• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Dairy cattle
 Dairy barn construction
 Bulk conversion
 Milk plants
 Frozen desserts
 Florida milk commission
 Mobile laboratory
 The University of Florida department...
 The future
 Selected milk statistics
 Pure bred dairy herds
 Florida breeders














Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Title: Dairying in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014582/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dairying in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Physical Description: 58 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shaw, Alex G
Shoemaker, Jack
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alex G. Shaw and Jack Shoemaker.
General Note: "January, 1959R".
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014582
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7074
ltuf - AMT3733
oclc - 32777996
alephbibnum - 002567438

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Dairy cattle
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Dairy barn construction
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Bulk conversion
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Milk plants
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Frozen desserts
        Page 44
    Florida milk commission
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Mobile laboratory
        Page 47
    The University of Florida department of dairy science
        Page 48
    The future
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Selected milk statistics
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Pure bred dairy herds
        Page 56
    Florida breeders
        Page 57
        Page 58
Full Text






BULLETIN NO. 118 JANUARY, 1959 R


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA





By Alex G. Shaw
Chief Dairy Supervisor
and

Jack Shoemaker
Director Bureau of Immigration
Department of Agriculture


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER


TALLAHASSEE











FOREWORD


About the year 1000 A. D., the Norsemen sailed west from
Norway across the Atlantic Ocean and reached the lands of
Iceland, Greenland and later, what may have been a part of
our New England shore. These early explorers brought dairy
and beef cattle with them and the milk and cheese they made
were traded to the Indians for furs.

Many years later, when Columbus discovered America, cattle
were again introduced to American shores and the Spanish
colonists took their cattle with them wherever they went in
this country. And as some of the settlements here began to de-
cline, the Spanish turned loose their cattle before they returned
to the West Indies.

Again in 1611, the English settlers brought cattle with
them to Jamestown, Va., and the Dutch brought more than
100 head of livestock with them when they arrived on Man-
hattan Island in 1725.

After the Revolutionary War. people began to hear more
about the land west of the Apalachians and long wagon trains
moved across the valleys, always westward, and with them
moved long lines of cattle, both beef and dairy. And with the
rise in popularity of the territory of Florida, people began
looking toward the South and many families brought cattle
along to furnish meat and milk and milk products.

This was the real beginning of the dairy industry in Florida.
























































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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
Dairying in Florida has undergone many changes in the
past few years and has developed into one of the largest in-
dustries in the State. Those who have not been closely asso-
ciated with the dairy industry will find many new methods in
production and equipment.
There were very few cows in the State in 1900 and very
little interest in dairying even in the larger cities of the State
until 1910. The Jacksonville Ordinance was the first city ordi-
nance regulating the production and handling of fluid milk to
be put in force. The first State Law dealing specifically with
the dairy industry was passed in 1929.
By 1920 the industry had begun to grow and there were
about 70,000 dairy cows in the State with a production of about















Holstein dairy cattle are invading the South


12,000,000 gallons per year. Each year others became inter-
ested and by 1930 there were about 75,000 dairy cows with a
production of about 25,000,000 gallons per year.
Prior to 1930 many dairymen and plant operators imported
large quantities of fluid milk and cream. Since 1932 very
little fluid milk has been imported into the State except for
use by the Military Personnel. It is true large quantities of
sweet cream and some milk are imported each year with the .,.
amount depending upon the State's tourist business.




















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The State imports large amounts of butter, milk powder,
condensed milk, cream, cheeses and evaporated milk. There
are no figures available to make a rough estimate as to the
amount of milk that would be necessary to make the State
self-sustaining in by-products. There are some folks who
claim it will never come to pass because it will always be an
expensive operation in both production and processing. This
creates a market problem because when surplus of fluid milk
arises there are no manufacturing markets to absorb the over-
flow. Producers prefer not to produce enough milk to supply
all that is needed to meet the peak demand during the tourist
season for fear of a large surplus after the season is over.
This makes it necessary to import an amount equal to about
two per cent of the normal supply. About two million gallons
of 40 percent cream and about 17,000,000 pounds of cottage
cheese is imported annually, while the State dairymen make
approximately four million pounds of cottage cheese each year.
In 1940 there were about 110,000 dairy cows with a pro-
duction of about 57,750,000 gallons of milk per year. The
commercial dairies were recognized about 1942 as those dairy-
men milking six or more cows. There were approximately
1200 commercial dairies at that time milking 85,000 to 90,000
cows, which was estimated to be a little more than half of
the total number of dairy cows in the State. Many commercial
dairies have been consolidated since the War and today we
have about 890 commercial dairies. In these dairies there are
about 163,793 cows with a production of about 80,000,000
gallons per year. The dairy industry, with a production valued
in excess of 63 million dollars annually, has grown into the
third largest agricultural occupation in the State, which has
been conservatively estimated to represent a billion dollar
industry. Florida is unique in that this huge industry repre-
sents Grade A milk for fluid or packaging purposes only,
whereas other states would include a large amount of manu-
facturing milk, which is produced without any control or super-
vision of any kind as far as sanitation is concerned.
The owners of dairy farms and their employees whose liveli-
hood comes from Florida dairy farms are estimated to include







4 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


A modern Milk Plant in Florida


about 10,000 persons with an annual payroll of over 25 million
dollars. Hundreds of others make their living indirectly from
the industry through furnishing dairy feeds, supplies, equip-
ment and various services such as veterinarians and other
dairy specialists.

The best available records indicate that the milk processor-
distributors employ about 5,000 persons with a payroll of about
15 million dollars. The ice cream manufacturers have an addi-
tional payroll of two million dollars and over 1,000 employees.

The amount of land devoted to dairy farming is estimated
at approximately 190,000 acres, or about 200 acres per farm.
The invested value is conservatively estimated at $250 per acre
or approximately 50 million dollars. These dairies have an esti-
mated 163,000 cows with an approximate average value of
$200 or a total value of 32 million dollars. The equipment and
supplies on these farms would account for several million dollars
of additional investments. From these figures it can be easily
seen that the dairy industry has a great stake in the economy









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 5



of the State when one takes into account the investments,
payroll and sales.

Dairying in Florida is a full-time occupation, which may
seem strange to some who are not familiar with the system
used in this State. To clarify the verbal picture of dairying
the following terms may be of some help:

A milk producer is anyone who owns, operates a dairy farm
and offers all his milk or milk products produced by him to
any firm or plant for processing for resale to the public in
a package form. All of this milk must be produced under
the supervision of the Department of Agriculture and be of
a grade that can be used for bottling or packaging purposes.

A milk producer-distributor is any person who owns, operates
a dairy farm and offers his milk or milk products produced
and processed by him for sale to the public in package form.

