season is roughly from April to Se]
.ie member.
n- Space rows 3 feet apart. Thin to 12 inches apart in th
to row after the plants are well established. Use about
id pound of a 5-7-5 mixture for each 15 feet of row. Thi
.- should be worked into th
soil prior to planting. I
may be desirable to make
Sr:....- ...-- ... side dressing of nitrate o
soda or sulphate of ammio
S- .. -:.,..- nia about the time of blos
S- .-';. --. coming. This must o:
---.' .... -. course be a very light ap
.. .--.' . plication 1 poun d t(
...^ ':.--- about 150 feet of row.
.' :-.-: In order to induce con-
_--.. .. ;-:'i tinuous fruiting it is neces-
3^ 3' i- ) .-r3 sary to cut the pods every
v. two or three days. This
77 J also insures tender, edible
Up Pods.
S.. Varieties most commonly
planted in Florida are
Fig. -. OkraN i both popular, ani Perkins Mammoth nPod-
,ng grotr in th sout. ded, Long Green aid
S. White Velvet.
r There is no more satisfactory garden crop than onions,
s both from the standpoint of growing and eating. In the
o early fall onions sets may be planted for a quick crop,
since seed do not germinate well in a hot soil. Neither do
3 the plants root well until cooler weather comes on. Seed
must be fresh or few of them will germinate even under
the most ideal conditions.
Seed may be planted directly in the garden or trans-
S planted from a seedbed. The latter method has some ad-
vantages-a more even stand and usually a better and
I quicker growth. But a poor stand, where the seed are


planted directly, may often be remedied by transferring-
some plants from a cluster to missing areas in the row.
A loamy, sandy or muck soil is ideal for onions, although
excellent growth can be made on rather thin, sandy land
where amlple moisture and plant food are supplied. The
ground, irrespective of type, must be put into excellent
physical condition prior to planting. This will reduce the
amount of work in keeping weeds and grass out as the
crop is developing.
Row width is best at from about 12 to 15 inches, with
the plants spaced from 3 to 5 inches apart in the rows.
About 1 pound of a 6-5-5 mixture of fertilizer to each
10 feet of row is not too much to apply. Apply half of this
prior to planting and the remainder in two or three ap-
plications as the crop develops. In addition it may be profit-
able to use about 1 pound of nitrate of soda or sulphate of
ammonia for each 75 feet of row. Poultry manure when
used as directed on page 12 is excellent for onions.


FIT. 23. Two varieties grown side by side ."White" Hermudas on the
reader's rigit, and to his left are "*l ed" Rerrnudas.
Bermuda varieties, including White and Red, are proba-
bly most extensively grown in spite of certain undesirable
qualities, such as a tendency to split and the production
of excessively large bulbs. This latter quality is not so
undesirable for home consumption as for the trade. Ber-
mudas are also very poor keepers. The Riverside strain
of the Spanish Valencia is very promising from stand-
point of quality and good keeping. It certainly demands
a place in the home garden.
See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 10.




Parsley is scarcely ever seen in the South, not because
it will not grow here but because few people know its de-
lectable quality as a seasoning agent. It is also much used
as a garnish.
The seed are so tiny and the seedlings so delicate they
need protection until established. The seedbed or flat af-
fords this protection. Plant in October or November. Plants
should be set from 10 to 12 inches apart in 2-foot rows.
Specific fertilizer requirmenets are unknown but if you
use a pound of a 5-7-5 mixture per 20 feet of row you can
not be far wrong.
The outer leaves are pulled off for use, while ne\v ones
commence to grow from the center of the crown.
There are four chief kinds of parsley described: 1. Com-
mon or plain-leaved; 2. celery-leaved or Neapolitan; 3.
curled; 4. Hamburg or Turnip-Rooted. The plain type is
grown most extensively. The celery-leaved type is some-
times blanched and its petioles used like celery. The Ham-
burg type produces a root much like a turnip and is used
,either fresh or as a stored product.

