• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Dairy cattle
 Dairy centers
 Dairy barn construction
 Good pastures are of vital importance...
 Silos and silage crops
 Health of our dairy herds
 The University of Florida dairy...
 Future outlook for dairying














Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Florida dairying shows progress
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014581/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida dairying shows progress
Series Title: Bulletin. New series
Physical Description: 54 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1942
 Subjects
Subject: Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May, 1942."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014581
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7055
ltuf - AMH2501
oclc - 41830110
alephbibnum - 002467061

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Dairy cattle
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Dairy centers
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Dairy barn construction
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Good pastures are of vital importance to the dairyman
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Silos and silage crops
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Health of our dairy herds
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The University of Florida dairy products laboratory
        Page 43
    Future outlook for dairying
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text






-i


Bulletin No. 118


New Series


May, 1942


Florida Dairying

Shows Progress
By
John M. Scott


Fig. 1.-A good herd on clover pasture, barn in background.
Picture taken April 3, 1942.
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE


IIlj M, kV























DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture.


T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner ..............

PHIL S. TAYLOR, Supervising Inspector ............


JOHN M. SCOTT, Chief Dairy Supervisor -


...Tallahassee


.-.Tallahassee


.---Tallahassee


-.-Gainesville










Florida Dairying Shows Progress

By JOHN M. SCOTT
Dairying in Florida has made rapid strides during the
past few years; in fact, those who have not been in close
contact with the industry cannot realize the changes that have
taken place.
In 1900 there were very few dairy cows in the State. By
1910 there was some interest in dairying in the larger cities
of the State, and about 1911 or 1912 the first city ordinance
regulating the production and handling of, fluid milk was put
in force. The first State Law dealing specifically with the
dairy industry was passed in 1929.
In 1920 there were about 70,000; dairy cows in the State
with a production of about 12,000,000 gallons per year.
In 1930 there were about 75,000 dairy cows in the State
with a production of about 25,000,000 gallons per year.
In 1940 there were about 110,000 cows with a production
of 57,750,000 gallons of milk for the year. Since 1940 there
has been an increase in the number of cows milked, hence an
increase in the amount of milk produced.
Prior to 1930 some dairymen and milk plant operators
imported large quantities of fluid milk and cream. Since 1932
very little fluid milk has been imported into the State. It is
true that large quantities of sweet cream are imported each
year; the amount required depends somewhat upon our winter
tourist business.
There are approximately 830 commercial dairies in Flor-
ida; by commercial dairies we mean those milking six or more
cows. In these dairies there are 60,000 to 70,000 cows. This
represents a little more than half the total number of dairy
cows in the State.
Of the 830 dairymen about one-third of them are whole-
sale producers, and two thirds are producer distributors.
There are about 200 dairymen who operate pasteurizers at
their farms.
There are 46 city milk plants in the State. There is also
one creamery in the State, located at Chipley, Florida. Al-
though many of the dairies and milk plants manufacture
butter when they have a surplus of milk and cream, the Chip-
ley plant is the only exclusive butter-making plant now op-
erating in Florida.
Florida cannot yet be classed as a dairy products manu-
facturing State, though some surplus milk is used to make
condensed milk from time to time at a plant in Miami. No





















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YOU THAN/ 7 /5/S


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Fig. 2.-Thirty years of progress in dairy building construction in Florida. Upper center, a milk
room built in 1909. Upper left, dairy barn built about 1920. Upper right, more modern construction.
Lower, two milking parlors. There are more milking parlors in Florida than in any other state.


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FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS 5

cheddar cheese is manufactured in Florida, though some soft
cheeses are made. The only by-products made in any consider-
able quantities in Florida at the present time are chocolate
milk, buttermilk, and ice cream.

DAIRY CATTLE
Nearly all breeds of dairy cattle may be found in Florida.
However, the two major breeds at the present time are Guern-
sey and Jersey. There are a few Holsteins, Brown Swiss, and
Ayrshires.
We are often asked about the number of cows in our dairy
herds. There is a wide variation in the size of the herds. We
have quite a number of small herds, from 6 to 20 animals.
A large number of herds number from 20 to 60 animals.
There are also those that number anywhere from 100 to 500
cows; and a few herds contain 600 to 1500 cows.
The production of milk per cow varies here just as it does
in every other state. The average for Florida is perhaps
about 13/ gallons per cow per day. However, there are a
number of dairymen in the State who get a 3-gallon average
for a good part of the year. The dairyman who does not
average 11/ gallons or more per cow will not find dairying
profitable.
Prior to 1930 very few of the dairymen made any effort
to raise the heifer calves dropped in their herds. Milk was
high in price and there was very little surplus, hence no
calves were raised. During the last few years a great many
of the dairymen in different parts of Florida have been buy-
ing good bulls and have been doing a good job of improving
their herds by raising heifer calves from the better cows in
their herds.
The Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the Florida Guernsey
Cattle Club have for several years past been holding annual
sales. Both male and female animals have been sold, and as
a result the State is rather well supplied with pure bred breed-
ing stock of both Jersey and Guernsey cattle. A number of
pure bred herds of both breeds have been established, and
they contain some of the best blood lines that can be obtained.
These facts are shown in another way that will surprise a lot
of dairymen in other states. Note the breeding of some of
the good sires and dams shown on succeeding pages.
We give below official records of production of individual
cows of different breeds. These figures speak for themselves
and show that cows in Florida are making very satisfactory
production records.









