• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Preface
 Part 1 : The Survivors
 Part 2 : Characteristics of the...
 Appendix 1
 Appendix 2
 Notes
 Index
 Back Cover














Group Title: Sobrevivientes de la Florida : the survivors of the De Soto Expedition
Title: Los sobrevivientes de la Florida =
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014559/00001
 Material Information
Title: Los sobrevivientes de la Florida = The survivors of the De Soto expedition
Series Title: Research publications of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History
Alternate Title: Survivors of the De Soto expedition
Physical Description: ii, 104 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Avellaneda Navas, Jose Ignacio
Chappell, Bruce S
Publisher: University of Florida Libraries
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Spaniards -- History -- Florida -- 16th century   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ignacio Avellaneda ; edited by Bruce S. Chappell.
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014559
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001519557
oclc - 21521702
notis - AHD2707
lccn - 90036450
isbn - 0929595076

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Inside front cover
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Part 1 : The Survivors
        Page 5
        Introduction
            Page 5
        2. Number of persons who departed for Florida
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        3. Number of survivors
            Page 9
            Page 10
        4. Description of the survivors
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Part 2 : Characteristics of the survivors
        Page 67
        Geographical origins
            Page 67
            Page 68
        2. Ages of the survivors
            Page 69
        3. Education and literacy
            Page 70
        4. Occupation
            Page 71
        Marital status
            Page 71
        6. Social status
            Page 72
        7. Destination after Florida
            Page 73
        8. Conclusion
            Page 74
    Appendix 1
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Appendix 2
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Notes
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Index
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Back Cover
        Page 105
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ON THE COVER:
Floridae Americae Provinciae Recens...
By Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues. 1591.


I











LOS SOBREVIVIENTES DE LA FLORIDA:

THE SURVIVORS OF THE DE SOTO EXPEDITION










PREFACE


This work examines the survivors of Hemando de Soto's
expedition to Florida. Their story began in the year 1538, when
many were enticed to embark from Sevilla in search of golden
cities previously described by Alvar Nufiez Cabeza de Vaca, one
of the four stragglers who endured an incredible trek from Florida
to the city of Mexico. These men, and others recruited in Cuba,
explored a territory that extends over ten of the present-day
southeastern states. The remnants of the de Soto expedition
continued to the port of Panuco on the Mexican gulf coast and
disbanded upon reaching Mexico City. Several remained there or
went back to Spain or Cuba, while others continued to Peru and
other parts of the Spanish Empire.

Two important works have been central to this study. One is a
list of survivors attached to the account written by the chronicler of
de Soto's Florida expedition, Luis Hernandez de Biedma.
Although written in a different hand, it is found within the same
folder in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla, and will be cited
here as the Hernandez de Biedma list. It seems to be a post-factum
document, not complete and sometimes inaccurate, but still
invaluable. A translation of this list appears in the 1866, New York
edition of Buckingham Smith's Narratives of the Career of
Hernando de Soto in the Conquest of Florida, without citing its
location in the Archivo General de Indias. To this list I refer often.
The other work of importance is the register of the passengers who
embarked from Seville for Florida, preserved as well in the
Archivo de Indias. This last source was transcribed by Antonio de
Splar and Jos6 de Riijula in 1929, and by Crist6bal Bermtidez Plata
in 1939. I have used both transcriptions, although that of
Bermuidez Plata appears more accurate. However, the annotations
included here are in Solar and Rtijula's El Adelantado Hemando







The Survivors Of The De Soto Expedition


de Soto. Although excluding the names of some of the most
important persons of the Florida expedition, like de Soto, his wife,
and their entourage, this is still quite a comprehensive roster. Its
limitation is that it includes only the persons who left Spain, and
not those that finally embarked from Havana for Florida. During
the year that it took for this expedition to be readied in Cuba, many
of the original recruits were lost and others added.

There are four known chronicles of de Soto's adventure,
written by Luis Hernandez de Biedma, Rodrigo Rangel, the
Gentleman of Elvas, and by Garcilaso de la Vega, all considered
here. However, since John R. Swanton in his Final Report of the
United States De Soto Expedition Commission, has already
identified and annotated the men mentioned by all these
chroniclers, I am using Swanton's work as a reference for all those
sources.

Much of the information for this study comes from the superb
collection of unpublished documents gathered from various
Spanish archives and preserved on microfilm and photostats at the
P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History at the University of
Florida. The holdings of Jeannette Thurber Connor papers, the
Woodbury Lowery transcripts, the Buckingham Smith papers, the
John B. Stetson collection, and the recently acquired Counts of
Revillagigedo archives, have been complemented in the past years
with copies of additional Florida documents from the Archivo
General de Indias in Spain. To date there are few sixteenth century
Florida documents contained in the Archivo General de Indias that
are not found in the P. K. Yonge Library. These materials allowed
an increase of John R. Swanton's list of 194 survivors to 257, and
to add previously unknown details about their lives. Using these
sources I have listed the known survivors of Hernando de Soto's
expedition and included their biographical data.

This work also briefly analyzes the prosopographical
characteristics of the survivors. Their places of origin, ages and
education are compared with the findings in Mario G6ngora's
brilliant work, Los Grupos de conquistadores en Tierra Firme







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida:


(1509-1930), and with the more recent study of James Lockhart,
The Men of Cajamarca. However, further comparisons may yield
interesting conclusions about the Spanish conquerors active in
different parts of the Americas. This study could be expanded to
include research in Mexican and Peruvian archives where many of
the Florida survivors appear to have spent their last years. Further
research in the Archivo Municipal de Jerez de los Caballeros, in
the Archivo de Protocolos de Sevilla, and in selected private
archives in Spain may yield additional information on the
background of some of de Soto's men, and on their post-Florida
activities. A study of these activities could complement Ida
Altman's, Emigrants and Society (Berkeley, 1989).

This study could not have been accomplished without the kind
help of Ms. Elizabeth Alexander, librarian, Mr. Bruce S. Chappell,
archivist, and their able assistants, all efficient members of the P.
K. Yonge Library of Florida History at the University of Florida.
Ms. Melissa Davis, secretary for Special Collections at the
University of Florida Libraries, greatly assisted the editing of this
work. To them, my sincerest appreciation. To Ippolita Gatti, my
wife, to my daughters M6nica and Silvana, and to my son Ignacio
Hip6lito, this work is dedicated.














PART I.


THE SURVIVORS


1. Introduction


On May 25, 1989, the United States celebrated the 450th
anniversary of the landing of Hernando de Soto and his host on the
western shores of Florida. De Soto's was the longest and most
detailed exploration of the southeastern United States conducted
some eighty years before the Mayflower reached Plymouth Rock.

For this celebration it is appropriate to know, with the best
possible certainty, who survived this four year and two month
journey which traversed ten present-day states. With that purpose
this work presents a register of those who accompanied Hernando
de Soto, the Adelantado de la Florida, until his death on the banks
of the Mississippi River and afterwards followed its currents to the
Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

Fifty three years ago President Franklin D. Roosevelt
appointed anthropologist John R. Swanton to the United States De
Soto Expedition Commission. Swanton delivered his report to the
House of Representatives in 1938, covering all aspects of the de
Soto expedition.1 This report included a list of the participants
compiled from the writings of the four known contemporary
chroniclers of this expedition, a few original documents published
in the nineteenth century, and a transcription of the passengers
registered in Spain to proceed to Florida via Cuba.2 Swanton's
archival research was interrupted by the Spanish civil war. His
practice of adding the persons found in the cited sources did not
take into account those who sailed from Spain but did not continue
beyond Cuba, nor all those who were added in Cuba.











PART I.


THE SURVIVORS


1. Introduction


On May 25, 1989, the United States celebrated the 450th
anniversary of the landing of Hernando de Soto and his host on the
western shores of Florida. De Soto's was the longest and most
detailed exploration of the southeastern United States conducted
some eighty years before the Mayflower reached Plymouth Rock.

For this celebration it is appropriate to know, with the best
possible certainty, who survived this four year and two month
journey which traversed ten present-day states. With that purpose
this work presents a register of those who accompanied Hernando
de Soto, the Adelantado de la Florida, until his death on the banks
of the Mississippi River and afterwards followed its currents to the
Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

Fifty three years ago President Franklin D. Roosevelt
appointed anthropologist John R. Swanton to the United States De
Soto Expedition Commission. Swanton delivered his report to the
House of Representatives in 1938, covering all aspects of the de
Soto expedition.1 This report included a list of the participants
compiled from the writings of the four known contemporary
chroniclers of this expedition, a few original documents published
in the nineteenth century, and a transcription of the passengers
registered in Spain to proceed to Florida via Cuba.2 Swanton's
archival research was interrupted by the Spanish civil war. His
practice of adding the persons found in the cited sources did not
take into account those who sailed from Spain but did not continue
beyond Cuba, nor all those who were added in Cuba.







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


In 1538 Hemando de Soto transported his men to Cuba for the
Florida expedition. There he remained for almost a year making
final preparations, during which time he lost a number of Spanish
recruits and picked up new ones locally. Since no documents
recording those who finally sailed from Cuba to Florida have yet
been found, it is more practical to investigate those who came out
of Florida rather than those who went.

This study is based not only on the sources used by Swanton
but on the study of unpublished documents. Altogether, sixty-three
names have been added to the survivors specifically identified by
Swanton, for a total of 257 persons. This work also includes
extensive information about their places of birth, ages, families
and personal histories. The new data presented here and its
analysis, alters previous accounts of de Soto's force and increases
our understanding of his expedition. It is hoped that this will
encourage further studies of the political, social and economic
contributions of de Soto's men, in the places where they chose to
live their remaining years.

2. Number of Persons Who Departed For Florida

A brief recounting of those who accompanied de Soto to Cuba
and on to Florida is appropriate. Chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega
wrote that the Adelantado expedition which left Spain consisted of
his household, including his wife and family, 950 soldiers, sailors
and the'necessary crew, plus twelve priests.3 The Gentleman of
Elvas wrote that de Soto departed with a total of 600 men enlisted
in Sevilla.4 The original register of the passengers who left Sevilla
for Florida has been preserved in the Archives of the Indies. It has
been transcribed twice, with some variations between the two. The
first listed 651 persons but contained one double entry for a net
total of 650. It included three women, and five "color loro" or
dark-skinned persons. The second listed the same 651 persons
including the double entry, but added four men and three women,
for a net total of 657.5 It should be noted that the original
passenger roster is not complete, however, for it does not include
Hernando de Soto nor his entourage.






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Another available list was compiled by J. R. Swanton from
the four chroniclers. It amounts to 793 persons including many
repetitions, most acknowledged by the author. Considering that
Garcilaso de la Vega wrote his account from evidence supplied
him by others some 50 years after the fact, his figures are suspect.
When comparing the number of persons departing from Sevilla,
which he puts at 950 excluding sailors and de Soto's wife and
family and 12 priests, with the 657 registered passengers including
some females and priests, the exaggeration seems evident. The
memory factor may have played an important role in the
post-factum estimates of Garcilaso's informants. It appears that the
correct figure of those who sailed from Sevilla was higher than the
estimate of the Gentleman of Elvas, a little higher than what it is
shown in the original register, and lower by some hundreds than
Garcilaso's numbers. Two estimates which could be closer to the
real figure are those of the Florida survivors Juan Lopez and
Sebastian de Villegas contained in their short biographies in Part II
of this work. Both testified that the number of persons who sailed
from Spain was 700.


Now, let us consider those who finally left Cuba for Florida.
Ten days before departure from Havana, the royal officials of the
expedition wrote a letter to the King informing him that the
armada consisted of nine ships and the army of 313 footmen and
200 horsemen, for a total of 513 soldiers.6 Once again the
chroniclers of the expedition provide varying figures. Hemandez
de Biedma wrote that 620 men landed at the Florida port of Bahia
Honda.7 Rodrigo Rangel recorded that 570 men, not counting 130
sailors, were present at the landing.8 Garcilaso de la Vega wrote
that the total number of persons who sailed from Havana for
Florida was 1,000, including the islanders who wanted to
accompany the expedition, but not counting the sailors.9 As
indicated in the individual biographies of the Florida explorers in
Part II, many do not appear in the original register made in Sevilla.
The conquerors not registered could have been added in Cuba,
leading to another limitation of the original roster for the purposes
considered here. During the year the expedition was readied in


7







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Cuba several of the original recruits dropped out and many appear
to have been added.

The large difference between Garcilaso's figure of the persons
arriving in Florida and that of the royal officials can be explained
in part, for while the officials were referring to military personnel
only, Garcilaso considered all persons including servants,
administrators, tradesmen, and it seems, people living in Cuba who
wanted to tour the eastern coast of Florida. The rest of the
difference may be due to an exaggerated count by Garcilaso. A
more likely number of those landing in Florida should exceed the
soldiers mentioned by the royal officials, and perhaps somewhere
around the 570 mentioned by Rangel and the 620 described by
Hernandez de Biedma. Some additional estimates can be gathered
from the biographies of the survivors in Part II. Pedro de Arevalo
declared that 650 persons went to Florida from Cuba, a figure
repeated by Francisco de Guzman.

All these estimates are presented in Table 1. Based on them
and the official register, it appears that around 700 persons left
Spain for Cuba and, after nearly one year there, some 600 plus
finally left for Florida. It seems apparent that more were lost than
gained in Cuba, thus the allure of de Soto's adventure may not
have appealed to all the conquerors of the day. After all, Florida
was competing at that time with the fantastic news still coming
from Peru and, to some lesser extent, with the riches found in the
Uraba region east of Panama and the first notice of the possible
existence of a rich land south of the Santa Marta, province of
Nueva Granada.


Table 1.

Number of Persons Who Departed For Florida
From Spain to Cuba

Garcilaso de la Vega 950 plus
Gentleman of Elvas 600







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Passenger register 657
Juan Lopez 700
Sebastian de Villegas 700

From Cuba to Florida

Royal Officials 513
Hemandez de Biedma 620
Rodrigo Rangel 570
Garcilaso de la Vega 1,000
Pedro de Arevalo 650
Francisco de Guzman 650

From Spain and Cuba to Florida

J. R. Swanton, including repetitions 793



3. Number of Survivors

The most detailed account on the number of survivors comes
from the Gentleman of Elvas. He wrote that 322 Spaniards
embarked in seven brigantines at Aminoya to sail down the present
day Mississippi River. When confronted by Cacique Quigaltam
and his people a short distance downstream, eleven men were lost.
The rest continued towards the river mouth and then to Mexico.
Elvas added that 311 Christians, who had departed Florida, finally
reached the port of Panuco, New Spain.10 Garcilaso de la Vega
indicated that slightly fewer than 300 survivors rejoined their new
Governor, Luis de Moscoso, at Panuco.11

Another important source on the survivors is a record
following Hemandez de Biedma's account of the Florida
expedition, here referred to as Hernandez de Biedma's list.12 He
titled it "Memoir of the Names of Persons Who Came from
Florida, Who They Are, And of What Countries Native." Under
subtitles corresponding to different geographical areas and cities,







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


he mentioned 221 survivors adding, in several instances, the
profession, trade, and/or parentage of the person included. This list
is not complete and, by its numerous folds and how it is ordered,
may have been kept in somebody's pocket for some time. Yet, it is
invaluable, containing not less than 60 names not found in the
passenger register recorded in Sevilla. His additions reflect the
conquerors who joined the expedition in Cuba and those not
registered in Spain, like de Soto's entourage. Other sources of
information about the number of survivors are the very
declarations by some of them appearing in Part II of this study.
Pedro de Arevalo indicated that 350 persons survived, Francisco
Gutierrez lowered the figure to 300, Luis de Moscoso mentioned
350, and Sebastian de Villegas said that half of the 700 who started
the expedition were able to see its end. As will be seen in detail in
Part II, this investigation has revealed the names of 257 survivors
but, the definitive list has yet to be compiled. The figures listed
here are presented in Table 2. It is likely that the Gentleman of
Elvas was quite right about his 311 figure, having witnessed the
events. If so, 54 names await discovery. It may be added that in the
list of de Soto's men compiled by Swanton, 194 persons are
specifically described as survivors, including some possible
duplications acknowledged by the author.13


Table 2.

Number of Survivors

Gentleman of Elvas 311
Garcilaso de la Vega under 300
Hernandez de Biedma 221
Pedro de Arevalo 350
Francisco Gutierrez 300
Luis de Moscoso 350
Sebastian de Villegas 350
J. R. Swanton 194
This investigation 257


10






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


4. Description of the Survivors

Following, in alphabetical order by their first surnames, is the
information gathered about each of the survivors of the Florida
expedition. Since Buckingham Smith's Narratives of the Career of
Hernando de Soto in the Conquest of Florida, and Solar and
Rujula's El adelantado Hernando de Soto are frequently cited,
they have been abbreviated to Smith and SR respectively. These
abbreviations are followed by a dash and a number which
corresponds to the page in which the quotation is found. This
expedient saves more than 300 notes.


Acuiia, Lope de. Son of Anton Ruiz de Contreras and Leonor
de Acufia, citizens of Illescas, SR-327. Survivor from Illescas
according to Smith-295. Acufia, however, declared in Mexico
where he resided after Florida, that he was born in Toledo, which
is near Illescas. He added that he had married Elvira de
Hermosillo, one of the first eight female settlers of New Spain.14


Agostin. From Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.

Agostin. From Vizcaya, Smith-298.

Aguilar, Gaspar de. From Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.

Aguilar, Juan de. Son of Juan Gonzalez and Catalina
Sanchez, citizens of Valencia de la Torre, SR-292. Since this
Valencia is within the Extremadura region, it is probable that this
man is the same Aguillar de Villanueva listed in Smith-293.

Algalin. Shoemaker from Sevilla, Smith-292.

Almendron. Brother of Father Pozo; survivor from Segura,
Smith-294. There is one Alonso Hernandez Almendro, son of
Bartolome Hernandez Almendro and Catalina Martin, citizens of
Segura, SR-284.


11







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Alonso, Alvaro. Son of Juan Vazquez Perenton and Catalina
Alvarez, citizen of Valverde in the lands of Badajoz, SR-282.
Considering that this area is near Portugal, it seems likely that her
people preferred to declare themselves as being Spanish in order to
secure an unencumbered passage to the Indies. If so, this
conqueror may be the same Alvaro Alfonso from Portugal,
survivor of the expedition according to Smith-298.

Alonso, Francisco. Son of Anton Alonso and Francisca Ruiz,
citizens of Pedrosa, SR-330. This is likely the same Alonso from
Sevilla, survivor listed in Smith-292.

Alonso, Gonzalo. This survivor, from Jerez or Villanueva,
Smith-293, may be either one of the following: a) the son of
Alonso Garcia and Ines Gonzalez, citizens of Badajoz, SR-288, or
b) the son of Gonzalo Gomez and Mari Nufiez, citizens of Usagre,
SR-313.

Alonso, Pedro. Son of Juan Macias and Elvira Garcia,
citizens of Azauchal or Azanchal, SR-303. This seems to be the
same Pedro Alonso del Azuchal from Zafra, Almendralejo or
Segura, survivor listed in Smith-294.

Alonso, Rodrigo. Son of Andres Caro and Ines Alonso,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-283. The same man is listed as survivor in
Smith-293.

Alrianes, Martin. Survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-297.

Alvafiez. Survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.

Alvarado, Juan de. Son of Alonso Hemandez de Diosdado
and Isabel de Alvarado, citizens of Zafra, SR-329. Judging from
the names of his parents, he is Luis de Moscoso's brother, referred
to in Smith-294.

Alvarez, Juan. Son of Alonso Yafiez and Leonor Fernandez,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-316. This or the following person may be


12






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


the survivor listed in Smith-298, as being from Portugal, the
border of which is quite near Badajoz or Valverde.

Alvarez, Juan. Son of Simon Alvarez and Maria Alvarez,
citizens of Valverde, SR-282.

Alvarez, Rodrigo. Son of Andres Vasquez and Leonor
Rodriguez, citizens of Zafra, SR-307. This man seems to be the
same Rodrigo from Jerez listed as a surviving brother of Alonso
Vazquez in Smith-293. Zafra and Jerez are not more than
twenty-five miles apart.

Amarilla, Juan de. Son of Juan de Amarilla and Maria
Gonzalez, citizens of Medellin, SR-304. Listed as survivor in
Smith-295.

