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INSECTS ANd RelATEd PESTS of
ORNAMENTAL PlANTS AROUNd
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
FOX ----------- ~~tttt~?t~?
CZ1 )t)+S..................... ............ .................
i Beneficial Insects----..--..--- ------------------------------------ 3
Mechanical Control -...--.-------- ------------------------------------- 3
SCI EChemical Control ................------------------------------------------------- 3
SCin Safety Precautions -------------------...-..- .--------.- ----------..-------------- 5
L Phytotoxicity ..-------.....------- .----- -------------------------------- 5
Specific Pests and Their Control
Scales .-------- --.......------ .----------------....... -----------------.-------. .----------.--- 5
Mealybugs ....------......-....... ---------------- ---------------------------------- 6
Aphids and Whiteflies ------......................-----------------------.--------. 6
Lacebugs .....-........-- .. ......------- ..--........----..------------------------- 6
Thrips ......-------.......-----..--.....-.... --------.-------..........--------. 6
Caterpillars ---........---...- ---.--..----. --------..------------------ 7
Bagworms ........-----...... ------------..-------.. -------------- 7
Leaf Tiers and Leaf Rollers ....------.--------------. .--------------.--------------- 7
Cutworms ..---...----............-_..----..------------------------ 7
Grasshoppers and Katydids ....---...........-------..--.--............_-------.--------------- 7
Beetles ...--- -----.................--- .. .....-----.-------..--------- ------------- 7
Spidermites ......-- ..........---------.......------ --------------------------- 7
Leafminers .--........---...--.---------------------------------- 8
Borers ----------. ........------------------- ---- ----------------------------------- 8
Sooty Mold .--.....---...-... ----.------------------------------- 8
Ants ......---- .......----------------------.------------------------------------------------- 8
Millipedes, Pillbugs and Sowbugs .--..----.--- -.-- ------------------------ 9
Slugs and Snails ....--....------ ------------------------.----- 9
According to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act as amended,
all pesticides must be handled and applied in strict accordance with directions on
the pesticide container label. The plant and pest must be listed on the label. Also,
if a pesticide is used inside the greenhouse, it must be labeled for greenhouse use.
To the best of our knowledge, the suggested pesticides listed herein are labeled
for controlling the specific pests discussed. However, pesticide labels differ widely
in plant and insect listings. Some are broad ornamental labels and others specifi-
cally list certain plants and species of pests for which the pesticide is labeled. Read
the label carefully.
INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS AROUND THE HOME
D. E. Short*
To combat insect pests successfully, something
should be known about the manner in which they
develop and feed. Insects normally hatch from
eggs deposited on or near the food supply; al-
though in some cases they hatch within the fe-
male's body and the active young emerge from
the female. Adults are usually individuals with
fully developed wings, although a few species of
insects never have wings.
Insects pass through several stages during
their development. Plant bugs, leafhoppers, thrips
and grasshoppers hatch from the egg in a form
known as a nymph. The nymph resembles the full-
grown insect, except that it lacks wings and is
smaller. It sheds its skin periodically as it grad-
ually increases in size. Moths, beetles and flies, on
the other hand, hatch from the eggs in a worm-
like form-a larva-much different from the
adult. The larva of a moth or butterfly is com-
monly called a caterpillar; the larva of a beetle
is called a grub, and the larva of a fly is known as
a maggot. Larvae also molt, or shed their skins,
periodically. Growing to full size, they change to
an inactive form, known as a pupa. The adult in-
sect emerges from this pupa.
The length of the life-cycle varies greatly with
different species of insects. Some develop from
egg to adult in a few weeks, many require a year,
a few take two or more years to reach maturity.
GROUPS OF INSECTS
Pests of ornamentals may be divided into five
groups by the way they damage plants.
Insects with Piercing-Sucking Mouthparts.
These insects have beak-like mouthparts
which are used for piercing the plant tissue
and sucking the plant juices.
Examples: Scales, aphids, whiteflies, mealy-
9 Insects with Chewing Mouthparts. They may
feed on the leaves, flowers or attack the
Examples: Caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers,
Spider Mites. These pests are not insects but
closely related to spiders and scorpions. They
suck plant juices with 'their piercing-sucking
Leafminers. These are very small larvae of
flies or moths that tunnel between the upper
and lower leaf surfaces.
