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Group Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: Salt tolerance of landscape plants for north Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Salt tolerance of landscape plants for north Florida
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Alternate Title: Landscape plants for north Florida
Physical Description: 17 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Gary W
Black, Robert J ( Robert John ), 1942-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1987?
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of salt on   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 17.
Statement of Responsibility: Gary W. Knox and Robert J. Black.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00014510
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6950
ltuf - AEQ3723
oclc - 16848678
alephbibnum - 000942081
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. ,r Circular 758


Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean








Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
for North Florida
Gary W. Knox and Robert J. Black*

Landscaping on or near the coast can be very challenging and
frustrating because of problems with sea salt. Salts can be deposited on
leaves and soil by winds carrying salt spray or by irrigation with saline
water. Knowing the salt tolerance of plants is becoming more important as
coastal regions continue to be developed, as saltwater intrusion into wells
becomes a greater problem, and as landscapers and homeowners strive
for low-maintenance landscapes in these situations.


Determining Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
Salt tolerance of ornamentals is determined differently from other
crops. Landscapers and homeowners are principally concerned
with survival and appearance of landscape plants, rather than with yield,
as for fruits and vegetables. Accordingly, landscape plants can tolerate
relatively higher levels of salts, since reduced growth and yield are the
initial effects of excess salts and appearance of plants is not immediately
affected.
Effects of Excess Salts on Plants
Excessive concentrations of salts can damage plants by causing water to
move out of plants through a process called osmosis. In addition, a plant
may accumulate chloride or sodium ions, components of salt that can
eventually reach toxic levels in the plant. Research has found that salt
tolerance of a plant usually relates to its ability: (1) to prevent absorption
of chloride or sodium ions; (2) to tolerate the accumulation of chloride or
sodium ions in plant tissue; or, (3) to tolerate osmotic stress caused by soil
or foliar salts. However, the response to salinity can vary with plant age,
cultivar, stage of growth, environmental conditions, cultural practices,
irrigation management, and soil fertility. Also, some plants may be tolerant
of soil salts but intolerant of salt deposits on leaves, or vice versa. These
variables make it difficult to identify a plant's salt tolerance and may
explain the discrepancies in salt-tolerance ratings reported for some
plants.
Plant damage as a result of high salt concentrations may be expressed by
the burning of the margins or tips of leaves followed by defoliation and
death of salt-sensitive species. The salinity of the soil can indicate the

* Extension Horticulturist, Water Management Specialist, Agricultural
Research and Education Center Monticello, Fla., and Extension Woody
Ornamental Specialist, Department of Ornamental Horticulture, respec-
tively; IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.







degree of salt tolerance plants will need to survive. Soil salinity is deter-
mined by using a conductivity meter to measure the electrical conducti-
vity of a saturated sample of soil (ECe). Water-holding ability and nutrient-
holding ability of the soil influence the effect of soil salts on plants. For a
sandy loam soil, the U.S. Salinity Laboratory considers that plants with
good salt tolerance can tolerate values of ECe more than 6 deciSiemens
per meter (dS/m, equivalent to millimhos per centimeter) (2,800 ppm),
plants with moderate salt tolerance can tolerate values of ECe between 4.5
and 6 dS/m (2,600-2,800 ppm), and plants with low salt tolerance can only
tolerate salts with ECe's less than 4.5 dS/m (2,600 ppm) (4,9,10). Since
sandy soils hold less water and nutrients, and clay or organic soils hold
more water and nutrients, the values for each tolerance range would be
lower for sandy soils and higher for organic or clay soils. However, while
ECe is a good indicator of total salt content, it does not indicate the com-
position of salts in a soil. The relative abundance of an individual salt can
still lead to plant injury, even though total soil salinity may be low.








live oak

Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants
The following table is a guide to selecting landscape plants for Florida's
coastal areas or areas with saline irrigation water. Most of the information
reflects salt tolerance based on soil salinity, but where specific tolerance to
salt spray or winds has been reported, it is so noted. Plants native to
Florida are also indicated. In the table, plants are listed by common and
scientific names and are divided into categories such as trees and shrubs.
Within each category, plants are grouped according to degree of salt
tolerance. Most common landscape plants are included in the list, as well
as many less-common but highly salt-tolerant plants. This table lists plants
adapted to north Florida (Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala);
other publications list the salt tolerance of plants adapted to central and
south Florida.
Plants listed with good salt tolerance can be used in exposed coastal
areas or in areas with saline irrigation water. Moderate salt tolerance
indicates plants which can tolerate some saline conditions but grow best
when protected from direct exposure to salt. Plants with low salt
tolerance are sensitive to salt and should not be used in coastal areas, or
should be well-protected from salt spray and saline irrigation water.