Parsnips are grown more or less successfully in Flor-
ida. They must be produced during the cooler months. A
deep sandy loam and moist soil is ideal for it.
Plant the seed in October in rows from 15 to 18 inches
apart. Seed germinate slowly, so that a companion quick-
growing crop such as radish may be planted at the same
time to mark the rows and permit of early cultivation.
When plants are 2 or 3 inches high, thin to about 4 inches
apart in the rows.
The plants are hardy and will withstand considerable
cold without damage.
Fertilizer recommendations made for carrots will apply
to parsinp production. Hollow Crown variety is most com-
monly grown.
English Peas

The usual varieties of English peas are not especially
well adapted to Florida, as indicated by the dwarfed ap-
pearance of the plants and the correspondingly low yields.
But in spite of this handicap English peas are so palatable
to most people that they should find a place in the home


garden irrespective of any reasonable handicap.
A rich loamy soil with adequate moisture is essential
to best results with peas. They will not succeed on sour,
poorly drained or virgin soils. They must be grown during
winter months for they will not tolerate heat. Smooth pea
varieties germinate at lower temperatures than wrinkle-
seeded sorts.
Plant as soon as cool weather begins (September or
October). Seed may be drilled rather thickly in rows from
21.) to 3 feet apart. Use about 8 pounds of a 4-8-3 fertiliz-
er mixture to 150 feet of row. This should all be put in the
soil prior to planting. It may be desirable to use some nitrate
of soda or sulphate of ammonia as a side dressing about
blossoming time-1 pound to 150 feet of row.
The varieties most popular in Florida are Alaska Extra
Early, Thomas Laxton and Laxtonia.

The history of the pepper plant shows clearly that it is
a native of tropical America. Hence it is quite at home in
Peppers are grown on a wide variety of soils. A sandy
loam rich in humus and consistently moist provides ideal
Plants are started in
seedbeds or in flats. The
first seed should be sown
Sin July or August so that
they will be ready to trans-
: plant by September or Oc-
tober. Since the crop will
:. -i not thrive in cold weather
it will be necessary to plant
--._ another lot of seed in Janu-
'- ary or February for the
.-- ... -: spring crop. Plants are
_. : quite tender and consider-
able care must be exercis-
vi. 4. Rub.- Rin~ pepper ed in transplanting. If the
plants can first be trans-
planted to bands ir cups, it will facilitate their rapid growth
when set in the garden.
Set pepper plants 18 to 20 inches apart in 3-foot rows.
About 1. pound of a 4-7-5 fertilizer to each 3 feet of row
is about what most commercial gardeners use. This is
equivalent to about 21/, tons of fertilizer per acre. This is


t huge amount, but the pepper plant is a gross feeder and
.eems to thrive on large quantities of plant food.
Ruby King and World Beater are the two standard
-arieties of bell or sweet peppers used for salad. Varieties
>f pimento peppers for flavoring are Perfection and To-
nato. Then there is that group of semi-hot or Chili pep-
>ers of which the Anaheim Chile and Mexican are chief
-arieties. The small, very hot peppers are characterized
)y Anaheim and Tabasco.
Irish (or White) Potatoes*
There are a few vegetable crops that show their appre-
:iation of a rich, cool, moist soil more than the potato. It
s practically impossible to make potatoes on poor, dry
oil, especially in warm weather. In some years a fair
rop of fall-grown potatoes may be produced from seed
eld over from the spring crop. If soil and temperature
relations are favorable in
S - September in the northern
Part of the state or Octo-
-4-77 : -ber in the southern part,
:4-. :,A 1 then a few rows of potatoes
Z' ^ ^ in the garden may be
S~ worthwhile so as to have
new potatoes and peas for
k The best time to plant
..4 j potatoes in Florida, how-
Sever, is in spring or late
r-t ;^ winter as soon as danger
Sof frost is past. Drop
: Y large seed pieces from 2
Sto 3-foot rows, spacing the
.0; hills from 12 to 14 inches
... apart. Do not cover the
Seed more than 21/ or 3
inches deep. Where soil is
S I inclined to very wet, the
3-'V rowsrows should be ridged,
ASi otherwise flat or nearly
flat cultivation seems de-
i Distribute in the fur-
rows and mix well with
ig. 2. iss Triumph Trish ,otatoes. the soil about 1 pound of a

See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 3.



