• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Highlights
 Introduction
 Planting pines on private...
 Trees turn idle land into...
 Landowners benefit from tax...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Acknowledgement
 Reference
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 783
Title: Reforestation
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014507/00001
 Material Information
Title: Reforestation extension programs motivate Florida landowners to plant trees
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Duryea, Mary L
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1987>
 Subjects
Subject: Forestry extension -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Reforestation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tree planting -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. <3> of cover).
Statement of Responsibility: M.L. Duryea ... <et al.>.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1987".
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014507
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002391059
oclc - 40217506
notis - ALZ5948

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Highlights
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Planting pines on private lands
        Page 2
        Objectives
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Educational methods
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Impact assessment
            Page 8
        Results
            Page 8
            Page 9
    Trees turn idle land into profits
        Page 10
        Objectives
            Page 10
        Educational methods
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Impact assessment
            Page 13
        Results
            Page 13
            Page 14
    Landowners benefit from tax savings
        Page 15
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 15
    Acknowledgement
        Page 16
    Reference
        Page 17
    Back Cover
        Page 18
Full Text


Circular 783
October 1987


Extension programs motivate

Florida landowners to plant trees


Duryea, J. C. Edwards, D. M. Flinchum, C. L. Taylor


Cooperative Extension Service a Institute ot Food and Agricultural Sciences
ity of Florid.i. Gaineivillk John T. bestt. Dean for Extension


101
,636c
S83










Highlights


F lorida's forest land is rapidly
declining: 60,000 acres are lost every
year. In addition, 223,134 acres of
Florida's cropland are idle. Both
harvested forest land and idle crop-
land can be planted with trees to
provide additional income for the
landowner as well as to enhance
Florida's forest resources.


N onindustrial private forest
landowners own 56 percent of Flori-
da's commercial forest land, and
most of this land is understocked.
Out of every 4 acres that they har-
vest, these landowners reforest only
1 acre.

A 4-year Cooperative Exten-
sion Service project was initiated in
1984 to improve the productivity of
nonindustrial private forest land in
Florida. The project involved two
educational programs: (1) the Seven-
County Reforestation Program,
with the objective of planting pine
seedlings on harvested forest land,
poorly stocked forest land, and idle
cropland; and (2) the Limited-Re-
source Landowner Program, with
the objective of planting pines on
idle cropland owned by low-income
farmers in six counties.


T together, both programs
produced 23 publications, 16 work-
shops, 34 field demonstrations, a
series of computer programs to help
landowners manage their land,
monthly newsletters, and many
other sources of information.


In the seven counties targeted
in the first program, 58 percent more
acres were reforested in 1984-87 than


in the baseline years (1980-83). If
these trees are harvested in the year
2004-07, gross annual revenue coulb
be at least $7,233,245, compared to
$4,584,636 for trees planted in the
baseline years.


W within the seven
counties there was a strong rela-
tionship between the intensity
of the Extension program and
the increase in tree planting:
the greater the intensity of
the program (workshops,
mailing lists, and news-
letters), the greater the
increase in trees
planted.


T he limited-re-
source landowners tar-
geted in the six-county
program planted 18 per-
cent, or 228 acres, of
their idle cropland
with trees. Projected
gross revenue for a
landowner who ,.
planted 10 acres of idle
cropland in the pro-
gram years and who har-
vests this land in 20 years would
$8,400.


B y implementing a success
4-year educational program, the
Florida Cooperative Extension Ser
ice has been effective in reforestini
harvested forest land and idle farm
land and thereby enhancing Florid
forest resources.


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Introduction


The forest industry is thriving and
profitable throughout many South-
ern states, and Florida is no excep-
tion. The state has 15,664,177 acres
of commercial forest land, which is
45 percent of its total land area. An-
nual income from forest products-
about 8 billion dollars (Division of
Forestry, 1986)-rivals the state's
citrus industry, and the forest indus-
try employs more than 57,000 peo-
ple. However, the state's forest land
is rapidly shrinking: 60,000 acres are
lost each year to accelerated growth
and urbanization (Bechtold and
Knight, 1982).
Nearly three-fourths of the state's
forest land is in north Florida. Its
undeveloped land, its close proxim-
ity to lumber mills and lumber mar-
kets, the quality of its soil, its abun-
dant rainfall, a long growing season,
and flat land make north Florida
ideally suited for growing southern
pines. The forest industry has been
turning these advantages into profits,
but many private landowners are
unaware of the opportunities for
managing their forest resources.
These nonindustrial private forest
landowners ultimately control the
fate of much of Florida's woodlands.
They own 56 percent of the state's
commercial forest land, but 76 per-
cent of their land is understocked
with trees. They are cutting their
timber but not replanting it. For
every 4 acres harvested, these land-
owners replant only 1 acre. (Be-
chtold and Knight, 1982). In many
instances they own idle or marginal
farmland that also can be planted
with trees to enhance the productiv-
ity of this land.
A 4-year Cooperative Extension
Service project was initiated in 1984


to improve the productivity of non-
industrial private forest land in Flor-
ida. The project involved two pro-
grams: (1) the Seven-County
Reforestation Program, with the
objective of planting pine seedlings
on harvested forest land, poorly
stocked land, and idle farmland; and
(2) the Limited-Resource Landowner
Program, with the objective of plant-
ing pines on idle or marginal farm-
land owned by low-income farmers
in six counties. Figure 1 shows the 13
north Florida counties targeted in
the programs.
This report is on the implementa-
tion of these programs and the im-
pact they have had on the forest re-
sources, landowners, and economies
of the counties. The role of the Flor-
ida Cooperative Extension Service
was to provide an educational pro-
gram for landowners. We have
worked closely with the Florida
Division of Forestry, Agricultural


