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 Title Page
 Determining salt tolerance of landscape...
 Effects of excess salts and...
 Salt tolerance of landscape...
 salt tolerance of plants for central...
 Reference
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 757
Title: Salt tolerance of landscape plants for central Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014512/00001
 Material Information
Title: Salt tolerance of landscape plants for central Florida
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Alternate Title: Landscape plants for central Florida
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Gary W ( Gary Wayne )
Black, Robert J ( Robert John ), 1942-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: [1987?]
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of salt on   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 18.
Statement of Responsibility: Gary W. Knox and Robert J. Black.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014512
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000942082
oclc - 16848701
notis - AEQ3724

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Determining salt tolerance of landscape plants
        Page 3
    Effects of excess salts and plants
        Page 3
    Salt tolerance of landscape plants
        Page 4
    salt tolerance of plants for central Florida
        Page 5
        Good salt tolerance
            Page 5
        Moderate salt tolerance
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Palms
            Page 9
        Shrubs
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Ground covers
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Vines
            Page 17
    Reference
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Page 19
Full Text
/0/7 _


73


Circular 757


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean








Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
for Central Florida
Gary W. Knox and Robert J. Black*

Landscaping on or near the coast can be very challenging and
frustrating because of problems with sea salt. Salts can be deposited on
leaves and soil by winds carrying salt spray or by irrigation with saline
water. Knowing the salt tolerance of plants is becoming more important as
coastal regions continue to be developed, as saltwater intrusion into wells
becomes a greater problem, and as landscapers and homeowners strive
for low-maintenance landscapes in these situations.


Determining Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
Salt tolerance of ornamentals is determined differently from other
crops. Landscapers and homeowners are principally concerned
with survival and appearance of landscape plants, rather than with yield,
as for fruits and vegetables. Accordingly, landscape plants can tolerate
relatively higher levels of salts, since reduced growth and yield are the
initial effects of excess salts and appearance of plants is not immediately
affected.

Effects of Excess Salts on Plants
Excessive concentrations of salts can damage plants by causing water to
move out of plants through a process called osmosis. In addition, a plant
may accumulate chloride or sodium ions, components of salt that can
eventually reach toxic levels in the plant. Research has found that salt
tolerance of a plant usually relates to its ability: (1) to prevent absorption
of chloride or sodium ions; (2) to tolerate the accumulation of chloride or
sodium ions in plant tissue; or, (3) to tolerate osmotic stress caused by soil
or foliar salts. However, the response to salinity can vary with plant age,
cultivar, stage of growth, environmental conditions, cultural practices,
irrigation management, and soil fertility. Also, some plants may be tolerant
of soil salts but intolerant of salt deposits on leaves, or vice versa. These
variables make it difficult to identify a plant's salt tolerance and may
explain the discrepancies in salt-tolerance ratings reported for some
plants.
Plant damage as a result of high salt concentrations may be expressed by
the burning of the margins or tips of leaves followed by defoliation and
death of salt-sensitive species. The salinity of the soil can indicate the
* Extension Horticulturist, Water Management Specialist, Agricultural
Research and Education Center Monticello, Fla., and Extension Woody
Ornamental Specialist, Department of Ornamental Horticulture, respec-
tively; IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.








Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
for Central Florida
Gary W. Knox and Robert J. Black*

Landscaping on or near the coast can be very challenging and
frustrating because of problems with sea salt. Salts can be deposited on
leaves and soil by winds carrying salt spray or by irrigation with saline
water. Knowing the salt tolerance of plants is becoming more important as
coastal regions continue to be developed, as saltwater intrusion into wells
becomes a greater problem, and as landscapers and homeowners strive
for low-maintenance landscapes in these situations.


Determining Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
Salt tolerance of ornamentals is determined differently from other
crops. Landscapers and homeowners are principally concerned
with survival and appearance of landscape plants, rather than with yield,
as for fruits and vegetables. Accordingly, landscape plants can tolerate
relatively higher levels of salts, since reduced growth and yield are the
initial effects of excess salts and appearance of plants is not immediately
affected.