Examples: Blotch leafminers and serpentine
Borers. These are many species of insects
which bore into the twigs or trunks of plants
and trees. These are usually the larvae of
moths or beetles.
Examples: Pine bark beetles, seagrape borer,
Australian pine borer, carpenter worm.
CONTROL OF ORNAMENTAL PESTS
Insect predators including lady beetles, praying
mantis, assassin bugs and tiny wasp-like parasitic
insects prey upon harmful insects. However, these
predators and parasites do not keep most orna-
mental insect pests below damaging levels. Never-
theless, every effort should be made not to destroy
these beneficial insects. Do not apply an insecti-
cide unless plant damage is evident.
Purchase and release of lady beetles and other
insect predators is generally of little value. When
released, they usually disperse rapidly and widely.
Predators do not reproduce as quickly as many
kinds of pests and severe damage may occur.
Also, most of the predators available for pur-
chase will not feed upon many of the impor-
tant ornamental insect pests or survive well under
Pick or knock the insects off the plant, then de-
stroy them or drop them into kerosene. Cut them
in half with scissors. This is sometimes practical
for several kinds of insects, including grasshop-
pers, caterpillars, and beetles, where they are not
Insecticides are required to control insects and
related pests on many ornamental plants, Most of
the newer insecticides kill by contact with the
insect or as a stomach poison. Some also exert
a fumigating or vapor action under certain con-
*Associate Professor -Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
UtViVE b.iY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES
Materials should be selected that will be effec-
tive in controlling the pests without injuring the
plant, or causing build-up of other pests. Keep
these points in mind:
Select the right material. Use the one recom-
mended to control the pest.
Apply it at the right time. Insects are easier
to control when small in size and few in num-
ber. Make frequent inspections. Don't let
them build up to large populations.
Use the right amount. Use the recommended
amount. Too little won't control the pest; too
much may injure the plant. Read the con-
tainer label carefully for correct dosage rate.
Apply it in the right way. Thorough cover-
age of the leaves (especially the underside),
twigs, and branches is essential for control
of many pests, especially certain scales. Most
failures to control pests are the fault of the
person making the application, not of the in-
secticide. The addition of a spreader sticker
to the spray mixture is strongly recom-
mended when spraying ornamental plants.
Use of a spreader sticker will aid in adhering
the pesticide to the leaves and improve con-
Sprayers of various types and sizes, ranging
from simple trombone action sprayers and 1 to 3
gallon compressed air sprayers to large high pres-
sure power rigs, are on the market. The kind of
sprayer needed varies with the size and type of
planting to.be protected. With all sprayers, thor-
ough coverage of leaves and wood to the point of
runoff of the spray is important. Sprayers which
attach to the end of garden hoses are popular with
home gardeners, but are less satisfactory, in gen-
eral, for use on ornamental plants and in partic-
ular against pests like scales and spider mites.
The spray pattern is usually coarse, and it is dif-
ficult to direct the spray to reach and adequately
cover the undersides of the leaves, especially
those near the ground and the side of plants close
to a building or fence. If a 'hose attachment is
used, be sure it is one manufactured for use on
ornamental plants and not one for use on lawns.
The emulsifiable concentrate formulation of in-
secticide is preferred over the wettable powder.
Needless to say, it is impossible to suggest one
spray mixture that will control all insect and mite
pests of ornamentals. It will often be necessary to
make additional treatments with other insecti-
cides for certain pests.
An example of a general-purpose spray is one
containing Diazinon or Metasystox-R or mala-
thion, plus Sevin, plus Kelthane or Tedion. The
Diazinon, Metasystox-R or malathion is primarily
for sucking insects including aphids, mealybugs,
whiteflies and scales; the Sevin controls a wide
range of chewing insects including beetles, cater-
pillars; the Kelthane or Tedion controls spider
mites. General-purpose sprays are commercially
A systemic insecticide is a chemical compound
that is absorbed by the insect host, translocated
throughout its tissues, and makes the host toxic
to certain insect pests. Several systemic insecti-
cides are absorbed by growing plants. Some are
taken up from the soil by the roots of plants and
translocated throughout the plant tissues; others
can be absorbed by foliage or stem sprays or in-
jections into plants.