A processor is anyone who does not produce milk or milk
products, but purchases milk or milk products from a pro-
ducer for the purpose of preparing for resale to the public
in package form by the different acts of processing, such as,


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6 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


pasteurization, cooling, packaging, etc. The plants are gen-
erally dual-purpose plants that processes both milk and milk
products and frozen desserts. The operation of these plants
must comply to all rules and regulations for Grade A pro-
cessing plants.
A distributor is anyone who offers milk or milk products
in package form for resale to the public, and who is not a pro-
ducer, producer-distributor or processor. All products sold by
him must be processed by a milk plant that complies with all
the rules and regulations covering processed Grade A milk and
milk products.

At one time animals and poultry on a farm were there for
several reasons. First, they consumed the surplus of farm pro-
duced products; second, they fertilized and built up the fer-
tility of the farms by the production of a large volume of
manure, rich in humus, organisms and fertilizing elements
including a few very important minor elements; third, most
of the animals and poultry produced a very much needed
revenue.

Cattle, both dairy and beef, and horses consumed large
amounts of roughage that otherwise would have gone to waste.
Hogs, sheep and poultry consumed large amounts of surplus
grain. The producer had a choice of selling his products as
such or, if the price is not attractive as such, he could feed
it to produce milk, beef, pork, lamb or poultry products. This
gave him a two price margin to work on and choose that which
appeared to be the most profitable. This system automatically
created a broadminded individual who operated an all-round
general purpose business.

The development of power machines for each operation on
the farm has created a specialist who donates his interest and
study to one operation. Today, we have dairy specialists, beef
specialists, hog specialists, sheep specialists, poultry specialists,
flower and garden specialists. Agriculture has become the
mecca of specialists. The State Universities and Experimental
Stations have a specialist for each subject or project.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 7


A green feed harvester


Agriculture today, regardless of type, is geared to power
machines and volume production. The best of land for grow-
ing so many tons of milk per acre must be just as good as
the land the specialized crop farmer uses. The days of using
poor cheap land for producing milk are gone forever. The
main research project in dairying today is to find ways and
means of producing more pounds or tons of milk per acre
from less number of cows per acre. There are also a number
of other projects involving pasture improvement, better and
cheaper feeds and insect and disease control measures. It is
important that a dairy herd has good management, supply of
good quality roughage, good water, and plenty of shade. Grain
is the most expensive part of a ration; therefore, the more
high quality roughage in the form of pasture, silage, and avail-
able hay; the cheaper will be production costs. There should
be a generous supply on hand for a full twelve months not
just for a few months. When it is dry, make hay; when it is
wet, make ensilage.
Florida has a wide variety of pasture grasses, hay and silage








8 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


Pasture brought to the cows


material. Some of the pasture grasses and legumes are white
clover, crimson clover, alfalfa, alice clover, hairy indigo, coastal
bermuda, Suwannee bermuda, pangola, bahias, St. Augustine,
carpet, para, rescue, kudzu, velvet beans, cow peas and pea-
nuts. For silage, such crops as sorghum cane, corn and millet;
for grain, such crops as oats, vetch, rye, wheat and corn
thrive well.

Growing these crops depends upon the type of land, moisture
and location in the State. The County Agent or State Experi-
ment Station can supply you with information as to soil tests,
what crops are most suitable to the specific locality as well
as proper land preparation and fertilizers to use.
Good roughage plus a balanced ration, aboundant supply of
water and shade in hot weather will make dairy production
profitable. There are different ways of getting roughage into
the cows, such are, hauling the cut grass to the cow instead
of pasturing it; however, it makes no difference how the cow
gets it as long as it is cheap and there is enough of it. There
are a lot of different methods of producing hay, such as, hay








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 9


Napier grass, a good soiling crop, grazing crop, or it may
be used for silage


A good crop of corn ready for the silo


















































Good permanent pastures are essential in the dairy business


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12I DIRYN IN FLORIDA_


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driers of a variety. There has been developed a machine for
every hard job on the dairy farm.
To produce the energy necessary for the production that
would brand a good cow a profitable cow, the cow needs the
proper fuel to develop that energy. Hay, silage and pastures
are the best and cheapest forms, but these should be supple-
mented with enough balanced grain ration to bring that cow
to her peak production at the most economical diet. Feed is
considered about one-half of the cost of production, so feed
costs should be watched carefully.


DAIRY CATTLE

The Jersey breed originated in the Isle of Jersey and is
the predominating cow in the herds in the State. She pro-
duces milk with more than five per cent butterfat. The fact
that she predominates most herds may be due to her past
record of having helped to fight the battle against insects,
diseases, poor feed, poor management, hot weather and still


12


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


survive. She deserves credit for having done her part in the
long struggle to overcome the many difficulties of the -past
that have been eliminated.

The Guernsey breed originated on the Isle of Guernsey and
produces milk of about five per cent butterfat. These cows
have become popular and are playing a big part in building
up Florida's dairy industry. Her popularity is due a great
deal to the natural yellow color imparted into her milk. The
Guernseys have shown their ability to make themselves at
home in this State and are fast becoming more important in
the total milk supply.

The Holstein breed originated in the Province of Frieland
located in the northern part of the Netherlands and they pro-
duce milk of three and five-tenths per cent butterfat. The
Holsteins are beginning to invade the South and are gradually
taking their place in many herds. When the producer learns
to handle these cattle and produces the proper kind and amount
of roughage, they will be an important source of the State's
milk supply.

The Ayrshire breed originated in Scotland and produces a
milk of about four per cent butterfat. These cows are about
equal and are gradually pushing into a good many herds,
but they like the Holsteins will neet to wait until the average
producer learns how to manage them and produces a satis-
factory feed program to their liking to take their place in
the production of the best of the dairy herds.

The Brown Swiss originated in Switzerland and produces a
milk of about four per cent butterfat.

The replacement problem has been a very expensive thing
with Florida producers. With improved pastures, roughage,
herd management, and artificial insemination and control of
diseases and insects, it has become an important phase of
dairy production. The dairy world moves forward on the feet
of little calves.