6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TABLE NO. 1.-SOME HIGH TESTING JERSEY COWS IN
FLORIDA, TO MARCH 1, 1942.
Reported by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida
I I Days 1 Per I Pounds
Name, Number, and Owner ITest I Age in I Pounds Cent I Butter
Ended I Milk | Milk I Fat I Fat
I1 I I II
1. Rosa Raleigh Alice 1110248,
W. J. Nolan, Jacksonville ........ 1940 6-7 365 14,278 5.56 793.2
2. Jovial's Princess 391230,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee .... 1925 8-0 365 10,759 6.51 700.8
3. Jujube of Panola 386182,
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow .... 1923 6-0 365 10,984 6.08 667.9
I 111
4. Observer Victoria 1078105, |I
Highview Farms, Ocala ......... 1940 5-6 305 11,594 5.64 653.7
5. Husky Maid 361182,
Pennock Plantation, Jupiter ... 1923 6-0 365 11,140 5.63 627.0
6. Sultan's Volunteer Diana
1263232, Walter Welkener, Jaxl 1941 3-0 365 12,942 4.84 625.9
7. Florida Victor Fancy 1021792,
Fla. Expt. Sta., Gainesville .... 1940 5-4 1365 11,602 5.34 619.1
8. Magnolia Top of the World
931973, Highview Farms, Ocala 1941 9-5 305 10,840 5.68 615.3
9. Tiddledywink Bly 1134252,
Walter Welkener, Jax .......... 1941 5-2 305 10,044 6.09 611.7
10. You'll Do's Gentle Maiden
384442, M. A. Milam, Miami... 1925 8-10 365 11,762 5.22 609.4
11. Gamboge Knight's Island Star
433054, Meadowoaks Farm,
Bartow -..-...----..--.......-.--.-..-..------1922 4-7 365 12,113 4.94 598.4
12. Majesty's Tycoon Ann 414105,
M. A. Milam, Miami ..-.............. -1924 7-9 365 12,681 4.70 596.5
13. Landseer's Florida Queen 421941,
Fla. Expt. Station, Gainesville 1926 6-10 365 13,357 4.45 594.6
14. Mourier's Souvenir 351206,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee .... 1922 8-9 273 9,316 6.36 592.2
15. Pioneer Dinah Lady 1143953,
Walter Welkener, Jax .--.....-..-- 1941 4-0 329 10,716 5.46 585.1
I I I II









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS 7


TABLE NO. 1.-Continued.
I I I Days I I Per IPounds
Name, Number, and Owner I Test I Age in I Pounds I Cent Butter
I Ended I I Milk I Milk I Fat Fat
16. Gallant Boy's Cumi 1035849, i
Florida Deaf & Blind School, I
St. Augustine ..................... .... 1940 6-8 305 9,155 1 6.39 584.6
17. Coomassie's Princess Girl 281956,1
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow .... 1923 9-9 365 10,523 5.52 580.8
18. Queen Tullia 299706,
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow ..-1922 9-2 365 10,837 5.31 575.4
19. Ellen Park 387162,
M. A. Milam, Miami .............. 1924 8-0 365 10,866 5.27 573.1
20. Mighty's Pretty Rosette 1156620,
Highview Farms, Ocala ..--....-.. 1940 3-0 305 10,946 5.23 572.8
21. Dreaming Bell Pride 1222695,
Walter Welkener, Jax ..-....-... 1941 4-2 300 I11,690 4.88 570.1
22. Melody Fleurette 1182970,
Walter Welkener, Jax- ..-....--.. 1941 2-5 365 11,758 4.85 569.6
23. Gamboge's Sunshine Dolly
457518, Meadowoaks Farm,
Bartow .....-........-----------------... -1923 3-9 365 11,117 5.11 568.5
24. Jolly Mildred 300266,
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow .... 1923 10-2 365 11,309 5.01 566.4
25. Coomassie of Meadowoaks 2nd,
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow .... 1923 4-8 365 10,130 5.58 564.8
26. Double Torono's Gipsy 387419,
Meadowoaks Farm, Bartow ..-. 1923 5-4 365 11,699 4.77 558.2
1 1 I 1 1 I
27. The Cid's American Beauty, I I
M. A. Milam, Miami .. ....--.. 1926 16-11 365 11,361 4.91 558.1
28. Shamrock Noble Rose 1125489, I
W. J. Nolan, Jacksonville -...-.. 1941 5-11 365 11,042 5.05 557.5
29. Masterstroke's Lou Hilda
1070411, Florida Deaf & Blind
School, St. Augustine ---..-.....-... 1940 5-8 305 9,811 5.68 557.2
30. Monolac 573029,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee .... 1927 4-4 365 110,578 5.26 556.4
31. Holly Hill Princess 1107745,
Walter Welkener, Jax ......-...-.....1939 4-11 305 10,323 5.38 555.5
I I I I _










8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TABLE NO. 2.-SOME HIGH TESTING GUERNSEY COWS IN
FLORIDA, TO MARCH 1, 1942.

