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Title: Satsuma oranges
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014556/00001
 Material Information
Title: Satsuma oranges
Series Title: Farmer's handbook - Satsuma Orange Growers ; 9
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00014556
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA7019
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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        Page 3
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Full Text

Satsuma Oranges

Issued to the Satsuma Growers Along Lines of L. & N. R. R.





(The "Kid-Glove" Oranges)


The Satsuma oranges belong to the Mandarin citrus group. They
are characterized by having most desirable edible qualities, and
because of the ease with which the rind may be removed have been
given the name of "Kid-Glove" oranges.
No section of the country combines the requisites for Satsuma
growing quite so well as does the Gulf Coast territory, yet the weather
records indicate that this region is not entirely free from possible
frosts or freezes. However, the old bearing groves bear testimony
that Satsuma oranges may be planted with reasonable safety where
proper attention is paid to site selection and cultural methods,
but every grower should realize that there is an element of risk.
The risk, however, is probably no greater than that assumed by grow-
ers of other fruits in other sections.
The Satsuma, when budded on trifoliata stock, is the hardiest of
the edible oranges, but the degree of cold the trees will stand depends
upon conditions, especially the age and degree of dormancy of the
tree. Satsuma oranges on citrus trifoliata stock have been known
to withstand a temperature of 150.F. and yield a heavy crop the
following season; so, Qvinden 1.* tle ang'r .point is below this.

..:::.'.'" : ".':.....

Some df:fhe mistakesi.a f t Ygr'owiing nmay be corrected4vhen they
are discovered, but errors arising from a faulty location are irre-
parable. Some of the points to consider in selecting a location are
the site, soil and transportation facilities.

Sites In selecting a suitable site for a Satsuma grove several things
must be considered. Decidedly the most important is to
select a site as free from frost as possible and it is a well known fact
that some places are more subject to frosts than others even though
they are but a short distance apart.

1> $ &


Good air drainage is essential, and as a rule the higher lands are
better drained than the lowlands, for cold air, being heavier than
warm air, sinks to the lower places. For this reason it is better to
locate a grove on the side of an elevation or on top of it. Pockets,
that is, lowlands so situated as to receive cold'air from a higher place,
should be avoided.
And even close proximity to such pockets from which the collected
cold air may be moved by wind should be avoided. Experience has
shown that the southeast side of such pockets is especially hazardous.
Anything that interferes with the free circulation of air through
the grove must be avoided. Under no circumstances should wind
breaks be provided. Experience has also shown that even the
cutting of a tall winter cover crop from about a tree has formed an
individual pocket resulting in cold injury to the tree.

F- m. .
4S* ** S -. SS. '.
.* "*
FIG. 1W a t'c.tivie S.ttum grove. *

Soils Satsuma oranges are grown successfully on a variety of soils.
Citrus trifoliata stock will grow successfully on fairly rich,
somewhat moist, soils, preferably sandy soils with a clay subsoil. It
will succeed on clay soils, alluvial soils, and soils which contain plenty
of moisture, but it does not do well on high, dry, calcareous soils
deficient in moisture.
Invariably by prospective Satsuma planters the question is
asked, what soil type should be selected. In answer, it may be said


that in the Gulf Coast territory adapted climatically to the Satsuma,
while there are several soil types present, all are sufficiently suitable
that the more important consideration is not primarily soil but rather
site. Sites are not easily altered or modified; soils are. After the
selection of a suitable site, then any modification of the soil by fertil-
ization, cultivation, drainage, etc., that will better adapt it to the
needs of the Satsuma should be started and, in fact, throughout the
life of the grove the cultural methods should include soil improving
programs that will continually better fit the soil to the needs of the
trees and high quality fruit production.
Good water drainage is also very important; therefore, sites and
soils which cannot be properly water drained should be avoided.

Transportation In selecting a location some consideration may well
Facilities be given the values of good roads leading to the
packing house or shipping point. Also, the ad-
vantages of the most direct and best communication with the large
marketing centers of the country should not be underestimated.

Preparation for the Grove
Nursery Satsuma oranges are usually budded on citrus trifoliata
Stock stock. The trifoliata is a deciduous tree, becomes dor-
mant in the fall, is therefore very resistant to cold, and
when used as stock imparts some of its hardiness to the scion.
The grower should be careful in purchasing trees and should
deal only with reliable nurserymen. It will pay to get good trees
even though the initial cost may be greater. Only strong, healthy,
vigorous trees of the desired varieties, and free of pests, should be
planted. The care given in the nursery should have been such that
a good, strong root system has been developed upon the proper stock.
It is also distinctly preferable to obtain trees for planting from those
nurseries in which the bud wood used is selected only from trees
having a high performance record. As a rule it is safer to contract
for trees early rather than late in the season.
Trees of different ages may be planted successfully, but trees
preferable for planting are those having a two or three-year-old
root system with a one or two-year-old top.
Upon receipt of the trees from the nursery they should be un-
packed, and if not to be planted immediately should be heeled in.
Heeling in consists simply in digging a trench in a shady place and
standing the trees in it, separately, side by side, in a slanting posi-
'/47 ?


tion, and covering the roots thoroughly with loose dirt. If the roots
are dry they should be dampened, and be sure that they are well
covered. A shovelful of loose dirt thrown on top will prevent baking.
Varieties At least
three va-
rieties of Satsumas are
Snow recognized-the
Owari, the Ikeda and
the Zairai. Of these,
the Owari is recom-
mended as the most
desirable, while the
Zairai is the poorest
and should be avoid-
Sed. The Ikeda is a
little later maturing
than the Owari and
... r s could also be used if
lengthening of the
FIG. 2.-A good one-year Satsuma tree. picking season is de-
Preparation The Satsumas will occupy the land for many years
of the and it cannot be too well prepared to receive them.
Land The best plan is to remove all trees, stumps, shrubs
and debris from the land before planting the Satsumas.
The practice of merely clearing a narrow strip of land where the
Satsumas are to stand is not recommended.
After clearing, crops such as velvet beans, cowpeas, etc., when
grown and turned under will improve the physical condition of the
soil, increase its water holding capacity and will add both humus
and plant food to the soil.