5-8-5 fertilizer to each 7 or 8 feet of row some 10 days
prior to planting.
Irish Cobbler and Bliss Triumph have given excellent
yields in experimental tests. Spaulding Rose is quite de-
sirable for early spring or winter planting, since it "comes-
back" more readily after cold damage.
A mulch of some porous materials-such as dry grass,
leaves, moss, etc.-as described on page 7 is very helpful
in dry warm weather, especially in the fall, in controlling
soil moisture and reducing soil temperatures.
Sweet Potatoes

The sweet potato is another tropical plant and is natural-
ly adapted to Florida climate. But all of our soils are not
so well suited to the most economical production of this
crop, since they are too sandy and lack plant food which
is supplied by clay or sandy loams underlaid with a red
clay subsoil. This latter type of soil is quite common in the
northern part of the state and it is there that sweet po-
tatoes grow best.
This plant is propagated in two ways: 1. By slips or
draws taken from the potato after it has been bedded; 2.
by vine cuttings. In Florida where a long growing season
prevails a few potatoes bedded out in spring will soon pro-
duce a luxurious vine growth from which many vine cuttings
may be taken. Eesides being economical, the vine-cutting
method has another distinct advantage in that it tends to
eliminate certain diseases that are readily transmitted to
the draws grown on a bed from the diseased mother potato
and from the draws to the plants in the field.
Potatoes should be bedded in a protected place as early
in spring as temperature will permit. The soil must be-
come quite warm before potatoes will sprout. Potatoes
should be placed on a slightly raised bed and lightly cover-
ed with sand or sandy soil and kept moist.
Slips or draws may be .pulled and planted when from
6 to 7 inches long or they may be allowed to grow into long
vines which may be cut up into cuttings. Either draws or.
cuttings should be planted in 3 or 31/ foot rows and spaced
12 or 14 inches apart in the rows. The soil must be firmed
well around the plants and usually it is well to use some
water to insure the growth of the young plants. Usually
ridging the soil is necessary to insure adequate drainage
during the rainy season.
Fertilizer requirements are not well known. Experience
and some tests indicate that most growers have not been



using a sufficient amount of potash. The sweet potato is
a heavy feeder and the tendency among potato planters
now is to use fertilizers analyzing about 4-6-8. Sometimes
the potash content has been increased to 10 or 12 per-
cent with very favorable yield responses. It is desirable
to use from 1 to 2 pounds per 75 feet of row, placing it
all in the ground a few days prior to planting.
Varieties having a moist flesh when baked are used al-
most exclusively in the South. Best varieties, considering
quality, are Porto Rico, a reddish-skinned sort, and Nancy
Hall, which has a light pink or salmon-colored flesh. A
few of the dry-flesh-type potatoes are grown in Florida
for the early northern market. For this purpose Big Stem
Jersey has been chiefly used.


The radish is a cool-weather but a quick-growing plant.
Rapid growth is essential to tenderness and quality. A
deep sandy loam or muck soil and an abundance of organic
matter and sufficient moisture are chief essentials to a
(good crop.
A fertilizer mixture an-
:..--K alyzing 4-6-8 .and applied
at the rate of 1 or 1f
'-: :. pounds per 10 feet of row
pp .. ..: .. should be ample on most
sa ndy soils.
: ^ a Rows may be 12 or 15
;: '.. -,.:;, ; inches apart. As indicated
:elsewhere, radish may be
planted at the same time
S "-"..-. t "'...--.' f:. with other slower-growing
S- ..:. . . seed, such as beets, onions,
-' ,h parsnips, etc., and in this
i :. ay economize space in the
.. :.9_ ,. garden and serve a useful
S. .. purpose to the gardener in
.- -.'. : .:' marking the rows.
Jr. ;'' Long S c a r let, Long
White Icicle, White Sum-
L ____ -- '__ mer and Scarlet Turnip
are good varieties for this
rig.. 26. Vick's Scarlet Globe radishes. s e.
(U. S. 1). A. photo.) state.