Effects of Excess Salts on Plants
Excessive concentrations of salts can damage plants by causing water to
move out of plants through a process called osmosis. In addition, a plant
may accumulate chloride or sodium ions, components of salt that can
eventually reach toxic levels in the plant. Research has found that salt
tolerance of a plant usually relates to its ability: (1) to prevent absorption
of chloride or sodium ions; (2) to tolerate the accumulation of chloride or
sodium ions in plant tissue; or, (3) to tolerate osmotic stress caused by soil
or foliar salts. However, the response to salinity can vary with plant age,
cultivar, stage of growth, environmental conditions, cultural practices,
irrigation management, and soil fertility. Also, some plants may be tolerant
of soil salts but intolerant of salt deposits on leaves, or vice versa. These
variables make it difficult to identify a plant's salt tolerance and may
explain the discrepancies in salt-tolerance ratings reported for some
plants.
Plant damage as a result of high salt concentrations may be expressed by
the burning of the margins or tips of leaves followed by defoliation and
death of salt-sensitive species. The salinity of the soil can indicate the
* Extension Horticulturist, Water Management Specialist, Agricultural
Research and Education Center Monticello, Fla., and Extension Woody
Ornamental Specialist, Department of Ornamental Horticulture, respec-
tively; IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.








degree of salt tolerance plants will need to survive. Soil salinity is deter-
mined by using a conductivity meter to measure the electrical conducti-
vity of a saturated sample of soil (ECe). Water-holding ability and nutrient-
holding ability of the soil influence the effect of soil salts on plants. For a
sandy loam soil, the U.S. Salinity Laboratory considers that plants with
good salt tolerance can tolerate values of ECe more than 6 deciSiemens
per meter (dS/m, equivalent to millimhos per centimeter) (2,800 ppm),
plants with moderate salt tolerance can tolerate values of ECe between 4.5
and 6 dS/m (2,600-2,800 ppm), and plants with low salt tolerance can only
tolerate salts with ECe's less than 4.5 dS/m (2,600 ppm) (4,9,10). Since
sandy soils hold less water and nutrients, and clay or organic soils hold
more water and nutrients, the values for each tolerance range would be
lower for sandy soils and higher for organic or clay soils. However, while
ECe is a good indicator of total salt content, it does not indicate the com-
position of salts in a soil. The relative abundance of an individual salt can
still lead to plant injury, even though total soil salinity may be low.






live oak

-- we "4ft -

Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
The following table is a guide to selecting landscape plants for Florida's
coastal areas or areas with saline irrigation water. Most of the information
reflects salt tolerance based on soil salinity, but where specific tolerance to
salt spray or winds has been reported, it is so noted. Plants native to
Florida are also indicated. In the table, plants are listed by common and
scientific names and are divided into categories such as trees and shrubs.
Within each category, plants are grouped according to degree of salt
tolerance. Most common landscape plants are included in the list, as well
as many less-common but highly salt-tolerant plants. This table lists plants
adapted to central Florida (Ocala south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce);
other publications list the salt tolerance of plants adapted to north and
south Florida.
Plants listed with good salt tolerance can be used in exposed coastal
areas or in areas with saline irrigation water. Moderate salt tolerance
indicates plants which can tolerate some saline conditions but grow best
when protected from direct exposure to salt. Plants with low salt
tolerance are sensitive to salt and should not be used in coastal areas, or
should be well-protected from salt spray and saline irrigation water.








Salt Tolerance of Plants for Central Florida
TREES


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Norfolk Island pine
Araucaria heterophylla
Crimson bottlebrush
Callistemon citrinus X
Australian pine t
Casuarina equisetifolia X
Honeylocust
Gleditsia triacanthos X X X
Yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria X X
Southern red cedar
Juniperus silicicola X X
Cajeput tree, Punkt
Melaleuca quinquenervia X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Sand pine
Pinus clausa X X
Aleppo pine
Pinus halepensis X X
Live oak
Quercus virginiana X X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Sweet acacia
Acaciafarnesiana X
Mimosa
Albizia julibrissin
Toog
Bischofiajavanica
Citrus
Citrus spp.
t Not recommended; considered a noxious weed in some areas.