Time to Satsumas may be planted at any time that dormant trees
Plant are obtainable, and weather conditions suitable; the
preferable time, however, is during the winter after
the dangers of serious cold have passed; ordinarily this is after the
middle of February.
Distance to Satsuma oranges are planted at various distances
Plant apart, but twenty-five to thirty feet each way is a fair
distance to plant. When the trees are planted closer
than this, orchard practices such as spraying, cultivating, harvest-
ing, etc., are seriously interferred with as the trees become older.


.. . .

FIG. 3.-A four-year-old Satsuma tree.

Double By double planting is meant the setting of two or more
Planting kinds of trees on the same area. This is not good practice
for in time the Satsumas will not only need all the space,
but the orchard practices such as fertilization, spraying, cultivating,
etc., are not equally suitable to the different types of trees.

Setting In positioning the trees sufficient care should be exercised
the Tree that when set the trees will have alignment in both di-
rections. Of the several possible methods of so position-
ing the trees two only may be mentioned; first, by surveying and in-
dicating tree positions by driven stakes; second, by the intersecting
of plow furrows at proper and uniform distance apart and at right
angles to each other.
The trees should be exposed to the sun and wind as little as possi-
ble from the time they leave the nursery until they are planted.
The roots of citrus trees are very susceptible to injury by wind and
Before planting the tree, all bruised or dead roots should be re-
moved by a smooth, clean cut. When the trees are taken to the field


for planting, they should be kept covered with wet sacking or carried
in a barrel with sufficient thin mud to cover the roots.
The hole should be made large enough to receive all of the roots
without bending them so that they may be spread out naturally
in all directions. Do not bend the roots in order to make them fit
the hole. It is much better to have the hole a little larger than is
necessary to accommodate the roots.
Do not plant the tree any deeper than it stood in the nursery
row. After planting the union of the scion and the stock should be
about an inch above the ground surface. A narrow board over the
hole may be used to determine this level when setting the tree.


FIG. 4.-Planting a Satsuma tree, using a planting board. The trees with their roots cov-
ered with thin mud are carried in a half barrel on the wagon until ready to go into the ground.
(U. S. D. A.)

In filling the hole it is advisable to work mellow top soil among the
roots, filling every crevice, thereby leaving no air spaces in which the
roots would dry out.

If needed, water may be added when the hole is about half filled
and again when filled. A shovelful of loose dirt then thrown on
top will prevent baking.


It is good practice to thoroughly mix with the soil about two
pounds of fertilizer, running about 8-4-4, before placing around the
Since tlhe root system has been reduced in transplanting the tree
it is necessary to cut back the top in proportion to maintain a balance
between top and root. This can be done before or just after the trees
are planted. One-year-old trees should be cut back so they will have
a trunk about sixteen to eighteen inches high, and older trees should
have a trunk about two feet high and the branches should be cut
back to about four inches.

Caring for the Grove

Pruning Very little pruning will be found necessary. It has just
been stated that the trees should be cut back at the time
of planting and most of the pruning should be done at this time.
The grower should strive to have low-headed, compact trees for they
are more easily sprayed, the fruit is more easily harvested and they
are less likely to sun scald.
After the pruning at planting time little pruning will need to be
done in future years: however, it may become necessary, occasionally,
to remove a limb which is rubbing, and sprouts which come from be-
low the bud, and all dead and incurably diseased branches should be
All cuts should be close, with the surface of the wound parallel
to the direction of the branch on which it is located. Never leave
stubs; make smooth, clean cuts.

Cultivation The success of a grove depends to a very large extent
upon the care and cultivation it receives.
A control, as far as possible, of the moisture in the soil as well as
aeration are very important and the system of cultivation adopted
should be such as will best serve these features. Thus clean tillage,
at certain periods, and a proper use of cover crops is by all means
the best system of cultivation to follow. Cover crops turned under
greatly improve the soil in several ways, but especially its water-
holding capacity. Also frequent but shallow tillage through certain
parts of the year, thereby forming a dust mulch, is one of the best
ways of conserving moisture and aerating the surface soil.


FIG. 5.-Turning under a cover crop with a disc plow.

The cultivation should begin as early in the spring as possible,
that is, as soon as the ground is in a workable condition, and should
be continued over the entire surface until about the first of August
when a cover crop is sown. In the bearing grove cultivation now
ceases and the cover crop is sown over the entire surface while in
the non-bearing grove cultivation continues on either side of the
tree row for a distance of about four feet, up until about the first of
October, the remaining interspace only being sown to the cover
crop. It should be the practice to cultivate the ground as frequently
as necessary to maintain a dust mulch; ordinarily every ten days to
two weeks is sufficient.
Where a cover crop is used during the winter season it should not
be allowed to grow high or remain on the ground so late in the spring
as to be a detriment to the trees. A high winter cover crop retards
the circulation of air through the grove thus making conditions more
favorable for possible cold injury.
Harrows, such as the Acme, spring tooth, or disc are the best
implements to use, for they thoroughly pulverize the surface soil
and do not cultivate too deep. Shallow cultivation is distinctly
preferable, for the roots of the trees should not be injured. As a
rule, plows should not be used; however, they are sometimes neces-
sary in order to turn under a heavy cover crop, but ordinarily the
disc harrow is quite sufficient and is less liable to injure the roots.
Different crops, depending upon the season of the year, are used


FIG. 6.-The spring-tooth harrow does rapid and efficient work.

as cover crops. Of the legumes, cowpeas, soy beans, beggarweed
and bush velvet beans are suitable as summer crops, while vetch,
crimson and bur clover may be used for winter crops. Of the non-
legumes, winter oats and rye are most generally used in connection
with the winter legumes.