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14 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
















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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 15


A Guernsey Cow


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A Guernsey Bull












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A Holstein Cow


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A Holstein Bull


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 17












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A Brown Swiss Bull


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18- D IRYN IN FLORIDA-


An Ayrshire Cow


An Ayrshire Bull


18


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA











This brings up the question about bulls. Today, there are
very few bulls on producing farms. The answer may be to
let the specialist breeder of purebred cattle produce the bulls
from which will come the semen to be used by the average
farmer to bring about a superior, high-producing, profitable
grade milk cow. By using Dairy Herd Improvement Associa-
tion or any method of checking his herd first of production
and then culling out the boarders, a dairyman can build up
a herd that means success as a milk producer.
It must be kept in mind that cows also produce considerable
in the way of by-products. Bull calves may be vealed or grown
out as steers; excess heifer calves may be sold to other pro-
ducers. The cow adds considerable fertility to the farm soil
because of her ability to consume large amounts of roughage.
She produces about 10 to 12 tons of manure per year.
Farmers can get the best by using good sires and good herd
management and by raising all the herd replacements. The
State Extension Dairyman and County Agent can be of val-
uable service by helping him in obtaining and maintaining a
profitable herd, more and better home grown roughage and
pastures, and better grain feeding practices.
Calf raising is usually left to the Northern farmer because
of the cost involved. Florida farmers, especially in the southern
part, buy first calf heifers and find they are money ahead.
Where calves are raised they must be either pastured or housed
100 feet from the milking barn. Since the use of artificial
breeding has become so popular there has been more of a
tendency toward raising herd replacements.














This dairy barn is made of cement block with a metal roof
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This dairy barn is made of cement block with a metal roof


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


19








20 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


DAIRY BARN CONSTRUCTION

The mild climate of Florida is favorable to simple barn
construction. The original barns were constructed, due to the
mild climate, for maximum amount of ventilation. In other
words no thought was given to making dairy barn walls and
columns to accommodate windows; however, in many of the
dairy barns built in the last two years the walls and columns
have been so placed to allow windows to be installed.
With the exception of a couple of months out of the year
the weather is mild; however, there are about two months
that milking in an open barn is a hardship.



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The roof on this barn, made of cement block, is
galvanized iron
Barns in Florida for the most part are all concrete with
the exception of roofs, although, in some parts of the State
the walls, floors and even roofs are poured concrete.
All floors should be concrete with a pitch of 1 inch to every
10 feet. All manure is washed with the pitch of the barn into
a concrete sluice way, which runs away from the barn into a
low area for evaporation. This area is then fenced off so
cattle will be kept out.
The floor dimensions are standard 31/ feet for mangers,
5 feet for the platform for the cow to stand on, 31/ feet
between stanchions and 6 feet from gutter to outside wall. The
gutter should be 4 inches to 6 inches deep. In the case of a
double line stalls 10 feet is required between gutter to gutter.
The size of the milk room has been increased in the last













DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


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This shows lot and lane arrangements of a large operation



two years for the installations of farm tanks. There should
be three feet around all farm tanks for easy cleaning.
All dairy barns are required to have paper towels and soap
in barn, paper towels in milk room where farm tanks are
installed, three compartment washsink, necessary brushes and
cleansers (soap and detergents), two spigot outlet in barn-
one for hose connection and one for hand washing-, and a
metal table for storage of milk implements and dry storage
for all rubber parts.
If cans are used, a metal can rack is necessary and all barns
must be painted at least once a year and milk rooms as often
as necessary. Milk houses must have both screened and solid
doors which must face away from the barn. A cement lane
must lead from the barn to the door of the milk room.
All feed rooms must be sealed tight and have a self-closing,
tight door that opens into the barn. All mangers must be
constructed so as to be easily washed and drained after each
milking. In other words no feed is allowed to stand in mangers
or barns except during milking. All holding lots must be
located a distance of 100 feet with cement lanes leading from
the holding lots to the barns.


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


22








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Some of the requirements listed above are not required in
any other state, but it has been found they tend to improve
dairy operation and cut down time spent in the barn by
operators.
Dairy barns in Florida vary in size from 6-cow barns to
320-cow barns. In no cases are cows allowed to stay in barns
overnight. Some of the larger dairies have an additional barn
built for sick cows or maternity cases. These usually consist
of a cement frame barn with mangers, stanchions and washing
facilities.
Some of the larger dairies have found that a feed-mixing
mill helps to give a more balanced feed and a financial saving
in some cases. The result has been that some of the feed rooms
are larger than all other buildings put together and enables
the farmer to buy feed in carload lots and cut down one of
his biggest overheads. The dairymen furnish a house, milk,
water and electricity in addition to paying a salary of $50


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Different types of silos found in Florida include concrete,
upper left; tile, center; metal, upper right; metal, lower
left; and pit silo, lower right


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 25


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Scenes of tehsoueiFl d


Scenes of trench silos used in Florida


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to $100 for a six-day week for help where it is necessary. The
cost of feed and the expense of help are two reasons why the
price of milk has been kept at a high level.

Some farms have conventional type milking barns where
cattle are contained for feeding, prepared for milking, milked
and turned back to pasture. The milk being conveyed to the
milk house by human effort. These milking barns may vary
in size from a capacity of six cows to as many as 300.

A large herd may be fed and milked in this type of barn
by turning in and out a number of shifts; however, it may
become very inefficient because of the amount of time lost.
The milking parlor type barn is popular with small and
medium sized herds. There are two types in use; the stall
type, which seems to be the most popular, and the walk-
through type. They vary in size from two to as many as
12-cow stalls. These parlor type barns are designed to elimi-
nate stooping and are very efficient and satisfactory if properly
operated. The milk is conveyed to the milk house by manual
methods or pipelines in these operations.


A stack silo of napier grass


26


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Here's a ground silo built by scooping up land on either
side and piling into two parallel ridges with silage resting
on ground

Speed is one of the objects of the parlor and this cannot
be accomplished by feeding and preparing to milk in the parlor.
A convention stanchion type barn of sufficient size to keep
the parlor working at top speed arranged so as to synchronize
with the parlor is necessary. All feeding and preparation for
milk should be done before the cow goes to the parlor. Stimu-
lation with warm chlorine water and fast milking should be
performed in the parlor.

It was found a number of years ago that milk could be con-
ducted from the cow direct to the milk house through pipe-
lines. This operation was carried out mostly by three stall
parlors. The milk was carried directly over surface coolers or
into ten-gallon milk cans. These pipelines were generally short
and were taken down for cleaning after each usage. Since it
was discovered that milk could be conveyed through long lines
by vacuum and delivered at most any point desired, it was
also found that by connecting two lines together, they could
be washed and sterilized by circulation methods instead of


27

















































Approved barn plan and bill of materials


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 29











bing t .a ar fr l n T.h i








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Today, large stanchion barns holding from a hundred to
300 or more cows at a time are built especially for and equipped
with modern pipeline installation. Florida is one of the leaders
in this type of operation. The proprietor likes it because it is
a paying investment. Labor likes it because it makes his work
easier and more pleasant.




A large per cent of the milk in Florida is produced by this
method today and in a short time, it is possible all milk in
the State will be produced by one of the pipeline methods.
These pipeline units are set up to pull a vacuum on ten-gallon
cans setting in cold water box coolers. The pipeline system
caught on fast with large producers because it was fast and
a labor saver. The washing powder and bactericide people got
busy and developed a method of washing and sterilizing pipe-









30 DARYN IN FLORIDA


A -












Cattle feeding on a rich field of Crimson clover
in North Florida


lines regardless of length by circulating methods that save
many hours of labor and obtained better results.