Salt Tolerance of Plants for North Florida

TREES


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Fig
Ficus carica
Honeylocust
Gleditsia triacanthos X X
Yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria X X
Southern red cedar
Juniperus silicicola X X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Sand pine
Pinus clausa X X
Aleppo pine
Pinus halepensis X X
Apricot
Prunus armeniaca
White oak
Quercus alba X X X
Southern red oak
Quercusfalcata X
Live oak
Quercus virginiana X X
Japanese pagoda-tree
Sophorajaponica X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Sweet acacia
Acacia farnesiana X
Mimosa
Albiziajulibrissin
River birch
Betula nigra X
Loquat
Eriobotryajaponica X









TREES (continued)

Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)
American beech
Fagus grandifolia X
Green ash
Fraxinus pennsylvanica X
Dahoon
Ilex cassine X
Golden-rain tree
Koelreuteria paniculata
Japanese privet
Ligustrum japonicum
Glossy privet
Ligustrum lucidum
Sweet gum
Liquidambar styraciflua X
Southern magnolia
Magnolia grandiflora X X
Jerusalem thorn
Parkinsonia aculeata X X
Florida bay
Persea borbonia X X
Slash pine
Pinus elliottii X X
Japanese black pine
Pinus thunbergiana X X
Sycamore
Platanus occidentalis X
Cottonwood
Populus deltoides X X
Chickasaw plum
Prunus angustifolia X
Cherry laurel
Prunus caroliniana X
Cherry plum
Prunus cerasifera


6


I









TREES (continued)

Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Laurel oak
Quercus laurifolia X
Water oak
Quercus nigra X
Willow
Salix spp. X*
Chinese tallowtree
Sapium sebiferum
Bald cypress
Taxodium distichum X
Oriental arborvitae
Thuja orientalis
Chinese elm, Lacebark elm
Ulmus parvifolia
Siberian elm
Ulmuspumila X
Chaste tree
Vitex agnus-castus

Low Salt Tolerance
Red maple
Acer rubrum X
Camphor tree
Cinnamomum camphora X
Japanese persimmon
Diospyros kaki
Common persimmon
Diospyros virginiana X
European beech
Fagus sylvatica
Kumquat
Fortunella margarita
American holly
Ilex opaca X


* Some species are native to Florida.









TREES (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Low Salt Tolerance (cont.)

Tulip poplar
Liriodendron tulipifera X

Mulberry
Morus spp. X* X

White poplar
Populus alba X

Lombardy poplar
Populus nigra 'Italica' X


* Some species are native to Florida.









































sand pine


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Common Name
Scientific Name


PALMS
Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Good Salt Tolerance
Canary Island date palm
Phoenix canariensis X
Cabbage palm
Sabal palmetto X X
Washingtonia palm
Washingtonia robusta X

Moderate Salt Tolerance
Pindo palm
Butia capitata X
European fan palm
Chamaerops humilis X
Lady palm
Rhapis excelsa
Windmill palm
Trachycarpusfortunei






SHRUBS


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Century plant
Agave americana X X
Groundsel bush,
Eastern baccharis
Baccharis halimifolia X
Crimson bottlebrush
Callistemon citrinus X
Pampas grass
Cortaderia selloana
Silverthorn
Elaeagnus pungens X X
Dwarf yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria cvs. X X X
Texas sage
Leucopbyllumfrutescens X
Wax myrtle
Myrica cerifera X X X
Oleander
Nerium oleander X X
Prickly pear
Opuntia spp. X
Pittosporum
Pittosporum tobira X X
Indian hawthorn
Raphiolepis indica X X
Sandankwa viburnum
Viburnum suspensum
Spanish bayonet
Yucca aloifolia X X X
Adam's needle
Yucca smalliana X X X


Moderate Salt Tolerance
Bamboo
Bambusa spp.


10








SHRUBS (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Bottlebrush
Callistemon rigidus
Hedge cactus
Cereus peruvianus
Sago palm
Cycas revoluta
Russian olive
Elaeagnus angustifolia X
Evergreen euonymus
Euonymus japonica
Fatsia
Fatsia japonica
Pineapple guava
Feijoa sellowiana
Althea
Hibiscus syriacus
Burford holly
Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii'
Rotunda holly
Ilex cornuta 'Rotunda'
Helleri holly
Ilex crenata 'Helleri'
Inkberry
Ilex glabra X
Chinese juniper
Juniperus chinensis X X
Lantana
Lantana camera X
Japanese privet
Ligustrum japonicum
Glossy privet
Ligustrum lucidum
Common privet
Ligustrum vulgare


11






SHRUBS (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Moderate Salt Tolerance (cont.)


Leatherleaf mahonia
Mahonia bealei
Broadleaf podocarpus
Podocarpus nagi


Firethorn
Pyracantha coccinea
Formosa firethorn
Pyracantha koidzumii


Rose
Rosa spp.
Rattle box
Sesbania punicea
Sweet viburnum
Viburnum
odoratissimum


Low Salt Tolerance
Glossy abelia
Abelia xgrandiflora
Wintergreen barberry
Berberisjulianae
Barberry
Berberis spp.
Butterfly bush
Buddleia officinalis
Boxwood
Buxus spp.
Camellia
Camellia japonica
Sasanqua camellia
Camellia sasanqua
Glory bower vine
Clerodendrum
thomsoniae
* Some species are native to Florida.


