Group Title: Circular
Title: Vaccines and beef cattle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014578/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vaccines and beef cattle
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 6 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Richey, E. J ( Eddie Joe )
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1993
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Health   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Diseases -- Prevention   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Immunology   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.J. Richey.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: "June 1993."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014578
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7047
ltuf - AJS0416
oclc - 28596737
alephbibnum - 001846121

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Circular 1080
June 1993


Florida Cooperative Extension Service



Vaccines and Beef Cattle'


E. J. Richey2


Always remember: if the resistance level of an animal
stays above the disease challenge, a healthy animal
results (Figure 1).


Figure 1. When the resistance level stays above the
disease challenge, animals stay healthy.

It is to our advantage to keep a safe spread
between the resistance level and the disease challenge
level; the greater the spread, the safer it is for the
animals. We use vaccines to increase that spread, by
raising the resistance of an animal or herd of animals
to selected disease challenges (Figure 2).

To properly immunize cattle against diseases, you
must recall how each of the vaccines is formulated,
what is the route of administration, how does the
body respond to the vaccine in the presence or
absence of maternal antibodies, and how many doses


are required to stimulate the body to produce
adequate levels of resistance against a particular
disease. There are four vaccine forms.


Replicating -- Modified Live (ML)
Non-Replicating -- Modified Live
Inactivated Non-Replicating
Intra-nasal


Figure 2. Vaccines raise the resistance level.

Replicating ML Vaccines. These vaccines must
replicate (reproduce) in the animal's body before the
resistance level is increased. Usually only one dose of
replicating vaccine will stimulate high levels of long-
lasting resistance in an animal. Failure of the vaccine


1. This document is Circular 1080, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Publication date: June 1993.
2. E. J, Richey, DVM, Associate Professor, and Beef Cattle Specialist, College of Veterinary Medicine; Cooperative Extension Service, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap,
or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean

!V.R5!IT. Y OF FLORIDA LI3RARIES


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Vaccines and Beef Cattle


organism to replicate will mean failure to stimulate a
rise in the animal's resistance.

Examples of replicating -- ML vaccines are listed.

MLV-IBR
MLV-BVD
MLV-PI3
Strain 19-Brucellosis

Non-Replicating ML Vaccines. Even though
these vaccines are live, they do not and will not
replicate in the body. Because of this, the animal will
require at least two doses of the vaccine to stimulate
adequate levels of resistance. The first dose will
usually only "trigger" the memory mechanism in the
body; a second dose, no sooner than 21 days, will
stimulate the production of high levels of resistance.

How long the resistance remains high depends
upon the animal's ability to respond and the quality
and quantity of the vaccine. Most non-replicating --
ML vaccines require at least one booster each year to
maintain the high resistance level in the animal.

Examples of non-replicating -- ML vaccines are
listed.

* Chemically altered IBR/PI3
* MLV-BRSV

Inactivated Non-Replicating -Vaccines. These
vaccines have been inactivated or "killed" during the
manufacturing process; they can not replicate in the
body. As with the non-replicating -- ML vaccines, the
animal will require at least two doses of the
inactivated non-replicating vaccine to stimulate
adequate levels of resistance. The first dose will
usually only "trigger" the memory mechanism in the
body; a second dose, no sooner than 21 days, will
stimulate the production of high levels of resistance.

How long the resistance remains high depends
upon the animal's ability to respond and the quality
and quantity of the vaccine. Most inactivated non-
replicating vaccines will require at least one booster
each year to maintain the high resistance level in the
animal.

Examples of Inactivated Non-Replicating Vaccines
include the following list.

* Killed virus vaccines


LI IAWY Leptospira
Clostridia
Haemophilus somnus
Vibriosis
Pinkeye

Intra-Nasal Vaccines. These vaccines will usually
replicate only in surface cells of the upper respiratory
tract. They stimulate localized resistance for the
areas in which they replicate. In general, these types
of vaccines provide a quick, short-lived rise in
resistance, and will trigger the "memory" cells in the
body. Because of the triggering mechanism,
boostering the animal at a later date with a replicating
or a non-replicating vaccine containing the same
organisms will stimulate a high level of resistance for
a longer period.

Examples of intra-nasal vaccines are included
below.