There was one objection to pipelines by some producers who
wished to test and feed by production and butterfat records.
This system was very inconvenient and unsatisfactory to those
using the old method of hand operation. Recently a metering
device has been developed for the accurate weighing of each
cow's milk and for taking a drip sample of each sow's milk
for butterfat test. Some thought is in the planning for a
meter device synchronized with the milk meter that will feed
the cow automatically in the proper proportion to the amount
of milk she gives.

The quality of milk in Florida is unexcelled because it is
obtained from healthy cows by healthy people. All cows must
be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis once a year. All
~S~fuA
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be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis once a year. All


DAIRYING IN F~iLOR~IDA~


30









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


common bahi- :,_ pasture


. .. .. .". ,







7, . = . 7 .



.f; 'I-'- ".- .. '.- .-



Here are two shots of registered Jerseys grazing on a
common bahia pasture


I _ - -


31






















Jul


Roll N IP, I N:l'ik:.;y:':Q:IP; ;~ .N~~


Cows grazing White Dutch clover, a good winter pasture in many parts of Florida


t-1


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u


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DEATMN OFARCLUE3


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44 -a


Proper sanitation increases consumption of milk and
milk products


people processing the finished product must have health cards.
From a bacteriological viewpoint it is unexcelled because the
bacterial counts are kept very low and the different undesir-
able organisms are kept under control. Chemically, the average
milk of the State rates higher than other states because of a
long established custom of furnishing a milk rich in butterfat.
When this is a common practice it is natural to have high
solids not fat with a high mineral content.
Flavors of milk are very important because most consumers
judge milk by its flavor. Florida milk has a clean, rich, re-
freshing nutty flavor. This flavor is due largely to its high
butterfat and solids, not fat content, and also the type of
feed used.
The clean sanitary conditions under which milk is produced
keeps sediment to a minimum. All barns are open the year
round for fresh air; floors, mangers, walls and in many cases
ceilings are cement and are scrubbed twice daily. All cows
before milking are washed and sanitized. The milkers must
wear clean clothes. Handwashing facilities and flush toilets
are provided for all personnel.


~g ~:
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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


33








34 DARYIN IN FORID


-Washin the cow before milking
Washing the cow before milking


All commercial milk in Florida is taken from cows by
milking machines and a large amount by machines and pipe-
lines, which makes for a closed system. Within a short time
all milk in Florida will be handled in stainless steel or glass
pipelines, large storage tanks on the farms and transported
by large transport-truck tankers. This system practically elimi-
nates the possibility of barn odors, cow odors, silage odors,
etc., and keeps the sediment content to a minimum.
The quality of milk in Florida is outstanding due to low
bacteria counts, lack of off-flavors, and low sediment content.
This has been accomplished by the use of farm tanks, milk-
ing machines, and pipeline milking, which provides a closed-
system protection from dust and insects with fast cooling and
storage at a low temperature. Tank trucks have helped by
providing fast refrigerated transportation from farm to city
plants. Improvements are being made in this type of equip-
ment at a rapid pace.
The production of field crops and pastures has been improved
by new and better types of fertilizers. The field of minor
elements has played a large part in the successful growing of
crops that could not be grown without them.


DAIRY'ING IN FLORIDA


34










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Attaching the milking machines to the cow's teats


_ L I L _ __


35











Irrigation has been an important link in the pasture and
crop program. Light aluminum pipe has made it possible to
irrigate large acreage that was not possible before.
The many new powerful fungicides and insecticides have
made it possible to control fungus diseases of crops and in-
sects that destroyed field crops and pastures, as well as para-
sites that stunted animals and in some cases caused death.
Tuberculosis, brucellosis and mastitis are under the control
of the State Livestock Board in cooperation with the federal
government agencies. An outstanding piece of control work
has been done in Florida on the control of diseases in dairy
herds.
The enforcement of the1 Milk, Cream and Milk Products Law,
and the Frozen Desserts Law, is administered by the State
Department of Agriculture. This work is carried on in coopera-
tion with the State Board of Health, City and County Health
Departments.
Anyone interested in engaging in the production or process-
ing of milk and milk products including frozen desserts should
contact a State Dairy Supervisor of the Dairy Division of
the State Department of Agriculture. Anyone interested in
the production of field crops, pastures, building silos or any
farm problem dealing with the reduction in the cost of feed
production should contact his County Agent.
Milk is said to be Nature's most perfect food, but some
authorities claim they can improve upon its values by the
addition of different vitamins and minerals. Milk is drawn
from the cow's udder by hand or milking machines and when
taken from a healthy co w is free from pathogenic organisms
or very few in number.
The milk is cooled immediately to less than 50 degrees F
and is generally pumped into a large tank mounted on a
truck, which transports the milk to the plant for processing.
The milk is again pumped into large holding tanks where it is
stored at a low temperature until ready to be pasteurized and
bottled or packaged.
Pasteurization has become necessary because milk and milk
products are ideal food for bacteria as well as humans. These
bacteria may be pathogenic because cows have diseases that
affect humans, and the, people that produce and handle the


36


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


milk may contaminate the milk with pathogenic organisms
from diseases they may have. Pasteurization is the heating of
every particle of milk to a determined temperature and hold-
ing at that temperature for a definite amount of time. There
are two recognized processes, one of which the milk is heated
in a vat to 143 degrees F and held for 30 minutes, then cooled
and bottled or packaged. The milk is stored in cold storage
at 35 to 40 degrees F and distributed to stores and homes at
not more than 50 degrees F. The second method of pasteuri-
zation is the short-time high temperature process whereby the
milk is heated usually from 161 to 165 degrees at a minimum
time limit of 16 seconds.