Figure 1
Map ofFlorida showing the seven
counties involved in the reforesta-
tion program and the six counties
involved in the program for land-
owners with limited resources.


Jetferson SuWnnnee


Washinglon -



SSeven-County Reforestation Program

Limited-Resource Landowner Program

Stabilization and Conservation Serv-
ice (ASCS) and Soil Conservation
Service (SCS), the forest industry .
consulting foresters, and the Florida
Forestry Association (FFA), w which
also play important, roles in assisting
landon, ners in forest management.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES









Seven-County
Reforestation
Program


Planting pines


on private lands


Objectives


The Department of Forestry Ex-
tension faculty at the University of
Florida worked with county Exten-
sion faculty to plan and implement
this reforestation program and im-
pact study. The long-range objectives
were to improve the productivity of
nonindustrial private forest lands by
(1) providing information on refores-
tation and forest management prac-
tices and (2) motivating landowners
to manage their land for forest re-
sources. The intermediate objectives
were to develop a comprehensive
educational program which moti-
vated landowners to plant pines and
manage the forest resources on their
land.


The targeted audience was nonin-
dustrial private forest landowners in
the following counties: Washington.
Gulf, Taylor, Levy, Duval. Clay. and
Putnam (Figure 1). In the first year
of the 4-year program, counties de-
veloped lists of these landowners
(Table 1). Two of the seven counties
also developed lists of those land-
owners owning idle farmland. The
three major types of land targeted
were idle or marginal farmland, un-
derproductive or understocked for-
est land, and harvested forest land
(Figures 2a, 2b, 2c).


Figure 2
The lands targeted for pine plant-
ing in the Extension reforestation
program were idle farmland,
poorly stocked forest land and
harvested forest land.


Figure 2a. Idle farmland









Seven-County
Reforestation
Program


Planting pines


on private lands


Objectives


The Department of Forestry Ex-
tension faculty at the University of
Florida worked with county Exten-
sion faculty to plan and implement
this reforestation program and im-
pact study. The long-range objectives
were to improve the productivity of
nonindustrial private forest lands by
(1) providing information on refores-
tation and forest management prac-
tices and (2) motivating landowners
to manage their land for forest re-
sources. The intermediate objectives
were to develop a comprehensive
educational program which moti-
vated landowners to plant pines and
manage the forest resources on their
land.


The targeted audience was nonin-
dustrial private forest landowners in
the following counties: Washington.
Gulf, Taylor, Levy, Duval. Clay. and
Putnam (Figure 1). In the first year
of the 4-year program, counties de-
veloped lists of these landowners
(Table 1). Two of the seven counties
also developed lists of those land-
owners owning idle farmland. The
three major types of land targeted
were idle or marginal farmland, un-
derproductive or understocked for-
est land, and harvested forest land
(Figures 2a, 2b, 2c).


Figure 2
The lands targeted for pine plant-
ing in the Extension reforestation
program were idle farmland,
poorly stocked forest land and
harvested forest land.


Figure 2a. Idle farmland







































Figure 2b. Poorly stocked forest land


Figure 2c. Harvested forest land














SLEducational methods


A multifaceted educational pro-
gram which included many methods
of disseminating information was
developed and implemented by for-
estry Extension specialists and
county Extension faculties. "Exten-
sion Forestry Update," a monthly
newsletter with a circulation of 3,500,
provided information on such topics
as the forest products price report,
upcoming courses and workshops,
new publications, and tips on forest
practices which would be useful to


Table 1
In the program's first year, six of
the seven counties compiled lists of
nonindustrial private forest land-
owners who would be the clientele
for the reforestation program.


landowners (Figure 3). Also. four of
the seven counties developed their
own newsletters, with circulation
ranging from 92 to 450; for example,
the Putnam County "Forestry
Newsletter" used information from
the Extension newsletter as well as
local information and adapted it for
Putnam County landowners.
Twe n r -three publications to aid
landowners in reforesting and man-
aging their land were produced, in-
cluding such topics as Florida's forest


County Number of Total number
landowners on of acres
mailing list owned
Duval 19 25.:3
Gulf 90 6:.
Levy 175 23. 112
Putnam 400 2..;C
Taylor 450 2.2..
Washington 522 1:.442
Total 1,656 585,552


Figure 3
"Extension Forestry Update," a
monthly newsletter with a circula-
tion of3,500, provides informa-
tion on forest management for
landowners.







