• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Cabbage palm flatwoods
 Cutthroat seeps
 Everglades flatwoods
 Freshwater marsh and ponds
 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills
 North Florida flatwoods
 Salt marsh
 Scrub cypress range site
 Slough
 South Florida flatwoods
 Upland hardwoods hammocks
 Wetland hardwoods range site
 Definitions of range terms
 Scientific names
 Back Cover






Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service - 951
Title: Range sites of Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014498/00001
 Material Information
Title: Range sites of Florida
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mullahey, J. Jeffrey ( John Jeffrey )
Tanner, George Walden
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1992]
 Subjects
Subject: Rangelands -- Environmental aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Range management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Range plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J. Jeffrey Mullahey and George W. Tanner.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March 1992."
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014498
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001802289
oclc - 26382999
notis - AJM6068

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Cabbage palm flatwoods
        Page 1
    Cutthroat seeps
        Page 2
    Everglades flatwoods
        Page 3
    Freshwater marsh and ponds
        Page 4
    Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills
        Page 5
    North Florida flatwoods
        Page 6
    Salt marsh
        Page 7
    Scrub cypress range site
        Page 8
    Slough
        Page 9
    South Florida flatwoods
        Page 10
    Upland hardwoods hammocks
        Page 11
    Wetland hardwoods range site
        Page 12
    Definitions of range terms
        Page 13
    Scientific names
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
Io/
/0/
March 1992 Circular 951

epuoIj o .sJa!Un

RZ6t ~ 0 XVI

uRange Sites of Floria
Range Sites of Flor a l


J. Jeffrey Mullahey and George W. Tanner


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, Dean


















Acknowledgement


Descriptions of the 12 range sites in this publication were compiled from two United States Department of
Agriculture documents: a) Field Office Technical Guide Section II-E-"Descriptions for Native Grazing
Lands," USDA-SCS, and b) 26 Ecological Communities of Florida, Soil Conservation Service, 146 p (1985).
Definitions of range terms listed in the glossary are from "A Glossary of Terms Used in Range Management,"
edited by Glossary Revision Special Committee, Publications Committee, Society for Range Management,
20 p (1989).






101
F (^3 ^

\5\


J. Jeffrey Mullahey, Assistant Professor and George W. Tanner, Associate Professor, respectively, Department of Wildlife and
Range Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.

















Table of contents


Introduction ............. .. .......................... 1
Cabbage palm flatwoods ................... ............ 1
Cutthroat seeps ........................... ............... 2
Everglades flatwoods ................. .............3. 3
Freshwater marsh and ponds .......................... 4
Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills ............................. 5
North Florida flatwoods .................................. 6
Salt marsh .............. ... ........ .. .. .........7
Scrub cypress ................ .... .... ............... 8
Slough ................ .. .......................... 9
South Florida flatwoods ...... ................. ... .. 10
Upland hardwood hammocks .............. .............11
Wetland hardwood .................................... 12
Definitions of range terms ..............................13
Scientific names ................... ... ............. 14




























', -r .: 11 OF Fi..l!'.AA LI6tAARIES








Introduction
This publication focuses on twelve major range
sites in Florida and emphasizes plant production
and diversity, livestock use, and environmental
aspects including wildlife and water management.
The intent was to develop a general reference
presenting a broad overview of Florida rangeland
for use by ranchers, public and private agencies
that manage rangeland or are concerned about the
ecological integrity of this natural resource, and to
assist the public in understanding and recognizing
range as a diverse and valuable resource.

In Florida there are approximately 11,000,000
acres of grazing lands, comprised of 3,591,000 acres
as non-federal rangeland, 4,204,900 acres as non-
federal pastureland, 2,506,000 acres as non-federal
grazed forest, and 1,000,000 acres as federal graz-
ing lands. Acreage associated with each of the
twelve range sites is not available. Range is a
primary natural resource of many ranching opera-
tions. The native vegetation of range lands includes
grasses, grasslikes, forbs, or shrubs suitable for
grazing and browsing use by livestock and wildlife.
Some range sites have an overstory of trees and
others are comprised of only herbaceous vegetation.

Range management, the science and art of plan-
ning and directing range use, is founded on ecologi-
cal principles, and deals with using rangelands and
range resources for a variety of purposes. Range
management involves the concept of multiple use:
grazing of range while managing for game animals,
tree products, recreation, and water (quality and
quantity).