Reported by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida
I I 1 Days I Per [Pounds
Name, Number, and Owner Test I Agel in Pounds CentI Butter
_Ended I Milk Milk i Fat I Fat

1. Butler Island Fayroyal Martha | I
429546, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax 1942 6-4 365 18,610 4.73 880.9
2. Garnet's Ellen 493960,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ................ 1942 6-1 365 15,914 5.21 829.5
3. Appin's Comely Lady 351261,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ............... 1938 7-0 365 13,567 5.66 767.4
4. Sophia's Pet Emlyn,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax _..-....... 1942 6-5 365 14,930 5.06 755.4
5. Jose de Lorraine 55871, Loxahat-
chee Farms, West Palm Beach 1920 4-7 365 12,071 5.89 711.5
6. Lassie's Queen Peerless 537840,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax --.............. 1941 5-3 365 15,815 4.41 696.8
7. Bobby of Fairholm 462303,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ................ 1941 7-8 365 15,103 4.40 664.7
8. Appin's Golda 385055, I
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ..-............. 1940 6-8 365 11,050 6.00 663.2
9. Babe of Inspiration Ranch
351752, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ... 1939 6-3 365 14,225 4.65 662.2
10. Beauty of Dinsmore 329499,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax -....---...-..-. 1936 5-2 365 13,250 4.98 660.5
11. Monogram's Gay Margaret
409360, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax.... 1940 5-11 365 13,369 4.93 659.2
12. Butler Island Foremost iIve
451082, Fla. State Farm,
Raiford .......---------------.. --.--... 1941 3-8 365 11,976 5.49 657.7
13. McDonald Gay Loretta 444202,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax----- .......... 1939 5-2 365 10,333 6.28 648.8
14. Raiford's Foremost Lady 447437,1
Fla. State Farm, Raiford ...... 1941 5-2 365 12,754 5.09 648.7
15. Butler Island Foremost's Bell
395691, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax .... 1939 14-10 365 11,565 5.56 642.8
_____ _____ I










FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


TABLE NO. 2.-Continued.


Name, Number, and Owner


16. Amelia of Dinsmore 403105,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ..............------

17. Butler Island Coker Fancy
429549, Lakemont Dairy,
W inter Park ................................

18. Midview's Hilda 527091,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax .-...---.....--

19. Valor's Jemmadine 378859,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax .-...--.......--

20. Butler Island Fayroyal Darleen
416106, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ..-.

21. Karnac Fairy Queen 139466,
J. A. Frohock, Bradenton .......-

22. Silver King's Jessie 363223,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ...-.......--...

23. Myrtledale's Floella 394890,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax .......------...

24. Valor's Idalia 356070,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax -...............

25. Rivelon Buttercup 337733,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax .......-........

26. Golden Liberty Girl 392879,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ................

27. Lady Gipsey 287160,
Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ......--.......-

28. Doris of Curtis Guernsey Dairy
318120, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ....

29. Constance Speck of Paramount
497984, Dinsmore Dairy, Jax ....

30. Raiford's Pride 578747,
Florida State Farm, Raiford ....

31. Klondike Marquise 550117,
Florida State Farm, Raiford ....


I I I Days I Per Pounds
| Test Age in I Pounds I Cent | Butter
IEnded I Milk I Milk I FatI F at


1938 4-2 365


1941 6-0 365


1941 4-7 365


1940 6-5 365


1939 4-4 365


1931 7-10 365
I I
1939 6-11 365


1936 4-2 365


1940 8-4 365

1936 6-6 365

1940 6-9 365

1940 9-9 365


1940 8-9 365
I I

1939 3-3 365

1941 2-8 365


1941 13-11 365


11,759


13,715


12,891


14,961


12,594


13,675


12,004


11,070


12,005


12,226

12,331


11,986


13,284


11,940

11,567


I 11,576 5.26 608.6
i I


9


I ~ ~ ~ J .. .. . . .


5.45


4.67


4.97


4.27


5.04


4.62


5.25


5.65


5.20


5.09

5.02


5.16


4.62


5.14

5.30


I


641.1


640.6


640.6


639.3


633.6


632.3


630.4


625.4


624.4


622.3


618.9


618.4


613.8


613.2

612.5









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


TABLE NO. 3.-SOME HIGH TESTING DUTCH BELT COWS IN
FLORIDA, 1920-1930.

Reported by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida
All owned by White Belt Dairy, Miami, Fla., Dr. J. G. DuPuis
I I Days I Per Pounds
Name and Number I Test I Age I in I Pounds Cent Butter
SEnded I I Milk I Milk Fat I Fat
1. Green River Neritta 3rd 3065 -..1 1930 7-101 365 16,073 4.36 691.6
2. Gem of Columbia 2038 ................ --1924 10-6 365 17,268 3.67 633.8
3. Green River Neritta 2nd 2958 .... 1929 7-5 365 16,054 3.62 582.1
4. Florida Lee 2654 ........----.................1929 9-5 365 12,222 4.28 522.6
5. Green River Baby 3rd 3272 ..-..--.. 1929 4-5 365 12,204 4.20 513.1
6. Nancy Lee's Flower 3201 ........... 1929 5-11 365 10,069 5.06 509.9
7. Elsie Blossom 2743 ..................- 1929 8-0 365 14,688 3.44 506.1
8. Ferndell 1961 ---................. ......--------- 1921 17-7 365 13,478 3.71 501.1
9. Minnie M's Blossom 3317 .-..---..... 1929 13-111 365 10,113 4.33 438.5
10. Lily of the Dell 2450 ...............-- 1925 7-6 I365 I11,134 3.99 434.1
11. Elena of Florida 2737 ...--..-........- 1926 6-6 365 I 11,391 3.75 428.6
12. Gem of Florida's Glory 2520 ...... 1926 7-8 365 10,292 4.09 421.7




DAIRY CENTERS

The larger dairy centers in the State are around the larger
cities and tourist centers. This is due to the greater demand
for milk. This, however, may change. As transportation
and refrigeration facilities improve, it is quite possible that
milk may be produced at some distance from the larger cities
and shipped there when needed. At the present time very
little milk is shipped from one part of the State to another.
Sweet cream, a large part of which is imported from other
states, is shipped to all parts of Florida wherever there is a
demand for the product.