Aiiasco, Juan de. Distinguished conqueror of Florida, born in
Sevilla right at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The King
named him contador of the army that would accompany de Soto in
the exploration of Florida. By a royal cedula dated the fourth of
May 1537, he was permitted to trade with the natives of that
province as long as there were no duties on imports there.15 With
those two privileges Afiasco embarked from Sevilla for Cuba
where he remained for a while. Later, he was commissioned to
take a caravelle to the coast of Florida to discover and select a
good port and to bring back to Havana some natives that could
later serve as guides to the Christians. Upon his successful
completion of that mission, he embarked from Havana for Florida
with two male slaves, one female, and many pigs. Afiasco was
quite active during the expedition, especially after it reached the
land of Apalache. After the death of Commander de Soto, he
managed to construct a compass from an old clock, which proved
indispensable in finding the Painuco River in Mexico. In the city of
Puebla de los Angeles in that country, Afiasco made his probanza
in May 1544.16 By this document, which in essence is a list of the
services rendered by any individual to the Crown and usually
made with the purpose of requesting a royal grant or favor, we
learn the most about Afiasco. The rest is taken from Afiasco's own


13







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


declarations found in two other documents.17 In addition, Aniasco
is mentioned often by the chroniclers of the Florida expedition.
Afiasco continued from Puebla to Peru and after running the
Guadalcanal mines for some time, he died. His wife Isabel de
Afiasco, later declared, in Peru, that her husband began serving his
majesty in Italy and in Vienna, prior to rendering his services in
the Indies. She added, too, that their son Juan de Cardenas y
Afiasco, served the King well in the Chilean wars. Smith-292
confirmed that Afiasco was a survivor and native of Sevilla.


Andirrela, Miguel de. Foreigner and survivor, Smith-299.


Antonio. Survivor from Galicia, Smith-299.


Arevalo Brizefio, Pedro de. Son of Pedro de Arevalo and
Ana Calderon; enlisted in the armada of de Soto in Sevilla, on
February 15th 1538, SR-299. His name does not appear in the list
of survivors made by Luis Hernandez de Biedma and transcribed
by Buckingham Smith yet, judging by the following, he survived
the expedition. Arevalo made his probanza in Peru between 1558
and 1559, stating that he sailed from Sevilla for Cuba with
Hemando de Soto. From that island he accompanied the same and
650 men to Florida, of whom 350 survived. After de Soto's death,
those still alive were guided to Mexico by the new governor, Luis
de Moscoso. From that Viceroyalty he went to serve the King
against the rebellious natives in Guatemala, where he fought until
they came in peace to serve the Christians. Thereafter he went to
Peru where he fought with viceroy Blasco Nufiez Vela against the
rebel Gonzalo Pizarro. Sometime in 1560 the acting viceroy of
Peru sent him to Spain after Arevalo was involved in a fight with
another Spaniard. He was in Panama in 1562 and, one year later,
he appeared before a court in Madrid, Spain. Arevalo's signature
appears in some of the documents mentioned.18


14






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Argote, Alonso de. Son of Francisco Gonzalez de Argote
and Florencia Morana, citizens of Astorga, SR-331. According to
Smith-297 he survived the expedition and indeed he did, for he is
found in Mexico in 1557 acting as a witness. There he declared he
had been bor more than 35 years previous in the city of Astorga,
Spain. There he enrolled with de Soto and went to Cuba and
Florida, serving in the latter for five years and particularly in the
war against the natives of Mobila. Argote did not add much about
his activities in Mexico and signed his declaration.19

Arias. Ailing man from Galicia who arrived in Panuco,
Smith-298.

Arias Davila, Gomez. This survivor is not listed by
Hernandez de Biedma nor is there a record of his registering in
Sevilla to sail to the Indies. He is, however, mentioned repeatedly
by Garcilaso and at least once in Rangel's chronicle, described as
being from Segovia.20 According to his own account given in
Lima, Peru, in 1561, he made the trip from Sevilla to Cuba and
from there to Florida in the armada organized by de Soto. After
nearly five years of hardship, he went with others to discover the
sea and their way to New Spain. After Mexico he went to Peru
where he witnessed some of the services rendered by Juan
Cordero, another of de Soto's men. He signed his deposition
adding, in the year 1561, that he was 47 years old.21 Arias was to
become one of the most successful men to survive the Florida
expedition. After Mexico, he went to Nicaragua where he was
selected by the royal Audiencia to lead the group of men it was
sending to Peru to reinforce the Viceroy's troops that were to
oppose Gonzalo Pizarro's uprising. For all the services he rendered
to the crown, Arias was rewarded the right to collect tribute from
the Chupacho Indians in Peru, and later, he became the governor
of the Guinuco province. He married Maria Castellon y de Lara
and had a son, Juan, who was born a few years before his death in
1563.

Arias de Canedo, Pedro. Another survivor not mentioned in
the list of Hernandez de Biedma who may be the son of Diego


15






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Arias and Isabel Sedano, citizens of Astorga, SR-298. Arias made
his probanza in Lima, Peru, in the year 1563 where he resided in
the city of Le6n de Guanuco. In that document he asserted he came
to the Indies from Spain twenty-five years previous as part of the
army brought by the Adelantado de Soto to conquer and explore
Florida. After several years of hardship he and others left Florida
for Mexico and, in 1544, he continued to Peru where he had lived
since. In Peru he served the King, first against Gonzalo Pizarro's
insurrections, and then against Sebastian de Castilla and Francisco
Hernandez Giron. After listing these and other services he
rendered in Peru, he stated he was very much in need, married to
Isabel de Garay, and with children to support.22

Aroca, Pedro de. Survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-297.

Atanasio. Survivor from Badajoz according to Smith-293.
Garcilaso de la Vega called him Hernando Atanasio and indicated
Badajoz as his place of provenance.23

Avedi, Juanes de. Survivor seaman from Vizcaya, according
to Smith-297. Garcilaso mentioned a Juanes de Abadia who may
be the same man.


Azeituno, Antonio. Another survivor not mentioned in the
list of Hernandez de Biedma. Twenty-four years after sailing from
Sevilla to Florida via the island of Cuba, Azeituno was a resident
of the city of Zamora in Peru where he declared he had been a
member of the Florida expedition in which he spent five years. He
signed his testimony in 1561 at 38 years of age.24 According to
SR-283, Aceituno was the son of Pedro de Aceituna and Lucia
Lopez, citizens of Jaen.

Bacan. Survivor from Jerez, Smith-293.

Baeza. There is one Baeza survivor from Castilla la Vieja,
Smith-296. It seems probable that either of the following soldiers
is that person, however, not from Castilla la Vieja: a) Bartolome de


16






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Baeza, son of Juan Ruiz of Baeza and Juana Martinez, citizens
from Jaen which is near Baeza, SR-281; or b) Diego de Baeza, son
of Juan de Aranda and Catalina Gomez, citizens of Pedroneras del
Marquesado, SR-280.

Bautista. Brother of the one described below, who also
survived Florida and was from Castilla la Vieja according to
Smith-296. He was more likely from Castilla la Nueva as was his
brother Juan, who follows.

Bautista, Juan. Son of Diego Alonso and Isabel de Castilla,
citizens of Toledo, SR-291. This person may be the same survivor
called Bautista, from Castilla la Vieja according to Smith-296.
However, if Bautista is from Toledo, then he is from Castilla la
Nueva.

Bernaldo. A caulker, survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-298. The
passenger register in Sevilla states that he was a free colored
servant of Captain Pedro Calderon and had presented proof of
freedom before Ifnigo Lopez, a public scribe and notary of
Sevilla.25 Part of this record is contained in SR-320.

Blasco, Alonso. Survivor who was brother of Gonzalo
Vasquez from Villanueva according to Smith-293. If so, he was
the son of Gonzalo Vazquez and Catalina Vazquez, citizens of
Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-332.

Bolafios, Juan de. Son of Francisco Lozano and Elvira
Cambran, citizens of Fuente el Maestre, SR-302. This may be the
same Bolafios from Burguillos who survived the Florida
expedition according to Smith-294. Both Fuente el Maestre and
Burguillos are located some sixty miles south-east of Badajoz.

Bonifacio. Survivor from Valladolid, Smith-296.

Botello, Alonso de. Son of Diego Gill and Isabel Votella,
citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-332. This Botello is likely
the same Alonso Botellon from Villanueva, survivor according to


17







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Smith-293. Botello testified in New Spain that he had been in
Florida with Hernando de Soto, that he was a son of Diego Gil and
Isabel Botella, and that he was an hijodalgo married to a daughter
of Diego Yafiez.26

Botello, Juan. Not listed by Hernandez de Biedma, yet his
existence appears well documented. In the year 1560 he was a
witness to the probanza made by Alonso Vazquez in Jerez, Spain
and declared that he was one of de Soto's soldiers, a citizen of
Villanueva de Valcarrota (sic), and 47 or 48 years of age. He
added that he was in the armada and on the same ship with Alonso
Vazquez and that the Adelantado disembarked with his men at
Santiago de Cuba and proceeded to Havana. In sum, they stayed
on that island several months while readying the armada. After
reaching Florida, Botello testified that Captain Juan Ruiz Lobilla
placed thirty to forty men under Alonso Vazquez's command, later
increased to eighty. He saw when Vazquez was struck in the ankle
by an arrow during a battle with the natives at the savannah in
Chicaza. Botello added that so great were the toils experienced in
Florida that no man could find words to describe them nor memory
to recite them. After so much hunger and fatigue, Juan Botello and
others were able to reach the port of Panuco and later the city of
Mexico. He lived several years there and in 1550 declared that in
the same city he had seen Luis de Moscoso, another of de Soto's
men, living with the former's cousin. Botello was able to sign his
testimony.27 Previously, Botello had declared, in Sevilla on March
11, 1538, that he was a son of Rodrigo Botello and Marina
Rodriguez, citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-331.

Bravo, Luis. Son of Baltasar Bravo and Leonor Rodriguez,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-277. This should be the same survivor
listed in Smith-293 as the son of Baltasar Bravo from Badajoz.

Bustillo, Pedro de. Witness called to testify in lengthy
lawsuit between Isabel de Bobadilla, widow of de Soto, and
Hemando Ponce de Leon.28 Bustillo declared in Sevilla, Spain in
1546, he had known de Soto from 1535 until his death in 1542,
and that he was 35 years of age and from Valladolid. He knew


18







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


about the de Soto expedition to Florida because he was part of it,
having gone from Sevilla to Cuba with many others. From Havana
he sailed in May, 1539, for Florida where he suffered much travail
and shortages of food. He saw de Soto fall sick in May 1542, and
witnessed his death in a port called Guachoya. Bustillo and the
other survivors then decided to abandon Florida and arrived in
Mexico in September, 1543. Bustillo signed his deposition. This
conqueror should be the same Gutierre de Bustillo, son of Rodrigo
Coaca and Maria Cavallos, citizens of Villasedil, a clear
misspelling of Valladolid, SR-325. Hemandez de Biedma listed
him as one of the survivors, simply giving his last name as
Bustillon, and his origin as Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.


Caldera. Survivor from Alburquerque, Smith-295.

Calderon, Pedro. Survivor from Badajoz, Smith-293. We
know he endured the hardships of the Florida expedition because
he appeared as a witness twice in Mexico in 1547, and once in
Badajoz, Spain, in 1558. In Mexico he declared he knew de Soto
in Sevilla in 1537 and that de Soto sent Juan de Afiasco to Florida
to discover a suitable port and to obtain some guides. Afiasco came
back after two months, having done both. He found a secure port
and brought back to Havana two Florida natives who asserted that
many riches and gold were to be found there. When the de Soto
expedition reached the port, which they named Espiritu Santo,
many left to explore inland, while Calderon remained behind as
captain of the men that safeguarded the ships. It was there that he
received a message from Isabel de Bobadilla for her husband, de
Soto, by a captain who brought it from Havana.29 When Calderon
testified in Badajoz in 1558 in the probanza of Gonzalo Silvestre,
another of de Soto's men, he asserted he was around 60 years old
and a native of that city. He had known Silvestre since 1538 when
both were among the soldiers going from Sevilla to Cuba and on to
Florida. In the Florida expedition he was one of de Soto's captains
for nearly five years. After de Soto's death and finding they could
not maintain themselves, Silvestre and Calderon constructed
several brigantines. With them they were able to reach New Spain.


19







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Silvestre later departed for Peru while Calderon stayed in Mexico,
after which he returned to Badajoz where we find him in 1558.
Calderon signed his depositions.30 Pedro Calderon is mentioned
often by the chroniclers Rangel, Elvas, and Garcilaso de la Vega.31
He was the son of Rodrigo Calderon and Beatriz de Hoces,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-276. There is a discrepancy here that
should be noted. While Solar and Rujula indicated that Calderon
registered for the Indies with his sons Rodrigo Calderon and
Gregorio de Hoces and his wife Isabel Sayaga, Crist6bal Ber-
mudez Plata mentioned Isabel as his daughter, not his wife.32

Calderon, Rodrigo. Son of Pedro Calderon, survivor from
Badajoz, Smith-292. This conqueror should be the son of Captain
Pedro Calderon mentioned above and listed in SR-277.


Calle, Juan de la. Son of Andres Miguel and Leonor Cazurra,
citizens of Sanfronte, suburb of Zamora, SR-324. Calle was a
shoemaker from Castilla la Vieja who survived the de Soto
expedition according to Smith-297.

Calvarrasa, Toribio de. Son of Bartolome de San Martin and
Francisca Sanchez, citizens of Salamanca, SR-327. Calva Rasa
from Castilla la Vieja was one of the survivors appearing in
Smith-296.

Calvera, Diego de. He declared in Mexico in 1561 that he
was a resident of that city, 35 years old, and a survivor of the
Florida adventure. During that lengthy exploration he witnessed
the death of Francisco de Osorio, a brother of Garcia Osorio who
was also present. Calvera signed his testimony.33 His name is not
included in the lists made by Solar and Rujula or Hernandez de
Biedma. However, the latter included a Caldera from Alburquer-
que already mentioned above, Smith-295, who could be the same
person.

Calzada, Juan de. Son of Anton de Calzada and Maria
Santiago, citizens of Ufia. Smith-294 lists a survivor called Cal-


20







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


zada from Zafra, Almendralejo, or Segura. No Ufia is known to be
in that vicinity.

Cafiete, Garcia de. Son of Pedro de Cafiete and Elvira de
Avila, citizens of Illescas, SR-283. Smith-296 includes a survivor
called Cafiete from Ubeda or Baeza. This could be fray Sebastian
de Cafiete, author of the so-called Cafiete Fragment, who may have
been another witness and chronicler of the de Soto expedition and
whose complete writings are yet to be found.34

Cardenas, Lorenzo de. In February 1545 he rendered testi-
mony in Tenochtitlan (Mexico), New Spain at the request of
Baltasar de Gallegos, one of de Soto's companions. At that time
Cardenas declared he had known Gallegos in 1537 when they were
making the necessary preparations in Sevilla to depart for the
Indies. Later, they sailed to the province of Florida where
Cardenas saw Gallegos participate in several explorations and
wars against the natives. After de Soto's death the survivors
decided to leave that land and, covered with animal skins, they
reached New Spain. Cardenas was living in the capital in 1545
when he declared he was 25 years old and signed his declaration.35
This conqueror is not mentioned by Hernandez de Biedma, nor by
Solar and Ruijula.

Carmona, Alonso de. This survivor was residing in Cuzco,
Peru, in the year 1556, when he testified in the probanza of Pedro
de Arevalo. He stated that he had gone with Arevalo in de Soto's
expedition to Florida by way of Sevilla and Havana and finally
disembarking in the port of Espiritu Santo. After several years of
discoveries and de Soto's death, he followed Luis de Moscoso to
Mexico. Shortly after, he proceeded to Peru where he made this
signed deposition.36 Carmona was not included in Luis Hernandez
de Biedma's list of survivors, yet this citizen of Priego was an
important source of information for Garcilaso de la Vega who
cited his two written peregrinaciones.37 According to Garcilaso,
Carmona wrote his peregrinations after returning from Peru to live
in Spain. From there he sent them to Vega.38


21







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Caro, Alonso. Son of Heman Caro and Elvira Lopez, citizens
of Valencia de la Torre, SR-308. According to Smith-294, there
was a survivor with this name from Almendralejo which is a town
near this Valencia.

Caro, Alonso. Another soldier with the same name, this was
the son of Juan Garcia Caro and Maria Hemandez, citizens of
Medellin, SR-297. His name appears among the survivors as being
from Medellin, Smith-294.

Carranza, Luis de. One survivor of the expedition is listed as
Carrance, Smith-292, while Garcilaso de la Vega mentioned one
Juan de Carranza from Sevilla. However, the most likely name of
this conqueror is Luis, as he signed and called himself in 1545.39
In that year Luis de Carranza declared in Mexico that he was from
Sevilla, now a resident of the city of Mexico, and 23 years old. He
had known Baltasar de Gallegos, one of de Soto's men and in
whose probanza he was witnessing for eight years. He saw
Gallegos making the necessary preparations in Sevilla to depart for
Florida, including the purchasing of goods and the acquisition of
several black slaves and horses. Both Gallegos and the witness
finally reached Florida in the de Soto armada, where they
remained exploring the land for several years. After the death of
the governor, they decided to leave the land and, dressed as they
were in animal skins, they reached Mexico. Carranza asserted that
Gallegos always behaved like a noble. He signed his deposition.

Carrasco, Juan. Son of Martin Hemandez and Leonor Diez,
citizens of Oliva. According to Smith-293, there was one survivor
of the same name who was a tailor from Jerez or Villanueva. There
is an Oliva quite close to Jerez and Villanueva, all in Extremadura
province, where many of de Soto's men were born.


Carrauz. A survivor from Torrejon, Smith-295.

Carrion. Another survivor, this one from Ubeda or Baeza,
Smith-296.


22






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Carrion, Juan. Son of Juan Esteban and Isabel Fernandez,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-299. According to Smith-293, there was
one survivor of the same name, a tailor from Badajoz.

Carrion, Pedro. Conqueror born in Carrion in the kingdom of
Castilla around the year 1509, according to his declaration as a
witness in the suit between Hernando Ponce de Leon and Isabel de
Bobadilla.40 He deposed that he had known de Soto in Nicaragua
circa 1529, and saw him depart for Peru. Years later he
accompanied him to Florida, where he saw him use a fine Peruvian
tent made of wool and cotton from the Andes. He also witnessed
the good land that they had found during that expedition. He
signed his testimony. This man may be the same Carrion, native of
Carri6n de los Condes, listed among the survivors, Smith-297.

Cartuyo, Gonzalo. Surviving sailor from Sevilla, Smith-292.

Carvajal, Lorenzo de. Soldier whose name does not appear
in the list of survivors made by Hernandez de Biedma, nor in the
list of persons registered in Sevilla for de Soto's expedition. The
last is not surprising, for it seems that Carvajal was already in
Cuba when de Soto's armada arrived from Spain. This is deduced
from his own testimonies rendered in Mexico in the years 1554,
1557, and 1569. In the first instance he deposed, in Rodrigo
Vasquez's probanza, that he was a citizen of the city of Mexico
and 35 years of age. He added that he witnessed Vazquez serving
in Florida and helping his wounded brother Alonso, whom he
cared for all the way to Mexico. He signed his testimony.41 Later,
in 1557, Carvajal testified in the probanza of Hernan Suarez de
Maruelas, another of de Soto's men. He confirmed that he went to
Florida with Suarez and de Soto, without adding more about his
own life.42 Twelve years later, in 1569, he witnessed the probanza
of Sebastian de Villegas Prieto, another of de Soto's soldiers. He
asserted that he knew Villegas in Cuba some 30 years earlier and
went with him to Florida and then to Mexico, where Villegas
settled in the vicinity of the Guanajuato mines, where he was still
residing in 1569.43


23







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Castejon, Francisco de. The existence of a Florida survivor
with this name is well documented, for he testified in Mexico on
two occasions, one in 1547, and another in 1560. In the first he
asserted he was born in Soria around 1510. From both declarations
it is clear that he participated in the expedition and discovery of
Florida led by Hemando de Soto, whose death he witnessed, after
which he left with the other survivors for New Spain. Both in 1547
and in 1560, Castejon declared he lived in Mexico and he signed
his testimony.44 Francisco de Castrejon, with an added "r", is
listed as the son of Antonio de Castrejon and Francisca de Licardo,
citizens of Soria, SR-317. There is a survivor of de Soto's
expedition named Castrejon but from Astorga, listed in Smith-297.
It appears he preferred to sign Castejon, if the scribe who wrote the
mentioned documents spelled his name correctly.

Castro, Juan de. Son of Pedro de Castro and Isabel de
Turrenco, citizen of Benavente, SR-303. This soldier may be the
same Castro from Castilla la Vieja, cited among the survivors of
the expedition, Smith-296.

Castro, Castro del. Survivor from Garciamufioz, Smith-295.

Coles, Juan. Son of Juan Coles and Luisa Rodriguez, citizen
of Zafra, SR-323. Smith-294 adds that this survivor of the
expedition was a tailor from Zafra. His Relaci6n was one of the
most important sources of written information for Garcilaso de la
Vega, who, in The Inca's preface, mentioned how it was saved
from destruction at the shop of a printer in C6rdoba. In Mexico,
Coles wrote that "a citizen of Mexico named Xaramillo, took into
his house eighteen men, all from Extremadura, and he clothed
them with the fine broadcloth of Segovia, and that to each one he
gave a bed with mattresses, sheets, and blankets and pillows, a
comb and brush, and everything else needful for a soldier, and that
all the city had been greatly pained to see them come clothed in
deerskins and cow [buffalo] hides, and that they did them this
honour and kindness for the many labors they knew they had
undergone in Florida." 45


24







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Cordero, Juan. Son of Alvaro Cordero and Leonor Carcelas,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-287. Hemandez de Biedma listed him as
one of the survivors of the expedition, originally from Portugal,
Smith-298. Here again there is an example of a Portuguese listing
himself as being from just the other side of the Spanish border,
namely Badajoz. Garcilaso mentions a Joam Cordeiro, clearly a
Portuguese name, native of Yelves, or Elvas, and most likely the
same person listed here.46 He made his probanza in Jaen, Peru, in
1561 where he was living then. He declared he came from Mexico
to Peru where he served the King fighting in the battle of
Xaquixaguana against the rebel Gonzalo Pizarro, who was
defeated. He was one of the founders of the city of Jaen for he had
accompanied Captain Diego Palomino in its conquest. He added
he did not have enough income to support his wife and family.