FIG. 7.-The Disc harrow is one of the most valuable implements in successful orcharding.

The practice of growing other market crops in the Satsuma grove
is not to be recommended as the trees demand the full benefit of
all orchard practices.





Fertilizers Practically all of the soils in the citrus belt must be
enriched by the means of fertilizers and cover crops.
As a general rule, for young growing trees, a fertilizer carrying
about six to eight per cent phosphoric acid, four per cent nitrogen,
and four per cent potash should be used; while for bearing trees a
fertilizer analyzing eight to ten per cent phosphoric acid, four per
cent nitrogen and six to eight per cent potash is generally recom-

The amount to apply will depend upon conditions, but it should
be applied in proportion to the needs of the tree. A rule followed
by many growers is to apply from one to two pounds of fertilizer
per tree for each year added to the life of a grove until it comes into
heavy bearing and then the amount is increased and frequently
twenty or more pounds per tree may be profitably used.

Two or more applications are usually made; one in February or
March, about the time growth starts, and another about the middle
of June. The most efficient method is to apply the fertilizer around
the trees in the form of a broad circle, at about the drip of the branch-
es and care should be taken not to bring it too close to the crown of
the tree. After applying, it may be worked into the soil by cultiva-

Animal manure and organic sources of nitrogen, such as bird
guano, fish scrap, blood and bone, tankage, etc., are among the best
forms of fertilizer to be used in the Satsuma grove. The inorganic
sources of nitrogen may be sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of soda.
In using animal manure the more common method is by broad-
casting, but the more efficient way is by opening furrows at about
the drip of the branches and in these placing the manure, or in lieu
of it leguminous hay, and covering by subsequent cultivation.

Spraying The necessary cultivation and fertilization may be given
a grove; yet, if spraying is neglected when it is needed,
the grower cannot hope to have the best fruit. Insects and diseases
do not wait and neither should the grower when it is essential that
the work be done. The grower should have available the necessary
equipment to spray whenever occasion demands, otherwise the pests
will not be controlled.


FIG. S.-Spraying.
Power spray outfits that can deliver the spray material under
high pressure are decidedly to be preferred. Where owners have
groves so small that they do not feel justified in purchasing a power
outfit, such should combine with others in the ownership of suitable
equipment, or hire the work done by one who is so equipped. An
extra supply of hose, nozzles, clamps, fittings, extension rods, etc.,
should form a part of every equipment so that delays in operation
will be prevented when quick repairs are needed. To prevent much
annoyance while spraying, all spray material when placed in the
sprayer tank should be strained to remove any particles that might
clog the nozzles. When through spraying, all spray material should
be washed out clean, the machinery properly oiled, and put away
under shelter and in condition for the next spraying. Inefficient
spray equipment and inefficient spray operators are responsible for
many badly infested trees and much of the poor grade fruit.
Proper Spraying It is not only necessary for the production of
Is An Insurance good fruit but also for the health and life of the
trees. The importance of proper spraying cannot
be too strongly emphasized. Every detail connected with sprays
and spraying should be thoroughly understood and intelligently
applied. Remember always that positive injury can result if intelli-
gence is not controlling every phase of this important part of orchard-
ing. Know what you are spraying for; when it should be done;
what material should be used; how it should be prepared; how and
where it should be applied.
Best results from spraying come only when the proper operation
has been performed thoroughly at the right time.


Spray Mixtures
Formula 1

Copper Sulphate................. 4 pounds
Lime........................... 4 pounds
W ater............ ........... 50 gallons
This formula can be varied when desired as 3-3-50, 5-5-50, or
Dissolve the copper sulphate in a vessel containing 25 gallons of
water by suspending it in a bag so that it is just submerged. Slake
the stone lime by adding a little water at a time. Strain the lime
water thoroughly, diluting it to 25 gallons. Now pour the two
together into a third vessel mixing the two streams as they fall.
Strain this mixture into the spray tank. Bordeaux mixture can be
purchased already prepared.

Formula 2
OIL EMULSION (Government Formula)

2 Gallons Paraffin Oil
1 Gallon Water
2 Pounds Caustic Potash Fish Oil Soap
1 Pound Ground Glue
2 to 4 Ounces 50% Carbolic Acid or Liquor
Cresolis Compositus, U. S. P.
Put all materials except carbolic acid or liquor cresolis compositus
into a kettle, tub or wash boiler or any vessel that will stand fire,
and heat until it boils. Then remove from the fire and emulsify
by pumping through a force pump (bucket pump) twice. If this
stock mixture is to be used within two days, then no preservative
need be added, but if it is to be kept any length of time, the pre-
servative must be added to prevent fermentation. This should be
added after the emulsion has been pumped.
If in the preparation of the oil emulsion spray there is a tendency
to precipitation rather than emulsification, the water used may be
too hard, in which case substitute a softer water, such as rain water.
A spray mixture carrying one per cent oil is the strength usually
applied, made by adding the above to 200 gallons water, or one part
to sixty-six of water, or three (3) quarts oil emulsion in fifty (50)
gallons water.


Formula 3

Prepare 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture in the usual manner.
Prepare Oil Emulsion as per Formula 2.
While thoroughly agitating the Bordeaux add three (3) quarts
oil emulsion to fifty (50) gallons Bordeaux which gives a one per
cent oil, Bordeaux, mixture.