Nasal IBR
a Nasal PI3

How an animal responds to a particular vaccine is
greatly dependent upon the amount of maternal
antibodies remaining in the calf at the time of
vaccination. Before a maternal antibody can interfere
with a vaccine, the antibody must be specific against
that particular disease (i.e., Anti-IBR antibodies, Anti-
BVD antibodies, Anti-H. somnus antibodies).

The animal's response to vaccines relative to the
absence or presence of maternal antibodies must be
understood to properly select a vaccine form.

Calves are born with very limited resistance
against infectious diseases. The calves receive
temporary resistance by a transfer of antibodies from
the cow to the calf in the colostrum or first milk.
These antibodies are referred to as maternal
antibodies (Figure 3).

The resistance conveyed from the cow to the calf
can be described as two types: non-specific resistance,
which acts against low-level infection in general; and
specific resistance, which acts against particular
infectious agents. Regardless of the type, the
newborn calf's resistance to disease challenge is raised
only after receiving the maternal antibodies found in
the colostrum milk.

Since the maternal antibodies contained in


colostrum are readily absorbed by the newborn only


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Vaccines and Beef Cattle


Figure 3. Maternal antibodies are transferred from the
cow to the newborn calf via colostrum.


during the first 24 hours of life, it is important that
the newborn calf receives colostrum immediately after
birth. Excellent, non-specific resistance can be
provided by properly feeding pregnant cows; adequate
nutrition enhances the production of non-specific
antibodies as well as the health and vigor of the calves
at birth.

However, in addition to receiving adequate
nutrition, a cow can develop specific resistance against
specific infectious diseases only by vaccination against
the disease or by surviving the disease itself. The cow
produces antibodies against the disease and passes
these antibodies to the calf through the colostrum.

Maternal antibodies passed to the calf via the
colostrum are expected to be. present in effective
amounts as long as 4 to 5 months after birth. The
length of time the maternal antibody remains in the
calf also depends upon the amount produced by the
cow and the amount absorbed through the calfs gut.


WHEN MATERNAL ANTIBODIES ARE
PRESENT

In the presence of high levels of maternal
antibodies, the MLV Vaccines (Replicating-MLV and
Non-Replicating-MLV) can be neutralized in the
body. They will not "trigger" the memory cells nor
will they stimulate the production of antibodies;
hence, we see no rise in resistance (Figure 4).

When maternal antibodies are present, the first
dose of the inactivated non-replicating vaccines will
trigger the memory cells. A second dose, given later,


Figure 4. Response to modified live vaccines (includes both
replicating-ML and non-repricating-ML vaccines) in the
presence of maternal antibodies.

would stimulate a high level of antibodies and would
be referred to as the "protective" dose (Figure 5).
9 1


Figure 5. Response to "inactivated" vaccines in the
presence of maternal antibodies.

However, in the presence of extremely high levels
of maternal antibodies, even the inactivated non-
replicating vaccines may be neutralized by the
antibodies to the extent that even the memory cells
may not be triggered. Thus a second dose at a later
date would not be a "protective" dose; it would only
serve as a "triggering" dose.

In the presence of maternal antibodies the IBR &
PI3 intranasal vaccines can multiply in the surface
cells of the nose and lungs, triggering the memory
cells, and stimulating the production of short-lived,
local antibodies in the cells of the upper respiratory
tract; hence, short-lived, elevated resistance results
(Figure 6).


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Vaccines and Beef Cattle


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Figure 6. Response to inra-nasal vac the res in the
presence of maternal antibodies.

If we look at a composite of the animal's response
to the various vaccine forms, we can readily identify
the vaccine forms needed to raise the resistance in
animals when management requires the vaccination
program to begin while -the animals still possess
maternal antibodies (Figure 7).




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Figure 7. Response to various vaccine forms when










IN THE ABSENCE OF MATERNAL
ANTIBODIES


In the absence of maternal antibodies, replicating-
ML vaccines will multiply in the body to stimulate a
high antibody response and trigger the memory cells;
hence, a high level of resistance. A second dose of
these vaccines is usually not required for the animal
to produce adequate levels of resistance (Figure 8).