Figure 4
Three Extension publications
which help landowners
reforest their lands.


soils (Munson, 1984), site prepara-
tion (Jack and others, 1984), forest
regeneration methods (Duryea,
1987), planting southern pines
(Duryea and Edwards, 1987), and
forestry investments (Eason and
Flinchum, 1984). (See Figure 4.) In
addition, a series of computer pro-
grams, entitled the Forestry Informa-
tion System (FORINSY), were de-
veloped to aid landowners in
managing their forest lands. For
example, by going to their county
Extension office, landowners may
access the FORINSY module on
silvicultural practices to learn about
which species to plant, the method
of site preparation to employ, and
what fertilizers to apply (Munson
and others, 1985).


Each year in the 4-year program,
forestry Extension specialists held an
in-service training session for county
Extension faculty. Some of the topics
for these sessions included "Planting
Southern Pines," "Forestry as an
Investment," "Impacts of Silvicul-
tural Practices on Water Manage-
ment," and the "Use of FORINSY
in Forestry" (Figures 5a, 5b).
The seven counties organized and
held 16 workshops and 13field demon-
strations for landowners (Table 2).
Many persons, including forestry
Extension specialists, county for-
esters, and ASCS and SCS personnel,
assisted the counties in these work-
shops and demonstrations. Land-
owners received forestry informa-
tion and hands-on experience for

















reforesting their land, and they par-
ticipated in discussions about for-
estry practices. For example, a dem-
onstration in Washington County
taught landowners about the impor-
tance of controlling weeds to achieve
successful reforestation.
Other forms of information distri-
bution included news releases, one-
on-one conferences and discussions,
announcements at other farm meet-
ings, IFAS (Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences) signs at dem-
onstration plots, and radio and tele-
vision programs. Duval County's


television program entitled "Hi
Neighbor" covered such topics as
the advantages of growing timber,
planting and transplanting trees, and
tree care. Clay County established a
forestry and natural resources advi-
sory committee to help with Exten-
sion programming. Both the Dep.--
ment of Forestry Extension office
and the county Extension offices
answered telephone and written
requests for forestry information.


Figure 5a
Extension Specialist Mitch
Flinchum (center) discusses forest
seed production with Putnam
County Extension Director Austin
Tilton (right) and St. Johns
County Extension Director Jim
Dilbeck (left).






Workshops


Number of
persons
attending
28
24
45
49
76
79
43
75
50
25
15
50
16


Forest Regeneration (Gulf)*
The Advantages of Planting Idle Acreage to Pines (Gulf)
Forest Landowner Seminar-Four Sessions (Putnam)
Timber Resources Available to People (Washington)
Economics Of Timber Production (Washington)
Timber Management Seminar (Washington)
Timber Versus Soybean Farming (Washington)
Forestry as an Alternative Use for Small Farms (Clay)
Land Use Regulations and Planning (Clay)
Forestry and New Tax Legislation (Clay)
Alternatives in Forestry (Levy)
Utilization of Native Pasture in Forest Lands (Levy)
Managing the Forest (Duval)

Demonstrations
Tree Farmer's Appreciation Day (two in 1985 and 1986)
(Putnam)
Forestry Farm Tour (Washington)
Demonstrations on Chemical Use-Six Sessions
(Washington)
Washington-Holmes Counties Cattlemen Tours
Cogon Grass Control in Pines (Levy)
Transplanting Using a Tree Spade (Duval)


Table 2.
Forestry Extension workshops and
demonstrations held in the seven
counties during 1984-87.


100

41
345

115
45
21


Total persons attending 1,242
"Name of county where workshop or demonstration was held is given in parentheses.


Figure 5b
During an in-service training
session, Extension Specialist Mitch
Flinchum shows Clay County
Extension DirectorJesse Godbold
how to use the Forestry Informa-
tion System (FORINSY). This
series of computer programs helps
landowners make forest manage-
ment decisions about their land.














1 Impact assessment

One objective of the impact assess-
ment was to determine the impact of
the educational program on land-
owners by calculating the number of
S seedlings planted in each of the seven
counties. We then compared the
number of seedlings planted in the
study period (1984-87) to baseline
data collected for the years 1980-83.
These data were acquired from the
Florida Division of Forestry. These
numbers did not include those seed-
lings sold or given to landowners by
industrial nurseries or acres that
were regenerated with seed. From
these data we calculated the total
seedlings planted in the seven coun-
ties in each of the baseline years
(1980-83) versus each of the program


years (1984-87), the percent increase
in planting, and the proiectcd reve-
nue at the time of harvest of these
planted acres.
To assess the impact of the E ten-
sion program on the increase in trees
planted, we calculated a program
intensity index for each county, as
follows:
program intensity index=
(number of workshops a nddemonsT w
-*.,*" :! .* .-': ":j:.',; .:: l O
+(circulation ofcounty newsier- r/,
We then conducted a regression of
the percent increase in trees planted
on the program intensity index.