Salt Tolerance of Plants for Central Florida
TREES


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Norfolk Island pine
Araucaria heterophylla
Crimson bottlebrush
Callistemon citrinus X
Australian pine t
Casuarina equisetifolia X
Honeylocust
Gleditsia triacanthos X X X
Yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria X X
Southern red cedar
Juniperus silicicola X X
Cajeput tree, Punkt
Melaleuca quinquenervia X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Sand pine
Pinus clausa X X
Aleppo pine
Pinus halepensis X X
Live oak
Quercus virginiana X X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Sweet acacia
Acaciafarnesiana X
Mimosa
Albizia julibrissin
Toog
Bischofiajavanica
Citrus
Citrus spp.
t Not recommended; considered a noxious weed in some areas.








Salt Tolerance of Plants for Central Florida
TREES


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Norfolk Island pine
Araucaria heterophylla
Crimson bottlebrush
Callistemon citrinus X
Australian pine t
Casuarina equisetifolia X
Honeylocust
Gleditsia triacanthos X X X
Yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria X X
Southern red cedar
Juniperus silicicola X X
Cajeput tree, Punkt
Melaleuca quinquenervia X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Sand pine
Pinus clausa X X
Aleppo pine
Pinus halepensis X X
Live oak
Quercus virginiana X X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Sweet acacia
Acaciafarnesiana X
Mimosa
Albizia julibrissin
Toog
Bischofiajavanica
Citrus
Citrus spp.
t Not recommended; considered a noxious weed in some areas.








TREES (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Native Wind Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Sissoo
Dalbergia sissoo
Loquat
Eriobotryajaponica X
Silverdollar eucalyptus
Eucalyptus cinerea X X
Silk oak
Grevillea robusta
Dahoon
Ilex cassine X
Japanese privet
Ligustrum japonicum
Glossy privet
Ligustrum lucidum
Sweet gum
Liquidambar styraciflua X
Southern magnolia
Magnolia grandiflora X X
Jerusalem thorn
Parkinsonia aculeata X X
Avocado
Persea americana X
Florida bay
Persea borbonia X
Slash pine
Pinus elliottii X X
Japanese black pine
Pinus thunbergiana X X
Sycamore
Platanus occidentalis X
Chickasaw plum
Prunus angustifolia X
Cherry laurel
Prunus caroliniana X


Salt Spray
Tolerant








TREES (continued)

Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Guava
Psidium guajava
Laurel oak
Quercus laurifolia X
Water oak
Quercus nigra X
Willow
Salix spp. X*
Chinese tallowtree
Sapium sebiferum
Bald cypress
Taxodium distichum X
Oriental arborvitae
Thuja orientalis
Chinese elm, Lacebark elm
Ulmus parvifolia
Siberian elm
Ulmuspumila X
Chaste tree
Vitex agnus-castus

Low Salt Tolerance
Red maple
Acer rubrum X
Orchid tree
Bauhinia purpurea
Schefflera
Brassaia actinophylla
Camphor tree
Cinnamomum camphora X
Japanese persimmon
Diospyros kaki
Coral tree
Erythrina spp. x
Kumquat
Fortunella margarita
* Some species are native to Florida









TREES (continued)

Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Low Salt Tolerance (cont.)
American holly
Ilex opaca X
Jacaranda
Jacaranda mimosifolia
Tulip poplar
Liriodendron tulipifera X
Litchi
Litchi chinensis
Macadamia
Macadamia spp.
Mulberry
Morus spp. X* X
Yellow poinciana
Peltophorum
pterocarpum
Some species are native to Florida.