Coria. Survivor from Sevilla, Smith-292.

Cornejo, Alonso. Son of Francisco Comejo and Leonor
Gonzalez, from Valencia de la Torre, SR-292. Among the
survivors of the Florida expedition there is a Comejo from Zafra,
Almendralejo or Segura, who may be this same soldier, Smith
-294. However, there was another Alonso Comejo who enlisted in
Sevilla for Florida, a son of Anton Comejo and Isabel Guerra,
citizen of Castro Calbon, SR-330. Castro Calbon was located in
the kingdom of Leon. The last Comejo cited here may have lost
his life in the exploration of Florida, while the first is likely a
survivor.

Corona, Rodrigo. Son of Pedro de Olias and Juana Lopez,
citizens of Torrejon de Velasco, SR-311. Among the survivors
appears a man by the same name who played the trumpet, credited
as a native of Toledo, Smith-295.

Cortes, Diego. He testified in the city of Puebla la los
Angeles in Mexico, that he was bom in Medellin and that his
parents were Pero Gutierrez and Catalina Cortes. He added that he
took part in de Soto's expedition to Florida and that at the time he
was residing in Puebla with his wife, a daughter of Alonso de


25


1







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Buiza.47 Cortes is a survivor from Almendralejo, according to
Smith-294. Medellin and Almendralejo are both in Extremadura.

Cuadrado, Gonzalo. Son of Gonzalo Cuadrado and Maria
Gonzalez, citizens of Zafra, SR-305. Smith-294 lists a survivor of
the same name and origin. The existence of Gonzalo Cuadrado is
well documented, for he was a witness in Mexico in 1547, called
to declare in the suit of Hernando Ponce de Leon against Isabel de
Bobadilla, de Soto's widow. He stated he was a native of Zafra in
Spain, a resident of Mexico and more than 35 years of age. He had
known de Soto since 1537 and had accompanied him in the
exploration of Florida. He signed his declaration.48 Cuadrado was
often mentioned by Garcilaso de la Vega, especially when
describing the arrival of the Christians at Panuco.49


Custreros. A survivor from Astorga, Smith-297.


Daza, Luis. This man prepared his departure for the Indies
with special care. First, in 1537, he obtained from the local
authorities of Valladolid, where he was born, a certificate that he
was a man of noble lineage and descended from a line of
honorable persons. Second, he successfully petitioned the Crown
to issue a royal mandate naming him a regidor, or member of the
city council where the governor of Florida chose to reside.50 With
these documents secured, he departed Sevilla for Cuba and then to
Florida as part of de Soto's armada. In that new land he remained
for some four years and witnessed many of the hardships,
explorations, and wars with natives. These are described in the
probanzas of Rodrigo Vasquez and Garcia Osorio, both his
companions and de Soto's, while in the exploration of Florida.
After abandoning that land for New Spain, he settled in Mexico
City where he was in 1547, 1554, and 1560, declaring in those
years that he had been born shortly before 1520, and signing his
testimonies.51 One of the survivors of the Florida adventure
described as coming from Castilla la Vieja, is named Daze, a
misspelling for Daza, Smith-296. In another instance, Daza


26







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


declared in Mexico that he was the legitimate son of Alvaro Daza
and Leonor Osorio, and that he had married a daughter of Diego
Valadez.52

Diaz, Juan. One of the survivors listed by Hemandez de
Biedma as being from San Lucar de Barrameda, Smith-292.
Garcilaso de la Vega described him however, as being from
Granada.53

Duarte, Juan. A survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.


Enriquez, Diego. Son of Pedro Lopez de Calatayud and
Maria Enriquez, citizens of Valladolid, SR-314. Smith-298 lists an
Enriquez from Astorga, left ailing at Painuco.


Espindola, Cristobal. Survivor listed as a native of Sevilla,
Smith-292. He is mentioned by Elvas, Ranjel and Garcilaso de la
Vega. His existence is better documented for having testified in the
probanza of Baltasar de Gallegos.54 In this document, dated in
Mexico in 1545, Espindola declared he was alguacil mayor of the
Inquisition in New Spain, a native of Sevilla, and a resident of
Mexico City. He had known Gallegos since around 1515, and he
was born before 1505. He witnessed Gallegos' sale of all his
properties in order to go to Florida, and with the latter and others,
he embarked in de Soto's armada. He arrived in Florida where he
made explorations and saw battles for several years until the
survivors decided to abandon that land. Dressed in animal skins,
he reached Mexico, where he then lived, and where he signed his
declaration in the year 1545. Three years later he declared in
Mexico that he was an hijodalgo, married to Dofia Francisca
Castafio, with whom he had three children.55 Espindola was not
listed as one of the survivors, nor does his name appear in the list
of passengers registered in Sevilla for Florida.

Fernandez, Alvaro. A conqueror not mentioned by
Hernandez de Biedma nor Solar and Rtijula. He declared under


27







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


oath in Puebla de los Angeles, New Spain in 1544, that he had
been with de Soto in the Florida expedition. He indicated that he
had seen Juan de Afiasco bring back from Florida three natives
after he discovered the landing port for the expedition. He added,
in his answers given in Juan de Afiasco's probanza, that he had
witnessed most of what Afiasco asserted. He, as had all the rest of
the survivors, went to Mexico where he remained at least until the
year 1544, when he was 34 years old. Fernandez signed his
deposition.56

Fernandez, Juan. Son of Francisco Perez Pentiero and
Catalina Martin, citizens of Alburquerque, SR-278. A survivor
with the same name and from the same place is listed in
Smith-295.

Figueroa, Pedro de. A survivor from Zafra, Almendralejo, or
Segura, Smith-294.

Fraile. Luis Hernandez de Biedma listed three surviving friars
without giving their names, Smith-298. Two have been identified
in this monograph as Juan Gallegos and Fray Francisco de Torres.
Therefore, one is still unidentified and is referred to as Fraile.

Fuentes, Luis de. Son of Garcia de Fuentes and Beatriz
Escobar, citizens of Sevilla, SR-296. This may be the same
Fuentes from Sevilla, survivor of the de Soto expedition according
to Smith-292.

Gaitan, Juan. Surviving treasurer of the army, native of
Talavera de la Reina, Smith-295. The royal officials of the
expedition were Gaitan, the treasurer, Hernandez de Biedma, the
factor or administrator of the royal coffers, and Afiasco, the
contador. From Havana they sent a letter to the King dated May 8,
1539, recounting how de Soto's armada was about ready to sail for
the Florida port already selected by Aiiasco and located 75 to 80
leagues from Havana. They mentioned that the total ships ready
was nine and that the army contained 513 men, composed of 313
footmen and 200 horsemen, the latter taking a total of 237


28







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


horses.57 Gaitan declared in Mexico that he was a son of Joan
Gaitan and Dofia Catalina de Ribera from Talavera de la Reina,
married to Catalina de Zarate, and in charge of the natives of the
town of Tlaculpo. He added that prior to the de Soto venture he
had served the King in Tunis, and later went to Peru to help in its
pacification.58

Gallego, Diego. Survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.
This soldier may or may not be the same Alonso Gallego, son of
Francisco Dominguez and Elvira Garcia, citizens of Alconera,
SR-305. This locality is in Badajoz, Extremadura.

Gallegos, Juan. He was a brother of Baltasar de Gallegos and
thus possibly from Sevilla, and one of the three surviving priests,
Smith-298. There is one person with the same name listed as son
of Juan Martin Bermejo and Beatriz Belazquez, citizens of Oliva,
SR-323. This may be the same priest mentioned by Garcilaso de la
Vega, who wrote that he was from Sevilla.59

Gallegos, Baltasar de. Survivor from Sevilla, Smith-292,
who made his probanza in Tenochtitlan, New Spain, in 1545. He
started it by indicating that he was from Sevilla in Spain and a
resident of Mexico where he had arrived around 1526. Later, he
accompanied Baltasar de Osorio in the conquest and colonization
of Tabasco where the former was wounded and where he chose to
settle after receiving an encomienda there. After profiting from the
labor and tribute of his encomendados for three or four years, he
asked the Royal Audiencia for permission to return to Spain to
marry. He travelled to his homeland and, after marrying Maria de
Guzman, he learned that Francisco de Montejo had taken away his
encomienda, for which reason he decided to join Hernando de
Soto. De Soto named Gallegos his Field Marshal, and encouraged
him to travel to Cuba with his wife and household. He did so,
taking along several servants, horses, and slaves at an expense of
more than 4,000 ducats. Once Gallegos arrived in Florida he
engaged in many conquests, wars, and expeditions that took place
in the following years. In the process he lost several of his horses
and slaves. He also suffered the death of his brother who had


29










The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


participated in the expedition and who was a priest of the
Dominican order. After the survivors found they could not support
themselves, they travelled to New Spain, dressed as they were in
animal skins, arriving first at the port of Panuco and then Mexico
City. Finally, Gallegos asked his witnesses to testify on the above
and to declare if he was indeed a noble man of well reputed
parents.60 Gallegos was one of the members of the Florida
expedition most frequently mentioned by Elvas, Rangel and
Garcilaso de la Vega.61

Gallegos, Rodrigo de. Son of Juan de Escobar and Beatriz
Gallegos, citizens of Sevilla, SR-328. The same person is listed
among the survivors, Smith-292.

Galvan, Fernan. Son of Francisco Galvan and Maria
Esteban, citizens of Valverde, SR-310. Galvan is listed as a
survivor, from Zafra, Almendralejo, or Segura, Smith-294. There
are two Valverdes located not far from the axis
Almendralejo-Zafra-Segura, all in Extremadura.

Gamez, Juan de. Son of Hemando de Gamez and Isabel de
Pancorvo, SR-276. Survivor not listed by Hernandez de Biedma,
yet he was living in Mexico City by 1561. There, in the month of
January, he was asked to testify in the probanza of Garcia Osorio,
another of de Soto's soldiers. Gamez stated that he knew Garcia
and his brother Francisco in the expedition to Florida, the latter
having died in that conquest. Afterwards, he and many others,
including Garcia, went to Mexico. He added that he was 35 years
of age and signed his deposition.62

Garcia, Diego. Son of Juan Hernandez and Maria Alonso,
citizens of Fuente del Maestre, SR-333. A man with the same
name is listed among the survivors as a native of Jerez or
Villanueva, Smith-293. All the localities mentioned here are in the
same comer of Extremadura.

Garcia de Leon, Juan. Another survivor not mentioned by
Hemandez de Biedma, yet he was in Puebla de los Angeles,


30






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Mexico, in 1544, where he declared in Juan de Afiasco's probanza
that he had witnessed much of what this companion had
experienced in the Florida expedition. He signed this deposition
stating he was 37 years old.63 There was a conqueror who enlisted
with de Soto in Sevilla named Andres Garcia, citizen of Leon, son
of Pedro Garcia and Mari Garcia, SR-294.

Garcia Pechuda, Juan. Son of Pedro or Gonzalo Garcia
Pechudo and Maria Rodriguez "la Pechuda." He is listed among a
group of men from Alburquerque, SR-278. Hernandez de Biedma
changed his second last name to Pechuga, while listing him among
the survivors of the Florida expedition, Smith-295.


Garcia Rueda, Juan. Son of Francisco Garcia and Maria
Sanchez, citizens of Badajoz, SR-317. A man with the same name
from Valverde de Badajoz is listed among the survivors,
Smith-293.

Garcia, Rui. A survivor, native of San Lucar de Barrameda,
Smith-292.

Gen, Baltasar. Surviving notary from Badajoz, Smith-293.

Gin. Survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.

Giraldo. Survivor from Astorga, Smith-297.


Godoy, Garcia de. Son of Hernando de Jerez and Elvira
Godoy, citizens of Medellin, SR-297. Survivor of the Florida
expedition according to Smith-295. Witness called to testify in the
probanza of Juan de Afiasco in Puebla de los Angeles, Mexico, in
1544. There he declared that he was with Afiasco in the Florida
expedition, from which they came out via the Panuco River. He
added that he was 25 years old, and signed his name as Garcia de
Godoy, though it appears at the beginning of the document as
Hernando de Godoy.64


31






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Gomez, Alonso. Son of Alonso Gomez and Marina Alonso,
citizens of Villanueva de la Serena, SR-304. Survivor from Jerez
or Villanueva, according to Smith-293.

Gonzalez, Alonso. Survivor from Astorga, Smith-297.

Gonzalez de Alor, Juan. Son of Alonso Vazquez de Alor and
Catalina Alvarez, citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-331.
Survivor from Jerez, Smith-293. Jerez and Villanueva are located
in the same region.

Gonzalo or Gregorio. Survivor from Galicia, Smith-299.

Gutierrez, Alonso. Survivor from Medellin, Smith-295.


Gutierrez, Alonso. Survivor from Portugal, Smith-298.


Gutierrez, Alonso. Son of Fernan Gutierrez and Isabel
Garcia, citizens of Albuquerque, SR-279. Survivor, Smith-295.
This soldier, or either of the two who precede, may be the same
Alonso Gutierrez de Cardona, of whom more information is
available because he testified in the probanza of Gonzalo Silvestre.
By his own declarations in Badajoz in 1558, we know that he was
living there in his forty-fourth year. He states he was a captain in
the Florida expedition and, along with the survivors, he continued
to Mexico. There he remained for some time, where he saw
Silvestre depart for Peru. He signed his declaration.65

Gutierrez de Cordoba, Alonso. After Hemando Ponce de
Leon studied the background of witnesses presented by Isabel de
Bobadilla in their law suit, he vetoed the testimony of this
conquistador from Badajoz. He believed that Gutierrez was partial
to Isabel because he had been a part of her deceased husband's
expedition to Florida.66 The possibility exists that this Gutierrez de
Cordoba could be the same Alonso Gutierrez listed immediately
above.


32






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Gutierrez Guino, Francisco. Not mentioned by Hemando de
Biedma unless this is the man he calls Gin who is listed above.
There is one Francisco Guini who registered in Sevilla to go to
Florida, son of Francisco Guini and Mari Gutierrez, SR-334.
Gutierrez Guino deposed in the probanza of Hernan Suarez, made
in Mexico City in 1557. He testified that he was 38 years old,
knew Suarez since 1539 and went with him to Florida, as part of
the de Soto expedition, of which about 300 men survived. His
statements proved his familiarity with the events of the expedition
referred to by Suarez. He signed his declaration.67

Gutierrez, Juan. Son of Francisco Gomez Montero and
Isabel Gutierrez, citizens of Usagre, SR-292. Survivor from
Badajoz according to Smith-293. Usagre is about 70 miles
southeast of Badajoz.


Guzman, Francisco de. In 1558 in Lima, Peru, this survivor
testified as follows. He went from Sevilla to Cuba with those
enlisted by de Soto. In Cuba he and about 650 soldiers embarked
for Florida arriving at the port of Espiritu Santo. After several
years of discoveries de Soto died and was succeeded by Luis de
Moscoso, who led the 350 survivors to Mexico.68 Hemandez de
Biedma listed a Guzman from Toledo among the survivors,
Smith-295. This conqueror may be either the son of Benito
Rodriguez and Francisca Hemandez, citizens of Sevilla, SR-289,
or the son of Diego Lopez de Guzman and Teresa Alvarez, citizens
of Toledo, SR-320. Nowhere in Guzman's testimony does it say
whether he was from Toledo or Sevilla. However, Garcilaso de la
Vega stated that the one from Sevilla was called Diego. This
strengthens the possibility that the one listed here is the Francisco
from Toledo.


Hernandez, Alonso. Son of Diego Hemandez Bejarano and
Joana Fernandez, citizens of Luciana, in Castilla la Nueva,
SR-293. A man with the same name is listed among the survivors
as a native of Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.


33






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Hernandez de Biedma, Luis. Famous chronicler of the de
Soto expedition and possible author of the list of survivors so
many times mentioned in this work. He took with him a free
colored man named Luis Moreno, SR-295. Hernandez de Biedma
as factor was one of the three royal officials of the expedition. He
is listed among the survivors from Ubeda and Baeza, Smith-295.

Hernandez de Ribera, Pedro. Son of Pedro de Ribera and
Teresa Rodriguez, citizens of Mondofiedo, SR-294. Smith-298
lists a Pedro de Ribera from Galicia, who may be the same, since
Mondofiedo is within this province.

Hernandez, Sebastian de. Son of Simon Hernandez and
Isabel Alonso, citizens from Badajoz, SR-282. He testified in
Mexico that he was from Badajoz and a legitimate son of Simon
Hernandez. He added that he had been in the conquest of Florida
with de Soto, after which he had arrived in Panuco where he
married a native woman, widow of conqueror Diego Hernandez.69

Herrera. Survivor from Toledo, Smith-295. This may be
Pedro Diaz de Herrera, son of Juan Diaz de Herrera and Martina
Garcia, citizens of Ocafia.70

Hoces, Gregorio. Son of Pedro Calderon and Isabel Sayaga,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-277. There is a survivor by this name,
listed as the son of Pedro Calderon, from Badajoz, Smith-292.


Inostrosa, Luis de. Son of Juan Fernandez de Inostrosa and
Guiomar de Torres, citizens of Sevilla, SR-318. One of the
survivors is listed as Inestrosa, from the same city, Smith-292.

Jacome. Surviving foreigner, Smith-299.

Juan, Maestre. Survivor from Astorga, Smith-297.

Landero, Domingo. Brother of Captain Juan Nieto and a
survivor of the Florida expedition, native of Alburquerque


34







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


according to Smith-295. He was the son of Pedro Martin Nieto and
Mari Sanchez de Torrejana, citizens of Alburquerque, SR-278.

Lera, Francisco de. Surviving tailor from Ubeda or Baeza,
Smith-296. SR-333 lists a Francisco de Lerena, son of Pedro de
Lerena and Maria Gonzalez, citizens of Arcos. However, there is
no Arcos near Ubeda.


Lopez. A survivor, brother of Gavian Lopez, from Portugal,
Smith-298.

Lopez, Abian. Son of Pedro Lopez and Catalina Lopez,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-287. One of the survivors is listed as
Gavian Lopez from across the border in Portugal, Smith-298.

Lopez, Juan. Survivor from the Florida expedition, native of
Ubeda or Baeza, Smith-296.


Lopez Cacho, Juan. Isabel de Bobadilla, Hernando de Soto's
widow, was sued by Hernan Ponce de Leon, his surviving partner,
over some assets left by the deceased. During that lengthy judicial
process, Juan Lopez Cacho was called in 1546 in Madrid to testify
on certain matters. Among other things, he indicated that the
following was true. He had known de Soto since 1537 or 1538 and
been selected, along with five to six hundred other men, for the
Florida exploration. They left Sevilla for Cuba, and then sailed
from Havana, in June 1539, in one of the nine ships of the de Soto
armada, destined to carry 700 men to a pre-selected port in Florida.
In this new land, Lopez was de Soto's aide until his master's
death, which he witnessed. He signed his deposition, indicating
that he was 27 years old and a resident of Sevilla in the district of
Santa Maria.71 Fifteen years later Juan reappeared in Mexico to
testify again, this time in the probanza of Garcia Osorio. Then he
stated he was 44 years old, a survivor of the Florida expedition and
a temporary resident of that city.72 Hemandez de Biedma listed
him as a survivor from Sevilla, Smith-292.


35







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Lopez de Salto, Juan. Judging by the numerous instances
found in the probanzas mentioned here and many other documents
inspected by the present author, hearsay was acceptable legal
evidence in the Spanish Empire, at least during the sixteenth
century. Thus one witness testified in Mexico in 1562, that he had
heard from Juan Lopez del Salto that Francisco Gutierrez had been
in Florida with de Soto.73 From this assertion we believe that
Lopez was in Florida with Adelantado. This individual may be the
same listed as son of Tomas Lopez Cimarron and Maria del Salto,
citizens of Jaen, SR-276, particularly considering the mother's last
name. Also, he may be the same survivor listed by Smith-296 as
Juan Lopez Zaharron, from Ubeda or Baeza. Cimarron and
Zaharron appear to be different spellings of the same name.

Madrigal. Survivor from Zafra, Almendralejo, or Segura,
Smith-294. There is one Alonso de Madrigal, son of Juan de
Madrigal and Maria Gorda, citizens of Molezuelas, SR-316.
Molezuelas was located in the Kingdom of Leon, a good distance
away from the Almendralejo region.