Results


During the program years (1984-
87), 24,971,918 seedlings were
planted, compared to 15,827,909
seedlings in the pre-program baseline
years (1980-83); this was an increase
of 58 percent. In each program year
(1984-87), the number of trees
planted was higher than the yearly
average for the baseline years (Figure
6). Based on average yields for slash
and loblolly pine plantations in
north Florida, the expected yield at
the end of a 20-year pulpwood rota-
tion is 30 cords per acre. In the years
1984-87, the average price paid for
pulpwood stumpage has been $28
per standard cord. Using real prices
with no inflation factors, the future


value of the plantings made during
the program years in the seven coun-
ties would be a gross annual harvest
revenue of $7,233,245 (in 198' dol-
lars) for the years 2004-07. This is
again a 58 percent increase over the
annual harvest revenue for the plant-
ings during the baseline years, which
is projected to be $4,584,636 for the
years 2000-03. If landowners elected
to increase the rotation length and
change their harvest objectives to
more valuable products such as chip-
n-saw or sawtimber, the dollar re-
turns could easily increase another
200 percent.
The intensity of the Extension
program in the seven counties had a














1 Impact assessment

One objective of the impact assess-
ment was to determine the impact of
the educational program on land-
owners by calculating the number of
S seedlings planted in each of the seven
counties. We then compared the
number of seedlings planted in the
study period (1984-87) to baseline
data collected for the years 1980-83.
These data were acquired from the
Florida Division of Forestry. These
numbers did not include those seed-
lings sold or given to landowners by
industrial nurseries or acres that
were regenerated with seed. From
these data we calculated the total
seedlings planted in the seven coun-
ties in each of the baseline years
(1980-83) versus each of the program


years (1984-87), the percent increase
in planting, and the proiectcd reve-
nue at the time of harvest of these
planted acres.
To assess the impact of the E ten-
sion program on the increase in trees
planted, we calculated a program
intensity index for each county, as
follows:
program intensity index=
(number of workshops a nddemonsT w
-*.,*" :! .* .-': ":j:.',; .:: l O
+(circulation ofcounty newsier- r/,
We then conducted a regression of
the percent increase in trees planted
on the program intensity index.


Results


During the program years (1984-
87), 24,971,918 seedlings were
planted, compared to 15,827,909
seedlings in the pre-program baseline
years (1980-83); this was an increase
of 58 percent. In each program year
(1984-87), the number of trees
planted was higher than the yearly
average for the baseline years (Figure
6). Based on average yields for slash
and loblolly pine plantations in
north Florida, the expected yield at
the end of a 20-year pulpwood rota-
tion is 30 cords per acre. In the years
1984-87, the average price paid for
pulpwood stumpage has been $28
per standard cord. Using real prices
with no inflation factors, the future


value of the plantings made during
the program years in the seven coun-
ties would be a gross annual harvest
revenue of $7,233,245 (in 198' dol-
lars) for the years 2004-07. This is
again a 58 percent increase over the
annual harvest revenue for the plant-
ings during the baseline years, which
is projected to be $4,584,636 for the
years 2000-03. If landowners elected
to increase the rotation length and
change their harvest objectives to
more valuable products such as chip-
n-saw or sawtimber, the dollar re-
turns could easily increase another
200 percent.
The intensity of the Extension
program in the seven counties had a






significant influence on whether
there was an increase in the number
of trees planted in the program years
(Figure 7). The greater the number of
workshops and demonstrations held,
landowners contacted, and newslet-
ters circulated, the greater the results
in tree planting. This indicates that
the Florida Cooperative Extension
Service is strongly impacting forestry
in Florida's counties.


As previously mentioned, in the
last decade Florida lost 60,000 acres
of forest land each year. The increas-
ing trend in tree planting seen in
these seven counties and for the state
as a whole is helping to combat this
decrease. The Florida Cooperative
Extension Service is effectively
working with other public agencies
and organizations to maintain our
forest resources in Florida.


Figure 6
Tree seedlings planted on nonin-
dustrial lands in the seven Florida
counties. The yearly average for
the pre-program baseline years
(1980-83) is compared to 1984-87,
which were the years of the Seven-
County Reforestation Program.


1980-83 1984
Average
Average for baseline years


1985

Year


* Program years


12 16


Figure 7
Increase in trees planted (over the
baseline years) in the seven coun-
ties in 1984-87, relative to the
intensity of the Extension program
(workshops, mailing lists, and
newsletters).


20


Intensity of Extension program (index)
*The regression equation is significant at the 5 percent level.
TEach square represents a data point for each county.


r'=68% *
y=8.97x-0.41 U


240
220
200
180
160
140
120 -
100 -
80 -
60 -
40 -
20 -
0 -
-20 -


i .