Formula 4

Commercial Lime Sulphur, Baume' 280.
1 part to 40 parts water for dormant winter spray.
1 part to 77 parts water for summer spray.
When the specific gravity of the commercial solution gives other
than 280 Baume', the respective dilutions for winter and summer
sprays are indicated in the following table:
Dilutions equivalent to Lime Sulphur 280 Baume' one part, with
water 40 and 77 parts respectively.

Baume' Dilution
Degrees Winter Summer
26 ............ .... .... 36 71
27.................... 38 74
28..................... 40 77
.9 ...................... 41 80
30 ..................... 43 84
31 .............. ........ 45 88
32...................... 47 90
33...................... 49 95
34...................... 51 99

Formula 5

"Black Leaf 40"................ 7Y ounces
Water or other spray mixture.... 50 gallons


Satsuma Spray Schedule

Oil emulsion 1 part to water 50
parts (Formula 2), or Lime Sul-
phur 28 Baume' 1 part to water
40 parts (Formula 4).

2. About 40 days later. Oil emulsion 1 to 50 (Formula 2).

3. At first flush of Bordeaux (3-3-50) Oil emulsion
growth. 1 to 66 (Formula 3). If no scale
are present-use Bordeaux only
3-3-50 (Formula 1).

4. When about three- Bordeaux 3-3-50 (Formula 1), or
fourths of the petals Bordeaux-Oil emulsion (Formula
have dropped. 3), or Lime Sulphur 2S8 Baume'
(Formula 4) 1 part to water 77
parts, plus Nicotine Sulphate
(Formula 5) 71.) ozs. to 50 gals.

5. Toward last of May Lime Sulphur 28 Baume' 1 to 77
or early June. (Formula 4), or oil emulsion, 1
to 66 (Formula 2).

6. Late July or early Lime Sulphur, 1 to 77 (Formula
August. 4).

7. Late August.

Oil Emulsion, 1 to 66 (Formula

Scale insects or white fly.

If scale is present.


white fly, scale in-

Formula 1 for scab only.
Formula 3 if scale also
present. Formula 4 for
mites or spiders only.
Formula 5 if thrips also

Formula 4 for rust mites
and red spiders. Formula
2 if scale only are present.

Mites, spiders.

If purple scale is present.

NOTE In spraying, the mixture must be uniform from start t3 finish: that re-
quires the most thorough agitation possible.
The pressure should not go below 150 pounds at any time.
Do not spray, especially with oil, when temperature is above 900.

1. During January or
early February.

- -


Citrus trees, like all other fruit trees, are attacked by insects
and diseases and the trees should be sprayed whenever necessary.
A brief description of the most important enemies is given so the
grower may recognize them.

The Citrus The citrus white fly (see fig. 9) is one of the worst
White Fly pests with which tle growers must contend. In its
earlier stages it resembles a scale insect, but in the
adult stage both sexes have four chalky white wings. It has a wide

range of food plants,
feeding especially upon
citrus plants, the China-
berry, the um) rella
China tree, Cape Jessa-
mines and privets. The
egg, larval and pupal
stages are found on the
underside of the leaves.
The young not only in-
jure a tree by sucking
the sap from the leaves
and reducing the vital-
ity of the tree, but they
secrete a honey dew
which gets on the leaves
and a black sooty fungus

'.-.'. '(, ,' \ % "^ ;\. 'S
'-r' S '

FIG. 9.-White fly: (a) orange leaf, showing infestation
on under surface; (b) egg; (c) same, with young insect
emerging; (d) larval insect; (e) foot of same; (f) larval
antennae; (g) scale-like pupa; (h) pupa about to disclose
adult insect; (i) insect escaping from pupal shell; (j) leg of
newly emerged insect not yet straightened. All ..,. ex-
cept (a) greatly enlarged (re-engraved from and
Howard, U. S. D. A.).

lives in it and sometimes completely covers the leaves and fruit.
This sooty mold is injurious to the tree because it shuts out the sun-
light from the leaves which impairs the physiological functions of
the tree. Badly infested trees usually bear little or no fruit and that
which is borne is insipid. There are several generations of the
white fly each year but it can he controlled by spraying, which
is most effective while the insect is in the larval and pupal stages.

The Purple The Purple Scale (see fig. 10) is widely distributed and
Scale is one of the most commonly known insects that infest
citrus trees. It also attacks many other plants. It
is of a brownish-purple color and in shape resembles the oyster shell
scale that infests apple trees. It infests leaf, branch and fruit,
and it seems to thrive best in the interior of the tree where the
injury is most evident. The branches or leaves are usually the



FIG. 10.-Purple scale, showing different stages of female: (a) newly hatched larva; (b) same, with
first waxy secretion; (c) to (f) different stages of growth; (g) mature scale; (h) same inverted, show-
ing eggs; (i) and (j) half-grown and full-grown female insects removed from scale. All enlarged
(U. S. D. A.).

first to become infested, but if they are abundant on these, the fruit
nearby will become infested also.

The Soft This scale (see fig.
Scale 11) is sometimes
called the turtle
back scale, or brown scale,
which is probably due to the
fact that the adult scale is
more or less turtle shaped. It
is also widely distributed and
is frequently found on many
greenhouse plants. There are
several generations each year
and they are usually found in
clusters or colonies on the
tender growth of young limbs
and the midrib of the leaves.
The young insect is of a trans-
parent yellow color and as it
gets older changes to a deep
brown. In its earlier stages
it is hardly noticeable on the
Sleaf or twig owing to its being
FIG. 11.-Soft scale: Orange twig showing massing so thin, flat and transparent.
of the scales. Natural size (after Comstock).