Maldonado, Francisco. This survivor was called by Isabel de
Bobadilla, de Soto's widow, to testify in her legal contest with
Heran Ponce de Leon. Maldonado indicated in April, 1546, in
Madrid, that he had met de Soto in 1537 or 1538. De Soto told
Maldonado, in Valladolid, that the King had granted him the
exploration and settlement of Florida. Maldonado accompanied
him from that city to Cuba and later sailed to Florida where he
served for the duration. He signed his testimony.74 In the
expedition he was an infantry captain, frequently mentioned by
Rangel, Hernandez de Biedma, Elvas and Garcilaso de la Vega.75
Maldonado was a son of Rodrigo Maldonado and Beatriz
Maldonado, citizens from Salamanca, SR-333.


Marban, Bueso. Son of Garcia Marban and Maria Benevides,
citizens of Villanueva de Valdepefias (?), SR-329. Marban was a
survivor from Astorga, Smith-297.


36







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Marban, Esteban. Son of Juan Marban and Maria Sanchez,
citizens of Labaniz (?) or Baniz, SR-329. This may be the
surviving scribe or notary from Astorga, Smith-297.

Marin, Andres. Son of Alonso Gonzalez Capillero and
Catalina Marin, citizens of Tierra de Miranda, SR-291. Survivor
from Almendralejo, Smith-294.

Martin Galindo, Francisco. Son of Alonso Sanchez Galindo
and Leonor Martin, citizens of Bollullos, (not Lolenllas which is a
misreading) SR-328. A Galindo is listed as a survivor from
Sevilla, Smith-292. Bollullos is a small town between Huelva and
Sevilla.

Martin Sandoval, Francisco. Though his name does not
appear in the list of survivors of Hernandez de Biedma, this Martin
was in the Florida expedition led by de Soto, according to his
testimony given in Valladolid, Spain, in 1558.76 We also learn that
after Martin had been in Florida and witnessed de Soto's death, he
went to Peru where he lived for some thirteen years. During that
time he was active in supporting the Crown and President de la
Gasca against Gonzalo Pizarro's rebellion, and later against the
uprising of Francisco Hernandez Giron. He also stated that he was
born in 1516 in Talavera and signed his deposition. There is a
Francisco Martin who appears to be the same person listed here.
He was a son of Alonso Martin and Catalina Sanchez, citizens of
Talavera de Badajoz, SR-281.

Martin, Gonzalo. Son of Tome Gonzalez and Catalina
Rodriguez, citizens of Medellin, SR-297. A survivor with the same
name and origin is listed in Smith-295.

Martin, Gonzalo. This is a different survivor from the above.
He was a witness in Tergueros, Spain, in 1547 and indicated that
he was a thirty-year-old shoemaker from Sevilla where he lived in
the district of Santa Maria. He went to the island (sic) of Florida
and saw de Soto using an elaborate tent, which was said to have
belonged to Hernando Ponce de Leon. He signed his testimony.77


37







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


There is another person of this name, a son of Sebastian Gonzalez
and Teresa Sanchez, citizens of Azuaga, SR-313. Azuaga is about
60 miles from Sevilla.


Martinez, Anton. Survivor from Portugal, Smith-298. Elvas
mentioned an Antonio Martinez Segurado, from Elvas. In addition,
there was an Antonio Martinez who served as a witness in Puebla
de los Angeles, Mexico, in 1544. There, at the request of Juan de
Afiasco, he testified that he was transient in that locality and over
30 years old. He added that he had been in the exploration of
Florida, giving some details about his participation. He signed his
deposition.78

Martinez, Francisco. Survivor from Zafra, Almendralejo, or
Segura, Smith-294. There was one person with this name who
registered in Sevilla for Florida, but he was said to be from
Salamanca. He was a son of Francisco Martin and Maria Martin,
SR-318.

Martinez, Vicente. Survivor who was left ailing at Panuco,
Smith-298. He testified in Mexico that he was born in Ciudad
Real, a legitimate son of Joan Martinez de Malaguilla and Mari
Sanchez. He added that he had been in Florida with the
Adelantado de Soto for four years, after which he went to Panuco.
At the time of his declaration he was living in Panuco, poor and
married.79

Martucho. Survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-298.

Mateos, Jorge. Survivor of foreign origin, Smith-298.

Mendez, Ana. This woman's presence in Florida during its
exploration is well documented. She was a witness in the probanza
of Alonso Vazquez in Jerez de Badajoz, Spain, in the year 1560.80
She declared that she was a servant of Dofia Isabel de Bobadilla
and about thirty-one years of age. To the questions presented to
her, she answered that Alonso Vazquez was in Florida and that she


38






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


was involved in all that took place at that time. Specifically, when
asked if it was true that after arriving at a marsh, which took three
days to cross while going without food, they arrived at a province
called Ocal, where food was found, she answered: That she
remembered crossing that swamp, there being much water in
it...which they went through with much labor in three days, but
does not recall if they passed the time without food. She continued
assenting to most of the questions, answering to one that she saw
the Indians kill Don Carlos, her master, and that Alfonso Vazquez
was wounded by an arrow in an ankle and was a long time lame.
She also testified that they went from Florida to Mexico, wearing
skins. Lastly, she did not sign her declarations for she stated she
could not write.

Mendez de Sotomayor, Gonzalo. This conqueror made his
probanza in February of 1560, in the city of Tenochtitlan, New
Spain. He embarked in Sevilla in de Soto's armada carrying his
arms and horses on to Florida. There Mendez served for five years.
In the Apalache region, de Soto placed him in command of 30 men
whose mission was to reconnoiter a port about 100 leagues away.
The task was accomplished after many hardships. After Florida,
Mendez went to Mexico where he settled. In his probanza, Mendez
asked the witnesses to verify that he and his father, Cristobal
Mendez de Sotomayor, who had been a justicia mayor in M6rida,
were hijodalgos or of noble origin.81 One year later Mendez
appeared as a witness in the probanza of Garcia Osorio, another
survivor who stayed in Mexico. In it Mendez declared that he was
a trader, a resident of Mexico City, and 36 years of age. He added
that he had known Osorio before arriving in Florida. Both had
remained several years, and there he witnessed the natural death of
Francisco, a brother of Osorio. He signed his deposition.82
Gonzalo Mendez was a son of Cristobal Mendez and Leonor
Vazquez, citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-319. His name
is included in the list of survivors as from Villanueva, Smith-393.

Mesa, Juan de. Survivor from Sevilla, Smith-292.

Miguel. Survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-297.


39







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Miranda, Juan de. He was listed by Hemandez de Biedma,
without his first name, as a survivor from Soria, Smith-296. Juan
declared in Mexico that he was an hijodalgo, resident of Villarrica,
Mexico, born in Soria, Spain, a son of Sancho de Miranda and
Catalina Gonzalez de Saravia. He added that he departed Spain for
Peru but ended up going with de Soto to Florida. He was, at the
time of his declaration, married to Francisca Mejia.83

Monzon, Gonzalo de. In 1562, while residing in the City of
the Kings of Peru, which is Lima, this survivor declared as
follows. He witnessed Hemando de Soto's departure from Peru for
Spain and was present when de Soto married Dofia Isabel de
Bobadilla, legitimate daughter of Pedro Arias. At that time he
knew that the King had conceded to de Soto the conquest of
Florida. Monzon went on that conquest where he remained several
years and where he witnessed de Soto's death. He signed his
deposition and added that he was 40 years old.84 Monzon is not
included in the list of Hemandez de Biedma nor among those who
registered in Sevilla to travel to the Indies, as compiled by Solar
and Rujula.

Morales. Survivor from Soria, Smith-297.

Morales, Bartolome de. Son of Marcos de Morales and
Catalina Pumaveda, citizens of Sevilla, SR-325. There was a
Morales from Sevilla listed by Hemandez de Biedma, Smith-292.

Moreno, Pedro. Son of Pedro Moreno and Constanza Lopez
de Miranda, citizens of Puentedeume, a small town in Galicia,
SR-290. Survivor from Galicia, Smith-298. In Mexico, he declared
that he was a legitimate son of Pedro and Constanza, already
mentioned, and that he left Spain for Florida, where he was in
charge of the harquebusiers. He was now living in Michoacain with
his wife, a legitimate daughter of Pedro Calero.85

Moscoso, Luis de. Perhaps the most experienced survivor for
he had taken part in the conquest of Peru prior to Florida. On
August 20, 1535, Moscoso was called to testify in a secret


40







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


investigation made in Lima, on the conduct of Francisco Pizarro
and several of his officers, regarding the managing of the royal
treasury.86 Soon after he must have departed for Spain, for he
appears again. Moscoso was one of the highest ranking individuals
under de Soto, and was for some time, Maestre de Campo or
commanding officer, in charge of the administrative affairs of the
army. After de Soto's death, Moscoso was elected governor and
then directed the expedition out of Florida to Panuco. From this
port Moscoso continued to Mexico City where, on October 17,
1543, he wrote to the King, asking him the award of the
encomienda of the Indians of Xochimilco.87 Later, in 1547, he
claimed in the same city, that he was a native of Zafra, Spain, the
he had known Hemando de Soto since 1525, and that he was
forty-two years of age.88 In Mexico, Moscoso was accused of
living illegally with his cousin Leonor de Alvarado, who had given
him a son. Moscoso figures prominently in the writings of Rangel,
Garcilaso de la Vega, Hernandez de Biedma, and Elvas, because of
his rank and activities.89 He was a son of the Comendador Alonso
Hemandez de Diosdado and Dofia Isabel de Alvarado, both from
Zafra, SR-329. Hemandez de Biedma lists him as a survivor,
Smith-294. Two of Moscoso's brothers also outlived the Florida
experience; they were Juan de Alvarado and Cristobal de
Mosquera, included here in their proper places.

Mosquera, Cristobal de. Brother of Luis de Moscoso, native
of Zafra, survivor of the Florida expedition, Smith-294. Son of
Alonso Hernandez de Diosdado and Isabel de Alvarado, citizens of
Zafra, SR-329.

Mufioz, Juan. Citizen of Villada in Tierra de Medina de
Ruiseco, a locality in Castilla, and a resident of Mexico City in
1547, at which point he was 27 years old. There he declared
having known Hernando de Soto in 1538, whom he accompanied
to Florida. That had the Adelantado survived, he would have
established permanent communities in Florida, for it had excellent
lands to cultivate wheat and vineyards and to raise cattle. He
signed his deposition.90 This Mufioz is probably the son of Martin
Mufioz and Maria Garcia, citizens of Villacidaler, SR-316, a place


41







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


quite near Medina de Ruiseco. Also, he could be the same person
mentioned by Garcilaso de la Vega as being from Burgos which is
not too far from Palencia, the province where Villacidaler is
located.

Nieto, Alvaro. Son of Pedro Martin Nieto and Mari Sanchez
de Torrejana, citizens of Alburquerque, SR-278. Survivor
originally from Alburquerque, Smith-295. In 1547, while living in
Mexico, he testified in the Bobadilla lawsuit that he was 35 years
old and had known de Soto since 1539. He further related having
been at the port of Espiritu Santo in Florida when a ship arrived
with a message from Isabel de Bobadilla for her husband. Also,
according to Nieto, de Soto had a very fine tent made of quality
Peruvian woolens and, had the latter not died, he would have
established cities in Florida, for its lands were very rich. Nieto
signed his testimony.91 Once again, in Mexico in 1554, Nieto was
called as a witness by Rodrigo Vazquez, another of de Soto's
soldiers. No further details about his participation in the Florida
expedition were given except that he was very active there.92 He is
mentioned several times by Garcilaso who indicates Nieto was a
captain in the army.93

Nieto, Juan. Brother of Alvaro Nieto and son of Pedro Martin
Nieto and Mari Sanchez de Torrejana, SR-278. This Nieto was
from Alburquerque as well and a survivor of the Florida
expedition, Smith-295.

Nufiez de Prado, Pedro. Son of Juan Nufiez de Prado and
Maria de Solis, citizens of Fuente de Arco, SR-301. Survivor from
Llerena, Smith-293. Fuente de Arco is about 10 miles from
Llerena.

Nufiez de Vargas, Vasco. He appears to be a brother of Juan
de Vargas, since his parents are listed as Hernando de Vargas and
Ines Alvarez de Balboa, citizens of Burguillos, SR-296. This
should be one of the two survivors listed by Hernandez de Biedma
as Vargas from Burguillos, Smith-294. The other should be Juan
de Vargas listed below.


42






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Oliva, Diego de. Survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.
Garcilaso indicated he was a native of Cuba.94

Olivas, Val de. Another survivor from Castilla la Vieja,
Smith-296. There is a small town called Valdeolivas some 70
miles east of Madrid, thus in Castilla la Nueva. The conqueror
referred to here may have been one of its citizens. It is possible as
well, that he could be Cristobal de las Olivas; if so, he could be the
son of Francisco Dominguez and Francisca Hemandez from
C6rdoba, SR-314, a city not in Castilla la Nueva, however.

Ortiz, Bernabe. Son of Diego Rangel and Elvira Ortiz,
citizen of Almendralejo, SR-321. Smith-294 lists him as Ortiz,
adding that he was a brother of Rodrigo Rangel, a survivor from
the Florida adventure.

Ortiz, Francisco. Son of Pedro Ortiz and Maria de Lazcano,
citizens of Segovia, SR-324. Ortiz was a survivor from Castilla la
Vieja listed in Smith-296.

Ortufio, Juan de. Son of Pedro Ortufio and Joana Arauzana,
SR-291. One of the survivors is listed as Hortuno, from Portugal,
Smith-298.

Osorio, Antonio. Survivor and brother of the Marquis of
Astorga, Smith-297. He was a son of the Marquis and Isabel Perez,
native of Astorga, SR-326. He is mentioned by chroniclers
Rodrigo Rangel and Elvas.95

Osorio, Garcia. In his probanza of services he rendered to the
Crown, he began by stating that he was married to Isabel
Marmolejo, daughter of a well known conqueror of Mexico,
Francisco Marmolejo. From this document, dated 1560 and 1561
in Mexico, we know that he married her in that city. He continued,
asserting that he sold all his properties in Valladolid to pay to
accompany his brother Francisco on the Florida expedition. During
this adventure, which lasted for a total of five years, his brother
died, yet Garcia was able to make his way to Mexico. Prior to his


43







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


life in the Indies, Garcia had served the King in Italy, Tunis,
France and other parts of Europe. He also stated that he was of
noble origin and an hidalgo.96 The witnesses called in the
probanza were in agreement with Osorio's statement. In 1546,
Osorio was called to testify in the suit between Isabel de Bobadilla
and Hernando Ponce de Leon. Besides stating that he was in
Florida, he added that he was born in the town of Mestajes,
Kingdom of Leon, around 1510. He signed his declaration.97 This
distinguished Osorio, who was captain of the harquebusiers, is
mentioned more than once by Garcilaso de la Vega and by Elvas.98
He is listed as a survivor from Astorga, Smith-297, which is in the
Kingdom of Leon.

Otazo, Juan de. Son of Cristobal de Gamarra and (part of the
document is missing) Rivera, citizens of Pedrosa, SR-329.
Survivor from Astorga, Smith-297. This Pedrosa could be the one
near Astorga.

Paris, Dionisio de. French cleric mentioned by Garcilaso de
la Vega who indicated that he died.99 However, Father Paris
appears in the list of survivors, Smith-298.

Parra, Alonso de la. A cleric, son of Bartolome de la Parra
and Catalina Perez, citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-331.
He is listed from Jerez or Villanueva in Smith-293, which are
towns located in the same province of Extremadura.

Pegado, Esteban. Son of Hernan Pegado and Lucia Lopez,
from Badajoz, SR-287. Survivor from Portugal, Smith-298. It
should be remembered that the proximity of Badajoz to Portugal
may have encouraged those born in the latter to state that they
were from Spain in order to avoid inconveniences in their passage
to the Indies. Garcilaso de la Vega mentions Estevan Pegado of
Yelves, for Elvas, in Portugal.100

Pegado, Fernan. Son of Esteban Pegado and a survivor from
Portugal, listed only as Pegado in Smith-298. Elvas, however,
stated that he was named Fernan.101


44






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Peloso, Bernaldo. He testified in Mexico that he was a
resident of Panuco, originally from Genova, and a legitimate son of
Joan Peloso and Catalina Sancardo. He added that he had served
the King in the conquest of Cartagena, from which he went with de
Soto to Florida. He married a daughter of Lucas Ginoves in
Panuco.102 Peloso sailed from Spain for Cartagena in 1532,
landing there on January 14, 1533.103 He may have been one of the
founders of that city, which later became part of the New Kingdom
of Granada.

Perez, Andres. Son of Juan Hemandez Carretero and Mari
Fernandez, from La Morera, SR-305. Survivor from Burguillos,
Smith-294. Burguillos and Morera are not more than ten miles
apart.

Perez, Bartolome. Son of Alonso Afiez and Teresa
Fernandez, citizens of Segura de Leon, SR-284. One survivor is
listed only as Perez, an ironsmith from Segura, Smith-294.


Perez, Francisco. Survivor from Burguillos, Smith-294. This
may be the son of Diego Perez and Maria Hemandez from
Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-314. There was however, another
conqueror of Florida with the same name, son of Juan Perez and
Mari Sanchez, from Horcajo de la Rivera, SR-297.

Perez, Juan. A survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-297.

Perez, Simon. A survivor from Badajoz, Smith-293.


Peria. A survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-298. There is a
possibility that this is Andres de Pemia, a conqueror who testified
that he made the passage to the Indies in 1537 or 1538 and
engaged in the exploration of Florida. He appeared in the New
Kingdom of Granada around 1547, where he was active in the
founding of Pamplona, the city in which he made his probanza in
1557.104


45







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Porras. A survivor from Sevilla, Smith-292. There was a Luis
de Porras, son of Juan de Porras and Ana de Salcedo, resident of
Sevilla, who embarked from that port on March 13, 1538 for Santo
Domingo. He could have proceeded to Florida the next year.105

Porras, Juan de. Son of Rodrigo Darce and Maria de
Rosales, from Medina de Pomar, SR-327 and 328. This Medina is
in the province of Burgos. Porras was living in Mexico in 1554
when he was over 30 years old. He testified in the probanza of
Rodrigo Vazquez, one of de Soto's soldiers, in 1554. There he
declared he had known Vazquez since 1539. He asserted that he
was involved in the conquest of Florida for almost five years, after
arriving there from Spain via Cuba in the armada of de Soto. From
Florida he went to Mexico, where he was well established by
1554. He signed his testimony.106 Either Hernandez de Biedma
missed this conqueror in his list of survivors, or he confused his
provenance of Medina del Pomar with Sevilla.

Portillo. Brother of Perez, the ironsmith from Segura listed
above, Smith-294.

Pozo, Father. Surviving priest from Segura, Smith-294.
There was a Bartolome Pozo, son of Fernan Alonso Pozo and
Isabel Macias, from Segura de Leon, SR-285. Garcilaso de la Vega
mentions a priest called Francisco del Poso, from C6rdoba.107 This
Segura is in Extremadura while Cordoba is in Andalucia.

Pozo, Pedro del. In the city of Cuzco in Peru, Pozo testified
in Pedro de Arevalo's probanza, another of de Soto's men. This
document, made in 1556, contains his short answers to the
interrogatory presented to him. From them we learn that Pozo
knew Arevalo since 1537, more or less, and that he witnessed
some of the events related to the Florida expedition. He signed his
deposition without indicating his age.108 Pedro del Pozo was a son
of Alonso del Pozo and Maria del Pozo, citizens of Salmeron,
SR-328. He is likely the same survivor listed as Pozo Salmeron
from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296. Salmeron is a town in Castilla;
however, not in la Vieja, but in la Nueva.


46






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Rangel, Rodrigo. This name has survived the ages because,
as secretary to de Soto, he kept a diary of the expedition, later used
by the well-known royal chronicler, Gonzalo Fernandez de
Oviedo. On May 13, 1539, Rangel recorded the will made by de
Soto in Havana and, on December 6, 1543, he witnessed, in Santo
Domingo, the intent of Isabel de Bobadilla to make an inventory of
assets left by her deceased husband.109 Rangel was a witness in the
probanza made by Gonzalo Mendez de Sotomayor in the city of
Mexico in 1560. From this document we know that Rangel was
born before 1510 and that he had known Mendez's family for a
long time since they lived in Extremadura where Rangel was born.
He declared that he went from Spain to Florida in the de Soto
armada and explored this land for several years. Rangel proceeded
from Florida to New Spain with the other survivors and from
there, to Santo Domingo to visit the widow Bobadilla. Later, he
returned to Mexico where he settled and where he was at the time
of this deposition.110 Rodrigo Rangel was a son of Diego Rangel
and Elvira Ortiz from Almendralejo, SR-321. He is listed simply
as Rangel by Hernandez de Biedma, Smith-294.

Raya, Alonso de. Son of Juan de Raya and Catalina Cazorla,
citizens of Ubeda, SR-291. Survivor from Ubeda, Smith-296.