PALMS


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Canary Island date palm
Phoenix canariensis X
Senegal date palm
Phoenix reclinata
Cabbage palm
Sabal palmetto X X
Saw palmetto
Serenoa repens X X
Washingtonia palm
Washingtonia robusta X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Paurotis
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii X
Queen palm
Arecastrum
romanzoffianum
Pindo palm
Butia capitata X
European fan palm
Chamaerops humilis X
Acrocomia
Gastrococos crispa
Chinese fan palm
Livistona chinensis
Date palm
Phoenix dactylifera
Lady palm
Rhapis excelsa
Windmill palm
Trachycarpusfortunei










Common Name
Scientific Name


SHRUBS
Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Good Salt Tolerance
Century plant
Agave americana X X
Groundsel bush,
Eastern baccharis
Baccharis halimifolia X
Crimson bottlebrush
Callistemon citrinus X
Natal plum
Carissa grandiflora X
Pampas grass
Cortaderia selloana
Silverthorn
Elaeagnus pungens X X
Fig
Ficus carica
Dwarf yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria cvs. X X
Texas sage
Leucophyllumfrutescens X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Oleander
Nerium oleander X X
Prickly pear
Opuntia spp. X
Pittosporum
Pittosporum tobira X X
Indian hawthorn
Raphiolepis indica X X
Sandankwa viburnum
Viburnum suspensum
Spanish bayonet
Yucca aloifolia X X X
Adam's needle
Yucca smalliana X X X








SHRUBS (continued)
Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance
Bamboo
Bambusa spp.
Bottlebrush
Callistemon rigidus
Hedge cactus
Cereus peruvianus
Queen sago palm
Cycas circinalis
Sago palm
Cycas revoluta
Blue sage
Eranthemum pulchellum
Fatsia
Fatsia japonica
Pineapple guava
Feijoa sellowiana
Ribbon bush
Homalocladium
platycladum
Burford holly
Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii'
Rotunda holly
Ilex cornuta 'Rotunda'
Inkberry
Ilex glabra X
Ixora
Ixora coccinea
Chinese juniper
Juniperus chinensis X X
Lantana
Lantana camera X
Japanese privet
Ligustrumjaponicum
Glossy privet
Ligustrum lucidum








SHRUBS (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)


Leatherleaf mahonia
Mahonia bealei
Devil's backbone
Pedilanthus
tithymaloides
Broadleaf podocarpus
Podocarpus nagi
Pseuderanthemum
Pseuderanthemum
atropurpureum


X


Firethorn
Pyracantha coccinea
Formosa firethorn
Pyracantha koidzumii
Rose
Rosa spp. X*
Rattle box
Sesbania punicea
Lucky nut
Thevetia peruviana
Sweet viburnum
Viburnum
odoratissimum
Vitex
Vitex trifolia 'Variegata'

Low Salt Tolerance
Copper leaf
Acalypha wilkesiana
Snowbush
Breynia disticha
Butterfly bush
Buddleia officinalis
Boxwood
Buxus spp.
*Some species are native to Florida.








SHRUBS (continued)


Common Name Salt Spray
Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Low Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Powderpuff
Calliandra
haematocephala
Camellia
Camelliajaponica
Sasanqua camellia
Camellia sasanqua
Glory bower vine
Clerodendrum
thomsoniae
Croton
Codiaeum variegatum
Cuphea
Cuphea hyssopifolia
Surinam cherry
Eugenia uniflora
Poinsettia
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Thryallis
Galphimia glauca
Gardenia
Gardenia jasminoides
Hibiscus
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Chinese hat plant
Holmskioldia sanguine
Arabian jasmine
Jasminum sambac
Crape myrtle
Lagerstroemia indica
Orange jessamine
Murraya paniculata
Banana
Musa xparadisiaca








SHRUBS (continued)
Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Low Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Heavenly bamboo
Nandina domestic
Redtop
Photinia xfraseri
Plumbago
Plumbago auriculata
Yew podocarpus
Podocarpus
macrophyllus
Azalea
Rhododendron spp. X*
Sanchezia
Sanchezia speciosa
Crape jasmine
Tabernaemontana
divaricata
Yellow elder
Tecoma stans
Rice-paper plant
Tetrapanax papyriferus
Princess flower
Tibouchina urvilleana
Viburnum
Viburnum spp. (others) X*

*Some species are native to Florida.