10















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Fig. 3.-Newer type of construction in South Florida. Milk room on left, dairy barn in center, feed




Fig. 3.--Newer type of construction in South Florida. Milk room on left, dairy barn in center, feed '
room on right. Note the open construction of barn.
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cow lot to barn door.
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Fig. 4.-A good, substantial, well-built barn-plenty of ventilation. Note cement walk from
cow lot to barn door.








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


DAIRY BARN CONSTRUCTION
The mild climate of Florida is favorable to simple barn
construction. In Florida our dairy barns do not need to be
built to keep out the cold, rather they are constructed so as
to give the maximum amount of ventilation. Note the con-
struction of barns as shown in pictures on other pages of
this bulletin.
Barns have concrete floors and side walls four feet high,
then an open space to the eaves. The floor dimensions are
standard, three and one-half feet for manger, four and one-
half feet for the cow to stand on, three and one-half feet
between stanchions, and six feet from the gutter to the back
wall. For two-row barns, tail to tail, eight feet of space is
provided between tails. Some dairymen have a feed alley in
front of the cows, others do not. The fact that cows are sel-
dom kept in the barn overnight means that it is not necessary
to construct deep gutters; most gutters are six inches deep.
The cost of constructing a dairy barn, milk room and wash
room varies in different parts of the State, depending on the
cost of labor and materials. If the dairyman is handy with
tools and can do his own cement work and carpenter work,
the cost will be reduced very considerably. A rough estimate
on the cost would be fifty to seventy-five or more dollars per
stall. In other words, a 10-cow barn would cost anywhere
from $500.00 to 8750.00 or more. In addition there will be
the cost of necessary equipment. At the present time it is
very difficult to make an estimate, as it is almost impossible
to get some materials. There are quite a number of dairy
barns in the State that have cost from $85.00 to $125.00 per
stall and some even more than that, but it is possible to build
less expensive barns.
When it comes to the sanitary conditions of the dairies
in Florida very few, if any, states as a whole can compare
with those of Florida. There are several reasons for this;
our climatic conditions are more favorable, barns are of more
open construction which means better ventilation, our sandy
soils mean that we have very little mud to contend with, all
of which means cleaner cows. Cows are kept in the barn
only when being milked; therefore, no bedding is required
in the barns and no manure accumulates to cause undesirable
odors. The barns are washed out with water after each milk-
ing. There is no storing of feed over the dairy barn and no
sleeping quarters in the barns for hired help.


13















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Fig. 5.-The herd, the barn, and a modern up-to-date milk plant.








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


The walls are of cement block, the roof is metal.


Fig. 7.-One of the large dairy barns in northeastern part of
Florida. The walls are built of cement block, the roof is galvanized
iron. Metal silos. This barn accommodates 98 cows.


15









16


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


.- : - . . .;.. ..- :; '



Fig. 8.-Milk room and wash room in front, ten-cow barn in the
rear. All of brick construction. This is a good arrangement, but
there should be more open space or window space in the barn. Note
the boiler at extreme right.


Fig. 9.-Milk room and wash room in front, barn in rear. A lawn
around milk house and dairy barn reduces the dust hazard to a mini-
mum, which is important from the standpoint of sanitation. The lawn
and flowers add to the beauty of the place, and this is good advertis-
ing, as visitors never forget beauty spots that they see.








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS





.----------..


Figs. 10 and 11.-Cement walks from cow lot
into barn are important from a sanitary view-
point. A large part of the dirt on cows' feet is
left on cement walkway that would otherwise be
carried into the barn.


17








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


GOOD PASTURES ARE OF VITAL IMPORTANCE
TO THE DAIRYMAN
Dairying in Florida has made great progress during the
last twenty years; but what progress are we likely to make
in the next twenty years? Additional pure bred herds of the
different dairy breeds will probably be established; this, how-
ever desirable, will not in itself make dairying a profitable
industry. Unless dairymen in all parts of the State learn
how to produce and distribute milk more cheaply in the future
than they have in the past, dairying in Florida will not be
the industry that it could be.
Florida's mild climate and long growing season should be
an advantage in the growing of grass and forage crops suit-
able for dairy animals. The long growing season should give
more days of grazing. With more days of good grazing dur-
ing the year, less grain will be required for maintenance and
milk production. Grain feeding for milk production is more
expensive than good pasturage and forage crops. Therefore,
the more grass and forage crops used, the cheaper will be the
cost of producing a gallon of milk. So, let us take advantage
of our mild climate and long growing season by making grass
and forage crops our main source of feed for our milk supply.
Grass and forage crops should supply nearly three-fourths
of the feed required for our dairy herds.
Yes, I know the dairyman will say, "When I reduce the
grain feed, milk production goes down." But, has this dairy-
man made the necessary effort to supply the right kind and
quantity of pasturage and forage crops to replace the grain
ration so that milk production will not go down?
Perhaps we should not place so much emphasis on milk
production per cow. Of course we should use good cows that
are capable of giving a large amount of milk when fed heavily,
but these same cows will give a creditable amount of milk at
a lower cost per gallon if fed more grass and forage crops and
less grain. For example, a dairyman may get 60 gallons of
milk a day from 20 cows by feeding a heavy grain ration.
Would it not be more profitable for this dairyman to produce
the 60 gallons of milk by feeding 25 cows on grass and forage
crops and a small amount of grain ? This idea has been proven
worthy of consideration by a number of dairymen who have
used this method to reduce their cost of production.
Comparatively few dairymen in Florida are fully aware
of the importance of good pastures as a year-round source of
feed for their cows. A few dairymen have good pastures for