Redondo, Francisco. In the probanza of Sebastian Villegas,
made in New Spain in 1569, Redondo testified that he knew this
companion of de Soto not only in Cuba but also during the Florida
expedition, where he suffered many hardships and hunger. He
added that he was born before 1508, and declined to sign his
declaration because he could not write.11 Francisco was the son of
Juan Redondo and Isabel Carmona, citizens of Medellin, SR-301.
He is listed as a survivor from the Florida experience, Smith-295.

Reinoso, Francisco de. As a witness in Juan de Afiasco's
probanza made in Puebla de los Angeles, Mexico in 1544, he
declared he had known Afiasco since 1537. Reinoso added that he
was born in 1511. He went from Sevilla to Florida in de Soto's
armada and saw Afiasco with three or four horses and several
slaves. He was in Florida a long time and witnessed some of the


47






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


actions described by Afiasco.112 This Francisco seems to have
been the son of Gonzalo Reinoso and Isabel Escobar, citizens of
Bobadilla or Bovadilla, SR-327. Hernandez de Biedma listed one
Reinoso as a survivor from Astorga, Smith-297. No Bobadilla is
near Astorga.

Rodriguez, Bartolome. In Mexico he declared that he was a
son of Bartolome Rodriguez and Maria Rodriguez, born in
Valencia de la Torre, and at the time of his declaration, a resident
of Piinuco. In this city he married a daughter of conquistador
Alonso Caballero.113 He is listed as son of the parents mentioned
above and from Valencia, SR-308.

Rodriguez, Fabian. Ironsmith established in the city of
Puebla de los Angeles in New Spain in 1544. There he testified in
the probanza of Juan de Afiasco. He stated that he was born around
1514, and that he was present in the expedition to Florida directed
by Hernando de Soto. He signed his declaration.114 Fabian appears
as the son of Alvar Garcia, citizen of Yeba Hernando (?), SR-319.
In addition, he was included in the list of Hernandez de Biedma as
a survivor from Medellin, Smith-295.

Rodriguez, Salvador. In 1556 in Cuzco, Peru, Rodriguez
testified in the probanza of Pedro de Arevalo, one of the
companions of de Soto. Rodriguez indicated that he had known
Arevalo since 1536 and that the former was born around 1515. He
stated that he had been in Florida where he saw many of the
actions mentioned by Arevalo, including their arrival in Mexico
under the leadership of Luis de Moscoso. At an unknown later date
he proceeded to Peru, where he signed his testimony.115 Salvador
was a son of Alonso Rodriguez and Juana Rodriguez, citizens of
Trujillo, SR-315.

Romo, Alonso. Son of Gutierrez Garcia Cardenosa and Maria
Romo, citizens from Badajoz, SR-281. He was a brother of Arias
Tinoco and survived the Florida exploration, Smith-293. In
Mexico he testified that he was from Badajoz and the son of the
same parents mentioned above. He added that he had been with de


48






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Soto in Florida and that he had sailed for Panuco as captain of one
of the brigantines they had constructed. Romo is often mentioned
by Hernandez de Biedma, Rangel, Elvas and Garcilaso de la Vega,
as a captain of cavalry.116

Ruiz, Bartolome. Stocking-maker from Sevilla who survived
the Florida expedition, Smith-292. There was a Bartolome Ruiz,
son of Francisco Ruiz Barragan and Elvira Jimenez, from Andujar,
Smith-318, which is a town east of C6rdoba, Andalucia, a province
in which Sevilla is also located.

Ruiz, Juan. Son of Pedro Ruiz and Barbara Martinez, citizens
of Arroyuelo, SR-322. This may be the same carpenter and
survivor from Badajoz, Smith-293.

Ruiz, Juan. Survivor from Sevilla, one of the four ailing
persons left at Pinuco, Smith-298.

Ruiz Lobillo, Juan. An experienced soldier who had taken
part in the conquest of Cuzco in Peru prior to Florida. Between
May and July 1535, Ruiz had a large quantity of gold appraised in
Cuzco, for paying the corresponding taxes to the Crown.117 He
went from Peru to Spain to enroll in the army that would go to
Florida. In two different instances, Ruiz Lobillo testified that he
had been in Florida with Hernando de Soto. The first was in
Mexico in 1547, when he indicated that he was born around 1520
(?) in Setenil. He added that when he was in the conquest of
Florida he noticed the good quality of the land.118 His second
testimony was in Jerez, Spain, in 1560, where he reaffirmed his
participation in the exploration of Florida.119 In both cases Ruiz
signed his testimonies. Ruiz may be the same conquistador listed
by Hernandez de Biedma as Juan Rodriguez Lobillo, Smith-296.

Ruis de Llanos, Juan. This survivor testified in Lima, Peru in
1558, in the probanza of Pedro de Arevalo.120 Juan indicated that
he had known Arevalo since 1538 when both had gone to Florida
under de Soto and where he witnessed much of what Arevalo
indicated in his probanza. He signed his testimony. This soldier


49






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


was not mentioned by Hemandez de Biedma, nor by Solar and
Rujula.

Sagredo, Bartolome de. Son of Alonso de Sagredo and
Francisca Serrato, SR-308. Listed as Sagrado, a survivor from
Medellin appears in Smith-295. Garcilaso de la Vega mentioned
him as Francisco Sagredo from Medellin.121

Salamanca, Cosme de. Son of Pedro de Pascua and Ursula
Martinez, citizens of Salamanca, SR-290. This may be the same
Salamanca, a tailor from Castilla la Vieja, listed as a survivor,
Smith-196.

Salazar, Francisco de. Son of Diego de Salazar and Maria
de la Cruz, citizens of Burgos, SR-303. Among the survivors of
the Florida expedition a Salazar is listed as being from Castilla la
Vieja, Smith-296.

Salazar, Sin Ventura. Survivor from the Mountains, which
could also mean from the Kingdom of Aragon, Smith-298.


San Jorge, Alvaro de. This survivor testified in Mexico, in
1547, that he was born in Galicia, Spain around 1502. He had
known de Soto since the year 1537, and had gone to Florida. There
he saw de Soto using a very good tent made of fine Peruvian
cotton and wool. He witnessed the existence of the rich region of
the chief Tigualta who had 17 provinces under his jurisdiction.
From Florida he continued with the rest of the soldiers to Mexico,
where he remained.122 Garcilaso de la Vega has him as Sanjurge
and makes him participant of an expedition to Mexico.123
Hernandez de Biedma listed a San Jorge as one of the survivors
from Galicia, Smith-298.


San Vicente, Juan de. He was a resident of Mexico in 1569,
when he stated he was over 58 years of age. He became active in
the preparation of the Florida expedition of de Soto in 1537, with


50







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


whom he left Spain. He explored Florida for several years and,
with the survivors, arrived in Mexico. He signed his testimony.124
Neither Hernandez de Biedma, nor Solar and Ruijula,
acknowledged the existence of San Vicente.


Sanabria, Diego de. Son of Juan de Sanabria and Cecilia
Vazquez, citizens of Medellin, SR-301. Sanabria is listed as one of
the survivors from Medellin, Smith-295.

Sanchez, Andres. Brother of Francisco Sanchez, from
Badajoz, Smith-293. If so, Andres should be the son of Pedro
Sanchez and Leonor Martin, citizens of Badajoz, SR-286. There is
another Andres Sanchez however, listed as son of Martin Sanchez
Salvador and Catalina Garcia, citizens of Badajoz de Talavera,
SR-286.


Sanchez, Atanasio. In 1561 he was a resident of Lima, Peru.
There he testified, in the probanza of Juan Cordero, that he had
known Cordero since 1537 when both left with Hemando de Soto
for Florida. In this new land he witnessed Cordero's good service
with arms and horses, and his command, for some time, of a group
of men. He was in Florida for five years, after which he went to
Mexico and then to Peru. In the latter he served the King with
President de la Gasca against the rebel Gonzalo Pizarro, who was
vanquished in the battle of Xaquixaguana. He signed his testimony
and declared himself to be more than 40 years old.125 Atanasio
Sanchez was the son of Vasco Fernandez and Juana Martin,
citizens of Badajoz, SR-281.


Sanchez Rendon, Bartolome. Son of Bartolome Sanchez
Rendon and Ana Martin, citizens of Algaba, SR-315. Among the
survivors, Hemandez de Biedma lists a sword smith called Rodon,
from Sevilla, Smith-292, who may be the same. Algaba is just
outside Sevilla and Rodon could be a misspelling of Rendon.


51







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Sanchez, Diego. Son of Juan Lorenzo and Leonor Sanchez,
residents of Alburquerque, SR-279. He is listed as a survivor in
Smith-295.

Sanchez, Francisco. Son of Pedro Sanchez and Leonor
Martin, citizens of Badajoz, SR-286. Survivor listed in Smith-293.

Sanchez Mancera, Hernan. Son of Juan Mancera and Maria
Sanchez, citizens of Talavera de Badajoz, SR-283. A survivor
called Hernan Mancera is listed from Badajoz in Smith-293.

Sardina, Domingo. Son of Bartolome Vazquez and Isabel
Rodriguez, SR-289. Hernandez de Biedma lists a tailor from
Portugal called Domingo Sardina who probably is the same
person, Smith-298.

Sayago, Juan. Son of Alonso Martin and Juana Sayaga,
citizens of Zafra, SR-313. Among the survivors of the Florida
expedition, Hernandez de Biedma listed a Sayago as tailor from
Zafra, Smith-294. A tailor from Zafra called Juan Sayago testified
in Mexico in 1547. On that occasion he declared himself to be 26
years of age. He was one of the explorers of Florida with
Hernando de Soto whom he saw using a very good Peruvian tent.
While he was in Florida, he also noticed how good the land was
and that had de Soto lived, they would have settled that province.
Sayago did not sign his deposition because he indicated that he did
not know how to write.126

Sedefios, Juan. A foreigner who survived the Florida
expedition, Smith-299. There was one Antonio Sedefio, son of
Francisco Sedefio and Maria Alonso, citizens of Valladolid, who
embarked for Florida, SR-330.

Silvera, Diego de. Twice Silvera testified in Mexico City, the
first in 1554 and the second in 1561, that he took part in the
Florida expedition organized and led by Hernando de Soto, having
embarked in Sevilla for Cuba where they remained almost one
year. Afterwards, all the armada sailed for Florida. In this new


52







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


land he engaged in several discoveries and expeditions over a
period of five years until he abandoned it and left for Panuco and
Mexico, the latter being his place of residence in the years of his
declarations. On both occasions he signed his testimonies, adding
that he was born around 1514.127 Garcilaso de la Vega mentions a
Silvera from Galicia, calling him in one instance Francisco and in
another Hernando.128 Hernandez de Biedma lists a Silvera,
Galician, among the survivors, Smith-298. On a third occasion,
Silvera testified he was the son of Rui de Silvera and Teresa
Rodriguez de Sejas, residents of San Payo (?) which is in Galicia.
He added he went from Spain to Cuba with Bishop Diego
Sarmiento, from which he continued with Hemando de Soto to
Florida.129

Silvestre, Gonzalo. In 1558, Silvestre requested permission
from the authorities of Valladolid, Spain, to make a probanza of
the services he rendered to the Crown in Peru, New Spain and
Florida. Once obtained, he presented an interrogatory to the
witnesses that he gathered in Valladolid, Badajoz, and Ciudad
Rodrigo. In essence, he indicated that he was a citizen of Villa de
Herrera, and that he went to Florida with Hernando de Soto in
1538, well equipped with arms and horses, where he remained for
several years. Afterwards he reached New Spain and in 1544 he
departed for Peru. In this province he took part, under Captain
Diego Centeno, in the battle against the rebel Gonzalo Pizarro as
well as in the final battle of Xaquixaguana where Pizarro was
defeated and killed. Finally, he took part, with Gonzalo de
Alvarado, in opposing and vanquishing the forces of the rebel
Francisco Hemandez Giron.130 Gonzalo was the son of Gonzalo
Silvestre and Isabel Morena, citizens of Alcantara, SR-319. He
was mentioned so many times by Garcilaso de la Vega that he is
believed to be the person who supplied this chronicler with most of
his information.131


Soria, Pedro de. Son of Juan de Soria and Ana, residents of
Oropesa, SR-296. He is listed as a survivor from Castilla la Vieja
by Hemandez de Biedma, Smith-296.


53


I







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Suarez de Figueroa, Gomez. Though not mentioned by
Hemandez de Biedma nor Solar and Ruijula, his name is
contributed by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega. Garcilaso wrote
that after the survivors were able to reach Panuco and the city of
Mexico, Gomez Suarez returned to the house and estate of his
father, Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa.132

Suarez, Juan. Son of Pedro de Santa Maria and Juana Suarez,
citizens of Caceres, SR-277. He is listed as a friend of Luis Bravo
who also survived the Florida expedition, Smith-293.

Suarez de Maruelas, Hernan. After surviving Florida,
Suarez became so well known in Mexico that his son-in-law,
Pedro Perez de Zamora, used him as a reference when requesting a
royal favor in 1582. Attached to this document there is a probanza
made by Suarez in Mexico in 1572. There he requested witnesses
to testify if they knew him, including his father and mother,
Hernan Suarez de Maruelas and Ines de Valgrande, citizens of
Villanueva de la Serena in the kingdom of Castilla. Also, whether
the witnesses knew that in 1537 he had gone to Florida with
Hemando de Soto, a venture which lasted five years and ended in
New Spain. In this viceroyalty he served well in the pacification of
the natives of Oaxaca. In 1552, Suarez took part in some military
actions in Yucatan and Golfo Dulce, in the latter as Lieutenant
-Governor. While imprisoned in Honduras, up to 80 of his men
rebelled and took the Royal Treasury. Finally, in 1553, he returned
to Mexico, where he was well received by Viceroy Velasco, who
provided for him. In 1554, after other services in New Spain and to
the Audiencia of Confines, he married Ursula de Grijalva,
daughter of one of the conquerors of Mexico, Sebastian de
Grijalva. It should be noted that this document contains interesting
descriptions of some of the actions that took place in Florida
during the de Soto expedition, especially around Mobila, Chicasa
and Tascalusa133. Suarez was listed by his second last name as the
son of Hernando Mazuelas and Ines de Valgrando, citizens of
Villanueva de la Serena, SR-302. There is a Mazuelas in the list of
survivors of Hernandez de Biedma, who may be the same person,
Smith-294.


54







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Tapia. A survivor who appears to be different from the
Francisco de Tapia who follows since this one is listed as being
from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296. This conqueror could be Diego
de Tapia, of whom Garcilaso de la Vega wrote. Shortly after the
Florida survivors arrived in Mexico from Painuco, "A soldier
named Diego de Tapia (whom I knew afterward in Peru where he
served His Majesty well in the wars against Gonzalo Pizarro, Don
Sebastian de Castilla and Francisco Hemandez Giron), while
having clothes made for him, walked through the city of Mexico
dressed in nothing but skins."134

Tapia Maraver, Francisco de. Witness in the probanza of
Pedro Arevalo in 1558 in Cuzco, Peru, where Tapia then resided.
This survivor went to Florida via Cuba with Hemando de Soto
where they disembarked at the port of Espiritu Santo. After de
Soto died, Luis de Moscoso took command of the army and led
them to Mexico. No indication is given as to when Tapia moved to
Peru. He declared himself to be 35 years old and signed his
testimony.135 This man seems to be the son of Alonso Malaver and
Ines de Tapia, citizens of Zafra, SR-310. Hemandez de Biedma
lists, among the survivors, a Francisco de Tapia, from Zafra, who
appears to be the same person, Smith-294.

Tiedra, Miguel de. In Puebla de los Angeles, Mexico, Tiedra
was called to testify in the probanza of Juan de Afiasco, treasurer
of the de Soto expedition. In 1544 in that city, Tiedra declared he
lived there and that he was born in 1517. He added that he had
known Afiasco since 1539 and that he was familiar with the lands
of Florida. He answered positively all the questions posed by
Afiasco, several referring to his actions in Florida. Tiedra signed
his declaration.136 He is listed as the son of Gabriel de Tiedra and
Ana Martin, citizens from Salamanca, SR-319. One of the
survivors was a Tiedra from Salamanca, Smith-296.

Tinoco, Arias. Another conqueror who lived in Mexico after
the Florida adventure. There he testified in the probanza of Juan de
Afiasco in 1544. He was born before 1504 and had known Afiasco
since 1537. He had followed him to Florida, disembarking in the


55







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


port previously selected by Afiasco. He witnessed many of
Afiasco's services during that expedition, especially on an
occasion when Afiasco saved the army from hunger by finding the
town of Aymay which contained large stores of grain. He
witnessed, as well, the diligence and effective participation of
Afiasco in the construction of the ships that were to take the
Florida survivors to Panuco in New Spain. He was in one of the
five ships which sailed upriver to reach that port. He saw too, that
the only possession that Afiasco was able to save from the Florida
experience was one slave. He signed his deposition.137 Tinoco was
a son of Gutierre Garcia Cardenosa and Maria Romo, citizens of
Badajoz, SR-281. He is listed among the survivors of Florida, as
son of Cardenosa, from Badajoz, Smith-293. It should be noted
that the complete name of the Adelantado of Florida was
Hernando Mendez de Soto y Gutierrez Cardenosa. Tinoco's
parents last names suggest a kinship with the Adelantado. Arias
Tinoco, who was a captain of cavalry, was accompanied by two
brothers who survived the expedition as well, Alonso Romo and
Diego Tinoco, considered here in their proper order.

Tinoco, Diego. Son of Gutierre Garcia Cardenosa and Maria
Romo, citizens of Badajoz, SR-281. He was a brother of Arias
Tinoco and survived the Florida expedition, Smith-293.

Tolosa. A survivor from Vizcaya, Smith-297.


Torre, Alvaro de la. On October 25th, 1559, Mexican
Viceroy Luis de Velasco wrote to Florida explorer, Tristan de
Luna y Arellano. He informed Luna that he was sending a memoir
written by Alvaro de la Torre, "the cleric who was with de Soto in
Florida."138 It is clear from the content of this message that the
Viceroy was writing about someone he and Luna knew well.
Alvaro de la Torre could be the sixth chronicler of the de Soto
expedition after the Gentleman of Elvas, Rodrigo Rangel, Luis
Hemandez de Biedma, Garcilaso de la Vega, and Cafiete. This
cleric appears distinct from Fray Francisco de la Torre described
later. While Alvaro gave his memoir to the Viceroy, most likely in


56







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Mexico, Francisco may have stayed in Spain, where he went after
the Florida expedition.

Torres, Alonso de. A survivor from Ubeda or Baeza,
Smith-296.

Torres, Fray Francisco de. Priest from the Order of the Holy
Trinity, who met de Soto in 1538 and who was born around 1515.
He testified in Madrid in 1546 that he accompanied de Soto to
Florida and that the latter died on the 21st day of May 1542, in the
province of Guachoya, near the Espiritu Santo River. He signed
his deposition.139 He is probably one of the three surviving priests
listed in Smith-298.


Torres, Manuel. Son of Francisco de Torres and Catalina
Garcia, citizens of Badajoz, SR-301. A survivor from Portugal,
Smith-298.


Torres, Pedro de. Son of Alonso Martin and Elvira de
Torres, citizens of Medina del Campo, SR-296. Listed as a
survivor, Smith-296.

Torres, Sancho de. Son of Sancho Martinez de Torres and
Elvira Sanchez Guerra, residents of Quintanilla de Pienzo, SR-300.
Survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.

Tristan. From Sevilla, an individual who survived the Florida
expedition, Smith-292.

Trujillo, Baltasar de. Son of Miguel de Trujillo and Maria de
Villalobos, from Sevilla, SR-317. This man may be the same
Trujillo from Sevilla listed as a survivor in Smith-292.


Valderas. A survivor from Leon, Smith-297.


57







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Valdivieso, Luis de. This survivor testified, in Mexico, that
he was originally from Salamanca and presently was a resident of
Panuco. He was the legitimate son of Joan Velazquez and Maria
Valdivieso, servants of the Catholic Kings and went to Florida
with de Soto. He married a daughter of Pedro Carranza, a
conqueror from New Spain.140

Valtierra, Pedro de. Son of Pedro Martinez and Catalina de
Valtierra, citizens of Leon, SR-301. Valtierra is listed as a survivor
from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-297.

Vargas, Juan de. Son of Hernando de Vargas and Ines
Alvarez de Balboa, citizens of Burguillos, SR-296. Vargas from
Burguillos is one of two survivors listed with this last name in
Smith-294.