Stocking rates (acres/animal unit) are given for
each range site as general guidelines to assist the
rancher in grazing management. These values are
based on ecological needs of the range, not dry mat-
ter or nutritional needs of livestock, and relate to a
year-long continuous grazing system. Stocking rate
suggestions are conservative and designed to main-
tain or improve range condition, assuming no other
limiting factor exists (i.e. precipitation, brush cover,
etc.). Actual stocking rates for each range site will
vary depending on factors such as variations in
forage production and forage inventory. Ranchers
could increase the suggested stocking rates by 30
percent to improve forage utilization especially
when using a controlled grazing system (rotational
grazing) and/or range improvement practices (i.e.
prescribed burning) which improve forage quality
and quantity.


Total annual plant production given for each
range site represents total forage yield, measured
between October and January. To estimate amount
of grazeable forage, a rancher should multiply the
forage yield value by 50 percent (animal should
graze one-half and leave one-half of the plant) and
by 20 to 35 percent (estimate of utilization). Forage
quality, trampling loss, grazing from wildlife, etc.,
are factors considered in the estimate of percent
utilization.

In this publication, a general description of each
of twelve range sites in Florida is given, followed by
discussion of soils, vegetation, grazing value, and
wildlife. Each range site in Florida is unique, yet
together these sites comprise the resource known
as range. A glossary of terms has been included to
assist the reader with interpreting information
presented.


Cabbage palm flatwoods


. .'-,. f~Si-ci.21


Description
This range site is characterized by nearly level
land and a high alkaline pH. Water movement is
very gradual to and through the natural drainage-
ways, swamps, ponds, and marshes. During the
rainy season, usually June through September, the
water table is on or near the soil surface.

Soils
The soils are most often nearly level, poorly to
somewhat poorly drained, shallow to deep, and
coarse textured to fine textured in the subsoil.
Some parts of the subsoil are calcareous or it is
neutral to moderately alkaline. The surface
and subsurface layers are coarse textured.








Introduction
This publication focuses on twelve major range
sites in Florida and emphasizes plant production
and diversity, livestock use, and environmental
aspects including wildlife and water management.
The intent was to develop a general reference
presenting a broad overview of Florida rangeland
for use by ranchers, public and private agencies
that manage rangeland or are concerned about the
ecological integrity of this natural resource, and to
assist the public in understanding and recognizing
range as a diverse and valuable resource.

In Florida there are approximately 11,000,000
acres of grazing lands, comprised of 3,591,000 acres
as non-federal rangeland, 4,204,900 acres as non-
federal pastureland, 2,506,000 acres as non-federal
grazed forest, and 1,000,000 acres as federal graz-
ing lands. Acreage associated with each of the
twelve range sites is not available. Range is a
primary natural resource of many ranching opera-
tions. The native vegetation of range lands includes
grasses, grasslikes, forbs, or shrubs suitable for
grazing and browsing use by livestock and wildlife.
Some range sites have an overstory of trees and
others are comprised of only herbaceous vegetation.

Range management, the science and art of plan-
ning and directing range use, is founded on ecologi-
cal principles, and deals with using rangelands and
range resources for a variety of purposes. Range
management involves the concept of multiple use:
grazing of range while managing for game animals,
tree products, recreation, and water (quality and
quantity).

Stocking rates (acres/animal unit) are given for
each range site as general guidelines to assist the
rancher in grazing management. These values are
based on ecological needs of the range, not dry mat-
ter or nutritional needs of livestock, and relate to a
year-long continuous grazing system. Stocking rate
suggestions are conservative and designed to main-
tain or improve range condition, assuming no other
limiting factor exists (i.e. precipitation, brush cover,
etc.). Actual stocking rates for each range site will
vary depending on factors such as variations in
forage production and forage inventory. Ranchers
could increase the suggested stocking rates by 30
percent to improve forage utilization especially
when using a controlled grazing system (rotational
grazing) and/or range improvement practices (i.e.
prescribed burning) which improve forage quality
and quantity.


Total annual plant production given for each
range site represents total forage yield, measured
between October and January. To estimate amount
of grazeable forage, a rancher should multiply the
forage yield value by 50 percent (animal should
graze one-half and leave one-half of the plant) and
by 20 to 35 percent (estimate of utilization). Forage
quality, trampling loss, grazing from wildlife, etc.,
are factors considered in the estimate of percent
utilization.