Cottony This scale is easily dis-
Cushion tinguished by the fluted,
Scale white, cottony, egg-sac of
the adult female. This
soft cottony cushion, in which may
be present from four hundred to a
thousand eggs, may reach a length
of nearly a half inch and is fluted
or ridged lengthwise. The scale
itself is a reddish-brown while the
eggs and young are a bright red.
The adults are usually found on the
trunk, limbs or twigs of the tree;
the young, however, frequent the
leaves, preferring the sides of the
midribs. A favorite hiding place
for both young and old is in the r
forks and crevices of twigs. There -
are several broods during the sum-
mer, when the scale increases enor-
mously and unless checked may do '
great damage.
It has a long list of food plants
on which it may be found; such as all-
kinds of citrus, pomegranate, apple,
peach, fig, pecan, grape, rose, castor- .
bean, potato, purslane, nettle, Ber- -
muda grass and many others. ..
The cottony cushion scale can be
FIG. 12.-Co tony cushion scale
controlled by spraying, although with Vedalia . orida Ex
this is often not as practical as the periment Station).
use of a predaceous enemy, the Vedalia lady beetle (Novius sp.).
The Vedalia is smaller than most of our native lady-beetles, about
one-eighth inch long, and is of a cardinal red color, spotted and
fringed with black. The larva, which also feeds on the cottony cush-
ion scale, is also red.

Our native twice-stabbed lady-beetle also feeds on this as well
as other scales, but it cannot be depended on for cottony cushion
control as can the Vedalia. Some difficulty may be encountered in
establishing the Vedalia where the Argentine ant is present.

Where control is to be effected through spraying, lime sulphur
or oil emulsion are most efficient when applied to the young.


FIG. 13.-Florida red scale: (a) leaves covered with scales
natural size; (1i) newly hatched insect with enlargements of
antennae and le ; (c). (d). (c), (f) different states in the devehlp-
ment of the female insect, drawn to the same scale; (g) adult
male scale, enlarged (Marlatt, U. S. D. A.).

pearance of a dark ring with a light center.
rations a year.

FIG. 14.-Long scale. showing cluster of
male and female scales on fruit of orange.
Enlarged seven diameters. (U. S. D. A.).

easily controlled than the Purple
ing the sap from the tree.

The Red This in-
Scale of sect (see
Florida fig. 13) is
very wide-
ly distributed and has
a wide range of food
plants, but is not or-
dinarily considered a
serious pest on citrus
trees. In general out-
line it is nearly circu-
lar with the molted
skins in the center of
the scale instead of at
the smaller end. In
color this scale is a
rich reddish-brown al-
most black. The cen-
tral portion is much
lighter, giving the ap-
There are several gen-

The Long The Long Scale (see
Scale fig. 14) is supposed to
have originated in
China, but it is now found in
practically every region where
citrus fruits are grown. It close-
ly resembles the Purple Scale and
the Oyster Shell Scale, but is
characterized or distinguished by
its very elongate form. It is of
a rather rich reddish or brownish
purple color. It is frequently
found in the groves and its life
history is very similar to the
Purple Scale, making several
generations a year. It is more
Scale. Injury is caused by suck-


The)llNS The Hemispherical
Hemispherical Scale (see fig. 15)
Scale is widely distribut-
ed, but is not con-
sidered as especially injurious to cit-
rus trees in orchards as it is mostly
a green-house pest. The adult scale is
smooth, shiny and hemispherical in
shape and is about the same size as
the black scale. It changes in
color with age from a light brown to
a dark brown and finally the old
scale assumes a reddish color. It

The By preference the Chaff
Chaff Scale (see fig. 16) usually
Scale infests the trunk and
branches, but when they
become numerous they infest leaves
and fruit, giving the surface a rough
appearance as though covered with
loose chaff. They are usually found
in colonies clustered together, often-
times overlapping one another. The
female is of a light straw yellow
color usually with a greenish tinge.
This scale is oval or nearly circular
in outline and the molted skins an

FIG. 15.-Hemispherical scale: (a) group
of adult scales-natural size; (b) three fe-
male scales-considerably enlarged; (c)
scale lifted from leaf, showing mass of eggs
(Marlatt, U. S. D1. A.I.

is easily controlled.

a' % .. '4 rftr7
^ ,ydf j
.y.) -

FIG. 16.-Chaff scale, illustrating a
group of the female and male scales as
they occur on a 1I' c If.'ir"-- about
seven diameters I .. i D. A.).
2 at one end of the scale.

The Black This scale (see fig. 17) is dark brown' or nearly black
Scale in color. It has a wide distribution, being found on
many plants other than citrus, and as far back as we
have any records it attacked
citrus fruits in the Old World.
Distinguishing features of it are
that the general surface of the
body is roughened and there is
one longitudinal and two trans-
verse ridges. It reduces the
vitality of the tree by sucking -
Fi G. 17.--Blackscale. Enlarged four diame-
the sap and also secretes a honey ters (Marlactt, Ui. S. Dn. A.).


dew in which the sooty fungus lives, and badly infested trees
frequently become thoroughly blackened with the sooty fungus.
There is only one generation a year.

The This insect (see fig.
Orange 18) is not as widely
S Chionaspis distributed over the
citrus groves as
S 1. some others, but it is found in
most countries where citrus fruits
are grown. The male scales are
very conspicuous on account of
their white color, and the females
are distinguished from other ar-
FIG. 18.--Orange Chionaspis, illustrating a mored scales of a similar general
group of the female and male scales as they oc-
cur on a leaf. Enlarged about seven diameters shape by the distinctly ridged
(Marlatt, U. S. D. A.). appearance of the waxy portion.
Injury is caused by their sucking sap from the trees. The Orange
Chionaspis is readily controlled by the same treatments advised
for other armored scales.

Citrus The Citrus Red Spider
Red (see fig. 19) causes pale
Spider yellow specks over the
S1? surface of the leaf and
Sfruit which gradually increase in
numbers until they become num-
Serous enough to cause a pale
S gray or silvery effect over the
S whole of the leaf and fruit.
The leaves show the effect first,
then the fruit, but they also at-
tack the tender twigs. There
FI. 19.-Citrus red spider. (California re e r rations eh ar
Experiment Station.) are several generations each year.