Systemic insecticides have been effective pri-
marily against small sucking pests, including
aphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugs and spider
mites. In general, they have not given satisfac-
tory control of chewing insect pests.
Di-Syston is available as 2 percent granules and
as 1 percent active ingredient in fertilizer. It is
relatively slow in action, but effective for long
periods of time. Granules are absorbed more
rapidly by plants if they are worked into the soil
and watered. Dimethoate (Cygon or De-Fend),
Metasystox-R and Orthene are systemic insecti-
cides that are available as emulsifiable concen-
trates for use by home gardeners. They can be
mixed with water and applied as foliar sprays.
Dimethoate can be applied as a soil drench. Sprays
give quicker kill, but the residual effect on insects
is much shorter than soil drenches.
Systemic insecticides applied to the soil as
drenches or granules remain effective up to six
weeks. Also, when applied in this manner, they
are relatively harmless to any insect predator or
parasites that may be present (lady beetles or
praying mantids) because these insects do not
feed on the plant. Systemics have been more ef-
fective against insects on container-grown plants
than on field-grown plants.
The above systemic insecticides are available
in different formulations and concentrations and
the amounts may vary with different ornamental
plants. Follow the directions and cautions on the
manufacturer's container label for the amounts
to use on the ornamental plants specified on the
All insecticides are poisons, and the safety
precautions on the container labels should be
Read the entire label, including the small
print, before opening the container.
Store pesticides in their original labeled con-
tainers out of reach of children, irresponsible
people and pets. Preferably, keep under lock
Dispose of left-over spray materials and
empty containers promptly and safely.
Keep pesticides from getting into fish ponds,
streams and water supplies.
Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas or
to crops that may be eaten by man or ani-
Phytotoxicity or Plant Injury
A pesticide or mixture of pesticides may cause
injury to certain plants. The condition under
which the injury occurs may vary considerably
depending upon temperature, humidity and other
environmental factors. In general, it is best to
apply pesticides during the cooler part of the day.
Plants are less likely to be injured when protected
by at least broken shade as opposed to being in
Some injury has been observed on hibiscus at
times from malathion sprays. Lack of sufficient
plant moisture may be a contributing factor to
this injury. Malathion has caused injury to some
varieties of roses including Caledonia, and some
ferns such as Boston, maidenhair and pteris. Di-
methoate (Cygon or De-Fend) has caused injury
to several plants including burford holly, hibiscus,
schefflera, golden raintree, crape myrtle, orchid
tree and the foliage and flowers of carnations and
Slight injury has been observed from diazinon
and Kelthane on flowers of mums. Injury has been
noted on flowers of roses and glads from Tedion
It is good practice to water or irrigate orna-
mental plants one to two days before applying
pesticides. Some materials injure plants when
there is a shortage of moisture. Be sure to check
the manufacturer's label for the listing of plants
which may be injured by the pesticide. Wettabl'e
powders are safer to plants than emulsifiable con-
centrates because they do not contain emulsifiers
Florida researchers have done extensive work
concerning phytotoxicity on ornamental plants.
Your County Extension Office has listings of or-
namental plants that have been damaged by vari-
ous pesticides. Only a few examples of phyto-
toxicity have been mentioned here.
SPECIFIC PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL
There are many different kinds of armored and
soft scales that attack ornamental plants. Most
scale insects attach themselves to their host plant
soon after hatching, and rarely do these insects
move from their feeding site during their lives.
Scale insects feed by inserting a tiny thread-like
beak into the plant and sucking the plant juices.
Control: Scale insects are more difficult to con-
trol as they become older and larger, and also
where the infestation builds up large numbers.
Gardeners are urged to make frequent inspections
of their plants and to make thorough spray ap-
plications when the scales are still in the young
stages and before populations become large. Often,
the presence of a scale infestation is not noticed
because many scales are found primarily on the
undersides of leaves. Be sure to examine these
areas carefully. Scale egg hatch is closely corre-
lated with the flush of a new growth in the
spring. Plants that are likely to be attacked by
scales (camellia, holly, etc.) should be sprayed 'in
the spring shortly after the new growth hardens.