BULK CONVERSION
The advent of the farm tank and farm tank pick-up truck
was the most unexpected revolution that has ever occurred
in the milk business. When the first model tank was made
and exhibited, it was so ridiculed that it was almost forgotten.
But when it's real value to the industry became apparent it
spread over the entire country at such a rapid rate manu-
facturers could not fill their orders.
The first farm-owned tanks were mounted on trucks and
owned by large operators. The milk was pumped from pipe-
lines through plate or over open surface coolers into the tank
on the truck. When full, it was taken to the milk plant. This
operation was so expensive that the little operator could not
afford it, but the manufacturers came to his rescue with the
farm tank located in the milk house operated by pipelines
or manual.
These tanks were of different sizes so that the small and
large operators were taken care of; they were of different
shapes and came refrigerated with direct expansion or cold
water. The latest development was to install large tanks that
were connected direct to the milking pipelines; the milk being
drawn into the tanks by vacuum thereby eliminating pumping.
Before deciding to go to the farm tank and bulk milk
pick-up truck, there should be close cooperation between the
plant and all producers. The plant will have to make changes
in receiving; they may be interested in financing the tanks
and help in the selection of a particular tank. A survey should
be made to determine what the change to tanks will cost, what


37












mm*


b 1HOLLYwOOD. FLA
~ipARtP -CO.- 1w~r


Various types of modern tank trucks which transport milk from farm to the plants


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


size, the costs, how much will be saved over the can system
by both parties. Electrical supply should be investigated as
to the amount available and the cost. The costs of hauling,
as to whether roads and barnyard in bad weather will permit
the use of heavy tank trucks, whether the plant intends to pay
a premium for tank milk and as to whether the plant will
permit an increase in the production per farm.
The indications, after a number of markets have used this
system for more than a year, are that it is very satisfactory
to all parties concerned. The quality of milk has improved
more by the elimination of cans than any one improvement
ever made in the milk business. The bacteria counts have not
only improved, but undesirable types of bacteria that effected
the quality of milk have been eliminated.
Poor flavors and sediment have been practically done away
with since discontinuing the use of tin cans. Tin cans in bad
condition have caused more milk to be dumped and held down
the consumption of milk and milk products by causing un-
desirable flavors than any other fault to be found in milk
or milk products. The bulk tank has certainly been a revolu-
tion from a public health point of view. There are 603 bulk
milk tanks, 175 tank trucks and 253 pipelines operating in
Florida now.


Short time high temperature pasteurizer


39




















































Complete up to date processing plant


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MILK PLANTS

There are about 150 milk plants operating in the State of
Florida that process and distribute about 90 per cent of the
milk in the State. These plants are what is known to the in-
dustry as combination plants. That is, they process both fluid
milk products and frozen desserts. All frozen desserts must
be a pasteurized product. It is estimated that about 98 per
cent of the milk in the State is pasteurized. The milk process-
ing plants are rated among the best in buildings, equipment,
methods and delivery fleets in the country.

Permanent buildings of masonry construction, tile floors and
walls are the usual materials used. All equipment is stainless
steel, which meets the latest sanitary regulations. There is
very little fluid milk that is not pasteurized by the latest short-
time high-temperature method. A large per cent of by-products
is pasteurized by the batch, 30-minute holding time method.
All milk products are required to be packaged and sealed by
machine. Glass bottles are used to a limited extent with most
markets demanding 100 per cent paper. All dispenser milk
must be filled by machine and stainless steel cans are used.
Cottage cheese is required to be packaged by machine.

Many plants process and distribute many different products,
such as, pasteurized milk, homogenized milk, Vitamin D milk,
Multi-Vitamin milk, skimmed milk, lot-fat milk, chocolate milk,
chocolate milk drink, buttermilk, sweet cream, sour cream,
cottage cheese, yogurt and frozen desserts.

Most delivery vehicles are of the closed type, insulated and
a large number are refrigerated. A major portion of milk
sales is wholesale through stores of different kinds. A large
volume of milk is sold through refrigerated 5-gallon can dis-
pensers, especially in restaurants. All packages must be labeled
to show state of production, name and address of dairy or
plant, and true contents of the package.


41


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







42 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA




'ii- *_-- . ..:.. .i



ii









II
.....--.. -----r-












*i
Al-
Showing sterilizing and pipe line hook up to farm tank













-" t
I .




Receiving room picturing dump tank, drop tank, scale and
hand washer











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Two types of bottle fillers and cappers

Top is for glass bottles while lower cut shows paper cartons


43


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FROZEN DESSERTS

One of the outstanding developments in Florida has been
the rapid growth of the small retail drive-in type of frozen
desserts manufacturer. Florida can well be proud of her
retail outlets for frozen desserts because they fulfill the last
word in sanitation by construction, equipment and methods.
The buildings are attractively designed of masonry and tile
construction and equipped with modern stainless steel equip-
ment, washing and sterilizing facilities and adequate cold stor-
age. The quality of their products are assured by the use of
100 percent pasteurized mixes. These small operators are a
proud family of individualists that serve the public frozen
desserts to their liking. There are about 550 of these estab-
lishments that use millions of pounds of dairy products during
the year. The annual production of frozen desserts is over
18,000,000 gallons.
Plain ice cream, like vanilla, must contain not less than 10
percent butterfat, not more than 50,000 bacteria per cc, not
more than 10 coliform per cc, and not less than 1.6 pounds
of food solids per gallon to comply with the State Frozen Des-
serts Law. Most ice creams are higher than 10 percent butter-
fat, some as high as 16 percent butterfat. It will contain from
eight to 12 percent solids, not fat, 14 to 16 percent sugar or
other form of sweetening agent, and about one-half of one
per cent of stabilizer.
The processor will start with a base of whole fresh milk,
when available, and balance this with sweet cream, condensed
milk or powdered milk, sugar and stabilizer to the formula
he wishes to use. The milk products used are the same as
used by the average consumer in other forms. The sweetening
agent whether it be different sugars, syrups, honey or a mix-
ture is the same as served on the table of the average family.
The stabilizer may be of different origins, but all accomplish
the same purpose and are on sale at most grocery stores in
one form or another.
All components of a 'frozen desserts formula must comply
not only with State Pure Food and Drug regulations but with
Federal regulations.
After all components have been decided upon and assembled,
they are put into a vat pasteurized and heated to a tempera-
ture of at least 160 degrees F for a period of 30 minutes. It


44


DAIR')ING IN FLORIDA







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


is then homogenized, cooled and stored in large holding tanks
until frozen. The product at this point is known as frozen
desserts mix and is ready to be frozen. This mix is drawn
into smaller tanks where flavor is added and pumped through
a continuous freezer, where freezing takes place and air is
incorporated so that the finished product is about twice the
volume of the mix. The frozen ice cream is placed in cold
storage at below zero temperatures to harden before it is
put on the market.
Other frozen desserts, such as fruit, nut ice cream, ice milk
and sherbets are processed by the same methods. The main
difference being in the kind and amount of ingredients used.