The This mite (see fig. 20) is closely allied to the common
Six-Spotted red spider of greenhouses. Its work is very character-
Mite istic and is easily distinguished from that of all other
species. They feed on the underside of a leaf usually
along the midrib, but sometimes
close to the margin. Where the
colony is located there is a depres-
sion which is of a pale yellow
color and is covered with a web .
which protects the spiders beneath,
and which also serves as a support
for the eggs which are scattered
about in the silk. On the surface
above the web this area is repre-
sented by a raised portion which
is yellow or yellowish-white in 2
color and has a smooth shiny sur-
face. Badly infested foliage fre-
quently curls and shrivels and some-
times drops, which is also true of
the small fruit. Dry, hot weather a
is very favorable for the multiplica-
FIG. 20.-Six-spotted mite; (a) dorsal
tion of the Six-Spotted Mite. There view of adult mite-enlarged; (b) greater
are several generations each year. enlargeent of foot; (c), (d) mouth parts
aa "Insect Life").

The The rust mite
Rust Mite (see fig. 21) is
of the small, honey yel- c
Orange low in color, long- ,'
er than broad, -
and has four legs. It develops
on the leaves and fruit, some- P
times causing the leaves to
curl and they may lose their
glossy appearance. The mites
feed upon the oil of the rind a / e
FIG. 21.-Rust mite: (a) and (b) dorsal and
by piercing the oil cells with lateral views of adult mite; (c) leg of same; (d) egg;
(e) rind showing pits normal to surface and mites
their beak. They produce and eggs. All enlarged (a) to (d) copied from
Sf t i, Hubbard; (e) Marlatt, U. S. D. A.).
russet fruit, that is, oranges
attacked become rusted or brownish, and the rind is toughened.
Fruit so affected seldom brings as much on the market as clean,
bright fruit.


The The Mealy Bug (see fig. 22) is
Mealy widely distributed and has a
Bug wide range of food plants. It
is white in color and the edge
Sof the body is surrounded by a large
number of waxy filaments. The adult
.- winged male is of a light brown color.
This insect is active in all stages, and
sprays must be applied so as to reach the
young as they hatch. As a rule, Mealy
foIG. 22.--Me a's Cu'. Ia:nr tt, u* gs will be found in masses or colonies
four diameters (.Marlatt, U. S. D.
A.). in the angles of the branches and leaf
petioles and about the stem of the fruit.

Orange "The Orange Dog" is a
Dog name applied to the larva
of a butterfly (Papilio
cresphontes) and is found through-
out the orange growing sections of
the South, feeding upon the leaves
of citrus trees. The young cater-
pillar is very much like the full
grown ones in form and color, but
the gray markings are darker and
the white blotches not so large as
in the mature larva. When full
grown it is about two and a half
inches long and very peculiarly
marked. Above it is dark brown,
almost covered with irregular whit-
ish blotches, spotted with brown.
Behind the head are two long red
fleshy horns, which when protruded
emit a very disagreeable odor which
probably serves to protect the larva
from its enemies.

FIG. 23.--"Orange Dog" on a The Orange Dog, although very
cittitsonaf. (Florida Experiment formidable in appearance, is per-
fectly harmless to man and may be
easily controlled by hand picking as its size and color make it quite


Grasshoppers There are several species of grasshoppers that some-
times prove troublesome to citrus trees by feeding
upon the tender leaves and young growth and occasionally they at-
tack the young fruit. They are more likely
to be troublesome in groves adjoining a pasture
or uncultivated grass plots as the females
lay their eggs in such places.
Remedy: Criddle Mixture scattered
through the grove is one of the best remedies.
It is made by mixing Paris green one part, Uii
salt two parts, horse manure by measure forty
parts, and enough water to make it soft with-
out being sloppy.

Citrus Citrus canker is a highly infectious
Canker bacterial disease.
The distinguishing feature of Citrus
Canker is the characteristic spotting produced
on the fruit and foliage. As usually seen, the
infection appears as small light brown spots
from less than one-sixteenth to one-quarter
of an inch in diameter. The spots are usually
round, and may occur singly or several may
run together forming an irregular area. This
last usually occurs on fruits. The spots pro-
ject above the surrounding healthy tissue, and
are composed of a spongy mass of dead cells
covered by a thin white or grayish membrane.
The membrane finally ruptures and turns out-
ward, forming a lacerated or ragged margin
around the spot.

FIG. 25.-Citrus canker
on branch. (Florida Ex-
periment Station.)

On the leaves infectlSp t irs' a'pyetr As~"
small, watery dots'.:,;h'.'aised convex surface'. These dots are
usually of a daket green than the surrounding tissi'..'.pots may
appear on eith surface of th4ltet, ~ utl.they' not at Blst'pepetrate
through the'iMhf tissue. They:gias1ually. tfcrdase in size, ctnge to a
light brown "nd become visible on both sides of the leaf. In the
older spots one or both surfaces may be raised, and such spots are
commonly surrounded by a narrow yellowish band or zone. In
the more advanced stages the surface of the spots becomes white or
grayish, and finally ruptures, exposing a light brown spongy central


On the fruit the spots are very similar to those formed on the
leaves. They project and retain a circular outline. They may be
scattered over the surface or several may occur together. Gumming
is sometimes associated with the spots formed on the fruits. The
spots on young twigs are like those on the leaves and fruit, but on
the older twigs they are more prominent. This is especially true of
old spots and they assume a cankerous appearance and the surface
membrane disappears.