Vazquez, Alonso. A native of the city of Jerez who made his
probanza in nearby Badajoz on June 12, 1560. From the
interrogatory he presented, the following information has been
obtained.141 In 1538 Vazquez left Spain for the discovery and
conquest of Florida in the armada of Hemando de Soto. Also, that
the Adelantado debarked at Santiago de Cuba and there, and in
Havana, spent a year in preparation. Further, that Vazquez went to
Florida as a captain and, after debarking, was given command of
up to 80 men. After twelve days in the port he went with Captain
Baltasar Gallegos on the first entry made in the country while de
Soto and most of the army remained behind. Later, they went to
the province of Paracuxi which they found inhabited, and heard
that it was a country abundant in food. But, to the contrary, all
men, among them Alonso and his brother Rodrigo Vazquez,
suffered great hunger for a month and lived on nothing but the
green stalks of maize. Marching through that country they arrived
at a marsh that took three days, without food, to cross, finally
arriving at the province of Ocal. De Soto, intent on reconnoitering
the country, left Luis de Moscoso in command of the camp and,
with Vazquez, explored the area. In Mauvila the formerly peaceful
Indians killed 15 or 20 men and wounded 150. In breaking down
the palisade, where they were in strength, Vazquez was wounded


58







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


in an ankle making him lame for a year. At Tula, he and two other
soldiers held off attacking Indians until a Captain Vasconcelos and
the calvary arrived. In Chicazuela, in another affray on a savanna,
he served courageously. After he came with the survivors to
Mexico, dressed in skins, he and his brother Rodrigo made
preparations to go to the aid of President de la Gasca in Peru. He
was in the conquest of Florida from the beginning to the end.
Alonso Vazquez, a brother of Rodrigo Alvarez, was a survivor
according to Smith-293. If true, Alonso was a son of Andres
Vazquez and Leonor Rodriguez, citizens of Zafra. Jerez and Zafra
are not more than 25 miles apart. Hemandez de Biedma, however,
may be in error when he stated that Alonso was a brother of
Rodrigo Alvarez, confusing him with Rodrigo Vazquez.
Remember that this same Alonso Vazquez said that his brother
was Rodrigo Vazquez, not Alvarez. See Rodrigo Vazquez's
biography for more information.

Vazquez, Francisco. Son of Alonso Vazquez Caballero and
Catalina Botello, citizens of Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-332. He
was a survivor from Jerez or Villanueva, Smith-293.

Vazquez, Francisco. Son of Anton Vazquez and Maria
Vazquez, from Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-295. Another
survivor different from the preceding, according to Smith-293.

Vazquez, Gonzalo. A resident of Jerez de Badajoz, Spain,
and a dweller in the town of Matamoros, when, in June 1560, he
testified in the probanza of Alonso Vazquez, and stated that they
were not related. Answering the questions presented to him,
Gonzalo testified that he was 54 years of age and had known
Alonso for about the last twenty years. The former was in Santiago
de Cuba and later in Florida when all landed along with Hemando
de Soto. He went with Baltasar de Gallegos and with other soldiers
to a country called Paracoxi, in Florida. Alonso Vazquez was with
them with his brother Rodrigo. They all endured the lack of food
and on one occasion, they ate nothing but stalks of corn, boiled or
uncooked. After leaving Florida, they arrived in Mexico clothed in
skins. When de la Gasca, President of Peru, called for help,


59







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Gonzalo saw Alonso and Rodrigo enlist, after having invested
much money in their equipment. He signed his deposition.142 In
1547 Gonzalo testified in the suit between Hernando Ponce de
Leon and Isabel de Bobadilla. He repeated that he was part of the
Florida expedition and, at the time of his declaration, a resident of
Villanueva de Barcarrota.143 This conqueror seems to be the same
son of Gonzalo Vazquez and Catalina Vazquez, residents of
Villanueva de Barcarrota, SR-332. He is listed as well in
Smith-293.

Vazquez, Hernan. This survivor declared, in the city of
Mexico in 1557, that he was 35 years old and had been in the
Florida expedition led by de Soto. He signed his testimony.144
Twelve years later Hernan was still living in Mexico, where he
reiterated having explored Florida and, after de Soto's death,
having gone to Mexico under the leadership of Luis de
Moscoso.145 He appears to be the son of Mateo Garcia and Juana
Rodriguez, citizens of Badajoz, SR-285.

Vazquez, Rodrigo. Contrary to what was stated in the
probanza of Alonso Vazquez that after Florida he went to Mexico
and Peru, it appears that Rodrigo stayed in Mexico. This would be
more accurate, unless Rodrigo was not Vazquez but Alvarez, as
stated by Hernandez de Biedma, who seems to be in error. Rodrigo
made his probanza in Mexico in 1554. He asked the witnesses to
declare if the following was true. That he and his brother Alonso
Vazquez were born in the city of Jerez near Badajoz. That he came
to the Indies in the armada of de Soto, which sailed from the port
of San Lucar de Barrameda, and arrived at Santiago de Cuba in
1538. That he and the other soldiers of the expedition stayed on
that island for a year prior to leaving for Florida, where Rodrigo
served for five years. That his brother Alonso was a leader of
soldiers under Juan Ruiz Lobillo until wounded in an ankle, at
which time Rodrigo took command of his brother's troops. That
the witness knew that around 1542 he, Rodrigo, went to Mexico.
Finally, Vazquez asked the witnesses to affirm that he was an
hidalgo of good repute and honor.146 As has been noted in their
respective probanzas, Rodrigo Vazquez and Alonso Vazquez both


60






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


declared that they were brothers and survivors of the Florida
expedition. On the other hand, Hernandez de Biedma and Solar
and Rijula, agree on the existence of a Rodrigo Alvarez, son of
Andres Vasquez and Leonor Rodriguez. No Rodrigo Vazquez is
mentioned by these last two sources. It may be that Rodrigo
Vazquez and Rodrigo Alvarez are the same person. If this is the
case, I have made a duplicate entry here.

Vega, Andres de. When Gonzalo Silvestre, one of de Soto's
soldiers, made his probanza in Valladolid, Spain, in 1558, he asked
Andres de Vega to testify in his behalf. Vega did so, first stating
that he was 42 years old and had known Silvestre since 1538. He
continued that he went from Spain to Florida in de Soto's armada
and that they explored that land for several years. After having lost
more than 300 men and 150 horses, the survivors built seven
brigantines in which they reached Panuco. From there he
continued to the city of Mexico and then to Peru. In the latter he
served for several years, especially with Captain Diego Centeno
against the rebel Gonzalo Pizarro. Later, he took part in the battle
of Xaquixaguana where that rebel was vanquished and killed.
From Peru he returned to Spain where he remained. He signed his
testimony.147 Andres de Vega is listed as a son of Juan de Vega
and Isabel Gutierre, citizens of Caceres, SR-325.

Vega, Hernando de. Son of Juan de Vega and Catalina Pinel,
from Jerez near Badajoz, SR-300. A survivor from Badajoz, listed
by Smith-293.


Vega, Juan de. This survivor arrived in Havana with de Soto.
When they were together in Florida he saw de Soto's very good
Peruvian tent. He made and signed a declaration in 1547 in
Mexico City and added that he had been born in Badajoz around
1515.148 Juan de Vega was a son of Gonzalo Tellez de Vega and
Juana Tellez, citizens of Badajoz, SR-300. He is listed in
Smith-293.

Velasco. A survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.


61







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Velazquez, Antonio. Son of Juan Velazquez de Robledo and
Maria Espes, citizens of Valladolid, SR-316. Antonio Velazquez is
listed as a survivor from the mountains, or a foreigner, Smith-298.
In Mexico City he testified that he was an hijodalgo born in
Cuellar, the son of Joan Velazquez and Marina Corral. He added
that he had served the King in Italy for ten years before going to
Florida. He was married and intended to remain in Mexico.149 In
spite of the differences between the first and the third Antonio
Velazquez mentioned here, they appear to be the same person.
Both are sons of a Juan Velazquez and a Maria or Marina and both
are from the Valladolid area, since Cuellar is quite near that city.
The differences in the names of Velazquez's mother could be due
in part to an inaccurate transcription or to the not uncommon
sixteenth century practice of calling a person by their first or
second last names. Thus, Maria or Marina could be Espes Corral
or Corral Espes. The remaining doubt is if the Velazquez listed by
Hernandez de Biedma as from the mountains or a foreigner, is
indeed the same person as the Velazquez from Valladolid.

Velazquez, Diego. A son of Ferando Velazquez and Mari
Alonso, citizens of Oropesa, SR-326. A survivor from Castilla la
Vieja, Smith-296. This Oropesa could be the one in the vicinity of
Talavera.

Verdejon. A survivor from Toledo, Smith-295.

Verdugo, Pedro. Son of Alvaro Verdugo and Catalina
Alvarez, citizens of Camisal, or Cafiizal, SR-316. Verdugo is listed
as a survivor from Castilla la Vieja, in which district Cafiizal is
located, Smith-296.

Villagarcia. A survivor from La Mancha, Smith-295.

Villalobos. A survivor from Badajoz, different from the one
that follows, Smith-293.

Villalobos, Alonso de. This survivor testified in the probanza
of Baltasar de Gallegos, the well-known field marshall of de


62






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Soto's army. He stated that he was born in C6rdoba in 1519, and
was a temporary resident of Tenochtitlan, New Spain. He
answered the questions presented to him by stating that he was in
Spain when Gallegos embarked for the Indies with de Soto. He
saw Gallegos arrive in Florida with several horses, servants and
slaves, and observed his valuable service in the many wars and
conquests that took place. He also declared that they remained for
several years in the conquest, and that many losses were incurred
by Gallegos. These included that of a brother who was a friar.
After the Florida exploration they arrived in Mexico, dressed in
animal skins. Villalobos signed his deposition.150 He is listed as a
son of Francisco de Villalobos and Catalina de Pefialosa, citizens
of Jaen, SR-291. Hernandez de Biedma lists him a survivor, called
only Villalobos from Sevilla, Smith-292. Jaen, Cordoba, and
Sevilla, are cities within the limits of Andalucia.

Villaroel. A survivor from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296.

Villegas, Gonzalo de. Son of Juan de Villegas and Beatriz de
la Cueva, citizens of Palencia, SR-300. A Villegas from Plasencia
is listed among the survivors, Smith-296. No relation exists
between those two cities, but a misspelling could have occurred.

Villegas, Juan. Son of Garcia Hernandez and Teresa Villegas,
citizens of Valencia de la Torre, SR-292. A survivor from
Almendralejo, Smith-294.

Villegas Prieto, Sebastian de. This individual made his
probanza of services in the viceroyalty of New Spain in 1569.
From the testimonies of the witnesses called we have learned what
follows. This survivor was the legitimate son of Pedro Prieto and
Maria de Villegas and born in the city of Zamora. He came to the
Indies, well equipped with arms and horses, with Hernando de
Soto. He remained in Florida until de Soto's death and then
followed the leadership of Luis de Moscoso on the journey to
Mexico. Half of the 700 soldiers who started the conquest of
Florida survived it. He was reputed to be of noble origin and an
acknowledged hijodalgo, married and with children, 58 years old,


63






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


and much in need of assistance. Sebastian de Villegas is not
mentioned among the survivors by Hernandez de Biedma, nor by
Solar and Rijula. Yet he did register in Sevilla on March 25, 1538,
to embark for the Indies.151

Viota, Juan de. This individual had resided in Peru for
several years when, in 1561, he testified in the probanza of Juan
Cordero, one of de Soto's soldiers. He declared that he was born in
1518 and that he had known Cordero since 1537 when he saw the
latter embark in de Soto's armada. In Florida he saw Cordero
performing many valuable services with his arms and horses. He
also saw Cordero in Peru when the latter enrolled in support of
President de la Gasca against the rebel, Gonzalo Pizarro, who was
finally killed. Viota signed his testimony.152 Hernandez de Biedma
lists him by his last name only, as one of the survivors, but adds
that he was from Aragon, Smith-298. Garcilaso de la Vega, on the
other hand, affirms that he was from Zamora and was de Soto's
page.153

Zalduendo, Pedro de. Son of Juan Ochoa de Salduendo and
Sancha de Ocadiz, from Zalduendo, SR-311. Hernandez de
Biedma lists a Zalduendo from Castilla la Vieja, Smith-296. There
is a small village called Zalduendo, 15 miles from Vitoria in
former Castilla la Vieja.

Zambrano, Alvaro. On two different occasions this
conqueror testified in the city of Mexico, once in 1554 and again
in 1569.154 From both of his testimonies, we deduce that he was
born before 1519, enrolled in Spain in the army organized by de
Soto and sailed for Florida where he served for several years.
When this expedition ended, he and the other survivors journeyed
to Mexico. Zambrano signed his declarations. A Zambrano,
without a first name, is listed as a survivor from Burguillos,
Smith-294.


Those listed above are the survivors who saw the end of the
Florida expedition led by Hernando de Soto. There are two


64






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


additional persons who were active for a short period in Florida
and who returned to Cuba in 1539. They are:

Porcallo de Figueroa, Vasco. This person was lieutenant
governor of Florida for a brief period before he returned to Havana
in July, 1539. From then on, he became the supplier for de Soto's
army. Porcallo was a man of great experience in the Indies. He
lived in Puerto de Principe in Cuba in 1520, and participated in the
dispute between Governor Diego Velazquez and Hernan Cortes
over the army that was involved in the conquest of Mexico.
Porcallo remained in Cuba but moved to Trinidad where he was
residing in 1522. In that year he testified about his knowledge of
the revolts that took place in Espiritu Santo, Cuba. Through his
answers it is known that he was an encomendero in Cuba, born in
Caceres, Spain around 1496, and that he knew how to sign his
name. In later years Porcallo took part in some of the explorations
of Mexico and his name appears in documents regarding the
accusations made against Cortes in Temistlan in 1529. Through
several surviving letters exchanged between the authorities in
Santo Domingo and Spain in 1539 and 1546, we learn the
following particulars. By 1539 Porcallo was the richest man in
Cuba. He supported the preparation of the ships that would take
the men to the Florida port already selected by Afiasco in
December, 1538. When de Soto departed, Porcallo went along, but
a few months later he returned to Cuba where he wrote to the King
in 1540, announcing the discovery of a gold mine and blue stones
or ores that yielded silver. By 1542, Porcallo arranged marriage for
his two mestizo daughters to distinguished persons of the region.
The following year he went to Hispafiola to console Isabel de
Bobadilla over the loss of her husband.155 Porcallo was mentioned
often by Rangel, Elvas, and Garcilaso de la Vega.

Tovar, Diego de. Tovar survived the expedition, but for a
different reason than the others, as he pointed out in making a
declaration in Madrid in 1546. He claimed to be 25 years old and
the son of Rodrigo de Tovar, Alguacil in Marchena. He stated that
he went to Florida with de Soto and joined the initial explorations
but soon fell sick and was taken back to Havana. He signed his


65






The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


declaration.156 He appears to be the son of Rodrigo de Tovar and
Beatriz de Segovia, citizens of Marchena, SR-327.


66







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


PART II.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURVIVORS


1. Geographical Origins

The best documented biographical information for the Florida
survivors is their places of birth; 240 of a total of 257 survivors
have been located. All those known are listed in the right hand
column in Appendix I, according to the country or the Spanish
province in which they were born. The Spanish provinces have
been abbreviated as follows: AR = Aragon; AN = Andalucia; CN
= Castilla la Nueva; CV = Castilla la Vieja; EX = Extremadura;
GL = Galicia; LN = Leon; VZ = Vizcaya.

In his list of the Florida survivors Hernandez de Biedma
indicated, in most cases, the town, city or Spanish province in
which they were born. Under a heading, foreigners and those from
the mountains, he listed other survivors, indicating after some of
their names, whether they were from the mountains, Galicia,
Portugal, and in the case of only one survivor, from Aragon. It is
quite possible that what he meant by "From the Mountains," were
persons from the kingdom of Aragon. However, in order to be as
specific as possible, the one man from Aragon, the Portuguese, the
Galicians and one Frenchman, are entered here under their
corresponding places of origin. Those of unknown origin but
appearing under the indicated heading, are listed as foreigners.

All the survivors whose places of birth are known have been
listed individually in Appendix I and grouped by province or
country of origin in Table 3. The percentage of Extremadurans is
prominent; 99 out of 240, or 41 percent. This should not be
surprising, however, since de Soto, who was from Jerez in the
same region, actively recruited, not only within its confines but
across the border in Portugal. The fact that earlier, Extremadurans
had shared the immense wealth from the conquest of the Inca


67







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


PART II.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURVIVORS


1. Geographical Origins

The best documented biographical information for the Florida
survivors is their places of birth; 240 of a total of 257 survivors
have been located. All those known are listed in the right hand
column in Appendix I, according to the country or the Spanish
province in which they were born. The Spanish provinces have
been abbreviated as follows: AR = Aragon; AN = Andalucia; CN
= Castilla la Nueva; CV = Castilla la Vieja; EX = Extremadura;
GL = Galicia; LN = Leon; VZ = Vizcaya.

In his list of the Florida survivors Hernandez de Biedma
indicated, in most cases, the town, city or Spanish province in
which they were born. Under a heading, foreigners and those from
the mountains, he listed other survivors, indicating after some of
their names, whether they were from the mountains, Galicia,
Portugal, and in the case of only one survivor, from Aragon. It is
quite possible that what he meant by "From the Mountains," were
persons from the kingdom of Aragon. However, in order to be as
specific as possible, the one man from Aragon, the Portuguese, the
Galicians and one Frenchman, are entered here under their
corresponding places of origin. Those of unknown origin but
appearing under the indicated heading, are listed as foreigners.

All the survivors whose places of birth are known have been
listed individually in Appendix I and grouped by province or
country of origin in Table 3. The percentage of Extremadurans is
prominent; 99 out of 240, or 41 percent. This should not be
surprising, however, since de Soto, who was from Jerez in the
same region, actively recruited, not only within its confines but
across the border in Portugal. The fact that earlier, Extremadurans
had shared the immense wealth from the conquest of the Inca


67







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


empire in 1532, 39 percent were from that region, must have
motivated many Extremadurans to join de Soto.157 The same
motivation may explain the presence of the Portuguese, who came
from the other side of the Extremaduran border.

Table 3.

Places of Origin


Place of Origin
Spanish Provinces
Andalucia
Aragon
Castilla la Nueva
Extremadura
Galicia
Leon
Vizcaya
Foreign
Portugal
France
Italy

Other Foreigners

Survivors:
origin known

Survivors:
origin unknown

Total


Number Percent


12

7
41
3
11
4


29
1
16
99
7
26
10

11
1
1

4


240


100


17


257


One important difference between the origin of the survivors
and that of other men engaged in different ventures in the New
World may be worthy of attention. When the Chilean historian
Mario G6ngora analyzed the conquerors active in Tierra Firme in
1519 he found that most came from Andalucia, the region where


68







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


the point of departure for the Indies was located, followed by the
Extremadurans and the Castilians.158 From 1519 to 1539, the
Andalucians had been displaced by Extremadurans and Castilians
who came from areas located more to the Spanish north. As for the
rest of the de Soto survivors, their places of origin do not appear to
indicate any meaningful trend.

2. Ages of the Survivors

Of the 257 documented survivors, the birth years of 57 are
known. The oldest was born in 1498 and the youngest in 1525,
while the only surviving woman, Ana Mendez, declared she was
born around 1530, a possible exaggeration of her youth. The
known ages of the survivors are noted in Appendix II, along with
other biographical information. Their birth dates were used to
determine their ages at the beginning of the Florida expedition in
1539, and the results obtained are shown in Table 4. Judging from
their average and mean ages, 24.6 and 24 respectively, it is clear
that in general, they were fairly mature young persons. None were
older than the Adelantado who was about 42, and, in general, the
older men were officials in the army or the administration.


Table 4.

Ages at the Beginning of the Florida Expedition in 1539


9 to 14 year 2
15 to 19 13
20 to 24 15
25 to 29 15
30 to 34 7
35 to 39 4
40 to 44 1

Survivors of known ages 57
Total known survivors 257


69







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Average age 24.6
Mean age 24

The data used to calculate the ages of the survivors in 1539
was drawn from declarations in the various probanzas in which
they testified. Many stated they were over or under a certain age,
and many would give a rounded figure like 25 or 30, following it
with the usual poco mas o menos. Therefore, the ages used here
may be approximate, and with that caution they should be
interpreted.


3. Education and Literacy


It is clear that some of the survivors must have received a
reasonable education for their time. Specifically, Rodrigo Rangel,
who was also the personal secretary of de Soto, Luis Hemandez de
Biedma, Luis de Moscoso, Juan de Afiasco, Juan Coles and Alonso
de Carmona all left writings that can witness their education. As
for the rest of the group, so little is known that an assessment of
their literacy lies in whether they knew how to sign their names.
Since witnesses in legal proceedings were required to sign their
declarations, this can be ascertained from the surviving documents.
The resulting data collected from available documents is displayed
individually in Appendix II.

Many survivors were required, at some point, to sign their
names. Of these, only two declared that they did not know how to
write. They were Ana Mendez and Francisco Redondo. As a
consequence, for their time especially, this group of survivors may
have had an unusually high literacy rate. According to this
evidence, only three out of sixty-three, or only 5 percent of them
could not write. In comparison, if signing ones name equates with
literacy, it has been demonstrated by historian James Lockhart,
that 23% of the men who first conquered Peru and dethroned the
Inca Emperor were definitely illiterate, and some additional
percentage only marginally literate.159


70






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


4. Occupation

The known occupations of the survivors are shown in
Appendix II. These can be divided into two groups; those with a
commanding military rank such as captain, or an administrative
post; and those with a known profession or trade. Of the first group
it is notable that all three royal officials, the treasurer, the contador
and the factor, survived. They did not seem to have strenuous
duties during the expedition since they were charged with
managing the treasure collected from the natives, which was
insignificant except, perhaps, for some poor quality pearls which
were later lost. Moscoso and Gallegos, each, at one time or
another, served as field marshal of the army. They as well as eight
captains, were able to reach Mexico. In addition, de Soto's page,
his secretary, and his aide, plus Don Carlos' maidservant and two
notaries survived. It appears then that the royal officers and the
military leaders fared well in the Florida expedition.