In the absence of maternal antibodies, the
animals' responses to both non-replicating-ML and
inactivated non-replicating vaccines are essentially the
same. Hence, in the absence of maternal antibodies,
we will refer to both forms of vaccine as non-
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Figure 8. Animal response to a replicating-ML vaccine
in the absence of maternal antibodies.

replicating. Even though a single dose of non-
replicating vaccine will trigger the memory cells in the
absence of maternal antibodies, most non-replicating
vaccines will require a second dose after 21 days to
stimulate the production of a high level of resistance
(Figure 9).


Figure 9. Response to non-replicating (both non-
replicating ML and inactivated non-replicating vaccines)
vaccines in the absence of maternal antibodies.


In the absence of maternal antibodies, the intra-
nasal vaccines will trigger the memory cells, multiply
in the surface cells of the upper respiratory tract, and
stimulate the production of localized antibodies in the
cells of the upper respiratory tract; hence, the animals
will achieve a high resistance level of short duration
(Figure 10).

In most beef herds the level of maternal
antibodies in the calves is "unknown" and, if present,
are expected to diminish to a non-effective level at 4
to 5 months of age. Thus, the vaccination schedules
should begin after 4 months of age (Figure 11).


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Vaccines and Beef Cattle


Figure 10. Response to intra-nasal vaccines in the
absence of maternal antibodies.


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Figure 11. Response to various vaccine forms when
administration begins after maternal antibodies have
waned.


Generally, calves of this age are nursing pregnant
cows, and the use of replicating MLV-IBR vaccines is
not recommended. With the exception of
Replicating-ML PI3, Strain-19 Brucellosis, and Live
Pasteurella vaccines, most vaccines available for use
in calves nursing pregnant cows are of the non-
replicating or intra-nasal forms, and animals will
require at least two doses to achieve a high level of
resistance.

When repeating or boostering vaccines, remember
it is the type of vaccine that is important (i.e., IBR,
BVD, Lepto) not necessarily the form of the vaccine.
For example, the first dose of IBR and PI3 could be
in the intra-nasal form and the second dose given in
the non-replicating form. Form is not important;
repeating the vaccine type is !


The vaccinations (including boosters) should be
timed so that peak resistance levels are achieved
immediately before the disease challenge rises. For
example, vibriosis is spread during mating; therefore,
the "ideal" time to vaccinate (second dose or annual
booster) would be 30 days before you turn the bulls
out. Another example: to protect the calves against
scour diseases via the colostrum, the best time to
vaccinate the cow would be 30 days before calving.
The disease challenges for both are "predictable," and
vaccinations can be scheduled accordingly (Figure 12).

9 1


Figure 12. If disease challenge is predictable, booster
vaccine before the disease challenge rises.

In contrast, the disease challenge by leptospirosis
is quite often year round, and the resistance level
stimulated by the vaccine is short lived. Therefore, to
constantly keep the animal's resistance above the
year-round disease challenge, it would be advisable to
vaccinate for leptospirosis at least two to three times
a year (Figure 13).

1 1


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Figure 13. Multiple booster vaccines may be required
if certain year-round disease challenges occur.


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Vaccines and Beef Cattle


Fortunately, an alternative would be to select a
vaccine with an adjuvant that provides a longer "depot
effect," thus prolonging the antigenic stimulus to the
body. This results in higher or prolonged blood
antibody levels in the animal, thought to be indicative
of higher/prolonged resistance levels. Vaccines of this
type are not available for all diseases (Figure 14).
W I


Figure 14. A more effective adjuvant may eliminate the
need for additional boosters during a challenge period.



When a specific disease challenge is sporadic, or
the vaccine is expensive, we may only booster every
other year to keep the memory "primed" for that
particular disease.

However, if a clinical case of the disease is
detected, the entire herd must be boostered
immediately to raise the resistance level in the herd
(Figure 15).


Figure 15. Periodic boostering
primed"; re-boostering will raise
challenge occurs.


keeps the trigger
the resistance if a


Vaccinating the cow herd "by-the-book" would not
fit most cattle operations. However, a vaccination
program can be designed to provide adequate
resistance for most beef cattle herds.

Just remember: Vaccines are used to stimulate a
rise in the resistance level against certain disease
challenges!


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TIME


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