Rhubarb is a crop little known in the South. Yet it has
been demonstrated that it will grow in Florida. This is the
famous pie plant. Rhubarb requires a deep, rich, loamy,
moist soil for best growth. A good muck soil seems very
suitable also.
There are two possible methods of propagation: First,
by importing root clumps from the North and forcing
them by planting; or, second, by planting the seed in flats
and transplanting to the garden row. The latter method
is much to be desired. If seed are planted in September,
plants should be ready to set out by the last of October.
The plants are hardy and will withstand temperatures
around 32 degrees Fahrenheit. They should be protected
against lower temperatures, especially when young. If
given proper care, edible stalks (leaf petioles) ought to
be ready by February.
No specific plant food requirements have been deter-
mined for rhubarb, but one could not.go far wrong in fol-
lowing the recommendations made for fertilizing cabbage.
In addition it may be advantageous to use some readily,
available nitrogen, such as nitrate of soda or sulphate of
ammonia at the rate of 1 pound per 150 feet of row, just
after the plants become well established after being trans-
It is necessary to start from seed each year, since the
plant will not survive in warm weather.
Varietal adaptation to Florida has received no consider-
ation, so far as records show. Linnaeus, Victoria, Giant
Crimson Winter, Giant Cherry Panama and Senator are
listed varieties from which to choose.
Roselle is a very close relative of okra and cotton. It re-
sembles the latter more closely than okra. It is a tropical
annual, normally requiring a long growing season. Fruit-
ing can be induced readily by decreasing the number of
daylight hours to about 11.
The edible portion of the plant is the thickened calyces
surrounding the seedpod. They are ready to pick about
three weeks after the flowers open. They are borne in great
numbers on the reddish stems and are themselves reddish
in color. The juice is quite acid and when cooked very
closely resembles cranberry sauce. In fact, roselle is fre--
quently spoken of as "Florida cranberry."



Cultural directions given for okra will apply quite aptly
to the production of roselle.

Salsify is another little known plant in the home gar-
dens of Florida and yet it should be given a trial. It is a
hardy plant producing a long, slim, white tap root wihch
is the edible portion. Because of its peculiar flavor, it is
variously called "vegetable oyster" or "oyster plant."
The similarity of this plant to parsnip is very striking
and cultural directions for production of the latter will
apply to salsify.

(a) Common Spinach: The word "spinach" has come
to be associated with health diets to such an extent that
it has become synonymous with the word "medicine" in
many minds. This is unfortunate, for scientific analysis
and feeding tests testify to the excellence of the food,
granting, of course, that it is not over-cooked into a slimy,
/slick, green mass.
Good spinach is dependent upon a quick growth when
weather is not too warm. Therefore, a fertile, moist, cool
and sweet soil should be selected. It will scarcely grow on
acid soils. Plantings may begin as soon as cooler weather
sets in in fall-from October on. It will grow well until
hot weather in May. A succession of plantings at intervals
of a few weeks may be desirable up until the middle of
February. In planting lay off rows about 18 inches apart.
and thin the plants to two to the foot in the rows. This
gives ample space for growth.
Spinach seed are often very dry and hard, which results
in an irregular stand unless they are soaked for three days
prior to planting.
The usual fertilizer practice is to apply about 1 pound
of a 5-7-5 mixture to each 12 or 14 feet of row. Thorough-
ly mix this with the soil a few days before planting the
Improved Curley Savoy is the chief variety grown.
(b) New Zealand Spinach is not spinach at all. But it
is an excellent substitute for common spinach. And it de-
mands special consideration of the Florida gardener, since
it is apparently well adapted to warm Florida weather
when most other vegetables are difficult if not impractical
or actually impossible to grow.


r r -
~ ~c `i
,~ rir'
:R 7 ;e -5\ ~i~; ii
-, ..-)..
: ..lf' ~ri t
~F;i~ -- L_\ L rC-
,~~~ ;~
-,.c-,r ti.,
i;' -'~ La, -w

Fig. 27. Spinach ranks high among the veg-etables because of its iron
content. (U. S. D. A. photo.)