I I
4


8


" '










Limited-Resource I cdl 1
LandownerTees turn idle


land into profits





Objectives


In 1984, approximately 5 percent
of Florida's nonindustrial private
forest landowners were classified as
landowners with limited resources.
These landowners were faced with
problems in maintaining their farm-
ing operations, due to low prices
received from traditional row crops.
Therefore, they were decreasing the
number of acres of traditional row
crops that they would normally
plant and leaving the land idle. If
these same landowners were to uti-
lize these lands by planting pines for
timber, they would be able to main-
tain agricultural tax assessments for
their land as well as generate addi-
tional income.
Our long-range objective for 1984-
87 was to increase planting of idle or


marginal cropland to pine trees or
Christmas trees to help provide addi-
tional income for limited-resource
landowners. The approach was to
develop an educational program
which would provide information
on forestry practices and on techni-
cal and financial assistance available
to landowners. The targeted audience
was limited-resource landowners in
the following six counties: Jackson,
Gadsden, Jefferson, Madison, Suwan-
nee, and Columbia (Figure 1). Lim-
ited-resource landowners were de-
fined as those persons having a gross
annual farm income of less than
$20,000.


Educational methods


An educational program was devel-
oped by county Extension faculty
and Extension specialists at Florida
A & M University and the Univer-
sity of Florida. The major teaching
tool wasfield demonstrations to teach
farmers techniques for planting trees
on their farmland (Figures 8a, 8b).
Eleven timber production and ten


Christmas tree production demon-
strations were established in the six
targeted counties in 1984-87 (Table
3). In addition to showing land-
owners how to plant and manage
pines, information about financial
and technical assistance was pro-
vided.
At the beginning of the 4-year










Limited-Resource I cdl 1
LandownerTees turn idle


land into profits





Objectives


In 1984, approximately 5 percent
of Florida's nonindustrial private
forest landowners were classified as
landowners with limited resources.
These landowners were faced with
problems in maintaining their farm-
ing operations, due to low prices
received from traditional row crops.
Therefore, they were decreasing the
number of acres of traditional row
crops that they would normally
plant and leaving the land idle. If
these same landowners were to uti-
lize these lands by planting pines for
timber, they would be able to main-
tain agricultural tax assessments for
their land as well as generate addi-
tional income.
Our long-range objective for 1984-
87 was to increase planting of idle or


marginal cropland to pine trees or
Christmas trees to help provide addi-
tional income for limited-resource
landowners. The approach was to
develop an educational program
which would provide information
on forestry practices and on techni-
cal and financial assistance available
to landowners. The targeted audience
was limited-resource landowners in
the following six counties: Jackson,
Gadsden, Jefferson, Madison, Suwan-
nee, and Columbia (Figure 1). Lim-
ited-resource landowners were de-
fined as those persons having a gross
annual farm income of less than
$20,000.


Educational methods


An educational program was devel-
oped by county Extension faculty
and Extension specialists at Florida
A & M University and the Univer-
sity of Florida. The major teaching
tool wasfield demonstrations to teach
farmers techniques for planting trees
on their farmland (Figures 8a, 8b).
Eleven timber production and ten


Christmas tree production demon-
strations were established in the six
targeted counties in 1984-87 (Table
3). In addition to showing land-
owners how to plant and manage
pines, information about financial
and technical assistance was pro-
vided.
At the beginning of the 4-year










Limited-Resource I cdl 1
LandownerTees turn idle


land into profits





Objectives


In 1984, approximately 5 percent
of Florida's nonindustrial private
forest landowners were classified as
landowners with limited resources.
These landowners were faced with
problems in maintaining their farm-
ing operations, due to low prices
received from traditional row crops.
Therefore, they were decreasing the
number of acres of traditional row
crops that they would normally
plant and leaving the land idle. If
these same landowners were to uti-
lize these lands by planting pines for
timber, they would be able to main-
tain agricultural tax assessments for
their land as well as generate addi-
tional income.
Our long-range objective for 1984-
87 was to increase planting of idle or


marginal cropland to pine trees or
Christmas trees to help provide addi-
tional income for limited-resource
landowners. The approach was to
develop an educational program
which would provide information
on forestry practices and on techni-
cal and financial assistance available
to landowners. The targeted audience
was limited-resource landowners in
the following six counties: Jackson,
Gadsden, Jefferson, Madison, Suwan-
nee, and Columbia (Figure 1). Lim-
ited-resource landowners were de-
fined as those persons having a gross
annual farm income of less than
$20,000.


Educational methods


An educational program was devel-
oped by county Extension faculty
and Extension specialists at Florida
A & M University and the Univer-
sity of Florida. The major teaching
tool wasfield demonstrations to teach
farmers techniques for planting trees
on their farmland (Figures 8a, 8b).
Eleven timber production and ten


Christmas tree production demon-
strations were established in the six
targeted counties in 1984-87 (Table
3). In addition to showing land-
owners how to plant and manage
pines, information about financial
and technical assistance was pro-
vided.
At the beginning of the 4-year







Field Demonstrations Estimated number of persons
seeing demonstrations
Obtaining and Planting Pine Seedlings
(11 demonstrations, all 6 counties)* 1,500
Planting and Establishing Pines for Christmas Trees
(10 demonstrations, all 6 counties)* 1,500
Total persons seeing demonstrations 3,000
*Indicates counties where workshop or demonstration was held.