18
















. . . . . . . I ..' ..: .' .1 tw o s db 0.
P- mUi I *:I'* I - F '10; a' r; al lLY I0.
:: o; r r
~: Yld .* ~hlsl' i:'~*,iili ~~~ Ir ~.MO


orm V


't 1. AN,


Fig. 12.-Cows grazing White Dutch Clover (Trifolium repens)-a good winter pasture in many parts of Florida.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


a part of the year but very little pasture the remainder of the
year. In Florida pastures should be planted and maintained
during the greater part of the year.
A good pasture is more than just so many acres of land
for the cows to travel over. The fewer acres used the better,
provided the cows can get an abundance of good nutritious
grass in a couple of hours grazing each morning and after-
noon. A good producing cow must have time each day tc
lie down to rest and digest her food and at the same time
convert a goodly portion of the feed into milk. The cow that
has to hustle and walk all day to get enough grass to fill her
paunch will not produce very much milk.
The only way to produce cheap milk is by having an
abundance of good nutritious grass for the cows to graze.
This pasture may be a mixture of grasses and one or more
legumes.
When you select a piece of ground on which to plant your
grass seed, select the best land on the farm. A great many
people, in the past, have had an idea that any land not suitable
for a cultivated crop would be ideal for pasture purposes.
This idea is all wrong. The better the land the fewer acres
will be required to furnish pasture for a given number of
cows.
Every dairyman in the State of Florida needs a good
permanent pasture if he intends to stay in the dairy busi-
ness. The dairyman who fails to provide a good permanent
pasture for his herd will find at the end of the year that he
has been operating at a loss rather than at a profit. We
cannot over-emphasize the importance of good permanent
pastures.
It is a well-established fact that green grass and an
abundance of sunshine increases the vitamin content of milk.
Consult the Experiment Station and get their recommen-
dations as to grasses and legumes to plant, when to plant,
how to prepare the land for planting.


20







~ ~i~
b& t'
I, ~P*rr
*I!Al*l ~rn rl.
-*rr~4 *


TlMv oS


11.~l iPi.;4b.~


,:,
~RaXdB~I) i
UsS 3
....,. 'sRB~b'B~i~6 r~":i
'D.. 1. ~ Cr..~:

",r;6~~
':~4Y. ;L r..,,
I'P: ":4
~g~s:, ;: ?


Fig. 13.-Carpet grass (Axonopus compressus) pastures. Good permanent pastures are essential in the
dairy business.


0





z















0

0
C12
H


u
H









h-1
s;2
0/


#s$ L r ;
J h.'













DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 14.-Contented cows on clover pasture in Florida.


'NkP ~ ~ ILiIp~
~i~~V col






W_ W_ 7wu

ag,


Fig. 15.-A clover pasture among the pine trees. Note the abundance
of white clover in bloom.


22


fi; -
~-~i
r--
~;_S~k~~p
e-









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Fig. 16.-Yes, we grow clover on the better types of flatwoods
land where there is sufficient moisture during the winter season to
insure good growth.


Fig. 17.-Cows on carpet grass and lespedeza pasture.



: .4 :


t-- _



Fig. 18.-Cat-tail Millet, a good grazing or soiling crop.


23









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


SILOS AND SILAGE CROPS
The following pictures of silos, all taken in Florida, show
that nearly all types of silos may be found in the State. Other
types could have been shown.
Just what kind or type of silo you should build depends
entirely upon what the builder likes or dislikes and also the
amount of money he desires to invest in a silo. If the desire
is to invest as little as possible, then construct a trench silo,
or cheaper yet, use a stack silo. A stack silo is the most
simple form of silo. The crop is cut and put through a silage
cutter and piled on the ground in a long window. It may be
made as long as desired and as high as is convenient. After
the stack is completed, cover over, first, with cheap building
paper, then with soil to a depth of one to two feet. If, on the
other hand, a more permanent structure is desired, then a
concrete, tile, or metal| silo should be considered. Wooden
silos do not last well in Florida.
A word about silage crops. There are a variety of silage
crops that may be grown: Corn, Sorghum, Sugar Cane, and
Napier Grass have all been used in the silo and have kept well.


id2h....h


^ ^^.y-c ^------^~
.. .. .... .
.... ?. >JL


- -~-~


F


;. .; -*,e. -. .... -,
Fig. 19.-Different types of silos found in Florida. Upper left,
concrete; center, tile; upper right, metal; lower left, metal; lower
right, pit silo.


24


..










FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Some like one crop, some another; the thing to do is to choose
the crop that gives the best results on your farm; this may
be any of the above mentioned crops, or it may be some other
crop not mentioned.
Consult your County Agent or get the advice of the Ex-
periment Station on details in helping you choose a crop as
well as advice about growing it.


Fig. 20.-A trench silo, about one-third under ground and two-thirds
above ground. Has a board floor and boards on the sides.


Fig. 21.-A trench silo that has been in use four or five years.


25








26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







U ..
,- ^ ^ : *I -


Fig. 22.-A trench silo walled up with lumber. Courtesy Fla. Expt.
Station.


Fig. 23.-A stack silo of Napier grass. Courtesy Fla. Expt. Station.