It was discovered in New Zealand in 1770 by one of the
members of Captain Cook's crew on his first trip around
the world. The New Zealanders were at that time using
it as a potherb.
The plant is a vigorous grower, having an upright,
much-branched growing habit. The apical leaf clusters
form the edible portion. These are cut or broken off. Fol-
lowing each pruning, several additional leaf clusters form
just below the cut or broken ends of the branches. Thus,
the more you take the more there is for the next meal-
provided, of course, you do not "kill the goose that lays
the golden egg" by starving it.
Its quality and taste are much superior to those of com-
mon spinach, according to many viewpoints. The product
is more fibrous and not so easily ruined by over-cooking.
There is a certain acid-like tang to it that gives it distinc-
Little is known regarding cultural requirements of New
Zealand spinach, experimentally. So, for the time being, it
would seem logical to handle it much as one would com-
mon spinach. The only important factor that would re-
quire different treatment is spacing the plants. Rows
ought to be about 31 feet apart, with 18 or 20 inches be-
tween plants.


.UC ~F --
rU- --
... ~,
-f5;~?~ r
~C. o r,,
-' L:
rcC t a
;-r UY
- :r ^ '$
t~Z-- -7

i ~,,,


Planting should begin in February or March and con-
tinue at intervals of several weeks through summer. Seed
are very hard and should be soaked for 20 minutes in hot
but not boiling water. They may be planted in the garden
immediately after soaking.

-.'--** --;. .;.- j .- ,...

-garding soils as many garden crops. It is easily damage

by cold, so that planting time must be gauged according to
plantings at weekly intervals are made in January, Febru-

at critical times. A fall crop is sometimes quite successful,
early plants will attract the moths. When larvae hatch out
.. -,,x. -.- ^ ^ _._ c, .
.-. ..,,- .. .. .., .. .^ : .'S .'

'' "-^i -" .'~--; -^ *'. "- "-- '- ,'..

I'ies. p shod e (busl raned- g iTe mjrity o th st

Squash and Pumpkins
Squash is very easy to grow and is not as particular re-
garding soils as many garden crops. It is easily damaged
by cold, so that planting time must be gauged according to
average frost dates in spring and fall. If a number of
plantings at weekly intervals are made in January, Febru-
ary and March, some of them are quite certain to succeed,
especially if troughs, hotcaps or other protection is provided
at critical times. A fall crop is sometimes quite successful,
although pickle worms and squash worms are particularly
difficult to control at that time of year. If a few hills are
planted a week or 10 days earlier than the main crop, these
early plants will attract the moths. When larvae hatch out
infested plants should be burned. The majority of the first
brood will of course perish. Such a procedure is referred to
as a "trap crop" method and may be found helpful in other

About 1 pound per 15 feet of row of a 5-7-5 fertilizer
will probably be suffici-
ent, especially where a lib-
PP- eral quantity of organic
::: i matter is provided. Spac-
,: ing will depend somewhat
S". upon varietal grow charac-
teristics. Crook Neck, Pat-
ty Pan, Cocozelle or other
b. bush types should not be
planted closer than 4 or 5
Feet each way. Hubbard
and Giant Summer varie-
Sties, as well as pumpkins,
Fri.. 29. This squi.Asi stored in the bnnr should have at least from 8
will keep for a long time.
to 10-foot spacing.
There are many varieties of squash and pumpkins, some
of which are no doubt better adapted to Florida than
others. Little has been attempted, experimentally, to de-
termine these relations.
The strawberry is now grown in nearly every county
of Florida by home gardeners. It is not found in enough
home gardens, however, for it is an excellent fruit and
may be had for little effort.
Best lands for strawberry growing are those of flat-
woods soils having a clay or other compact subsoil. An
abundance of organic matter is quite necessary. This may
be upplied in the form of compost or cover crops.
Muck soils do not seem to be so well adapted to the
growing of strawberries. The fruit rots readily in contact
with muck and does not seem to have as good quality as
when grown on minerals soils.
On most flatwoods soils ridging of the rows will be
found necessary in order to provide adequate drainage.
The height of the ridges will depend upon drainage facili-
ties available and the nature of the land.
Beds should be opened about 10 days prior to setting
the plants and fertilizer distributed in them. A 5-7-3 mix-
ture for the first application at the rate of about 1 pound
per 30 feet of row is recommended.* This ought to be
thoroughly incorporated into the soil to prevent fertilizer
If only one row of plants per ridge or bed is set, the
rows should be about 3 or 31/2 feet apart. Where the
See Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 204.


double-row system is practiced, the distances might be in-
creased to 4 or 5 feet.
The plants are set from about 10 to 14 inches apart in
the rows. If the double-row method is followed, plants in
one row alternate with those in the other row. The
customary planting time in the Plant City area is late
September and October. In the home garden the planting
season may begin earlier and extend later than is advisa-
ble when berries are grown commercially.