Table 3
Forestry Extension field demon-
strations held in the six counties
involved in the Limited-Resource
Landowner Program.


Figure 8a
Landowners attend
tree planting demonstration
in Jackson County.


Figure 8b
Jackson County Extension Agent
Charles Brasher (left) and Exten-
sion Specialist Jim Edwards
(right) place sign at newly estab-
lished demonstration of tree
planting.














period an in-service training pro-
gram, "Encouraging Limited-Re-
source Farmers to Plant Pine Seed-
lings on Idle Land," was held for the
agricultural technicians and agents
participating in the program. Topics
highlighted at this session were
"Why Plant Trees?," "Cost-Sharing
Programs', and "How to Get
Started."
Two publications were produced to
specifically address the needs of the
limited-resource landowner: (1)
"Growing Christmas Trees: Florida
A&M Demonstration Project"
(Edwards and Carter, 1985), which
reviews the steps for establishing and
managing a Christmas tree opera-
tion, and (2) "Planting Southern
Pines" (Duryea and Edwards, 1987),
which provides illustrated steps for


planting and managing a pine planta-
tion for timber production (Figure
9).
Other forms of information dis-
semination included news releases,
farm visits, newsletters, and televi-
sion programs. The monthly news-
letter "Extension Forestry Update."
published at the University otf Flor-
ida, also was sent to the limited-re-
source landowners. One hundred-
and-fifty farm visits were made in the
six program counties during 1984-87
to provide technical assistance and
one-on-one education. Three televi-
sion programs with a potential view-
ing audience of 32,,,3 were pro-
duced and shown.


Figure 9
Two Extension publications which
help limited-resource landowners
manage their idle and
unproductive lands.







Impact assessment

The impact of the program was
assessed using two surveys which
were developed by the Extension
specialists and program evaluation
specialists. The county Extension
agents surveyed a total of 88 land-
owners in the six counties at the
beginning and end of the program.
The major data collected at the be-
ginning of the program were as fol-
lows:
The total number of acres
owned by these landowners.
The number of idle acres
owned.
Whether they were interested in
planting seedlings.
Whether they were familiar
with the assistance programs
available to landowners.
The major data collected at the end
of the program were as follows:
The total number of acres
owned by these landowners.
The number of idle acres
owned.


The number of idle acres
planted with pine seedlings in
the last 4 years.
Why acres were planted with
pine seedlings.
Whether landowners were fa-
miliar with assistance programs
available to them.
From these data we calculated the
following:
The change in the total number
of acres owned.
The percent of idle land which
had been planted with pine seed-
lings in the last 4 years.
The change in the percent of
people interested in planting
pines.
The change in the percent of
landowners familiar with assis-
tance programs.
The potential revenue to land-
owners at the time of harvest.


Results


At the beginning of the impact
study the 88 limited-resource land-
owners who were surveyed in the
six-county program owned 7,058
acres. Eighteen percent of this land
(1,249 acres) was considered idle and
possibly available for planting
with pine trees. Sixty-four per-
cent of the landowners were
interested in planting pines,
but 53 percent were not
familiar with the agencies
and assistance programs
available to them.
At the end of the 4-year
program'period, the 88 land-
owners surveyed owned
approximately 5 percent
fewer acres. At this time, 17
percent of their land was
considered idle, compared to
18 percent at the beginning
of the program in 1984. At
the end of the program, 228


acres had been planted to pines;
this was 18 percent of the original
idle acres (Figure 10). A landowner


Planted with trees (18%)


Figure 10
The 88 limited-resource land-
owners in the program planted
trees on 18percent of their acres
that were idle in 1984.


Not planted with trees (82%)







Impact assessment

The impact of the program was
assessed using two surveys which
were developed by the Extension
specialists and program evaluation
specialists. The county Extension
agents surveyed a total of 88 land-
owners in the six counties at the
beginning and end of the program.
The major data collected at the be-
ginning of the program were as fol-
lows:
The total number of acres
owned by these landowners.
The number of idle acres
owned.
Whether they were interested in
planting seedlings.
Whether they were familiar
with the assistance programs
available to landowners.
The major data collected at the end
of the program were as follows:
The total number of acres
owned by these landowners.
The number of idle acres
owned.


The number of idle acres
planted with pine seedlings in
the last 4 years.
Why acres were planted with
pine seedlings.
Whether landowners were fa-
miliar with assistance programs
available to them.
From these data we calculated the
following:
The change in the total number
of acres owned.
The percent of idle land which
had been planted with pine seed-
lings in the last 4 years.
The change in the percent of
people interested in planting
pines.
The change in the percent of
landowners familiar with assis-
tance programs.
The potential revenue to land-
owners at the time of harvest.