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Fig. 24.--Napier grass-a good soiling crop, grazing crop, or it may
be made into silage. Courtesy Fla. Expt. Station.


Fig. 25.-Sorghum-ready for the silo. Sorghum often produces
more tons of silage per acre than does corn. Courtesy Fla. Expt.
Station.


27









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 26.-Sorghum, a good silage crop. There are many varieties
that may be used for silage.


Fig. 27.-A good crop of corn ready for the silo. This particular
field produced 98 bushels of corn to the acre. Courtesy Fla. Expt.
Station.


28








GUERNSEY CHAMPIONS


Fig. 28.-Klondike Handsom 270508, Grand Champion Guernsey Bull,
Florida State Fair, Tampa, 1942.


Fig. 29.-Guernsey cow, Midview Hilda 527091, with a record of
12891.7 pounds milk and 640.6 pounds butter fat. She was Grand
Champion Guernsey Cow, State Fair, Tampa, 1942. Courtesy Dins-
more Dairy.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 30.--(Below) Gayoso Ina Pat 238357.


*1i,


I: C ..1.
.. . .I,
if17


3-~"~)


Fig. 33.-Maxims Prince Edward 254787.

Four good Guernsey bulls that are helping
improve the Guernsey herds in Florida.


F '. ,. I. i .' L ...I I
12. 22 i,


,.I
t.LIM


~Odk~!






















PC











Fig. 34.-Ten Guernsey cows with an average of 704.4 pounds of butter fat. A good record for any CO
herd. Courtesy Dinsmore Dairy Farms.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 35.-Sapeloe Rosebud 290257. A good Guernsey cow with a
record of 17354.5 pounds milk and 930.6 pounds butter fat Class A.
This cow not only has made a good record so far as production goes
but she is also a good individual. Courtesy Dinsmore Dairy Farms.


i AF


Fig. 36.-This Guernsey cow, Sapeloe Royal Mary 329353, has a
record of 15890.1 pounds of milk and 890.1 pounds butter fat Class
AA. A good cow in any herd. Courtesy Dinsmore Dairy Farms.


32


AMR,
K MAY









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS 33


Fig. 37.-Quail Roost Maxim's Medico 211635, a Guernsey bull at
the head of one of our good Guernsey herds. Courtesy Dinsmore
Dairy Farms.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


HEALTH OF OUR DAIRY HERDS

Florida dairy herds are practically free of T. B. and Bang's.
Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, reports for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1941, that the percentage of tuberculosis
in dairy herds was only .08 per cent. For the United States
during the same period the percentage was .3 per cent.
The percentage of Bang's disease for the same period was
.9 per cent, covering 15,665 herds comprising 403,772 animals.
For the United States the percentage was 2.4 per cent.
The above figures speak well for Florida milk producers.
They show that the milk producers are co-operating with
State officials in an effort to give the public the very best
milk possible.
The citizens of Florida should be proud that their supply
of milk comes from such healthy animals. It is doubtful if
any other State has such a good supply of milk.


34









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS 35

JERSEY CHAMPIONS


Fig. 38.-Grand Champion Jersey Bull, Celina's Ena Design 380080,
State Fair, Tampa, 1942. Courtesy Sandy Loam Farm.


Fig. 39.-Pompey's Harp of Life 1165717. Grand Champion Jersey
Cow, State Fair, Tampa, 1942.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



.. ... ;L:


Fig. 40.-Pioneer Dinah Lady 1143953, above, has earned the
Medal of Merit award, pending calving, the first Jersey cow in Florida
to make this record on test. 'Started test at 5 years of age. Record
12351.8 pounds of milk, 763.6 pounds of butter fat, in 305 days.


j J. 7 7.-, ---.ot



Fig. 41.-Jersey bull, Sophy's Wexford Noble 212494. His sire,
Fern's Wexford Noble, was Grand Champion at the National Dairy
Show of 1922-23-24. Courtesy U. S. D. A.


36


Toitr~



......-- -








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Fig. 42.-(Below) Florida's Majesty 153431.


Fig. 45.-Sensational Signal 379995.

Some of the Jersey bulls that have helped
improve dairy herds in Florida.


37








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 46.-Part of one of the good dairy herds in the northeastern
part of State. This is a mixed herd, Jerseys, Guernseys, Holsteins.


Fig. 47.-Part of a Guernsey dairy herd, South Florida.


38









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Fig. 48.- (Below) Ena
1216954.


Stylish Blonde


* ' 52,
*


-l: :i~ \ ;. L I l


FiL,. .11 --M...I,
['l!.'"- Ll ,..t F.
121111'1


a


Fig. 51.-Ina's Lady Standard 1258047.



Four pure bred Jersey cows that would
be good in any herd.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Tables No. 4 and No. 5 give a good picture of the growth
of the dairy industry in the Miami area from January 1, 1932,
to December 31, 1941. i
There is not much that need be said about these figures,
as they show very clearly the development of the industry.
They show that the growth has been fairly constant each
month.
If figures were available for other sections of Florida,
they would show about the same percentage of growth from
year to year. In other words, the dairy industry of Florida
has during the past ten years made a very marked growth
both in the number of cows and in the gallonage of milk
produced.


40









TABLE NO. 4.-NUMBER OF COWS MILKED IN MIAMI AREA EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1932,
TO DECEMBER, 1941.


Month


January ........

February ......

March ...----..

April .........-....

M ay .....-........

June --...-..-.....

July ...........

August ..........

September ....

October .........