Remedy: Since this disease at present cannot be controlled
by spraying, the only thing to do is to destroy the infection by
burning. Drastic measures are necessary, and every precaution
should be used to prevent the disease spreading. The growers
should watch the trees
7-- closely for a possible
outbreak, and should
not delay taking the
necessary control
Scab Scab (see fig.
26), which is
caused by a minute
parasitic fungus that
Attacks the fruit and
leaves, is one of the
\ most widely distribut-
ed diseases affecting
citrus trees. It at-
tacks Satsumas,
FTheG. 26.-Citrus scab. (From Hume, Citrus Fruits and grapefruits, kum-
Their Culture.)
quats, tangerines,
lemons and limes, and its ~resenee is indicated by the appearance of
hard, corky, wart-liltd levt tiqus h Eho d' I6v4 and fruit, and as the
disease advawced ljse 'outgrowths freqbdnty ..bcome cracked and
fissured, th1e.rfaves become warped and drawif'ottbif shape and the
fruit is n.eirlsapen and:" rsi tl.: '.":..

Sooty Sooty Mold occurs on the leaves, twigs and fruit of many
Mold plants, and does not live upon the plant but upon a sweetish
substance called honey dew which is excreted by various
scale insects and the white fly. It causes damage by shutting out
the sunlight from the leaves and fruit, thereby interfering with the


physiological functions of the tree. Frequently the sooty fruit
must be washed before it can be marketed.
Remedy: Elimination of the scale insects and white fly by proper
spraying, eliminates also the sooty mold.

Thrips These are small yellow-
ish colored insects about
one twenty-fifth of an inch in a
length. They are provided with.
two sets of thin membranous
wings fringed with long delicate
hairs. Injury is done to blos-
soms and fruit by the sucking
mouth parts of the insect. This
injury results in some instances
in the dropping of the blossoms FIG. 24.-Adult Thrip. Enlarged.
and to a russeting of the fruit.
Remedial measures are applied only in cases where the insects
are numerous, twenty-five or more to the blossom.

Melanose Melanose is a disease affecting chiefly foliage, young
succulent growth and fruit. It is caused by a fungus
which is found abundantly in dead citrus wood. The disease is
therefore more frequently found in trees having a considerable amount
of dead twigs or branches. Melanose is easily recognized by charac-
teristic markings on the surface of affected leaves, twigs or fruit.
These are most commonly in the form of small, circular hard brown
or black specks with smooth, glazed surfaces somewhat raised above
the healthy tissue. Often spots run together forming irregular
masses, circles, bands or streaks. Sometimes the entire surface of
the affected fruit presents a russet appearance. Severe attacks
may cause a considerable dropping of young fruit and young shoots
drop the leaves and die.
Remedy: The control of this disease will depend very largely
on keeping the trees free from dead wood in which the casual fungus
lives. This necessitates systematic pruning and close attention to
any conditions that tends to kill twigs or branches.

Die Back Die Back is easily recognized from the fact that the twigs
and branches of affected trees die back for a distance of
several inches from the tip, and unless it is checked larger branches


become affected which may eventually kill the tree. The leaves
of affected trees have a yellow appearance and irregular, reddish-
brown elevations, often filled with a gummy secretion, appear on the
twigs and branches and those slightly affected have a greasy appear-
ance. Adventitious buds are frequently produced and those not
covered with this gummy secretion send out clusters of branches
around the dead branch. Dark brown, cracked spots or blotches
occur on the fruit and many of them drop off.
Die back may be caused by several things, such as improper
drainage, poorly aerated soils, hardpan and improper fertilization
Remedy: Remove the conditions which cause it as far as possi-
ble and stimulate vigorous growth.

Harvesting and Marketing
Harvesting It is an established fact that the best fruit will command
the best price, and the growers should strive to not
only produce good fruit but as near perfect as possible.
The fruit should not be handled roughly at any time, hence ex-
treme care should be used in picking, grading and packing.

FIG. 27.-Three types of clippers used in picking Satsumas. (U. S. D. A.)

The limbs of the trees should not be broken and the fruit should
not be pulled, but removed from the tree by means of a clipper, the
stem being cut close to the fruit, leaving no stem stub so that no
injury to other fruits with which it will come in contact will result
from the projecting stem. The rind must never be cut, bruised or
broken. To prevent even scratching by the finger nails, the more


careful grove managers require the pickers to wear gloves. Extreme
care must be exercised not to prick or cut the rind with the points
of the clippers. Emptying the picking sacks into the field crates
should be so carefully performed that no bruising results. The
picking crates should be smooth with no projecting nails, splinters
or anything else that might scratch or cut the oranges. Similarly,
all handling of the oranges in the packing house should be so care-
fully done that no possible injury will result. It is from the cuts,
scratches, bruises, etc., that molds and rots most readily start.

FI 2S.-Pickers clipping the Satsuma.

Bags or sacks and baskets are used for picking, but whichever
will give the least bruising should be preferred. When these are
filled the fruit should be transferred carefully into field crates for
transportation to the packing house. These field crates are larger
than the shipping boxes and are made so that they may be stacked
one upon another.

Curing The Satsuma is edible and fully meets the Federal Pure
Food marketing requirements considerably in advance of
the mature orange coloring of the rind. As soon, therefore, as the
Satsuma has developed the necessary sugar and acid content, as
well as suitable size, even though the rind be still green, clipping
should begin. The oranges are carried to the packing house and in
the field collecting crates are stacked in the gas-tight curing room.


FIG. 29.-Harvesting Satsumas and filling the field crates.

Here they are subjected for a few days to the influence of carbon
monoxide gas under definite conditions of temperature and humidity.
This treatment affects the rind so that the green color is changed to
the characteristic fully matured orange color. The advantages thus
of being able to go onto the market so much earlier with a fully
matured orange, not only in edible qualities but also in appearance
or color, should not be under-estimated and all Satsuma packing
houses should therefore have the gas curing room as a part of their

FIG. 30.-Field collecting crates, used in transporting to the packing house and for stacking
in the curing room.