Dimethoate (Cygon or De-Fend) is a systemic
insecticide that is effective against most kinds of
scale insects. Apply a second application in 2 or
Metasystox-R is another systemic insecticide
that is effective against scale insects. It is avail-
able as the active ingredient in several trade-
name pesticide formulations. Apply a second ap-
plication in 2 to 3 weeks.
Diazinon, malathion and orthene are suggested
for scale crawlers only (immediately after hatch-
ing from the egg). Repeat the spray application
in about 2 to 3 weeks. In cases of severe scale in-
festations, a third spray usually is needed.
Summer oil emulsion sprays for use on foliage
are old favorites for scale insect control and have
very little toxicity to persons handling them. They
have been used less since the advent of malathion,
however, because the oil emulsion may injure
ornamental plants if the oil sprays are on the
foliage during very hot (above 850F) or cold
(below 400F) weather. Nevertheless, they are ef-
fective sprays and can be used during moderate
weather in spring and fall. Oil emulsion should
not be put on the plants again for at least a
month. In general, oil sprays are not very effec-
tive against mealybugs and cottony cushion
A combination of malathion plus oil emulsion
has been more effective than either material ap-
plied alone for several scale insects. In this case
the oil emulsion is used at a reduced concentration
and thus with reduced chances of injury to plants.
Mixtures of malathion and oil are commercially
available in many areas or they can be mixed
together according to container label.
Mealybugs are important pests of annuals and
perennials, in addition to some woody ornamen-
tals. They excrete honeydew which attracts ants
and serves as a medium for development of sooty
Mealybugs are soft-bodied scale insects which
are usually covered with powdery or cottony,
wax-like material. They are white and vary from
1/5 to 1/3 inch in length when mature. Some of the
most common host plants are azalea, coleus,
croton, cactus, rose and foliage plants.
Control: Use the materials above except sum-
mer oil emulsion. Two applications 2 to 3 weeks
apart are suggested.
Aphids and Whiteflies
Aphids or plant lice are small, soft-bodied in-
sects with sucking mouthparts. They usually at-
tack young', tender growth. They remove plant
juices and cause new leaves to curl. Their color
varies from green to reddish to black. Lady
beetles and aphid lions aid in natural control of
these pests. Insecticides should be applied before
leaves curl. Dimethoate (Cygon or De-Fend),
Metasystox-R, malathion, and diazinon are rec-
ommended. A second application is not necessary,
however, keep close watch on plants for reinfes-
tations throughout the year.
Whiteflies are very small, white insects with
sucking mouthparts. The young, which infest the
underside of leaves, are circular, flat, almost
translucent, and very difficult to detect. They are
very common on gardenia, ligustrum, viburnum,
citrus and other plants. Peak broods occur about
March-April, June-July, and September-October.
Control: Dimethoate (Cygon or De-Fend),
malathion, diazinon, Metasystox-R, oil emulsion
and orthene are recommended for control. Apply
a second application in 10 to 14 days.
Lacebugs are small insects, only about 1/8 inch
long, broad and flat. Their body is usually brown
in color and the wings are clear with a fine lace-
like appearance. Immature lacebugs are wingless
and covered with spines. They have piercing-
sucking mouthparts and damage appears as a
whitish speckling on the top side of the leaf which
is caused by the feeding of these insects on the
undersides of the leaves.
The presence of shiny black spots of excrement
on the undersides of leaves is a good indication of
a lacebug infestation. Some of the common host
plants are Azalea, Pyracantha and Sycamore.
Control: Diazinon, dimethoate, malat'hion and
orthene are effective. Apply a second application
in 10 to 14 days.
Thrips are very small, slender insects with
rasping-sucking mouthparts used to remove plant
juices. Close examination is necessary to find
them. Some species, like the greenhouse thrips
and red-banded thrips, are primarily foliage feed-
ers. Among those that feed on flowers are the
Florida flower thrips and the gladiolus thrips.
Thrip populations are at their peak during the
Control: Dimethoate (Cygon or De-Fend),
malathion, Metasystox-R and orthene are among
the more effective insecticides. Apply a second ap-
plication in 7 to 10 days.