Results


At the beginning of the impact
study the 88 limited-resource land-
owners who were surveyed in the
six-county program owned 7,058
acres. Eighteen percent of this land
(1,249 acres) was considered idle and
possibly available for planting
with pine trees. Sixty-four per-
cent of the landowners were
interested in planting pines,
but 53 percent were not
familiar with the agencies
and assistance programs
available to them.
At the end of the 4-year
program'period, the 88 land-
owners surveyed owned
approximately 5 percent
fewer acres. At this time, 17
percent of their land was
considered idle, compared to
18 percent at the beginning
of the program in 1984. At
the end of the program, 228


acres had been planted to pines;
this was 18 percent of the original
idle acres (Figure 10). A landowner


Planted with trees (18%)


Figure 10
The 88 limited-resource land-
owners in the program planted
trees on 18percent of their acres
that were idle in 1984.


Not planted with trees (82%)















who has planted 10 acres of idle land
in these program years could harvest
the forest stand in 20 years, and at 30
cords per acre and $28 per cord, the
projected gross revenue would be
$8,400. The projected gross revenue
for all 228 acres would be $191,520.
When these landowners were
asked why they planted pines the
major reasons given were as follows:
The land was poor and unsuit-
able for farming.
To provide additional income.
Trees were the only crop that
would not take too much addi-
tional effort after planting.
To provide future income for
grandchildren.
For conservation purposes.
When asked what influenced them
to plant pines, they replied
as follows:
The Florida Cooperative
Extension Service.


Government assistance
programs.
Florida Division of Forestry
Twenty-two percent of the limited-
resource landowners had attended a
workshop on planting trees. In addi-
tion, 70 percent of those surveyed
responded that they had learned
about the assistance and support
programs for planting trees, an in-
crease from 47 percent at the begin-
ning of the program (Figure 11). At
the end of the program, 30 percent of
those su r e\ ed were interested in
planting pines, a decrease from 64
percent in 1984. This decrease may
be due to interest in other crops, the
need for understanding the new tax
laws, or the need for one-on-one
contact with these clientele. In 1988-
91, efforts will be implemented to
improve our contact with limited-
resource landowners.


Figure 11
Limited-resource landowners who
were familiar with forestry assis-
tance programs at the beginning
and end of the program, compared
to those who were not familiar
with them.


0 W
cE

00
O0
r L
wa)

-o 4
0 13
S(n


4-.
E-6

.-T


60-


50 -


40 -


30 -


20 -


familiar


not familiar


familiar


0 _.


1984
Year


not familiar










1987







Landowners benefit


from tax savings


The projected gross annual harvest
revenue of $7,233,245 for the Seven-
County Reforestation Program and
$191,520 for the idle acres planted in
the Limited-Resource Landowner
Program does not include additional
income or savings generated by for-
estry investments. Other beneficial
aspects of a forestry investment in-
clude (1) lower property taxes for
agriculturally assessed land; (For
example, a landowner who owns 10
acres and plants pines for timber
may reduce his property taxes from
$24 to $4 per acre, depending on the


county tax policies.) (2) the 10 per-
cent tax credit for stand establish-
ment costs; and (3) the benefits of
amortizing stand establishment costs
on federal income tax returns during
the first 8 years after planting. In
addition, involvement in one of the
federal or state incentive programs
could have further reduced the initial
establishment costs. All of these ben-
efits mean a higher rate of return for
the forestry investment than is indi-
cated by the harvesting revenue
alone.


Conclusions and


Recommendations


Two educational programs imple-
mented by the Florida Cooperative
Extension Service have been effective
in encouraging and aiding land-
owners to reforest their harvested
forest land, poorly stocked forest
land, and idle cropland (Figure 12).
In the Seven-County Reforestation
Program, 58 percent more acres were
planted with trees and the greater the
intensity of the program, the greater
the number of trees planted. In the
Limited-Resource Landowner Pro-
gram, 18 percent of the landowners'
idle acres were planted and the num-
ber of landowners aware of assistance
programs grew from 47 percent to 70
percent. Coordination with other
state and federal agencies which offer


technical and financial assistance has
been and continues to be successful.
The next logical step in our Exten-
sion program appears to be to pro-
mote multiple forest resource man-
agement in addition to reforestation.
In the next 4 years we will provide
information regarding additional
forest resource alternatives to the
landowner. Some of these resources
include wildlife habitat, trees with
cattle, fee fishing, pinestraw, and
recreation. These resources may
provide additional income to the
landowner and, at the same time,
help to maintain and enhance Flori-
da's forest resources.







Landowners benefit


from tax savings


The projected gross annual harvest
revenue of $7,233,245 for the Seven-
County Reforestation Program and
$191,520 for the idle acres planted in
the Limited-Resource Landowner
Program does not include additional
income or savings generated by for-
estry investments. Other beneficial
aspects of a forestry investment in-
clude (1) lower property taxes for
agriculturally assessed land; (For
example, a landowner who owns 10
acres and plants pines for timber
may reduce his property taxes from
$24 to $4 per acre, depending on the


county tax policies.) (2) the 10 per-
cent tax credit for stand establish-
ment costs; and (3) the benefits of
amortizing stand establishment costs
on federal income tax returns during
the first 8 years after planting. In
addition, involvement in one of the
federal or state incentive programs
could have further reduced the initial
establishment costs. All of these ben-
efits mean a higher rate of return for
the forestry investment than is indi-
cated by the harvesting revenue
alone.