.- c4". . . .

Fig. 31. The .Missionary is about the only strawberry variety grown
today in Florida.
Sometimes it may be desirable to grow strawberries in
a barrel, as, for instance, when only a few are wanted or
space is limited. To do this remove both heads of the barrel
and bore 1-inch holes at 10 or 12-inch intervals in both di-
rections in the staves. Fill the barrel with fertile soil and
plant the sets in the soil through the holes. Keep the soil
moist by watering at the top.
In setting the plants in the garden the bud and crown
should not be covered. But it is important that all the roots
be in contact with moist soil. By firming the soil well
around the plants with the fingers and then adding a cup
of water to each plant, this purpose is accomplished. The
hole should be made large enough to accommodate all the
roots without cramping them. In other words, they should
be spread out more or less in all directions.



When first blossoms appear, a second application of fer-
tilizer is usually applied. At this time a 5-7-5 mixture usu-
ally is used at about the same rate as the first. A third
application is then given in about six weeks after the sec-
ond, using this time a 3-7-7 mixture.
Some commercial strawberry growers use a mulch, usu-
ally composed of pine needles. This prevents the berries
from becoming covered with sand and also has a tendency
to prevent decay due to contact with the soil.
Where early berries are desired it may be worth while
to protect them against frost. This may be done by the
trough or other methods as indicated on page 8. Some-
times pine needles or moss is thrown over the plants, or
heavy wrapping paper is spread over them and weighted
The Missionary variety is about the only one that can
be -recommended for planting in this state.
Not so many years ago the tomato or "love apple" was
looked upon as a poisonous plant, fit only for ornamental
planting. Of course, the fruit was small and less appeal-
ing to the eye or appetite at that time. Such a state of
human understanding is difficult to conceive now, when
this luscious vegetable takes precedence over all others.
In fact, it ranks along with grapefruit and oranges in
point of vitamins and mineral nutrition.
It is, therefore, gratifying to the gardener to know that
tomatoes grow well in Florida over quite an extended
period and on a wide variety of soils. The growth period
can be extended considerably by growing it under partial
shade, such as described on page 7. It is essentially a
warm weather crop, yet mid-summer temperatures and
light intensity at this latitude are too great for it to suc-
ceed in the open in mid-summer. With such protection a
fall crop can be grown by planting in flats the last of
July or in August. Light frosts may be protected against,
so that one may have tomatoes from Thanksgiving until
Christmas in many places in the state.
The spring crop should be started in flats or in a seed-
bed in January or February. This would have it ready to
put in the garden row by March.
Rows about 31/ feet apart (if vines are to be staked)
or 5 feet (if not to be staked) provide necessary spacing.
Plants should be from 20 to 30 inches apart in the rows.



On sandy soils about 1 pound of a 4-8-8 mixture is used

per 7 or 8 feet of row. Two applications are recommended

-half just prior to planting and the other half as a side

dressing about blossoming time. On marl and muck soils

and especially on saw-grass peat, experiments indicate that

small quantities of copper and manganese are quite essen-

tial to healthy growth. See Florida Experiment Station

Bulletin 218.

~ ~~~
F: lr.~


r .. .c .
i "
1 .- -.

Fig. 1. The tomato is not only pIopula r with everyone but its high
vitamin content makes it second to no vegetable in the daily diet. (U.
S. I). A. photo.)

Considerable difficulty is experienced by gardeners at

times in getting fruit to set. Vines appear healthy and

bloom profusely, but fruit fails to set. While the problem

has not been fully solved, there are at least three probable

reasons that may be assigned, either of them operating

singly or in conjunction with the others. First, sudden

weather changes-an abrupt fall in temperature for a day

or two, or several days of heavy rainfall. These conditions

check normal growth process and may interfere with

pollination. Second, the presence of a tiny insect pest

(thrip) within the blossoms, which sucks the juices and

causes the blossom to fall. Third, an unbalanced plant food

may tend to a vegetative, or vine growth, at the expense

of fruiting.