In this publication, a general description of each
of twelve range sites in Florida is given, followed by
discussion of soils, vegetation, grazing value, and
wildlife. Each range site in Florida is unique, yet
together these sites comprise the resource known
as range. A glossary of terms has been included to
assist the reader with interpreting information
presented.


Cabbage palm flatwoods


. .'-,. f~Si-ci.21


Description
This range site is characterized by nearly level
land and a high alkaline pH. Water movement is
very gradual to and through the natural drainage-
ways, swamps, ponds, and marshes. During the
rainy season, usually June through September, the
water table is on or near the soil surface.

Soils
The soils are most often nearly level, poorly to
somewhat poorly drained, shallow to deep, and
coarse textured to fine textured in the subsoil.
Some parts of the subsoil are calcareous or it is
neutral to moderately alkaline. The surface
and subsurface layers are coarse textured.








Representative soil series are Broward, Ft. Drum,
Matmon, and Pinellas.

Vegetation
Scattered slash pine and cabbage palm are the
characteristic overstory trees of this range site.
When the range site is in excellent condition, veg-
etation is dominated by creeping, chalky, and South
Florida bluestem, toothachegrass, blue
maidencane, and lopsided indiangrass. However
increase species such as saw-palmetto, wax
myrtle, gallberry, and pineland threeawn are
present when poor or fair range condition exists.

The relative percentages of annual plant produc-
tion (air dry) by weight for this range site in excel-
lent condition are: grasses and grasslikes, 70
percent; woody plants and trees, 15 percent; and
forbs, 15 percent. The plants that characterize
this site are:

* Grasses and grasslikes creeping, South Florida,
and chalky bluestems, other bluestem species,
lopsided indiangrass, switchgrass, toothache-
grass, wiregrasses, panicums, sedges, and
rushes.

* Forbs gayfeather, deertongue, grassleaf
goldaster, creeping beggarweed, and annual
forbs.

* Trees and shrubs cabbage palm, pine species,
oak species, gallberry, fetterbush, saw-palmetto,
tarflower, wax myrtle.

Grazing value
This range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of high quality forage (crude
protein = 8 to 10 percent, TDN = 50 to 55 percent).
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges from
4,500 to 9,000 Ib/A depending on growing condi-
tions. The suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 4 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+

Wildlife
Cabbage palm flatwoods offer good food and
cover to many species of wildlife. Food value comes
from palm and saw-palmetto fruit, pine mast, and
acorns from associated oaks. Legumes and grasses
furnish good food sources to quail and other small


birds. Habitat is well suited for deer and turkey,
and offers refuge to migrating birds during winter
months.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals, and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther, mangrove fox
squirrel

* Birds southeastern American kestrel, bald
eagle

* Reptiles eastern indigo snake

Cutthroat seeps


Descriptions
This range site occurs on nearly level to gently
sloping or depressed areas where water seeps from
the adjacent longleaf pine-turkey oak hills commu-
nities and similar better drained sites.
Soils
The soils are nearly level to gently sloping,
poorly drained, deep, and coarse textured through-
out. The Basinger, Ona, and St Johns soil series
are representative of this site.
Vegetation
This site is recognized by its dominance of
cutthroat grass. In excellent condition, vegetation
consists of cutthroat grass, chalky and creeping
bluestem, and toothachegrass. However, in sites in
poor to fair condition, saw-palmetto and pineland
threeawn dominate. The relative percentages of
annual plant production by weight for this range
site in excellent condition are: grass and grasslikes,








90 percent; woody plants and trees, 5 percent; and
forbs 5 percent. Plants that characterize this site
are:

* Grasses and grasslikes cutthroat grass, chalky
and creeping bluestems, maidencane, toothache-
grass, low panicums, paspalum species, pineland
threeawn, sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs gayfeather, aeschynomene, deertongue,
creeping beggarweed, red root, dogfennel, and
annual forbs.

* Trees and shrubs slash pine, saw-palmetto,
dwarf huckleberry, wax myrtle, fetterbush,
gallberry, St. John's-wort.

Grazing value
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges from
3,000 to 9,000 lb/A depending on growing condi-
tions. Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 4 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+

Environmental values are especially important.
Water from better drained areas "seeps" out to the
ground surface at these range sites. They serve as
natural drainageways and help to improve water
quality by the filtering action and nutrient uptake
of plants.