Conclusions and


Recommendations


Two educational programs imple-
mented by the Florida Cooperative
Extension Service have been effective
in encouraging and aiding land-
owners to reforest their harvested
forest land, poorly stocked forest
land, and idle cropland (Figure 12).
In the Seven-County Reforestation
Program, 58 percent more acres were
planted with trees and the greater the
intensity of the program, the greater
the number of trees planted. In the
Limited-Resource Landowner Pro-
gram, 18 percent of the landowners'
idle acres were planted and the num-
ber of landowners aware of assistance
programs grew from 47 percent to 70
percent. Coordination with other
state and federal agencies which offer


technical and financial assistance has
been and continues to be successful.
The next logical step in our Exten-
sion program appears to be to pro-
mote multiple forest resource man-
agement in addition to reforestation.
In the next 4 years we will provide
information regarding additional
forest resource alternatives to the
landowner. Some of these resources
include wildlife habitat, trees with
cattle, fee fishing, pinestraw, and
recreation. These resources may
provide additional income to the
landowner and, at the same time,
help to maintain and enhance Flori-
da's forest resources.
















Figure 12
Extension Specialist Mary Duryea
(center), Putnam County Exten-
sion Director Austin Tilton (right),
and forest landowner Kelley
Smith, Jr. (left) look over a success-
ful 3-year-old slash pine planta-
tion in Putnam County.


Acknowledgments


The success of this program largely
depended on the dedication and en-
thusiasm of the Extension staff in
each of the 13 counties-thank you
for the directed and hardworking
attention you paid to this program.
Ken Munson was an Extension Spe-
cialist at the University of Florida at
the beginning of the program and
was instrumental in its planning and
initial implementation; we are very
grateful for his creative input. Bob
Schroeder, Reforestation Supervisor
at the Florida Division of Forestry,
was extremely patient and most help-


ful in providing us with the seedling
numbers which helped us measure
the program impact-thank you.
Appreciation also is due to the s:aff
of the IFAS Editorial Department
for producing this publication:
graphic designer Barbara Jaeggi, ph o-
tographer Bunny Ingles Stafford. and
editor Lee Herring. And final:. we
thank the landowners for their inter-
est and willingness to learn about
and implement forestry practices on
their land.








Literature cited


Bechtold, W. A. and H..A. Knight.
1982. Florida's forests. Resource
Bull. SE-62. U. S. D. A. Forest Serv-
ice, Southeastern Forest Experiment
Station. Asheville, NC. 84 p.

Duryea, M. L. 1987. Forest regenera-
tion methods: Natural regeneration,
direct seeding, and planting. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service,
IFAS, University of Florida. Circular
759. 10 p.

Duryea, M. L. and J. C. Edwards.
1987. Planting southern pines. Flor-
ida Cooperative Extension Service,
IFAS, University of Florida. Circular
767. 14 p.

Edwards, J. C. and L. Carter. 1985.
Growing Christmas trees: Florida A
& M University Demonstration
Project. Florida Cooperative Exten-
sion Service, IFAS, Florida A & M
University, University of Florida.
Circular 646. 15 p.

Eason, M. A. and D. M. Flinchum.
1984. A guide for comparing returns
from forestry investments to annual
crops. Florida Cooperative Exten-
sion Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida. Circular 592. 9 p.


Authors
M. L. Duryea and D. M. Flinchum
are Assistant Professor and Associate
Professor, respectively, School of
Forest Resources and Conservation,
University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL 32611. J. C. Edwards is Assistant
Professor, Cooperative Extension
Service, Florida A & M University,


Florida Division of Forestry. 1986.
Florida Forest Facts: 1986 Edition.
Pages 46-47 In Annual Meeting Mag-
azine and Membership Directory.
Florida Forestry Association. Talla-
hassee. September 1986.

Jack, S., K. Munson, and D. Flin-
chum. 1984. Site preparation: alter-
natives for plantation establishment.
Florida Cooperative Extension Serv-
ice, IFAS, University of Florida.
Forest Resources and Conservation
Fact Sheet FRC-37. 4 p.

Munson, K. R. 1984. Forest soils of
Florida: Useful groupings for for-
estry purposes. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, Forest Re-
sources and Conservation Fact Sheet,
FRC-33. University of Florida,
Gainesville. 4 p.

Munson, K., J. Watts, D. Dippon,
and D. M. Flinchum. 1985. Forestry
information system 6-Silvicultural
practices. Florida Cooperative Ex-
tension Service, IFAS, University of
Florida. Circular 632. 20 p.


Tallahassee, FL 32307. C. L. Taylor is
Professor, Program Development/
Evaluation, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

Partial supportfor this project was
from the Renewable Resources Exten-
sion Act (RREA).







































































This publication was produced at a cost of $4,683.05, or $2.34 per copy, to report on the impact of an Extension
reforestation program. 10-2M-87.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publica-
tions) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is
available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication,
editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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