Grading, After curing, the fruit is passed through a washing or
Sizing, polishing machine and is then graded according to its
Packing appearance. Usually two or more grades are made and
trade names may be applied to the different grades.
After the fruit is graded according to appearance it is then passed
through a machine and graded according to size. A definite number
of fruit of each size properly fills the shipping box.

FIG. 31.-Interior of a packing house, showing a portion of a sizing machine
with operators wrapping and packing the oranges.

As the fruit is packed it is wrapped in paper. These wrappers
usually carry the trade mark of the association as an advertisement.

The Florida half-strap is preferred as the shipping box to use
as it is so well known on the market. The box should be filled so
that the last tier of fruit will project about one and one-half inches
above the edge of the box and the cover placed on by use of a lever
or screw press. The grade and number of the pack and net contents
in accordance with Federal marketing rules should be indicated on
one end of the box.


12fruits. Lay- 12fruits. Lay-
er 1. er 2.

60s; diameter 31 inches; 3 layers.

10fruits. Lay- 10fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3, er 2,

76s; diameter 31 Inches; 3

13 fruits. Lay- 12 fruits, Lay-
ers 1 and 3. er 2,

120s: diameter 21 inches; 3 layers.

15fruits. Lay- 15fruits. Lay- 18fruits, Lay- 17fruits. Lay- 20 fruits. Lay- 20fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3. er 2. ers I and 3. er 2. ers 1 and 3. er 2.

18fruits. Lay- 18fruits. Lay- 21 fruits. Lay- 21fruits, Lay- 24fruits. Lay- 25fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3, ers 2 and 4. ers 1 and 3. ers 2 and 4. ers and 3. ers 2 and 4.

216s; diameter, 21 Inches; 4 layers.

27 fruits. Lay- 27 fruits, Lay-
ers 1 and 3. ers 2 and 4.

FIG. 32.- Dagrams illustrating the arrangement and methods of packing Satsumas in layers in
standard half-size boxes or straps. The number of fruits and the approximate diameter of
each fruit in the box and the number of layers in each end are given above each diagram. The
number of fruits in each layer is shown below the diagram. (U. S. D. A.)


Co-operative The history of various fruit industries has shown con-
Associations clusively that growers may expect the most satis-
factory results only when they co-operate in associa-
tions. The more complete this co-operation the better the results.

The final and ultimate aim of the fruit grower is to secure the
greatest financial reward for his labors. This means the production
of the most fruit of the best quality in the least expensive way. To
secure this condition it is not only desirable but necessary that uni-
formity among the growers be the keynote of all operations from the
planting of the groves to the final marketing of the crops.
Through associations, growers are enabled to better produce
uniform fruit by co-operative purchase of necessary material, sup-
plies and equipment, and the adoption of similar orchard practices;
and in the distribution of the fruit, which is the last but perhaps the
most important transaction, the co-operative association in placing
a uniform standardized product upon the market renders a service
impossible with the individual.

FIG. 33.-" Half-strap" boxes showing wrapped Satsunma packed and ready for covering.



B lack Scale .................. ......... ............... 21
Bordeaux-Oil-Emulsion ............... ....................... 15
Chaff Scale ................ ........................... 21
Citrus Canker .................... .................... 25
Citrus R ed Spider ......................................... 22
Co-operative Associations ................. ......... .. 33
Cottony Cushion Scale. .................. ......... .. 19
Cultivation ........................................... 9
Curing......... ............. ..................... 29
Die Back .............................................. 27
Distance to Plant. ..................... ................ 6
Double Planting. .............. .............................. 7
Fertilizers .................. ....................... ....... 12
Grading, Sizing, Packing. ......... .................. ...... 31
Grasshoppers................... .................... 25
Harvesting.......... ..... .......... .. .. ............ 28
Hemispherical Scale ................... ............ . 21
Lime Sulphur ................... .. ................. 15
Long Scale...................... .......................... 20
M ealy Bug......................... ... .. ................... 24
Melanose............. .... .. .......................... 27
Nicotine Sulphate .................. ................... 15
Nursery Stock.......... ............... ... ........... 5
Oil Emulsion.......... ............. .... ............ 14
Orange Chionaspis ................... ................ 22
Orange Dog.............................. ............... 24
Pruning............................................. 9
Purple Scale .. ..................... .................. 17
Red Scale.............. ............................... 20
Rust Mite........... ........ ............... 23
Scab .......... ...................................... 26
Setting the Tree.......... .............. ........... 7
Sites........... ....... .............................. 3
Six Spotted Mite .......... ............ ........... 23
Soft Scale........ ........ .......................... 18
Soils.............. .................................. 4
Sooty Mold......... ............... ... ........... 26
Spray M ixtures ....... . ............ .... .......... .. 14
Spray Schedule.... ..................................... 16
Thrips ............... .. ... ........................... .27
Time to Plant. ....... .... ............ ............ 6
V arieties.......................... ......... ............. 6
White Fly .. ........................ ................ .17


For agricultural information or advice, write to
the following representatives of the


CARL B. JAMES, Montgomery, Ala.
Horticulture, General Agriculture.

E. J. HODDY, Knoxville, Tenn.
Horticulture, Phytopathology.

C. J. HAYDEN, Albany, Ala.
Horticulture, Entomology.

H. B. HOLROYD, Louisville, Ky.
Animal Husbandry, Forestry.

WILLIAM JAMES, Biloxi, Miss.
Animal Husbandry, Farm Management.

M. L. McCRACKEN, Paris, Tenn.
General Agriculture, Animal Husbandry.

S. NW. WESTBROOK, Pensacola, Fla.
Market Distribution. Organization.

Louisville, Ky.

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