November ....

December .....


1932


5900

6117

6341

6275

6127

5903

5715

5432

5113

5189

5346

5669


1933


5785

6083

6182

6257

6009

5589

5262

5037

5005

5131

5319

5576


1934


6178

6620

6809

6616

6412

6190

5937

5722

5721

6401

6664

6963


1935


7729

7948

8217

8236

7678

7417

6671

6008

6075

6387

6711

7532


1936


8438

8901

9242

8800

8374

7646

7167

7211

7164

7G95

7913

S 8775


1937


9479

10094

10294

9778

9051

8359

7375

7049

7155

7887

8618

9095


1938


10049

10498

10549

10149

9863

8810

8224

7567

7359

7531

8083

9161


1939


9734

10735

10961

10770

10135

9692

8750

8381

8323

8761

9223

9965


1940


10753

11503

13016

11678

11043

10149

10048

9221

9480

9853

10520

11357


1941


12693

14020

13490

12919

12128

11311

10754

10040

10616

10949

11403

12441


0




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0
u
>

H










U)
X-


r,
K{












TABLE NO. 5.-GALLONS OF MILK PRODUCED IN MIAMI AREA EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1932,
TO DECEMBER, 1941.


II
Month 1932 1933


January ........ 395454 381204

February ...... 368896 362239

March ....... 399122 396842

April .............. 391650 379314

May .............. 349797 357671

June .............. 324865 324439

July ............. 288777 301895

August .......... 270393 269302

September .... 242201 258160

October ........ 278404 286834

November .... 294354 296283

December ...... 329600 336694
I_ _


1934 1935


391674 426820

389634 449666

454711 478200

412361 442997

377704 418151

331098 359168

316566 329625

292466 304098

288859 296384

319990 336101

330293 360959

381757 432948


1937


1936


514881

549482

599257-

530692

476634

401017

383315

331529

366559

421420

444283

518906


1938


619882

618398

695016-

597773

532995

473084

426686

364041

360814

444652

497185

528153


1939


654181

714317

-747898

663826

593947

514577

469290

436661

429694

494132

541450

660881


1940


746444

775217

808838-

761373

630417

577504

526940

509127

492790

656690

651863

775756


1941


884921

882736

-898632-

809989

736580

631394

615743

550672

547236

629290

701308

794134


H

z

0

0
Im
td










C)


d

H'


--


615128

565264

603206

542209

504053

412871

401321

384740

368509

441537

475129

550662








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DAIRY PRODUCTS
LABORATORY, GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Modern Equipment and Specialized Courses Give Students at the
University of Florida Instruction in the Handling and
Processing of Dairy Products
The Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville,
through its Dairy Products Laboratory, is giving valuable
aid to Florida dairymen and dairy products plant operators.
The new Dairy Products Laboratory was completed and
equipped in 1938 at a cost of approximately $100,000.00. It
is well equipped with the most modern machinery to handle
and process market milk, ice cream, cheese, butter, condensed
milk, and other manufactured dairy products.


- .. ... .











F-




Fig. 52.-Dairy Products Laboratory, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

Chemical and bacteriological laboratory facilities are avail-
able for instruction of students and for the research pro-
gram now in progress. The Laboratory operates on a semi-
commercial basis, supplying the dairy products used in the
University Cafeterias. The operation of the plant offers ex-
cellent opportunities for teaching and research projects as
well as providing part-time employment for fifteen or more
students. This experience in the actual manufacture of dairy
products provides excellent practical training to supplement
the class work in the dairy products courses.


43








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


After graduation, the students specializing in this field of
study find positions awaiting them in dairy plants of Florida
and in other states. The dairymen and plant operators have
taken an active interest in the Dairy Products Laboratory
and have given it their whole-hearted support. Short courses
are offered each year and are well attended by the men in
the industry.
The Dairy Products Laboratory staff is made up of men
with well-rounded training and experience in the dairy pro-
ducts field.

FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR DAIRYING
So far as commercial dairying is concerned the demand
for fluid milk is rather well supplied. About the only in-
creased demand will come with the increase in population of
our cities.
There is, however, a great need for more family cows in
many parts of Florida. There is no good reason why we
should not have more family cows, except the lack of desire
on the part of many rural families.
There is a good market in Florida for sweet cream for
use as bottling cream and for the manufacture of ice cream.
During the past few years importations of cream have been
from 350,000 gallons to 600,000 gallons per year; the greater
part of this cream came into Florida during our winter tourist
season, though some cream is imported every month in the
year. To supply this amount of cream will require the milk-
ing of an additional 6,000 to 10,000 cows. As the population
of the State increases, the demand for cream will increase.
A by-product of the sweet cream industry is cottage cheese,
made from the skim milk. The production of cottage cheese
could be greatly increased in this State, as large quantities
are imported from other States each year.
Florida has not yet reached the point of being a dairy
manufacturing State, but this phase of the dairy industry
can be developed, and many by-products can be manufactured.
At the present time we have only one butter-making plant in
the State, the West Florida Creamery & Produce Co., located
at Chipley in the western part of the State.
There have been some requests from farmers in different
parts of the State for a market for sour cream. The demand
at present will hardly justify the cost of a plant. No doubt
the demand will grow and in a few years we may have a
number of plants in the State.