GROUND COVERS


Common Name
Scientific Name


Native Wind Tolerant


Good Salt Tolerance
Aloe
Aloe spp.
Hottentot fig
Carpobrotus edulis X
Dichondra
Dichondra micrantha X
Creeping fig
Ficus pumila X
Algerian ivy
Hedera canariensis X
English ivy
Hedera helix X
Cucumberleaf Sunflower
Helianthus debilis X
Daylily
Hemerocallis spp.
Beach morning-glory
Ipomoea pes-caprae X
Shore juniper
Juniperus conferta X X
Weeping lantana
Lantana montevidensis
Lilyturf
Liriope spp.
Mondo grass
Ophiopogonjaponicus X
Purslane
Portulaca spp. X*
Cape honeysuckle
Tecomaria capensis X
Confederate jasmine
Trachelospermum
jasminoides
Sea oats
Uniola paniculata X
*Some species are native to Florida.


Salt Spray
Tolerant








GROUND COVERS (continued)
Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Wedelia
Wedelia trilobata X
Coontie
Zamia integrifolia X X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Blood leaf
Alternanthera spp. X
Coleus
Coleus blumei
Common bermudagrass
Cynodon dactylon
Blanket flower
Gaillardia pulchella X
Transvaal daisy
Gerberajamesonii
Japanese garden juniper
Juniperus chinensis
Var. procumbens X X
Japanese honeysuckle
Lonicerajaponica X
Partridgeberry
Mitchella repens X
Oyster plant
Rhoeo spathacea
Purple queen
Setcreasea pallida
St. Augustine grass
Stenotaphrum
secundatum
Wandering jew
Zebrina pendula


-u
shore juniper

16










Common Name
Scientific Name


VINES
Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Good Salt Tolerance
Bougainvillea
Bougainvillea spp. X
Creeping fig
Ficus pumila X
Algerian ivy
Hedera canariensis X
English ivy
Hedera helix X
Flowering jasmine
Jasminumfloridum
Virginia creeper
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia X
Flame vine
Pyrostegia venusta
Cape honeysuckle
Tecomaria capensis X
Confederate jasmine
Trachelospermum
jasminoides

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Allamanda
Allamanda spp.
Pink allamanda
Mandevilla splendens
Mexican flame vine
Senecio confusus

Low Salt Tolerance
Painted trumpet
Clytostoma callistegioides
Downy jasmine
Jasminum multiflorum
Star jasmine
Jasminum nitidum
Chalice vine
Solandra guttata






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~ijllVIENi 3 1262 04223 9714


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6. Carpenter, E. D. 1970. Salt tolerance of ornamental plants. American
Nurseryman 131(2): 12,54,56,58,60,62,64,68,70,71.
7. Craig, R. M. 1984. Plants for coastal dunes of the Gulf and south Atlantic
coasts and Puerto Rico. Agriculture Information Bulletin 460, United
States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 41 pp.
8. Flint, H. L. 1983. Landscape Plants for Eastern North America. Wiley-
Interscience NY, NY pp. 637-645.
9. Francois, L. E. and R. A. Clark. 1978. Salt tolerances of ornamental shrubs,
trees, and iceplant. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(2):280-283.
10. Francois, L. E. 1982. Salt tolerance of eight ornamental tree species. J.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107(1):66-68.
11. Johnson, C. R. and R.J. Black. 1977. Salt tolerant plants for Florida. OH-26,
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences.
12. Lumis, G. P., G. Hofstra, and R. Hall. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside trees and
shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. HortScience 8(6):475-477.
13. McElwee, E. W. 1959. Ornamental plants that tolerate salt spray.
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences.
14. Rose, S. 1968. Ornamental plants that tolerate salt spray. Broward County
Agricultural Agents' Office, Cooperative Extension Service, University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.





















































This publication was produced at a cost of $2,087.00, or 42 per copy,
to provide information about salt tolerance of landscape plants for Florida.
5-5M-87



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OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in coopera-
tion with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information
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