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Many promising tomato plants wilt and die just at
blossoming time. This is due, most likely, to one of two
.causes: First, the nematode which causes root-knot; or,
second, wilt which may combine with root-knot to ruin the
One of the triumphs in overcoming unfavorable en-
vironmental conditions for plant life is exemplified in the
work of Dr. F. J. Pritchard of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture in creating the MIarglobe variety of
tomato. Prior to the advent of this variety, growers of the
state were suffering millions of dollars of loss annually,
due to a fungous disease called "nail-head rust."
The orthodt x methods of spraying were not so very
effective in controlling it. So Dr. Pritchard developed a
cross between a Globe variety and one called Marvel and
this cross was appropriately called "Mar-Globe." This to-
mato was found highly resistant to nail-head rust and
incidentally it was quite resistant also to another serious
disease organism which is at home in many Florida soils
-namely, wilt. So within a few years the Marglobe has
practically superseded other varieties grown in the state
for commercial purposes. Livingston Globe and Ponderosa
are grown in some areas, and in home gardens. A new
variety which gives promise is called Break of Day.
Turnips, Mustard, Rutabagas
Turnips are grown extensively in home gardens for use
as potherbs. Mustard is also a favorite among native South-
erners especially. These crops may well be considered as
a unit in this discussion. Rutabagas, while eaten for the
delectable flavor of its roots, belongs here too.
Both turnips and mustards are hardy plants, developing
best in cool weather of fall and spring. Plantings may be
started in September and continued at intervals all winter.
Rows are usually spaced 14 or 16 inches apart. Ruta-
bagas need somewhat wider spacing, say 3 feet between
rows. Thin them to 5 or 6 inches apart in the rows.
Fertilize at the rate of 1 pound per 15 feet of row. The
applied commercial fertilizer ought to be about a 5-7-5 mix-
ture and may be supplemented by a side dressing of ni-
trate of soda or sulphate of ammonia at the rate of' 1
pound per 150 feet of row after growth begins.
Turnip varieties are Early Flat Dutch and Purple Top
Southern Giant Curled and Florida Broad Leaf repre-
sent two types of mustard having curled and smooth


leaves, respectively. American Improved is the rutabaga
variety grown most extensively.

Water Cress

An occasional inquiry about water cress in Florida
prompts this paragraph. Water cress will grow in Flor-
ida. In fact it grows so luxuriantly here that it is difficult
to recognize it in many instances. It will not tolerate full
sunlight intensity so that it must be planted along the
banks of a well-shaded stream.
Many seedmen list water cress seed. These should be
planted in fall. A little fertilizer in the form of nitrate of
soda or sulphate of ammonia will probably be all that is
required to start the plants off.


For many gardeners watermelon may be of no interest,
since it would occupy considerable space in an otherwise
crowded garden. Then, too, soil that is suitable for most
truck crops is not so well adapted to the production of
good melons. High rolling pine lands are best for water-

., ". .: *

F 'ig. 32. Tonm 1at.son watermelon is popular throtui-hout the South.
Seed should be planted from January to March, depend-
ing upon weather and location. It is well to repeat plant-
ings at weekly intervals, in order to be sure of saving time,
in the event a late frost kills early plants. Hills are usually
See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 10.
See State Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 10.~c~