FLORIDA MILK COMMISSION
The 1953 Legislature changed the membership of the Florida
Milk Commission to (1), three consumers, not connected with
the milk industry; (2), a producer of milk; (3), a distributor
or producer-distributor of milk; (4), the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, or his designate; and (5), the State Health Officer,
or his designate. The Commission still consists of seven mem-
bers which are appointed by the Governor of the State of


Inspectors make a check on milk packaging operations


45











Florida. The Governor also appoints the administrator of the
Commission.
The Florida Milk Commission cannot supervise an area in
the State of Florida unless they are petitioned to do so by a
representative group of producers supplying milk within a
marketing area. This is basic, and it is left entirely up to the
producer of milk, whether or not the Commission can super-
vise the area. The Florida Milk Commission has six established
areas under its supervision. These areas cover 56 Counties
in the State of Florida, thus the Florida Milk Commission
supervises approximately 65 percent of all milk produced
and sold in Florida.
Public hearings are conducted in each area, where cost of
production, processing and distribution are submitted under
oath, and from such evidence, the Commission determines the
minimum prices paid farmers for milk in any given area,
and the minimum price for milk and other dairy products to
consumers.
The expense of operating the Florida Milk Commission is
borne entirely by the dairy industry. The distributors and


Inside view of Florida's mobile milk laboratory operated
by Department of Agriculture and which makes quick
scientific analyses of milk and milk products


DAIRYING IN FLOR.IDA


46











producer-distributors are required to purchase annual licenses
for their operations; truck licenses for all trucks operated (with
the exception of one) and licenses for each of their drivers.
In addition the distributor and the producer-distributor pay a
tax of 1/10 of 1 cent per gallon on all Class I milk sold, and
on the milk equivalent of cream sold.
The 1953 Act imposed a tax of 1/10 of 1 cent per gallon
on all Class I milk produced by the dairy farmer-this tax
to be collected by the distributor and forwarded to the Com-
mission with their monthly remittance.
The Law was amended to exempt milk sold to school lunch
rooms and charitable organizations and military use.

MOBILE LABORATORY
The object of the Mobile Laboratory is to act as a screen-
ing laboratory for the main Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Laboratory of Tallahassee; to be of service to the industry
and cooperate with other enforcement agencies. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture is charged with the enforcement of defini-
tions and standards of identity set-up under the Milk, Cream
and Milk Products Law and the Florida Frozen Desserts Law.
This laboratory is equipped with Mojonnier and Gerber Tester
for determining fats and total solids of all milk and milk
products. The Cryoscope is used for detecting the addition of
water to milk, which is a fraudulent practice. The acid tester
is used for checking the acidity of all milk and milk products.
The bacteriological equipment includes autoclaves, hot air ster-
ilizers, incubators, microscopes, necessary glassware and other
equipment necessary for complete bacteriological examinations.
The trailer is air-conditioned and has a refrigerator, hot and
cold water, distilled water, both gas and electricity, cupboards,
storage space with formica table tops.
This laboratory is equipped and staffed so as to perform
any and all tests to determine as to whether any milk or
milk products is satisfactory for human consumption.
Bacteriological examination by the plate method, microscopic
method, and coliform method are made at regular intervals.
In addition to checking equipment and methods of processing,
all milk and milk products are examined to see whether they
have been properly pasteurized by use of the Phosphatase Test.
Milk and milk products are subjected to butterfat test, solids,


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


47











not fat, total solids and acidity determination. Special tests,
such as, for determining added water, reconstructed milk and
the addition of fats other than butterfat are also performed,
and frozen desserts are checked to see that they contain the
proper amount of food solids per gallon.
All tests are performed by graduate bacteriologists and chem-
ists using standard method procedures.



THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF DAIRY SCIENCE

The Department of Dairy Science is a part of the Agricultural
Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, University
of Florida, at Gainesville, Florida. The dairy facilities are
divided into two separate units, the Dairy Research Unit and
the Dairy Products Laboratory.
The Dairy Research Unit is located 11 miles north of Gaines-
ville on 1200 acres of land. This modern Dairy Research Unit
includes a barn with 79 stanchions and complete laboratory
facilities to conduct research in the Dairy Husbandry field.


Milk pasteurization and processing equipment at the
University of Florida


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


48











A herd of over 250 cows, Jerseys, Holsteins and Guernseys,
provide animals for research in feeding, management and the
production of milk. The milk produced on this farm is utilized
in experimental work and in teaching in the field of Dairy
Products Manufacture.

The Dairy Products Laboratory is centrally located on the
campus of the University of Florida. It houses equipment for
the processing of milk and the manufacture of ice cream, con-
densed milk, cheese and other dairy products. Complete facili-
ties are available for research and teaching in the filed of
dairy products. The Dairy Products Laboratory processes all of
the milk and manufactures all of the ice cream and other dairy
products sold to Food Service Units on the University of
Florida campus. Part-time employment is provided for several
students in the manufacturing laboratories, which in addition
to the experience they gain, provides them with an income
while attending school. Short courses and conferences are off-
ered each year covering all phases of Dairying, including pro-
grams for dairy plant operators, sanitarians, herdsmen, labora-
tory workers and dairy farmers.


THE FUTURE

The future milk business will see fewer, but larger proc-
essing plants. These plants will distribute their products over
a large area covering hundreds of miles. All products pur-
chased will be packaged in paper or large tanks. All small
items, such as butter, cheese, yogurt, sour cream, and sweet
cream will be purchased from the by-products manufacturer
packaged ready for resale.

All fluid products used will be pumped through meters into
large storage tanks and from there metered out in the right
proportions for the products to be processed. All will be pas-
teurized by the high temperature short time methods and all
frozen desserts will be frozen by continuous methods.

A large per cent of the clean-up will be by in-place cleaning
and most of the other cleaning will be accomplished by me-
chanical methods. New equipment, paved roads and modern


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


49











refrigerated transportation is changing the entire milk business
rapidly.

Producers like the plants will be less in number, but much
larger than at the present time. The small farm dairy pro-
ducer will be a thing of the past. It is possible that the herds
may become so large that all ideas of raising feed or replace-
ments of the herd will be eliminated. The fact is there are
some herds in the State that have reached that stage already.

In other words the idea of factory production has invaded
dairy production as well as other branches of agriculture.
Factory thinking has already been injected into the produc-
tion by pipeline milking, cold-wall cooling, storage tanks, vacuum
storage tanks, farm pick-up bulk tank trucks, in-place clean-
ing, conveyor methods of feeding large numbers of cattle in
a short time, and the use of artificial breeding of cattle.

This means a large capital outlay and unless a considerable
reduction is made in the cost of production, Florida will re-
main in fluid milk production only depending on other states
for supplements of milk in the short period and all of its
by-products.