12


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant







SHRUBS (continued)


Common Name Salt Spray
Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Low Salt Tolerance (cont.)
Pyrenees Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster congestus
Poinsettia
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Thryallis
Galphimia glauca
Gardenia
Gardenia jasminoides
Crape myrtle
Lagerstroemia indica
Heavenly bamboo
Nandina domestic
Redtop
Photinia xfraseri
Yew podocarpus
Podocarpus
macrophyllus
Azalea
Rhododendron spp. X*
Spirea
Spiraea spp.
Rice-paper plant
Tetrapanax papyriferus
Viburnum
Viburnum spp. (others) X*


* Some species are native to Florida.










pampas grass


13







GROUND COVERS


Common Name


Salt Spray


Scientific Name Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant

Good Salt Tolerance
Dichondra
Dichondra micrantha X
Wintercreeper
Euonymusfortunei
Creeping fig
Ficuspumila X
Algerian ivy
Hedera canariensis X
English ivy
Hedera helix X
Cucumberleaf sunflower
Helianthus debilis X
Daylily
Hemerocallis spp.
Beach morning-glory
Ipomoea pes-caprae X
Shore juniper
Juniperus conferta x X
Lilyturf
Liriope spp. X
Mondo grass
Ophiopogon japonicus X
Purslane
Portulaca spp. X*
Rosemary
Rosmarinus officinalis
Confederate jasmine
Trachelospermum
jasminoides
Sea oats
Uniola paniculata X
Coontie
Zamia integrifolia X X
* Some species are native to Florida.


14








GROUND COVERS (continued)


Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Moderate Salt Tolerance
Coleus
Coleus blumei
Common bermudagrass
Cynodon dactylon
Blanket flower
Gaillardia pulchella X
Transvaal daisy
Gerberajamesonii
Japanese garden juniper
Juniperus chinensis
Var. procumbens X X
Japanese honeysuckle
Lonicerajaponica X
Partridgeberry
Mitchella repens X
Purple queen
Setcreasea pallida
St. Augustine grass
Stenotaphrum
secundatum
Wandering jew
Zebrina pendula


15







VINES


Common Name
Scientific Name


Salt Spray
Native Wind Tolerant Tolerant


Good Salt Tolerance
Creeping fig
Ficuspumila X
Algerian ivy
Hedera canariensis X
English ivy
Hedera helix X
Flowering jasmine
Jasminum floridum
Matrimony vine
Lycium halimifolium X
Virginia creeper
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia X
Confederate jasmine
Trachelospermum
jasminoides


Low Salt Tolerance


Painted trumpet
Clytostoma


jasmine


16








References


1. Anon. 1975. A guide to tolerances of selected trees and shrubs for Florida.
Division of Forestry, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Tallahassee, FL 16 pp.
2. Anon. 1981. Plants for California landscapes, revised ed., Bulletin 209.
State of California, Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA. 139
pp.
3. Barrick, W. E. 1979. Salt tolerant plants for Florida landscapes. Sea Grant
College Program (28).
4. Bernstein, L., L. E. Francois and R. A. Clark. 1972. Salt tolerance of
ornamental shrubs and groundcovers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
97(4):550-556.
5. Bush, C. F. andJ. F. Norton. 1968. Native trees and plants for Florida land-
scaping. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
Tallahassee, FL 144 pp.
6. Carpenter, E. D. 1970. Salt tolerance of ornamental plants. American
Nurseryman 131(2): 12,54,56,58,60,62,64,68,70,71.
7. Craig, R. M. 1984. Plants for coastal dunes of the Gulf and south Atlantic
coasts and Puerto Rico. Agriculture Information Bulletin 460, United
States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 41 pp.
8. Flint, H. L. 1983. Landscape Plants for Eastern North America. Wiley-
Interscience NY, NY pp. 637-645.
9. Francois, L. E. and R. A. Clark. 1978. Salt tolerances of ornamental shrubs,
trees, and iceplant. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(2):280-283.
10. Francois, L. E. 1982. Salt tolerance of eight ornamental tree species. J.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107(1):66-68.
11. Johnson, C. R. and R.J. Black. 1977. Salt tolerant plants for Florida. OH-26,
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences.
12. Lumis, G. P., G. Hofstra, and R. Hall. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside trees and
shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. HortScience 8(6):475-477.
13. McElwee, E. W. 1959. Ornamental plants that tolerate salt spray.
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences.
14. Rose, S. 1968. Ornamental plants that tolerate salt spray. Broward County
Agricultural Agents' Office, Cooperative Extension Service, University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.


17


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This publication was produced at a cost of $1,906.50, or 500 per copy,
to provide information about salt tolerance of landscape plants for Florida.
5-3.8M-87



COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE
OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller, director, in coopera-
tion with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information
to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only ...... .
to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single
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is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to
determine availability.


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