The other groups of survivors consist of those individuals who
practiced a private trade. Among them were three shoemakers,
seven tailors, one stocking-maker (who would now be considered
as a combination of tailor and shoemaker), one carpenter, two
ironsmiths, one sword smith and one caulker. Seven priests, friars,
or clerics, one foot-soldier, one sailor, and one trumpeter also
survived the expedition. In addition, the subsequent occupations of
two other persons are known; Espindola became an alguacil of the
Inquisition in Mexico and Gonzalo Mendez became a trader.

5. Marital Status

It is documented that twenty-one of the survivors were or
became married men, some with sons and daughters. Except for
the clerics and friars, none is known to be a bachelor because data
is lacking. Those known to be married are listed below, indicating,
where possible, the names of their wives.

Lope de Acufia Elvira de Hermosilla.
Juan de Afiasco Isabel de Afiasco.


71






Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


4. Occupation

The known occupations of the survivors are shown in
Appendix II. These can be divided into two groups; those with a
commanding military rank such as captain, or an administrative
post; and those with a known profession or trade. Of the first group
it is notable that all three royal officials, the treasurer, the contador
and the factor, survived. They did not seem to have strenuous
duties during the expedition since they were charged with
managing the treasure collected from the natives, which was
insignificant except, perhaps, for some poor quality pearls which
were later lost. Moscoso and Gallegos, each, at one time or
another, served as field marshal of the army. They as well as eight
captains, were able to reach Mexico. In addition, de Soto's page,
his secretary, and his aide, plus Don Carlos' maidservant and two
notaries survived. It appears then that the royal officers and the
military leaders fared well in the Florida expedition.

The other groups of survivors consist of those individuals who
practiced a private trade. Among them were three shoemakers,
seven tailors, one stocking-maker (who would now be considered
as a combination of tailor and shoemaker), one carpenter, two
ironsmiths, one sword smith and one caulker. Seven priests, friars,
or clerics, one foot-soldier, one sailor, and one trumpeter also
survived the expedition. In addition, the subsequent occupations of
two other persons are known; Espindola became an alguacil of the
Inquisition in Mexico and Gonzalo Mendez became a trader.

5. Marital Status

It is documented that twenty-one of the survivors were or
became married men, some with sons and daughters. Except for
the clerics and friars, none is known to be a bachelor because data
is lacking. Those known to be married are listed below, indicating,
where possible, the names of their wives.

Lope de Acufia Elvira de Hermosilla.
Juan de Afiasco Isabel de Afiasco.


71







The Srvivors of the De Soto Expedition


Gomez Arias
Pedro Arias de Cafiedo
Alonso Botello
Juan Cordero
Diego Cortes

Luis Daza
Cristobal de Espindola
Juan Gaitan
Baltasar de Gallegos
Sebastian Hemandez

Vicente Martinez
Juan de Miranda
Pedro Moreno
Garcia Osorio
Bernaldo Peloso
Rodrigo Rangel
Bartolome Rodriguez

Heman Suarez de Maruelas
Luis de Valdivieso

Antonio Velazquez
Sebastian de Villegas


Maria Castellou y de Lara.
Isabel de Garay.
a daughter of Diego Yafiez.
was married in Peru.
a daughter of Alonso de
Buiza.
a daughter of Diego Valades.
Francisca Castafio.
Catalina de Zarate.
Maria de Guzman.
the widow of Diego
Hemandez.
was married.
Francisca Mejia.
a daughter of Pedro Calero
Isabel de Marmolejo.
a daughter of Lucas Ginoves.
Catalina Jimenez
a daughter of Alonso
Caballero.
Ines de Valgrande.
a daughter of Pedro
Carranza.
was married.
was married.


6. Social Status

Considering the available evidence, de Soto's men were, in
general, commoners with the possible exception of several hidal-
gos. Those claiming to belong to this lowest level of nobility were:
Alonso de Argote, Luis Daza, Cristobal Espindola, Baltasar
Gallegos, Gonzalo Mendez, Juan de Miranda, Luis de Moscoso,
Garcia Osorio, and Sebastian de Villegas. Antonio Osorio was the
second son of the Marquis of Astorga. Being a member of even the
lesser nobility was quite important at that time, for it meant that
one enjoyed certain privileges, one of which was exemption from


72







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


personal taxes. In addition, when a person asked the Crown for a
special favor or dispensation, having long family roots in Spain
and Christianity were two valued assets mentioned often by the
petitioner.



7. Destinations after Florida


All of the survivors accounted for reached the port of Panuco
in New Spain. Four were sick enough to remain in Panuco instead
of continuing with the rest to Mexico City. Left ailing were Juan
Ruiz, Enriquez, Vicente Martinez, and Arias the Galician. Once
the rest reached Mexico City, some remained there while others
returned to Spain or went on to Peru and other places in the
Spanish Empire. Those whose final destinations are known are
listed in Appendix II. Since several of these resided in more than
one place for significant amounts of time, I have listed both places
to indicate where future research should be conducted. They are
doubly accounted for in the following comment.

The final destinations of 86 conquerors have been recorded.
Of these, eight have been listed with two destinations. Fifty-nine
stayed in Mexico, 18 went to Peru, 15 returned to Spain, 1 returned
to Cuba and it seems that one went to the New Kingdom of
Granada. Much remains to be learned about the destinations of
other survivors. Consider only what Alonso de Carmona wrote: "I
have already said the we came from Pinuco in squads of fifteen or
twenty soldiers, and in that way we entered the great City of
Mexico... All those of my squad decided to go to pay their respects
to the Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza...and he gave orders that
we should not go hence until they clothed us. And after we were
clothed we paid him our respects and departed, thanking him for
the favour and kindness which he had shown us. And we all went
to Peru."160 Besides Carmona's squad, there had to be many more
who followed. Peru continued for some time to be the place for a
conqueror who dreamed of riches.


73







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


8. Conclusions

Part II of this study analyzed the characteristics of the Florida
survivors. Based upon these findings, the typical conqueror who
accompanied Hernando de Soto in that venture was a male
Spaniard born either in Extremadura or Castilla, 24 years old at the
beginning of the expedition, and literate or at least knew how to
sign his name. He was most likely a commoner by birth and, in a
few cases, an hidalgo. Not being a military leader or an
administrator, his chances of survival were reduced to roughly
fifty percent. From Florida he went to the port of Pinuco in New
Spain, and most likely he arrived in the great city of Tenochtitlan
which was subsequently renamed Mexico City. He remained in
Mexico or proceeded to Peru, married a daughter of a known
conqueror and settled down.

Had de Soto lived or had his successor, Luis de Moscoso,
decided to remain and settle the newly discovered land, this typical
Florida conqueror, as J. R. Swanton pointed out, would not have
missed the one great opportunity of his life, and his country missed
its opportunity along with him.161


74








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Appendix I.


Survivors according to Avellaneda, Hemandez de Biedma, and
Swanton


Avellaneda


Herandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton


Birthplace


Acufia, Lope de
Agostin
Agostin
Aguilar, Gaspar de
Aguilar, Juan de
Algalin
Almendron
Alonso, Alvaro
Alonso, Francisco
Alonso, Gonzalo
Alonso, Pedro
Alonso, Rodrigo
Alrianes, Martin
Alvanez
Alvarado, Juan de
Alvarez, Juan
Alvarez, Rodrigo
Amarilla, Juan de
Afiasco, Juan de
Andirrela, Miguel de
Antonio
Arrevalo Brizeno, Pedro de
Argote, Alonso de
Arias
Arias Davila, Gomez
Arias de Canedo, Pedro
Aroca, Pedro de
Atanasio
Avedi, Juanes de
Azeituno, Antonio
Bacan
Baeza
Bautista
Bautista, Juan
Bernaldo
Blasco, Alonso
Bolafios, Juan de
Bonifacio
Botello, Alonso de
Botello, Juan
Bravo, Luis
Bustillo, Pedro de
Caldera


Acufia, Lope de
Agostin
Agostin
Aguilar, Gaspar de
Aguillar
Algalin
Almendron
Alfonso, Alvaro
Alonso
Alonso, Gonzalo
Alonso, Pero
Alonso, Rodrigo
Alrianes, Min.
Alvanes
Brother Luis de MoscosS
Alvarez, Jon.
Alvarez, Rodrigo
Amarilla, Jon.
Afiasco, Jon.
Andirrela, Miguel de
Antonio

Argote
Arias


Aroca, Pedro de
Atanasio
aVedi, Juanes de

Bacan
Baeza
Bautista
Bautista
Bernaldo
Blasco, Alonso
Bolafios
Bonifacio
Botellon, Alonso

Bravo, Luis
Bustillon
Caldera


kcufia, Diego CN
kgostin CV
kgostin VZ
kguilar, Gaspar de CV
kguilar, Juan de EX
klgalin AN
klmendro, Alo. Hernandez EX
klonso, Alvaro Portugal
klonso, Francisco AN
klonso, Go. EX
klonso, Pedro EX
EX
klrianes, Min. VZ
CV


Alvarez, Juan
Alvarez, Rodrigo
Amarilla, Juan de

Andirrela, Miguel de
Antonio

Argote, Alonso de
Arias


Aroca, Pedro de

Abbadia, loanes de

Bacan de Xerex
Baeza

Bautista, Juan
Bernaldo
Blasco, Alonso
Bolaiios, Juan de
Bonifacio
Botello, Alonso de
Botello, Juan
Bravo, Luis
Bustillo, Gutierre de
Caldera


EX
EX
EX
EX
AN
Foreigner
GL

LN
GL
CV
LN
VZ
EX
VZ
AN
EX
CV
CN
CN
VZ
EX
EX
CV
EX
EX
EX
CV
EX


75








The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Hernandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton


Birthplace


Calderon, Pedro
Calderon, Rodrigo
Calle, Juan de la
Calvarrasa, Toribio de
Calvera, Diego de
Calzada, Juan de
Cafiete, Garcia de
Cardenas, Lorenzo de
Carmona, Alonso de
Caro, Alonso
Caro, Alonso
Carranza, Luis de
Carrasco, Juan
Carrauz
Carrion
Carrion, Juan
Carrion, Pedro
Cartuyo, Gonzalo
Carvajal, Lorenzo de
Castejon, Francisco de
Castro, Juan de
Castro, Castro del
Coles, Juan
Cordero, Juan
Coria
Corejo, Alonso
Corona, Rodrigo
Cortes, Diego
Cuadrado, Gonzalo
Custreros
Daza, Luis
Diaz, Juan
Duarte, Juan
Enriquez, Diego
Espindola, Cristobal
Fernandez, Alvaro
Fernandez, Juan
Figueroa, Pedro
Fraile
Fuentes, Luis de
Gaitan, Juan
Gallego, Diego
Gallego, Juan
Gallegos, Baltasar de
Gallegos, Rodrigo de
Galvan, Fernan
Gamez, Juan de
Garcia, Diego
Garcia de Leon, Juan


Calderon, Pedro
Calderon, Rodrigo
Calle, Juan de la
Calva Rasa

Calzada
Cafiete


Caro, Alonso
Caro, Alonso
Carranze
Carrasco, Jon.
Carrauz
Carrion
Carrion, Jon.
Carrion
Cartuyo, Go.

Castrejon
Castro
Castro, Castro del
Coles, Jon.
Cordero, Jon.
Coria
Corejo
Corona, Rodrigo
Cortes
Quadrado, Gonzalo
Custreros
Daze, Luis
Diaz, Jon.
Duarte, Jon.
Enrriquez
Espindola, Xpobal.

Fernandez, Jon.
Figueroa, Pedro de
Fraile
Fuentes
Gaitan, Jon.
Gallego, Diego
Friar
Gallegos, Balthasar de
Gallegos, Rodrigo
Galvan


Calderon, Pedro
Calderon, Rodrigo
Calle, Juan de la
Calvarrasa, Toribio de

Calzada, Juan de
Cafiete, Garcia de


Caro, Alonso
Caro, Alonso
Carranze
Canasco, Jno.
Carrauz
Carrion
Carron, Joan
Carrion, Agustin
Cartuyo, Go.

Castrejon, Francisco de
Castro

Coles, Juan
Cordero, Juan
Coria
Cornejo, Alo.
Corona, Rodrigo
Cortes
Cuadrado, Gonzalo
Custreros
Daze, Luis
Diaz, Juan
Duarte, Jno.
Enriquez, Diego


Fernandez, Jno.
Figueroa, Pedro de

Fuentes, Luis de

Gallego, Diego


Gallegos, Rodrigo de
Galvan, Feran


Garcia, Diego


76


Avellaneda


EX
EX
LN
LN

LN
LN

CN
EX
EX
AN
EX
CN
EX
EX
CV
AN

CV
CV

EX
Portugal
AN
LN
CN
EX
EX
LN
CV
AN
CV
CV
AN

EX
EX

AN
CN
CV
AN
AN
AN
EX

EX
LN








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Herandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton Birthplace


Avellaneda


Garcia Pechuda, Juan
Garcia Rueda, Juan
Garcia, Rui
Gen, Baltasar
Gin
Giraldo
Godoy, Garcia de
Gomez, Alonso
Gonzalez, Alonso
Gonzalez de Alor, Juan
Gonzalo or Gregorio
Gutierrez, Alonso
Gitierrez, Alonso
Gutierrez, Alonso
Gutierrez Cordoba, Alonso
Gutierrez Guino, Fco.
Gutierrez, Juan
Guzman, Francisco de
Hemandez, Alonso
Hemandez de Biedma, Luis
Hernandez Ribera, Pedro
Hemandez, Sebastian de
Herrera
Hoces, Gregorio
Inostrosa, Luis de
Jacome
Juan, Maestre
Landero, Domingo
Lera, Francisco de
Lopez
Lopez, Abian
Lopez, Juan
Lopez Cacho, Juan
Lopez del Salto, Juan
Madrigal
Maldonado, Francisco
Marban, Bueso
Marban, Esteban
Marin, Andres
Martin Galindo, Francisco
Martin Sandoval, Francisco
Martin, Gonzalo
Martin, Gonzalo
Martinez, Anton
Martinez, Francisco
Martinez, Vicente
Martucho
Mateos, Jorge
Mendez, Ana


Garcia Pechuda, Jon.
Ga. Rueda, Juan
Garcia, Rui
Gen, Balthasar
Gin
Jiraldo
Godoy, Garcia de
Gomez, Alonso
Gonzalez, Alonso
Gonzalez Alor, Jon.
Go.
Gutierrez, Alonso
Gutierrez, Alonso
Gutierrez, Alonso


Gutierrez, Jon.
Guzman
Hemandez, Alonso
Biedma
Rybera, Pedro de

Herrera
Calderon, Hijo de
Ynistrosa
Jacome
Jon. Maestre
Landero, Domingo
Lera, Francisco de
Lopez, Brother of
Lopez, Gavian
Lopez, Juan
Lopez Chachon, Jon.
Lopez Zaharron, Jon.
Madrigal

Marban
Marban
Andrez, Marin
Galindo

Martin, Go.

Martinez, Anton
Martynez, Francisco
Martinez, Viceinte
Martucho
Matheos, Jorge
Mendez, Ana


Pechudo, Juan Garcia
Rueda, Juan Ga.
Garcia, Rui
Balthasar, Gen.
Guini, Francisco

Godoy, Garcia de
Gomez, Alonso
Gonzalez, Alonso
Alor, Juan Gonzalez de
Go.
Gutierrez, Alonso
Gutierrez, Alo.
Gutierrez,Alonso


EX
EX
AN
EX
CV
LN
EX
EX
LN
EX
GL
EX
EX
Portugal


Gutierrez, Jno. EX
Guzman, Francisco de CN
Hemandez, Alonso CN
Biedma, Ruis Hernandez de AN
Ribera, Pedro Hernandez GL
EX
Herrera CN
Hoces, Gregorio EX
Inostrosa, Luis de AN
Jacome Foreigner
Maestre, Jn. LN
EX
Lerena, Francisco de EX
Portugal
Lopez, Avian Portugal
Lopez,Juan EX

Zaharron, Jno. Lopez AN
Madrigal, Alonso de LN
LN
Marban, Bueso (?) LN
Marban, Esteban LN
Marin, Andres EX
Galindo, Francisco Martin AN
CN
Martin, Go. EX
AN
Martinez, Anton Portugal
Martinez, Francisco EX
Martinez, Viceinte CN
Martucho VZ
Matheos, Jorge Foreigner
EX


77









The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Hernandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton


Birthplace


Mendez Sotomayor,Gonzalo
Mesa, Juan de
Miguel
Miranda, Juan de
Monzon, Gonzalo de
Morales
Morales, Bartolome de
Moreno, Pedro
Moscoso, Luis de


Muhioz, Juan
Nieto, Alvaro
Nieto, Juan
Nufiez de Prado, Pedro
Nufiez de Vargas, Vasco
Oliva, Diego de
Olivas, Val de
Ortiz, Bernabe
Ortiz, Francisco
Ortufio, Juan de
Osorio, Antonio
Osorio, Garcia
Otazo, Juan de
Paris, Disonisio de
Parra, Alonso de la
Pegado, Esteban
Pegado, Fernan
Peloso, Bernaldo
Perez, Andres
Perez, Bartolome
Perez, Francisco
Perez, Juan
Perez, Simon
Peria
Porras
Porras, Juan de
Portillo
Pozo, Father
Pozo, Pedro del
Rangel, Rodrigo
Raya, Alonso de
Redondo, Francisco
Reinoso, Francisco de
Rodriguez, Bartolome
Rodriguez, Fabian
Rodriguez, Salvador
Romo, Alonso
Ruiz, Bartolome


Mendez, Gonzalo
Mesa, Jon. de.
Miguel ]
Miranda

Morales
Morales
Moreno
Moscoso, Luis de
Moscoso, Hermano de


Nieto, Alvaro
Nieto, Jon
Nufiez de Prado, Pero
Vargas
Oliva, Diego de
Olivas, Val de
Ortiz
Ortiz
Hortuno
Don Antonio
Osorio, Garcia
Otazo
Clerigo Frances
Parra, Alonso de la
Pegado
Pegado, Hijo de Esteban

Perez, Andres
Perez
Perez, Francisco
Perez, Jon.
Perez, Ximon
Peria
Porras

Portillo
Pozo, Padre
Pozo Salmeron
Rangel
Rayo
Redondo
Reinoso

Rodriguez, Favian

Tinoco, Hermano de
Ruiz, Bartholome


Mena, Jno.
Miguel



Morales
Morino, Pedro
Moscoso de Alvarado, Luis

Mosquera, Cristobal de

Nieto, Alvaro
Nieto, Juan
Prado, Pedro Nunez de
Vargas, Vasco Nunez de
Oliva, Diego de
Oliva, Cristobal de
Ortiz, Bemabe
Ortiz, Francisco
Hortuno Pc
Osorio, D. Antonio
Osorio, Garcia
Otazo, Juan de
Dionisio de, Paris
Parra, Alonso de la
Pegado, Esteban PI
PI

Perez, Andres
Perez, Bartolome
Perez, Francisco
Perez, Jno.
Perex, Ximon
Peria

Porres, Juan de
Portillo
Pozo, Bartolome
Salmeron, Pozo

Raya, Alonso de
Redondo, Francisco
Reinoso, Francisco de

Rodriguez, Fabian


Ruiz, Bartolome


EX
AN
VZ
CV


CV
AN
GL
EX
EX
EX
CV
EX
EX
EX
EX
CV
CV
EX
CV
ortugal
LN
LN
LN
French
EX
ortugal
ortugal
Italy
EX
LN
EX
VZ
EX
VZ
AN
CV
EX
EX
CN
EX
AN
EX
CV
EX
EX
EX
EX
AN


78


Avellaneda








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Avellaneda


Ruiz, Juan
Ruiz, Juan
Ruiz Lobillo, Juan
Ruiz de Llanos, Juan
Sagredo, Bartolome de
Salamanca, Cosme de
Salazar, Francisco de
Salazar, Sin Ventura
San Jorge, Alvaro de
San Vicente, Juan de
Sanabria, Diego de
Sanchez, Andres
Sanchez, Atanasio
Sanchez Rendon, Bartolome
Sanchez, Diego
Sanchez Mancera, Hernan
Sanchez, Francisco
Sardina, Domingo
Sayago,Juan
Sedefios, Juan
Silvera, Diego de
Silvestre, Gonzalo
Sorio, Pedro de
Suarez de Figueroa, Gomez
Suarez, Juan
Suarez Maruelas, Heran
Tapia
Tapia Maraver, Francisco
Tiedra, Miguel de
Tinoco, Arias
Tinoco, Diego
Tolosa
Torre, Alvaro de la
Torres, Alonso de
Torres, Fray Francisco de
Torres, Manuel
Torres, Pedro de
Torres, Sancho de
Tristan
Trujillo, Baltasar de
Valderas
Valdivieso, Luis de
Valtierra, Pedro de
Vargas, Juan de
Vazquez, Alonso
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Gonzalo
Vazquez, Hernan


Herandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton


Ruiz, Jon.
Ruiz, Jon.
Rodriguez Lobillo, Jon

Sagrado
Salamanca
Salazar
Salazar, Sin Ventura
Sant Jorje

Sanabria
Sanchez, Andres

Rodon
Sanchez, Diego
Manzera, Heman
Sanchez, Francisco
Sardina, Domingo
Sayago
Sedenos, Jon.
Silvera

Soria, Pedro de

Xuarez, Jon.
Mazueles
Tapia
Tapia, Francisco de
Tiedra
Tinoco, Arias
Tinoco, Hermano de Ar
Tolosa

Torres, Alonso de
Fraile Sobreviviente
Torres, Manuel de
Torres, Pedro de
Torres, Sancho de
Tristan
Trugillo
Valderas

Valtierra
Vargas
Vazquez, Alonso
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Gonzalo


Ruiz, Juan

Lobillo, Juan Ruiz

Sagredo, Bartolome de
Salamanca, Cosme de
Salazar, Cristobal de

Saint Jorje

Sanabria, Diego de
Sanchez, Andres

Rodon
Sanchez, Diego

Sanchez, Francisco
Sardina, Domingo
Sayago,Juan
Sedenos, Jno.
Silvera, Francisco de

Soria, Pedro de

Suarez, Juan
Macuelas, Hernando
Tapia
Tapia, Francisco de
Tiedra, Miguel de
Tinoco, Arias
ias
Tolosa

Torres, Alonso de

Torres, Manuel de
Torres, Pedro de
Torres, Sancho de
Tristan
Trujillo, Baltasar de
Valderas

Valtierra, Pedro de
Vargas, Juan de
Vazquez, Alonso
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Francisco
Vazquez, Gonzalo


79


Birthplace

EX
AN
EX

EX
LN
CV
AR
GL

EX
EX
EX
AN
EX
EX
EX
Portugal
EX
Foreigner
GL
EX
CV

EX
EX
CV
EX
LN
EX
EX
VZ

EX

Portugal
CV
CV
AN
AN
LN
CN
LN
EX
EX
EX
EX
EX
EX








The Surivors of the De Soto Expedition


Hernandez de Biedma J. R. Swanton


Birthplace


Vazquez, Rodrigo
Vega, Andres de
Vega, Hernando de
Vega, Juan de
Velasco
Velazquez, Antonio
Valazquez, Diego
Verdejon
Verdugo, Pedro
Villagarcia
Villalobos
Villalobos, Alonso de
Villaroel
Villegas, Gonzalo de
Villegas, Juan
Villegas, Prieto, Sebastian
Viota, Juan de
Zalduendo, Pedro de
Zambrano, Alvaro


Vega, Hernando de
Vega, Juan de
Velasco
Velazquez, Antonio
Velazquez
Verdejon
Verdugo
Villagarcia
Villalobos
Villalobos
Villa Roel
Villegas
Villegas

Viota
Salduendo
Zambrano


Vega, Hernando de
Vega, Juan de
Velasco
Velazquez, Antonio
Velazquez, Diego
Verdejon
Verdugo, Pedro
Villagarcia

Villalobos, Alonso de
Villa Roel
Villegas, Go. de
Villegas, Juan

Viota, Fulano
Salduendo
Zambrano


80


Avellaneda


EX
EX
EX
EX
CV
CV
CV
CN
CV
CN
EX
AN
CV
CV
EX
LN
LN
CV
EX








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Appendix II


Biographical Data of the Florida Survivors


Name/Birth Yr.

Acufia, Lope de
Algalin
Afiasco, Juan de-1500
Arevalo Brizeno, Pedro de
Argote, Alonso de-1520
Arias Davila, Gomez-1514
Arias de Canedo, Pedro
Azeituno, Antonio-1523
Bernaldo
Botello, Alonso
Botello, Juan-1512
Bustillo, Pedro de-1511
Calderon, Pedro-1498
Calle, Juan de la
Calvera, Diego de-1522
Cardenas, Lorenzo de-1520
Carmona, Alonso de
Carranza, Luis de-1518
Carrasco, Juan
Carrion, Juan
Carrion, Pedro-1509
Cartuyo, Gonzalo
Carvajal, Lorenzo de-1519
Castejon, Francisco de-1510
Coles, Juan
Cordero, Juan
Corona, Rodrigo
Cortes, Diego
Cuadrado, Gonzalo-1510
Daza, Luis-1519
Espindola, Cristobal-1504
Fernandez, Alvaro-1510
Fraile
Gaitan, Juan
Gallego, Juan
Gallegos, Baltasar de
Gamez, Juan de-1522
Garcia de Leon, Juan-1507
Gen, Baltasar
Godoy, Garcia de-1519
Gutierrez, Alonso-1514
Gutierrez Guino, Fco.-1519
Guzman, Francisco de
Hernandez de Biedma, Luis


Occupation


Shoemaker
Contador





Caulker



Captain
Shoemaker




Tailor
Tailor

Sailor


Tailor

Trumpeter



Alguacil

Friar
Treasurer
Priest
Fld. Mrshal


Notary

Captain


Factor


Residence

Mexico

Mexico, Peru
Peru
Mexico
Peru
Peru
Peru

Mexico
Mexico, Spain
Spain
Mexico, Spain

Mexico
Mexico
Peru
Mexico


Spain

Mexico
Mexico

Peru

Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico

Mexico

Mexico
Mexico
Mexico

Mexico
Mexico, Spain
Mexico
Peru


81


Write

Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes


Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes


Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes



Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes


Yes








The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


Name/Birth Yr.


Occupation


Hemandez, Sebastian de
Lera, Francisco de Tailor
Lopez Cacho, Juan-1519 Aide
Maldonado, Francisco Captain
Marban, Esteban Notary
Martin Sandoval, Francisco-1516
Martin, Gonzalo-1517 Shoemaker
Martinez, Anton-1514
Martinez, Vicente
Mendez, Ana-1530(?) Servant
Mendez Sotomayor, Gonzalo-1525 Trader


Miranda, Juan
Monzon, Gonzalo de-1522
Moreno, Pedro
Moscoso, Luis de-1505
Mufioz, Juan-1521
Nieto, Alvaro-1512
Osorio, Garcia-1510
Paris, Dionisio de
Parra, Alonso de la
Peloso, Bernaldo
Perez, Bartolome
Peria
Porras, Juan de-1520
Pozo, Father
Pozo, Pedro del
Rangel, Rodrigo-1505
Redondo, Francisco-1505
Reinoso, Francisco de-1511
Rodriguez, Bartolome
Rodriguez, Fabian-1514
Rodriguez, Salvador-1515
Romo, Alonso
Ruiz, Bartolome
Ruiz, Juan
Ruiz Lobillo, Juan-1520
Ruiz de Llanos, Juan
Salamanca, Cosme de
San Jorge, Alvaro de-1502
San Vicente, Juan de-1511
Sanchez, Atanasio-1520
Sanchez Rendon, Bartolome
Sardina, Domingo
Sayago, Juan-1521
Silvera, Diego de-1514
Silvestre, Gonzalo
Suarez de Figueroa, Gomez
Suarez Maruelas, Hernan


Fld. Mrshal

Captain
Captain
Priest
Cleric

Ironsmith


Priest

Secretary



Ironsmith

Captain
Stocking Maker
Carpenter
Captain

Tailor



Sword Smith
Tailor
Tailor


Mexico

Spain, Mexico
Spain

Peru, Spain
Spain
Mexico
Mexico
Spain
Mexico
Mexico
Peru
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico


Mexico

New Kingdom
Mexico

Peru
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Peru
Mexico


Mexico, Spain
Peru

Mexico
Mexico
Peru


Mexico
Mexico
Peru, Spain
Cuba
Mexico


82


Residence


Write


Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Yes


Yes

Yes
Yes
No


Yes
Yes


Yes


Yes
Yes


No
Yes








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


Name/Birth Yr. Occupation Residence Write

Tapia Peru
Tapia Maraver, Francisco-1523 Peru Yes
Tiedra, Miguel de-1517 Mexico Yes
Tinoco, Arias-1504 Captain Mexico Yes
Torre, Alvaro de la Cleric Mexico Yes
Torres, Fray Francisco de-1515 Priest Spain Yes
Valdivieso, Luis de Mexico
Vazquez, Alonso Captain Spain
Vazquez, Gonzalo-1506 Yes
Vazquez, Heman-1522 Mexico Yes
Vazquez, Rodrigo Footsoldier Mexico
Vega, Andres de-1516 Spain
Vega, Juan de-1515 Mexico Yes
Velazquez, Antonio Mexico
Villalobos, Alonso de-1519 Mexico Yes
Villegas Prieto, Sebastian-1511 Mexico
Viota, Juan de-1518 Page Peru Yes
Zambrano, Alvaro-1518 Mexico Yes


83







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


NOTES


John R. Swanton, Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition
Commission (Washington, DC, 1939). The second edition, printed in 1985,
is followed here.

2
The four chroniclers of the de Soto expedition are: Rodrigo Rangel, who
wrote a diary of the expedition included in Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo,
Historia natural y moral de las Indias; Fidalgo de Elvas, Relaqdo
Verdadeira; Luis Hernmndez de Biedma, Relaci6n del suceso de la jornada
a la isla de la Florida; Garcilaso de la Vega, La Florida del Inca. Historia
del adelantado Hernando de Soto, gobernador y capitdn general del reino
de la Florida, y de otros her6icos caballeros espanioles e indios. Good
English translations of Rangel, Hernandez de Biedma, and the Gentleman
of Elvas are found in Edward Gaylord Bourne, Narratives of the Career of
Hernando de Soto, 2 volumes (New York, 1904). A good translation of La
Florida del Inca is Garcilaso de la Vega, The Florida of the Inca (Austin,
Texas, 1951).

The original documents published in the nineteenth century are found in
Buckingham Smith, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto in the
Conquest of Florida (New York, 1866). The transcription of the passenger
registry in Spain for the Florida expedition is found in Antonio de Solar y
Toboada and Jose Rijula y Ochotorena, El Adelantado Hernando de Soto
(Badajoz, 1929).

Garcilaso de la Vega, The Florida of the Inca, (Austin, Texas, 1951), p. 22.

4
Buckingham Smith, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto in the
Conquest of Florida, p. 12. This work is cited so often that I have used the
author's last name followed by a dash and the page number where the
citation is found. Therefore this citation is identified as Smith-12.

The first transcription is found in Antonio de Solar y Toboada y Jose de
Rujula y Ochotorena, El Adelantado Hernando de Soto (Badajoz, 1929).
Since this source is mentioned often here it is abbreviated with the initials
of the last names of the authors, SR, followed by a dash and the page
number where the citation is found. Alonso Raya appears twice in this
transcription, SR-291 and SR-304. The women listed are Ines de Herrera,
SR-298, Isabel de Mejia and Leonor de Volafios, SR-307. The "color loro"


84







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


men are Alonso de Pereda, SR-293, Luis Moreno, SR-295, Bernaldo Loro,
SR-320, Pedro de la Torre, SR-305, and Juan Martin, SR-333.

The second transcription was made between 1940 and 1946 under the
direction of Crist6bal Bermutdez Plata, then director of the Archivo General
de Indias. This work, which is generally accepted as accurate, was
published in three volumes under the title Catdlogo de Pasajeros a Indias
(Sevilla, 1940-1946) and is cited here with the initials CBP. In Volume II,
the names of Pedro de Miguez, Francisco de Llera and Juan Barrionuevo,
pp. 223 and 234, Isabel Sayaga p. 234, Bartolome Sanchez (under Garcia
Rodriguez Carreto) p.241, Ines Rodriguez (under Francisco de Cisneros) p.
247, Isabel de Herrera (under Juan Clemente) p. 249, all registered for
Florida, are included.

This document is found in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla,
abbreviated as AGI. It is included in Section V, Audiencia de Santo
Domingo and identified with the legajo number 18. The abbreviated
citation, of international acceptance, is AGI, Santo Domingo 118, year
1539.

Smith-231.

8
Bourne, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto, vol. II, p. 52.

De la Vega, The Florida, p. 617.

10 Smith-176 and 195.

11
1 De la Vega, The Florida, p. 617.

12 AGI, Patronato 19, N. 2, relacion de Luis Hernmndez de Biedma.

13 JRS-349 to 371.

14 Francisco A. de Icaza, Diccionario autobiogrdfico de conquistadores y
pobladores de Nueva Espana, 2 vols. (Guadalajara, 1969), II, 20. Due to its
frequent use, this work is abbreviated with the initials of the author, FAI.
The citation becomes FAI, vol. II, 20.

15 Smith-273.

16 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R.4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597.


85







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


17 AGI, Mexico 204, probanza Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545. See also JRS-350.

18 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 1, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1556-1562.

19 AGI Patronato 77, N. 1, R. 1, probanza Heman Suarez, 1557-1572.

20 JRS-351.

21 AGI, Patronato 105, N. 6, probanza Juan Cordero, 1561, and AGI Patronato
97, N. 1, R.6, probanza Gomez Ariasole Avile.

22 AGI, Patronato 111, N. 7, probanza Pedro Arias, 1563.

23 JRS-351.

24 AGI, Patronato 105, N. 6, probanza Juan Cordero, 1561.

25 CBP vol. II, 267.

26 FAI vol. II, 172.

27 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 2, probanza Alonso Vazquez, 1560. An English
version of this probanza appeared in Smith-308 to 309; it has been followed
here. AGI, Justicia 750A and 750B, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

28 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

29 AGI, Justicia 750A and 750B, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

30 AGI, Patronato 101, N. 1, R. 18, probanza Gonzalo Silvestre, 1558.

31 JRS-352.

32 SR-276 and CBP vol. II, 234.

33 AGI, Patronato 63, R.9, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560.

34 AGI, Patronato 19, N. 1, R. 15, cited in Eugene Lyon, manuscript at the P.
K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida Libraries,
Gainesville, Fl, "The Cafiete Fragment another narrative of Hernando de
Soto" (S.1: s.n.), 1982.


86







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


3 AGI, Mexico 204, probanza Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545.

36 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1556-1562.

37 JRS-353.

3 Bourne, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto, vol. II, 156-157.

3 AGI, Mexico 204, probanza Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545.

40
4 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

4 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554.

42 AGI, Patronato 77, N. 1, R. 1 probanza Heran Suarez, 1557-1572.

43 AGI, Patronato 69, R. 2, probanza Sebastian de Villegas, 1569.

4 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560 and AGI,
Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

Boure, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto, vol. II, p. 155.

46 JRS-354, and AGI, Patronato 105, R.7, probanza Juan Cordero, 1561.

4 FAI, vol. II, p. 168.

48
AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

49 JRS-354.

50 AGI, Indiferente general 1205, year 1537.

51
5 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon. AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5,
R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554. AGI, Patronato 63, R. 9, probanza
Garcia Osorio, 1560.

52 FAI, vol. II, p. 43.

53 JRS-354.

54 JRS-355 and AGI, Mexico 204, probanza Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545.


87







The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


55 FAI, vol. II, p. 338.

56 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597.

57 AGI, Santo Domingo 118, 1539.

58 FAI, vol. II, p. 9.

59 JRS-356.

60 AGI, Mexico 204, probanza de Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545.

61 JRS-356.

62 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560.

63 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597. Some
of the pages of this document are misplaced and at least one folio is
missing. Therefore, care must be observed in reading the pages in their
proper sequence.

64 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597. The
same note of caution applies here as well.

65 AGI, Patronato 101, N. 1, R. 18, probanza Gonzalo Silvestre, 1558.

66 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

67 AGI, Patronato 77, N. 1, R. 1, probanza Hernan Suarez, 1557-1572.

68 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1556-'562.

69 FAI, vol. I, p. 173.

70 JRS-359.

71 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon.

72 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560.

73 AGI, Patronato 77, N. 1, R.1, probanza Heman Suarez, 1555-1572. See
Diego de Vargas' testimony.


88








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


7 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

75 JRS-360.

76 AGI, Patronato 101, N. 1, R. 18, probanza Gonzalo Silvestre, 1558.

7 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

78 JRS-361 and AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Aiasco,
1544-1597.

7 FAI, vol. II, p. 217.

80 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 2, probanza Alonso Vasquez, 1560.

81
8 AGI, Patronato 63, R. 10, probanza Gonzalo Mendez, 1560.

82
8 AGI, Patronato 63, R. 9, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1561.

83 FAI, vol. I, p. 257.

84 AGI, Patronato 109, N. 1, R. 4, information made upon request of Leonor
de Soto, natural daughter of Hernando de Soto, 1562.

8 FAI, vol. I, p. 162.

86 CDI, vol. X, p. 237-238.

87 AGI, Mexico 95, 1543.

88
AGI, Justicia 750A and 750B, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547 and
1550.

89 JRS-362.

90
AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547. JRS-363.

91
9 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

92 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560.

93 JRS-363.


89








The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


94 JRS-363.

95 JRS-363.

96 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1560.

97 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1546.

98 JRS-364.

99 JRS-354.

100 JRS-364.

101 JRS-364.

102 FAI, vol. II, p. 163.

103 Carmen G6mez Perez, Pedro de Heredia y Cartagena de Indias (Sevilla,
1984), p. 142.

104 AGI, Patronato 153, N. 14, R. 1, probanza Andres de Pernia, 1557.

105 CBP, vol. II, p. 279.

106 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554.

107 JRS-365.

108 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro Arevalo, 1556.

109 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

110 AGI, Patronato 63, R. 10, probanza Gonzalo Mendez, 1560.

111 AGI, Patronato 69, R. 1, probanza Sabastian de Villegas, 1569.

112 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597.

113 FAI, vol. II, p. 218.

114 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544-1597.


90








Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


115 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1556.

116 FAI, vol. II, p. 323. JRS-355.

117 CDI, vol. IX, 503-567.

118 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

119 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 2, R. 2, probanza Alonso Vazquez, 1560.

120 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1556.

121
121 JRS-366.

122 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

123 JRS-367.

124 AGI, Patronato 69, R. 1, probanza Sebastian de Villegas, 1569.

125 AGI, Patronato 105, N. 1, R. 6, probanza Juan Cordero, 1561.

126 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

127 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554 and AGI,
Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 1, probanza Garcia Osorio, 1561.

128
128 JRS-368.

129 FAI, vol. II, p. 349. See also CBP, vol. II, p. 278.

130 AGI, Patronato 101, N. 1, R. 18, probanza Gonzalo Silvestre, 1558.

131 JRS-368.

132 JRS-355.

133 AGI, Patronato 77, N. 1, R. 1, probanza Heman Suarez, 1572.

134 JRS-368.

135 AGI, Patronato 150, N. 14, R. 6, probanza Pedro de Arevalo, 1558.


91


I








The Survivors of the De Soto Expedition


136 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544.

137 AGI, Patronato 57, N. 1, R. 4, probanza Juan de Afiasco, 1544.

138 Herbert Ingraham Priestley, The Luna Papers, 2 vols. (Deland, FL, 1928),
vol. I, p. 74-75.

139 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1546.

140 FAI, vol. I, p. 151.

141 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 2, probanza Alonso Vazquez, 1560. An English
version of this document appears in Smith-301 to 312. I have followed the
latter after reading the original.

142 AGI, Patronato 51, N. 3, R. 2, probanza Alonso Vazquez, 1560.

143 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

144 AGI, Patronato 77, N. 1, R. 1, probanza Heman Suarez, 1557.

145 AGI, Patronato 69, R. 2, probanza Sebastian de Villegas, 1569.

146 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554.

147 AGI, Patronato 101, N. 1, R. 19, probanza Gonzalo Silvestre, 1558.

148 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1547.

149 FAI, vol. II, p. 241.

150 AGI, Mexico 204, probanza Baltasar de Gallegos, 1545.

151 AGI, Patronato 69, R. 2, probanza Sebastian de Villegas, 1569. CDI, vol.
II, p. 215.

152 AGI, Patronato 105, N. 1, R. 6, probanza Juan Cordero, 1561.

153 JRS-371.

154 AGI, Patronato 60, N. 5, R. 7, probanza Rodrigo Vazquez, 1554; AGI,
Patronato 69, R. 2, probanza Sebastian de Villegas, 1569.


92







Los Sobrevivientes de La Florida


155 CDI, vol. XXVII, p. 526 to 529. Vol. XXVIII, p. 190 to 193. Vol. XXXV,
p. 1-198. CDU, vol. 1, p. 118 to 126. Vol. 6, p. 46-290.
156 AGI, Justicia 750A, Bobadilla vs. Ponce de Leon, 1546.

157 James Lockhart, The Men of Cajamarca (Austin, Texas, 1972), pp. 28 and
190-201.
158 Mario G6ngora, Los Grupos de conquisitadores en Tierra Firme
(1509-1530), (Santiago, Chile, 1962), p. 77.

159 Lockhart, The Men ofCajamarca, p. 35.

160 Bourne, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto, vol. II, p. 157.

161 JRS-74.


93







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