Wildlife
Cutthroat seeps are well suited for deer, turkey,
and songbirds. They are fair for quail and good for
many mammals, such as skunks, opossums, and
raccoons. Reptiles such as ratsnakes and rattle-
snakes find suitable habitat in this site. It is poorly
suited for squirrel and dove.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals, and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther

* Birds Florida grasshopper sparrow, southeast-
ern American kestrel, red-cockaded woodpecker,
Florida sandhill crane, bald eagle

* Reptiles eastern indigo snake


Everglades flatwoods


Description
This range site is located in the Everglades
region of South Florida. This range site occurs on
nearly level land. It is underlain at shallow depths
by a porous pinnacle limestone rock. Many areas
have little or no soil, and the pinnacle rock occurs
on the surface. Water movement is rapid through
the porous limestone. Consequently, the sites are
wet for only short periods following heavy rains.
Soils
The soils are nearly level, shallow and coarse
textured over porous limestone rock. Representa-
tive soil series are Dade, Hallandale and Rockdale.

Vegetation
In excellent condition, this site is recognized by
an association of grasses such as bluestems (creep-
ing, chalky, cabanis, South Florida) and lopsided
indiangrass. When the site is in poor to fair condi-
tion, vegetation is dominated by saw-palmetto,
pineland threeawn, and gulf mulhy. Relative per-
centages of annual plant production by weight for
this range site in excellent condition are: grasses
and grasslikes, 75 percent; woody plants and trees,
15 percent; and forbs 10 percent.

* Grasses and grasslikes chalky, South Florida,
and creeping bluestems, low panicums, lopsided
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, saltmarsh
windmillgrass, dropseed species, sawgrass,
sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs creeping beggarweed, gayfeather,
spanish needles, annual forbs, and perennial
legumes.








* Trees and shrubs South Florida slash pine,
saw-palmetto, wax myrtle, dwarf huckleberry,
greenbriar, and gallberry.

Grazing value
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges
from 1,500 to 3,000 lb/A depending on growing
conditions.

Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 12 to 20 18 to 28 25 to 35 33+

Wildlife
Due to its geographic position, this community is
valuable to birds migrating to and from South
America for wintering. It is well suited for deer,
bobcat, owls, and small rodents. Many reptiles find
suitable habitat in this site.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals, and species of special
concern
* Shrubs Big Pine partridge pea

* Herbaceous plants and vines night scent orchid,
pineland clustervine, Small's milkpea, crenulate
leaf plant

* Mammals Florida panther, mangrove fox
squirrel

* Birds red-cockaded woodpecker

* Reptiles eastern indigo snake, Miami
black-headed snake

Freshwater marsh and ponds
Description
This range site appears as an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, rushes, and other herbaceous
plants in areas where the soil is usually saturated
or covered with surface water for two or more
months during the year.
Soils
Soils are nearly level and very poorly drained
with coarse textured or organic surfaces underlain
by clay or sand. Representative soil series are


Basinger depressional, Brighton, Charlotte ponded,
Dania, Everglades, Felda depressional, Iberia,
Kaliga, Lauderhill, Monteverde, Micco, Ocoee,
Okeechobee, Sanibel, Tequesta, and Torry.

Vegetation
In excellent condition, a freshwater marsh and
pond site is dominated by maidencane and
cutgrass. However, where the site is in poor condi-
tion, vegetation consists of cattails, pickerelweed,
smartweed, wild millet, and sawgrass.

The relative percentages of annual plant produc-
tion by weight for this range site in excellent
condition are: grasses and grasslikes, 90 percent;
woody plants and trees, less than 1 percent; and
forbs, 10 percent. Plants that characterize the
freshwater marshes and ponds are:

* Grasses and grasslikes blue maidencane,
clubhead cutgrass, maidencane, sawgrass,
chalky bluestem, American cupscale, sedges, and
rushes.

* Forbs aeschynomene, red root, yellow-eyed
grass, pickerelweed, pennyroyal, smartweed,
dogfennel, dayflower, marshpink, aster, duck-
potato, cattails, rattlebox, and bidens species.

* Trees and shrubs buttonbush, willow, wax
myrtle, cypress, persimmon, and maple.
Grazing value
This range site has the potential for producing
significant amounts (10,000 hIbA) of high quality
forage (8 to 10 percent crude protein, 50 to 55
percent TDN). Annual plant production (air dry)
from all plant groups for a site in excellent condi-
tion ranges from 5,000 to 10,000 Ib/A depending on
growing conditions.








Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 3 to 6 5 to 10 9 to 14 13+

Freshwater marshes and ponds serve as a filter
system for rivers and lakes, generally acting as a
sink, but sometimes as a source for nutrients.
Marshes retain water during drought and large
marshes also help slow down water flows at flood
times.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals, and species of special
concern
* Mammals Everglades mink, Key Vaca raccoon,
silver rice rat

* Birds Cape Sable seaside sparrow, crested
caracara, Florida sandhill crane, snail kite, wood
stork

* Reptiles American alligator, Florida ribbon
snake, Key mud turtle

Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills


Description
This range site occurs on rolling land with
nearly level to strong slopes. Water movement is
rapid through the soil. It is easily recognized by
the land form and dominant vegetation of longleaf
pine and turkey oak.


Soils
The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping,
deep, acid, moderately well to excessively drained,
and mostly coarse textured throughout. Represen-
tative soil series are Alpin, Bonifay, Candler,
Chiefland, Cocoa, Deland, Hurricane, Kershaw,
Lake, Lakeland, Orlando, and Troup.

Vegetation
Mature, natural stands of trees that have not
been logged have scattered longleaf pine as an over-
story. Areas on which pines have been removed are
predominantly oaks. Ground cover under the trees
and shrubs is scattered and numerous bare areas
are noticeable. The relative percentages of annual
plant production by weight for this range site in
excellent condition are: grass and grasslikes, 60
percent; woody plants and trees, 20 percent; and
forbs, 20 percent. Plants that characterize this site
are:

* Grasses and grasslikes creeping, purple, and
broomsedge bluestems, lopsided indiangrass, low
panicums, pineland threeawn, and sedges.

* Forbs grassleafgoldaster, sensitive briar,
devil's shoelace, annual forbs, crotalaria.

* Trees and shrubs longleaf pine, turkey oak,
other oak species, greenbriar, saw-palmetto,
gopher apple, and prickly pear.
Grazing value
The natural fertility of this range site is low due
to adverse soil conditions. This site has a moder-
ately low potential for production of desirable
forage species. Annual plant production (air dry)
from all plant groups for a site in excellent condi-
tion ranges from 2,000 to 4,000 lb/A depending on
growing conditions. Suggested stocking rates are as
follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 10 to 20 18 to 30 28 to 40 35+


Wildlife
This site is suited for deer and turkey, especially
for use as escape cover. Many songbirds inhabit
this area including warblers, towhees, crested
flycatchers, and quail. Several varieties of native
legumes furnish food (seeds) for bird life.








Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther, Florida mouse

* Birds southeastern American kestrel,
red-cockaded woodpecker

* Reptiles blue-tailed mole skink, eastern indigo
snake, short-tailed snake, gopher tortoise

* Plants clasping warea, pigeon wing, bent
golden aster

North Florida flatwoods


Descriptions
This range site occurs on nearly level land.
Water movement is very gradual to the natural
drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associ-
ated with this range site. Wet conditions prevail
during the rainy season with the water table on or
near the surface. It is easily recognized by the flat
topography, slash pine and saw-palmetto vegeta-
tion. Typically, this site has a greater stand
density of slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines than
is present in the South Florida flatwoods.
Soils
The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to
somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured or
coarse textured in the upper part and moderately
coarse textured or moderately fine textured in the
lower part. Representative soil series are: Chaires,
Garcon, Leon, Lumber, Lutterluh, Lynn Haven,
Olustee, Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Sapelo,
Scranton, and Talquin.


Vegetation
In moderate to high water levels, the predomi-
nant vegetation from this site in excellent range
condition is chalky or creeping bluestem. However,
when low to moderate water levels occur, lopsided
indiangrass and creeping bluestem are present In
poor to fair range condition, vegetation consists
of wax myrtle, gallberry, saw-palmetto, and
wire-grasses. The relative percentages of annual
production by weight for this range site in excellent
condition are: grass and grasslikes, 65 percent;
woody plants and trees, 25 percent; and forbs, 10
percent.

* Grasses and grasslikes chalky, creeping, and
broomsedge bluestems, lopsided indiangrass,
maidencane, toothachegrass, blue maidencane,
panicum species, pineland threeawn, sedges, and
rushes.