made in 8 x 8-foot checks. Several seed per hill should be
planted so that a perfect stand will be insured. When the
plants are established, not more than two of the strongest
vines per hill should be left. Pruning off all but one or two
melons per vine is also advisable, if large-sized melons are
Two pounds per hill of a 5-7-5 fertilizer preparation is
customarily applied. This is worked into the soil about a
week prior to planting.
Stone Mountain, Florida Favorite, Kleckly Sweet and
Tom Watson are excellent varieties for home use.
It is impractical and undesirable to go into all of the-
minute details of disease control in a publication of this
nature. Such information is available in free publications
of the Florida Experiment Station at Gainesville which is
maintained by the state for the benefit of its citizens. If
you are confronted with any plant disease problem ( in
fact with almost any agricultural or horticultural problem)
which you can not solve by your own knowledge, call upon /
this institution at Gainesville.
In general plant diseases are caused by microscopic or-
ganisms called bacteria and fungi. They are spread from
place to place by air currents, wind, water, clothing and
hands of persons, animals and even by tools used in cul-
There are three chief means used in combatting plant
diseases: First, by protecting the plant with some sub-
stance that is poisonous to the organism; this is accomp-
lished by dusts and sprays. Second, by treating the seed
with a poisonous material such as corrosive sublimate to
kill the spores of the particular organism adhering to the
seed coat. This'has already been discussed on page 15.
Third, by the production of plants that are resistant to the
In spraying or dusting the protective nature of the op-
eration must be emphasized. The thin film of bordeaux
or of copper dust must be there before the fungus pene-
trates into the plant tissue. The operation must then be
repeated often enough to afford protection to the new
growth as it appears. And then the job must be done
thoroughly; that is, every part of the plant attacked by the
fungus or bacterium must be covered completely to get
maximum control.


Production through breeding and selection of plants that
are resistant to certain diseases is one of the most promis-
ing methods of control. Development of the Marglobe to-
mato is a case in point.
Insects of economic importance may be roughly divided
into two groups: First, those with piercing or sucking
mouth parts; and, second, those with chewing mouth
It is highly important to know to which of these groups
.any particular pest may belong before attempting to com-
bat it. For instance, it is pure folly to spray the plant with
a stomach poison, such as arsenate of lead or paris green,
if the insect doing damage to the crop happens to have
sucking mouth parts. Such insects push their mouth parts
down into leaf tissues and suck the juices, and thus are
not affected in the least by poisonous materials sprayed on
the leaf surface. Plant lice or aphids, leaf hoppers, plant
bugs and scale insects are examples of those in the first
group. They are best controlled by some colatile poison,
such as nicotine sulphate, or some corrosive chemical sub-
stance, such as oil emulsions. Then, there is that material
called "pyrethreum" which is effective in controlling in-
sects from both groups and has the advantage of being
non-poisonous to human beings.
For insects that actually eat leaves or parts of them
(usually worm-like larvae), arsenate of lead, when used at
the rate of 11/ pounds per 50 gallons of water and sprayed
,over the plants, is very satisfactory. Or it may be used in
dust form which can be purchased already mixed with
lime in the right proportion.
For many home gardeners a dust gun may be much
more convenient than spray outfits for the control of both
insects and diseases. Combination dusts for disease and in-
sect control are available already prepared. Where these
are used soon enough, often enough, and thoroughly enough,
these dusts will prove about as effective as sprays.

There is no occasion for the home gardener to lack for
the best in gardening knowledge. Most of us have a county
or home demonstration agent with whom we can confer.
Our state and federal agricultural departments and our
agricultural colleges and experiment stations publish


pamphlets and bulletins on many and varied farm, garden
and orchard subjects. They also carry on direct letter ser-
vices. We Floridians may write to our College of Agricul-
ture at Gainesville, our State Department of Agriculture
at Tallahassee or our federal Department of Agriculture
at Washington. In writing, ask for what you want; or, if
you do not know what you want, explain your situation
or problem and ask for suggestions.
But in asking for suggestions, remember that no one can
sit down anywhere and- accurately diagnose your problem
and tell you what to do about it without first seeing that
problem at first hand and, in many cases, making a care-
ful study of it. Thus ask for and expect help with a great
deal of forbearance.
Besides the many bulletins one may secure free from
state and federal institutions, there are many excellent
books which will be found most practical and helpful. It
has been said, "Show me a farmer who reads bulletins and
books on farming and I'll show you a failure." This writer
is not of that school of pessimism. He believes that it is
he who studies and figures and thinks who succeeds.
Therefore, in your gardening, remember the head must
work along with the back and arms.
In preparing this bulletin the writer has referred to
many federal and state bulletins and talked with a num-
ber of specialists and practical gardeners. Particularly
has he consulted Prof. M. R. Ensign of the Florida Ex-
periment Station. The United States Department of Agri-
uucltre furnished several photographs which have been


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