44








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


There is, however, another phase of dairying that should
receive very serious consideration by those who are in a posi-
tion to take advantage of the opportunity; this is the need
for a supply of good dairy cows within the State to supply
additions to our dairy herds and to replace the cows which
have outgrown their usefulness.
For several years past the dairymen of this State have
been importing anywhere from 8,000 to 10,000 cows each year.
As a general rule, these are cows that will freshen within 30
to 60 days after arrival in Florida.
Ten years ago it was an easy matter to go into some
nearby State and find a carload or several carloads-or truck-
loads-of cows such as the buyer wanted. During the last
few years desirable cows have been hard to find, and it has
been necessary to go much farther from home to get them.
The greater transportation costs have increased the cost of
the cows.
Those in a position to raise good cows, and by good cows
we mean cows that will produce two and a half gallons of
milk or more per day, will find a ready market for such
animals. The greatest demand will be during September and
October; however, there will be some demand at other seasons
of the year.
A few dairymen are beginning to raise their own replace-
ments, but it will be a long time before all replacements in
our dairy herds will be home-grown unless a greater effort
is put forth than has been done in the past few years.


45












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


4 --risb~




.P a I an

AidP
oil 0


Figs. 53, 54, 55, 56.--Future dairy cows bred and raised in Florida.


46









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


SOME PERTINENT FACTS ABOUT

FLORIDA MILK


*


The Quality of Florida Milk Is Unsurpassed


*


It Is Obtained from Healthy Cows


*


Judge Florida Dairies and Dairy Herds Yourself!
Visit Two or Three Dairies Today!


0


All Fluid Milk Sold in Florida Is Florida Produced-
Patronize Home Industry


*


Florida's Delightful Climate

Contributes to the

High Quality of Florida Milk


47








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Fig. 57.-A small milk room, wash room,
,South Florida.


and dairy barn in


-Ax



the go lawnand ladsan a
..... .... -- ..
_- ._ ...... .. : . .... ;-. -- - . .








Fig. 58.-A substantial, well-built dairy barn in South Florida. Note
the good lawn and landscaping around barn.


48


pry

a sss
"VW.


-- -- --v

da-oe









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Florida dairy barns and milk houses are up-to-date.
They are designed to meet our climatic conditions and
to render every convenience for the production and
handling of good milk.



Our Open Barns Afford Perfect Ventilation

0


Our cows are kept in the barn only while being
milked. There is no accumulation of bedding and
manure to give off undesirable odors to cause the milk
to have an off-flavor.


Florida Has an Abundant Supply of Good Water




Our climate affords the opportunity of washing the
barn and milk house with water once or twice each
day, thereby keeping down all odors.


49










C- .^i^'


.. .- ..













-1V





I>J







r- ..... ...
!- , .-~ ~ a
















































FKigs. 5970 1 2-on mrcn go togb rnigntr'
e it f
A.
.....l~ e. k = 1





r; : i"-;











aV-
IAL
"--.. i'I,

























-4. .w


;F;
:~~~~. ~~fB~~ IJ



























Figs. 59, 60, 61, 62.--Young Americans grow strong by drinking nature's
most perfect f ood.









FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Florida's long grazing period is a distinct advan-
tage. Green feed gives proper color and flavor and
adds Vitamin A to the milk. The sunshine and fresh
air for the cows are important to their health.

*


Florida Is a Tuberculosis Accredited Area


*


Our sandy soils afford excellent drainage. There
is less dust than in other states. The cows are cleaner,
as they never have to lie down in the mud.

*


An important safeguard of Florida's milk supply
is efficient supervision of dairies and milk plants by
the inspectors of the State Department of Agriculture
and many of the Florida cities.


*


The sanitary requirements for the production of
milk in Florida are equal to that of any other State.


51










52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


-A Zti


Fig. 63.-Barn at left, milking parlor center, milk room on right,
wash room in rear of milk room.


Fig. 64.-Dairy barn at left, milking parlor on right, milk room in
the rear.








FLORIDA DAIRYING SHOWS PROGRESS


Commercial dairymen in Florida, that is, those
dairymen milking six or more cows, milk between
60,000 and 70,000 cows twice each day. About 114,000
gallons of milk, or approximately 460,000 bottles of
milk are handled each day. About 8,000 people are
employed in the handling of our milk supply each day.
The problems of milk distribution are rather com-
plicated, as milk is a highly perishable food. It must
be produced and handled with utmost care, under strict
sanitary regulations. It must be delivered on your
doorstep or at your grocery each day a short time after
it is produced, regardless of difficulties that may arise
to hamper the dairyman.
The dairyman who produces milk under the watch-
ful eyes of the inspectors must meet stringent sanitary
regulations and from time to time must invest in ex-
pensive equipment.
Therefore, the dairyman who is making an honest
effort to supply the very best quality of milk, and we
have a large number of such dairymen, is entitled to
your consideration and patronage.
Remember, all fluid milk sold in Florida is produced
in Florida; therefore, you are helping home folks when
you buy fresh, fluid milk.


53








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Every citizen of Florida should purchase all the
milk possible. It is one of the cheapest and most
nourishing foods that you can buy.

Believe it or not, fluid milk at fifteen cents a
quart is our cheapest food. Go to your grocery store
and buy the same food elements that you get in a quart
of fluid milk, and notice the higher cost. Milk can be
used in a great variety of ways in preparing the meal,
in addition to using it as a drink.





REMEMBER: Florida fluid milk is good because
you can get it fresh each day, and it is produced under
excellent conditions.




GOOD, CLEAN, FRESH MILK IS NATURE'S
MOST PERFECT FOOD!





YOU CAN DEPEND UPON THE QUALITY OF
MILK YOU BUY IN FLORIDA! !


54




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