* Forbs creeping beggarweed, deertongue,
gayfeather, red root, partridgepea, dogfennel,
brackenfern, annual forbs, and grassleaf
goldaster.

* Trees and shrubs live oak, longleaf and slash
pine, gallberry, saw-palmetto, wax myrtle,
greenbriar, dwarf huckleberry.
Grazing value
This range site has a moderate to high potential
for producing native forages. More pines occur on
this range site than in South Florida flatwoods,
with much of the original acreage planted to slash
pine plantations. Vegetative production differs
from the South Florida flatwoods due to a denser
overstory, shorter growing season, and lower
winter temperatures.

Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges from
3,000 to 5,500 Ib/A depending on growing condi-
tions. Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 5 to 8 7 to 13 12 to 18 17+

Wildlife
The North Florida flatwoods range site is well
suited for deer, quail and turkey. It is fair for
squirrels and well suited for many songbirds, par-
ticularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat,








skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited
for dove.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Shrubs Chapman's rhododendron

* Mammals Florida black bear, Florida panther

* Birds Southeastern American kestrel, red-
cockaded woodpecker, Florida sandhill crane,
bald eagle

* Reptiles eastern indigo snake

Salt marsh


Description
This range site occurs on level, tidal-influenced
areas. Usually there is a matrix of interconnected,
shallow natural channels that aid tidal influx.

Soils
Soils commonly associated with this community
are level, very poorly drained, muck or sandy clay
loams underlain by loamy sand or organic soils, in
turn underlain by clay or sand or are clayey
throughout. Many of the soils have a high sulfur
content. Some of the soils are soft and will not
support the weight of a man or large animal. Tidal
action causes saturation of the soil with salt water
and inundation to a depth of a few inches. Repre-
sentative soil series are Bohicket, Homosassa,
Lacoochee, Tisonia, Turnbull, and Weekiwachee.

Vegetation
Vegetation often occurs in distinct zones within
the salt marsh complex as a result of water levels


from tidal action and salinity concentrations in
water and soils. In excellent condition, a salt
marsh site will be dominated with desirable grasses
such as smooth cordgrass, big cordgrass, marshhay
cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, seashore paspalum,
and seashore dropseed. The relative percentages of
annual plant production by weight for this range
site in excellent condition are: grasses and grass-
likes, 90 percent; woody plants and trees, 5 percent;
and forbs, 5 percent. Plants that characterize the
salt marsh site are:

* Grass and grasslikes smooth cordgrass, big
cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, switchgrass, sea-
shore saltgrass, seashore dropseed, seashore
paspalum, shore grass, whorled dropseed,
sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs sea lavender, sea purslane, annual forbs,
glassworts, and sea blite.

* Trees and shrubs bushy seaoxeye, mangroves,
cabbage palm, matrimony vine, bigleaf
sumpweed, and lynoia species.
Grazing value
Salt marsh range sites have a potential for pro-
ducing significant amounts of cordgrass, saltgrass,
and other grasses and forbs. Annual plant produc-
tion (air dry) from all plant groups for a site in
excellent condition ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 lb/A
depending on growing conditions. The suggested
stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 3 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+

On low energy coastlines and estuaries, the salt
marsh site functions as a transition zone from ter-
restrial to oceanic life. Salt marshes also perform
an important function in the stabilization and pro-
tection of shorelines, especially during storm tides.

Nutrients, sediments and detritus from upland
systems are redistributed by tidal action, making
the marsh one of the most productive natural
ecological systems. The area serves as a habitat for
the early life stages of numerous ocean species as
they feed on countless invertebrate organisms.
Many wildlife forms overlap normal ranges at least
seasonally to become harvesters and, in many
cases, part of the natural food chain.


_ C __ __








Wildlife
Salt marsh range sites are good habitat for a
variety of wildlife. The habitat type is usually
maintained by natural forces and influences such
as tidal action and periodic hurricanes.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Mammals West Indian manatee

* Birds brown pelican, Cape Sable seaside spar-
row, least tern, arctic peregrine falcon, roseate
tern, bald eagle, wood stork

* Reptiles American alligator, Atlantic green
turtle, Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Florida ribbon
snake, Atlantic saltmarsh water snake

Scrub cypress range site


Description
This range site appears as an area of marshes
with dwarf cypress scattered throughout. Seasonal
changes in water levels and low levels of plant
nutrients result in a low diversity of plants and
wildlife populations.