Numerous species of caterpillars, which are the
immature or larval stage of moths and butterflies,
feed on ornamentals. They devour the foliage,
leaving holes and irregular areas, or they may
even strip off leaves entirely.
Control: Bacillus thuringiensis, (Biotrol, Dipel
or Thuricide), Diazinon, Orthene and Sevin have
been effective against most leaf-feeding cater-
Bagworms spin a silken sac around them and
attach bits of leaves and twigs to their bags as
they feed. The bags hang from the plants and the
worms only stick their heads out of the bag to
feed. When mature, the bags are 11/ to 2 inches
long. Plants most commonly attacked are Junipers
and other evergreens, although they occur on
many woody ornamentals.
Control: Dimethoaite or sevin. Apply insecti-
cide when bags are small. Bagworms are very dif-
ficult to control when reaching maturity. Apply
a second application in two weeks.
Leaf Tiers and Leaf Rollers
Leaf tiers and leaf rollers are caterpillars that
roll and tie foliage together for protection with
strands of silk and feed on the foliage. It is more
difficult to get insecticides to them.
Control: Bacillus thuringiensis, Orthene and
Sevin are effective.
Cutworms are the immature stage of certain
moths. Typically, they stay in the soil during the
day and feed at night at the base of the tender
plants. Some climb up the plant and feed on buds
Control: Diazinon or Dylox is effective. The
application of a bait in late afternoon is excellent.
Grasshoppers and Katydids
These insects occasionally consume large quan-
tities of foliage on ornamentals leaving an ugly,
irregular appearance. Grasshoppers are easy to
see and should be controlled before they become
numerous. Katydids, which are green in color and
feed at night, are not commonly found in large
Control: Frequently grasshoppers and katy-
dids can be removed from the plants and killed
by hand. Diazinon is effective.
Beetles are hard-shelled insects having chewing
mouthparts which are used to devour various
parts of plants. Some are leaf feeders while others
feed on flowers. Some feed at night and hide be-
neath the plant during the day, while many feed
during the day. Flower beetles are difficult to con-
trol as they may fly in from outside and adjacent
areas in large numbers. The larvae of most
beetles are also destructive. They may feed on the
roots or bore through the stems and branches.
Control: Sevin and diazinon are effective
against a wide range of beetles, but other ma-
terials may also be effective.
Spider mites are among the most common pests
which attack ornamental plants in Florida. Home
gardeners often do not realize that mites are pres-
ent until the damage is severe, because these
pests are so small and because they are usually
more numerous on the undersides of the leaves.
Mites are not insects but are more closely re-
lated to spiders and ticks. Full-grown mites are
usually no more than 1/50 inch in length. Many
are smaller, and the use of a hand lens or mag-
nifying glass is advisable when checking for their
presence. They may range from whitish and vir-
tually colorless, to tan, reddish, or purplish in
color. Mites feed by inserting a tiny sucking beak
into plant tissue and withdrawing plant juices.
This results in a small colorless or whitish spot
and in time the leaves have a finely stippled ap-
Control: The most effective materials for
controlling mites are miticides developed espe-
cially for these pests. In general, these materials
including Kelthane, Tedion, and Chlorobenzilate,
are among the least toxic pesticides to persons
handling them. A combination spray containing
malathion plus oil emulsion as discussed above for
scales will control spider mites. Metasystox-R, di-
methoate (Cygon or De-Fend) and Orthene pro-
vide some control of mites, especially when ap-
plied before populations become heavy.
One of the greatest aids in effective mite con-
trol is to commence treatments before the mite
populations builds to a large size. Learn to recog-
nize the mites and their injury. Use a magnifying
glass if necessary, and examine your plants fre-
quently. Treat promptly when an infestation ap-
pears. Under Florida conditions, mites are able to
complete their life cycles in 7 to 10 days. There-
fore it is important to apply a second spray ap-
plication in 5 to 6 days.
One of the older control methods used by home
gardeners is syringing the underside of the leaves
with a forceful spray of water. This dislodges
many mites and regular treatments may succeed
in keeping the population below a damaging level,
but generally is not satisfactory. Summer oil
emulsion spray for use on foliage is another old
remedy that is still effective, though thorough
coverage is especially important. See cautions on
use of oil sprays under Scales.