50


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SELECTED MILK STATISTICS


FLUID MILK AND CREAM


Cou
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15


ntry
Final
Nor


and
way


Sweden
New Zealand
Switzerland
Canada
Austria
UNITED STATES
Ireland
Denmark
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Australia
West Germany
Belgium


CHEESE

Country
1 Switzerland
2 Norway
3 Sweden
4 France
5 Italy
6 Netherlands
7 Denmark
8 Belgium
9 United Kingdom
10 West Germany
11 UNITED STATES
12 Canada
13 Finland
14 New Zealand
15 Australia


Pounds
653
522
487
466
458
436
405
400
371
368
344
329
279
263
210



Pounds
17.9
17.8
16.8
16.7
16.0
15.8
14.6
11.3
9.4
9.3
7.8
6.6
6.6
6.1
5.2


WHOLE MILK EQUIVALENT


Country
1 New Zealand
2 Finland
3 Ireland
4 Sweden
5 Australia
6 Canada
7 Norway
8 Switzerland
9 Denmark
10 Belgium
11 United Kingdom
12 UNITED STATES
13 West Germany
14 France
15 Austria


BUTTER

Country
1 New Zealand
2 Ireland
3 Finland
4 Australia
5 Belgium
6 Sweden
7 Canada
8 Denmark
9 West Germany
10 France
11 United Kingdom
12 Switzerland
13 Austria
14 Norway
15 UNITED STATES


In terms of whole milk equivalent of all dairy products, New
Zealand surpasses all other nations in per capital consumption
of dairy foods. In 1955, the rate of consumption was equivalent
to 1,591 pounds of whole milk. People of Finland, Ireland,
Sweden and Australia consumed dairy foods at rates exceeding
1,000 pounds of whole milk. With a per capital utilization of
698 pounds, the United States ranked 12th in 1955.


Pounds
1,591
1,543
1,325
1,102
1,069
937
931
924
907
853
714
698
690
658
648



Pounds
44.9
43.7
35.8
31.0
24-1
24.0
20.6
18.7
15.2
14.8
14.7
13.9
10.5
9.3
8.9


51











Northern Europeans are the world's leading consumers of
fluid milk and cream. Rates of consumption of fluid products
in Finland and Norway, for instance, are from 30 to 60 per
cent higher than in the United States.
Butter is a food identified primarily with the higher level
of economic well-being associated with Western civilization.
Among these countries, however, per capital of butter is sig-
nificantly higher than in the United States. Residents of New
Zealand and Ireland, for example, consume nearly five times
as much butter per person as do Americans.
Europe leads all other areas of the world in per capital con-
sumption of cheese. Rates of use in many of these countries
are twice as high as in the United States.
Americans drank 822 million more pounds of fluid milk
in 1956 than they did in 1955 as a result of a two-quart per
person increase in the consumption of fluid milk last year.

New records were set for both cheese and cottage cheese
consumption. Ice cream was purchased at a rate nearly double
the 1935-39 average. Butter consumption in 1956 dropped a
tenth of a pound, but this figure was still second highest of the
last five years.
These facts were announced by the National Dairy Council
with the publication of its annual statistical study, "How
Americans Use Their Dairy Foods." According to the publication,
the specific quantities of various dairy foods consumed per
person in 1956 as compared with 1955 were:


Product 1955 Per Capita 1956 Per Capita
Consumption Consumption
Fluid milk 142 qts. 144 qts.
Fluid cream 47 lbs. 47 lbs.
Cheese (exclusive of cottage) 7.8 lbs. 8 lbs.
Cottage cheese 4.4 lbs. 4.5 lbs.
Ice cream 15.3 qts. 15.6 qts.
Butter 8.9 lbs. 8.8 lbs.
Evaporated and condensed milk 16.0 lbs. 15.5 lbs.
Dry whole milk .25 lbs. .26 lbs.
Nonfat dry milk 5.5 lbs. 5.0 lbs.


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


52












On the production side, milk production in 1956 was 748
pounds of milk for each man, woman and child in the United
States. The dairy foods consumed last year were processed and
manufactured from an average 699 pounds of milk per person.
This left a surplus of 49 pounds per person, one pound per
person less than in 1955 and 22 pounds per person less than
the peak surplus of 71 pounds per person in 1953-an improve-
ment of 31%.





The following table summarizes the utilization of the total
U. S. Milk supply during 1956 as compared with 1955:


Item


1956


1955


Fluid milk and cream1
Butter
Cheese
Ice cream and other
frozen dairy products2
Evaporated milk
Condensed milk
Dry whole milk


Total milk production


million per cent
pounds of total

64,937 51.7
31,482 25.0
13,648 10.9


8,450
5,453
804
924


6.7
4.4
.6
.7


125,698 100.0


million per cent
pounds of total

63,504 51.6
30,837 25.0
13,518 11.0


8,160
5,490
807
812


6.6
4.5
.6


123,128 100.0


1Includes milk used on farms where produced.
2Net milk used.


DEPARTME NT .OF AGRICULTURE


53









PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MILK

Total and Per Person, United States


Milk
Production
(million
pounds)
89,240
100,158
--101,205-


103,624
109,412
119,828
117,697
116,814
112,671
116,103
116,602
114,681
114,671
120,221
122,094
123,128
125,698


Production
Per Person
(pounds)
783
814
795-


803
828
856
832
810
768
778
769
743
730
753
752
745
748


Consumption
Per Person
Milk Equivalent
(pounds)
790
808
-- 789- -


791
807
777
775
758
714
724
731
705
691
682
691
698
699


Year
1925
1930
1935 -
1935-39
average
1940
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956


(1935-39-100)
Production
Per Person
86
97
98----


100
106
116
114
113
109
112
113
111
111
116
118
119
121


Indexes
Total
Production
98
101
-99--


100
103
107
104
101
96
97
96
93
91
94
94
93
93


t-1
-^j
K!
cr
r
r


t-1


Consumption
Per Person
100
102
S100 .


100
102
98
98
96
90
92
92
89
87
86
87
88
89








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


The North Central regions annually produce about one-half
of the nation's supply of milk. In 1956, for instance, produc-
tion in the East North Central region made up 30 per cent of
the total supply. Output in the West North Central region rep-
resented 22 per cent of the annual total. Atlantic Coastal regions
supply about 25 per cent of the national output, with the North
Atlantic region producing over two and a half times the quantity
of the South Atlantic region. The Western and South Central
regions each make up a little over a tenth of the national
output of milk.



Shifts in Milk Production, by Regions, 1940 to 1956

Milk Production Change in production
Region 1940 1956 between 1940 and 1956

billion pounds billion pounds per cent

North Atlantic 17.4 22.2 4.8 27.6
East North Central 30.6 37.3 6.7 21.9
West North Central 27.7 27.6 -.1 -.4
South Atlantic 6.6 9.2 2.6 39.4
South Central 14.5 14.6 .1 .7
Western 12.6 14.8 2.2 17.5
United States 109.4 125.7 16.3 14.9



Milk for fluid consumption is customarily produced relatively
close to market. Consequently, the largest absolute increases
in production have occurred in the East North Central and
North Atlantic regions where urban populations have been
greatly expanded during the last 15 years. The South Atlantic
states have experienced the most rapid rate of growth of milk
production, however, with about 40 per cent more milk being
produced in 1956 than in 1940. A slight decrease in output
occurred in the West North Central region during the last
decade and a half. The net effect of these shifts in production
has been an increase of nearly 15 per cent in the nation's output.