Leafminers are the larvae of flies or moths
that mine between the leaf surfaces. The two
most common kinds, the serpentine and the blotch
leafminers, are so-named because of the shape of
their mines in the leaves.
Control: Leaf mining pests are difficult to
control because they are protected from insecti-
cides by the leaf surfaces. Dimethoate (Cygon or
De-Fend) and Orthene have been the most effec-
tive materials because of their systemic action.
Diazinon also offers some control. Apply a second
application in 7 to 10 days.
There are many kinds of borers, but most are
the larvae of beetles or moths. They can be placed
into three main types: (1) the pine bark beetles
which bore in the inner bark and feed on the
cambium; (2) borers which burrow in small limbs
or twigs; and (3) borers which burrow deep into
the trunk. Usually sawdust-like borings are
noticed around the entrance holes and collect in
bark crevices. Sap may flow from holes and from
small "pitch tubes."
In most cases, the borers are not the primary
cause of trouble to trees, but rather these
insects attack trees first weakened by something
else. A tree does not have to be badly weakened
to make it susceptible to attack by borers. Injury
or stress to the tree caused by drought, salt
water intrusion, soil added or removed above the
roots, soil compaction, digging house foundations,
septic tanks, underground utilities, lightning,
wind, wounds to the trunk or roots caused by
vehicles or machinery, may mark the beginning
of insect problems. Also, the setback that trees
receive in transplanting increases the possibility
that borers may attack them.
Control: Preventing borer attacks by keep-
ing the tree or plant healthy is the best control.
Follow all approved cultural and maintenance
practices, especially regarding susceptible species
such as pines, seagrapes, dogwoods and oaks. If
evidence of borers are noticed apply lindane as
directed on container label for control.
Sooty mold is a black fungus that grows in the
excretion of aphids, mealybugs, many soft scales,
and particularly of immature whiteflies. This
fungus detracts from the beauty of ornamental
plants, but does not cause as much injury as most
people believe. Controlling the above pests early
will prevent or reduce the problem of sooty mold.
Ants are fond of "honeydew" excreted by
aphids, mealybugs and certain scales, and they
may protect and move these pests around from
plant to plant. They are social insects that live in
colonies; therefore, controls should be directed to
the colonies or nests.
Control: Diazinon, Dursban or Sevin are ef-
Millipedes, Pillbugs and Sowbugs
Millipedes, sowbugs, and pillbugs are not true
insects and are usually found in conditions where
there is plenty of soil moisture. They commonly
feed on decaying organic matter, but are also
known to feed on sprouting seeds and tender
shoots of plants. Millipedes or "thousand-legged
worms" are hardbodied pests that are primarily
a nuisance. Sowbugs and pillbugs are about 1/2
inch long, oval, gray to brown, with seven pairs
Control: Repeated applications of Sevin or"
Diazinon are suggested for millipedes. Sowbugs
and pillbugs can also be killed with Diazinon or
Slugs and Snails
Garden slugs and snails are not insects, but are
injurious to ornamental plants, especially in damp
and shady areas. They feed at night devouring
areas of foliage. Their injury is similar to injury
by caterpillars. Slugs are soft, slimy creatures
and look like snails without shells.
Control: Recommended controls are Mesurol
bait and Metaldehyde dusts, sprays or baits.
(bags cut open to show caterpillars)
Some typical beetles which feed on plants (three on right are
Tea scale on camellia. Two bottom leaves show damage as seen Mealybugs
from the top side of the leaves. Center leaf shows scales on bottom
side of leaf.
Soft brown scale
Cottony-cushion scale (a mealybug) on pittosporum
Sooty mold growing on underside of leaf
Florida wax scale
Leafminer damage Whitefly nymphs (immatures)
Thrips (leaves showing typical damage)
Lacebug Aphid (greatly enlarged)
/ RI TY OF FLORI D
This publication was promulgated at a cost
of $1,499.07, or 712 cents per copy, to inform
the public on ornamental pests and recent
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director
Single copies are free to residents of Florida and may be obtained from the County Extension Office. Bulk rates are available upon
request. Please submit details of the request to C.M. Hinton, Publication Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.