55










56 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


PURE BRED DAIRY HERDS


FLORIDA
NAME
Adams, Hal Jersey Farm
Alvarez, A. T., Sr.
Alpine Dairy Company
Agr. Exp. Station

Boyd, Herman

Brown, A. V.
DeBord, Frank L. & Son
Fairglades Jersey Dairy
Fischer, Ernest
Griggs, Carlos Summer Fields
Gulf Wind Dairy
Harlee Farms (H. F. Schollian)
Judge, B. W., Jr.
Magill, F. D. & Sons
Pennwood Farms
Page, John & Son
Paterson, Kenneth
Pennington, Miss Betsy
Rusterholz, A. J.
Schack, M. A.
Sellers, C. C.
Sessions, W. C.
Simmons, Steve Dexter
Simmons, W. J.
Sixma, George G.
Shadel, McKibbon, & Hall

Skinner, H. C.
Skinner, C. Brightman

Stevens, Wallace
Watkins, W. R.
Welkener, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Willis, F. E., Jr.
Stuart, J. K.
Teal, Hilton
George Evatt


JERSEY BREEDERS
ADDRESS
Middleburg
Rt. 3, Box 628, Jacksonville
8020 Atlantic Blvd., Jacksonville
Dairy Science Department, U. of F.,
Gainesville
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, Box
1188, Miami 44
River Junction Station, Chattahoochee
Box 467, Quincy
Geneva
Box 205, Windermere
Summerfield
Venice
Marianna
Rt. 1, Box 38-J, Orlando
Box 17, Grand Crossing
Jupiter
Box 535, Fernandina Beach
Rt. 1, Box 23, Winter Garden
Box 666, Deland
Box 592, Apopka
Greenwood
Rt. 3, Box 111, Tallahassee
Rt. 3, Box 626, Jacksonville
Orangedale Route, Green Cove Springs
Rt. 4, Box 574-B, Jacksonville 5
Box 212, Lake Helen
Christmas Acres, 325 Cherokee Drive,
Orlando
6700 Bowden Road, Jacksonville 7
Meadow Brook Dairy, Rt. 8, Box 104,
Jacksonville
5225 S. W. 21st Ave., Ft. Lauderdale
Rt. 1, Box 49, St. Cloud
Rt. 3, Box 612, Jacksonville
Rt. 3, Box 348, Tallahassee
120 N. Central Ave., Bartow
Box 567, Winter Garden
Coleman, Florida


56


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA












FLORIDA GUERNSEY BREEDERS
NAME ADDRESS
Boutwell-Matheson P. O. Box 649, Stuart
Casey, W. J. Rt. 1, Box 157, Clearwater
Cone, John P. O. Box 1551, Plant City
Detjen's Dairy 7227 W. Taft St., Hollywood
Dodd, Jack Rt. 1, Box 28-A, Maitland
Dinsmore Dairy Rt. 1, Box 9, Dinsmore
Donegan, C. E. Rt. 1, Box 206, Largo
Hansdale Farm Rt. 4, Box 104-W, Sarasota
Land O'Sun 101 Alton Road, Miami 39
Sargeant, John P. O. Box 17, Lakeland
Schmid, Walter P. O. Box 822, Sarasota
Sellers, L. H. P. O. Box 93, 22nd St. Sta., St. Peters-
burg 3
Waldrep, W. P. Rt. 1, Box 1015, Hollywood
Ward, Carroll Sr. P. O. Box 446, Winter Park
Ward, Carroll Jr. P. 0. Box 26, Goldenrod
Velda Dairy P. O. Box 1196, Tallahassee
Sellers, C. C. Rt. 3, Box 111, Tallahassee
Lee, T. G. Box 1191, Orlando
Stebbins, Don R. R. 1, Land O'Lakes
Haselton, T. Stin Box 507, Eustis
University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Dairy Science Bldg., U. of F., Gaines-
ville


Max W. Zubler
Perrine Ranch Dairy


NAME
Jacobs, H. H.
Zimmerman, Mi
Stevens, Wallac
Yoder, Ray D:
Newton, Dr. C.
Emerine, Mrs.
Vernon, Melvin,
Jensen, Chris a
Gay, Albert
Patrick, George
Herman Boyd

H. Blackadar


Rt. 2, Box 102, Sarasota
Tarpon Springs


FLORIDA AYRSHIRE BREEDERS
ADDRESS
Rt. 2, Box 91-S, Deland
r. & Mrs. C. R. Rt. 1, Box 1125, New Port Richey
3e 5225 S. W. 21st Ave., Ft. Lauderdale
Glades Dairy Moore Haven
K. Bradenton
F. I. Valrico
Jr. Rt. 6, Box 605, Tampa
nd Son 1325 East Fort King St., Ocala
Rt. 2, Palmetto
J. Rt. 2, Box 83, Manatee
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, Box
1188, Miami
Rt. 1, Box 229, Valrico


D EPA RTM ENT O F AAGRI CULT URE


57









58 DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


FLORIDA BROWN SWISS BREEDERS


NAME
Herman Boyd

Martin Brown Swiss Dairy
U. of F. Agr. Exp. Station
Beauchamp Dairy


ADDRESS
Airport Livestock Corp., Rt. 1, Box
1188, Miami
Rt. 5, Box 39, West Palm Beach
Gainesville
Winter Haven


FLORIDA HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BREEDERS


NAME
A. J. Rusterholz
Herman Boyd, Hall & Boyd, Inc.
R. K. Price, Asst. County Agent

Wendell Click
William Graham's Dairy
Dairy Science Dept.
Henry B. Ebersole
Dr. E. H. Myers
William Bixby
W. J. Leinwerber, Supt.
Tom Perry
Land-O-Sun Dairy
Durrance Tropical Dairy
John Maxwell
Galbraith Bros.
Jeffco Dairies, Inc.


ADDRESS
Box 592, Apopka
Rt. 1, Box 299, Miami 44
531 N. Military Trail, West Palm
Beach
Route 2, Box 25, Moore Haven
Hialeah
University of Florida, Gainesville
P. 0. Box 328, Eustis
P. O. Box 428, DeFuniak Springs
Rt. 2, Box 499, Clewiston
Moose Haven, Orange Park
P. O. Box 6127, Sta. B, Miami
101 Alton Road, Miami Beach
Okeechobee
Rt. 3, Box 135, Pensacola
Rt. 1, Box 339M, West Palm Beach
Box 842, Okeechobee


DAIRYING IN FLORIDA


58




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