Soils
This range site is characterized by nearly level
poorly to very poorly drained soils with coarse to
medium textured surfaces underlain by finer tex-
tured materials or fractured limestone. Representa-
tive soil series are Margate, Pompano flooded, Jupi-
ter fine sand, and Riveria sandlime substratum.


Vegetation
This range site is recognized by the scattered
scrub dwarf-like cypress trees. When the range site
is in excellent condition, plants such as gulfdune
paspalum, South Florida bluestem, blue maiden-
cane, and chalky bluestem dominate annual pro-
duction. When the site is in poor or fair condition,
sand cordgrass, sawgrass, St. John's-wort, sedges,
and rushes will persist. The relative percentages of
annual plant production by weight for this range
site in excellent condition are: grasses and
grasslikes, 90 percent; woody plants and trees,
5 percent; and forbs, 5 percent. Plants that
characterize this range site are:

* Grass and grasslikes gulfdune paspalum, South
Florida and chalky bluestem, blue maidencane,
beaked panicum, lovegrasses, low panicums,
sand cordgrass, gulf muhly, sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs aeschynomene, red root, yelloweyed
grass, lemon bacopa, annual forbs, and other
perennial legumes.

* Trees and shrubs scrub cypress, wax myrtle,
seamyrtle, slash pine, St. John's-wort, bulmelia
species.
Grazing value
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges
from 2,000 to 4,000 lb/A depending on growing
conditions.

The suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 7 to 11 10 to 15 14 to 18 17+


Wildlife
Wildlife habitat is poor due to the sparse vegeta-
tive growth. Deer will range through these areas.
The primary usage is by frogs, turtles, snakes,
raccoons, mink, and wading birds.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther


* Birds wood stork








Slough


Description
This range site appears as an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the
soil is saturated during the rainy season. Most
serve as drainageways for water during periods of
heavy and prolonged rainfall.
Soils
Soils are nearly level and poorly drained with
coarse textured surfaces underlain by clay or sand.
Representative soil series are: Anclote, Arzell,
Basinger, Charlotte, Placid, and Pople.
Vegetation
In excellent range condition, a slough range site
will be dominated with blue maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and gulfdune paspalum.
When in poor or fair condition, vegetation at the
site consists of wiregrasses, muhly grass, and sand
cordgrass. The relative percentages of annual
plant production by weight are grasses and
grasslikes 90 percent, woody plants and trees less
than 1 percent, and forbs 10 percent. Plants that
characterize this site are:

* Grasses and grasslikes blue maidencane,
chalky bluestem, toothachegrass, bluejoint pani-
cum, wiregrasses, low panicums, sand cordgrass,
sloughgrass, switchgrass, broomsedge bluestem,
muhly species, lovegrass species, sedges, and
rushes.

* Forbs perennial legumes, yelloweyed grass, red
root, rattlebox, and annual forbs.

* Trees and shrubs bumelia species, buttonbush,
St. John's-wort, saw-palmetto, and wax myrtle.


Sloughs serve as natural drainageways during
high water periods. As such, they have great value
in improving water quality by natural processes.
They also retain water, help slow down water flows,
and thereby increase water quantity and improve
water quality.

Use for rangeland has only a slight effect on the
range site community if properly managed. The
installation of water control practices (i.e. ditches,
canals) have facilitated the use of some sloughs for
improved pasture, vegetables, and citrus.
Wildlife
This range site is productive with regard to food
for bobwhite quail, deer, wading birds. Its low-
growing vegetation provides poor cover for most
wildlife, but this is often offset by the "edge effect"
of this range site when it is located with flatwoods.

Spatially (elevation) the slough site is located
above a freshwater marsh and pond and below a
flatwoods site (see figure below). These three range
sites interface with respect to water (drainage) and
range plants (overlap between areas). Annual
forage production will be greater in the freshwater
marsh and pond with a trend toward lower forage
production from the slough site and flatwood site.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther

* Birds Florida sandhill crane


Grazing value
This range site has the potential for producing
-7q significant amounts of high quality forage such as
blue maidencane, chalky bluestem and bluejoint
panicum. Annual plant production (air dry) from
all plant groups for a site in excellent condition
S ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 lb/A depending on
growing conditions.

Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 4 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+






























Slough South Florida
Flatwoods
(upland)


South. Florida flatwoods


Descriptions
This range site occurs on nearly level land.
Water movement is very gradual toward natural
drainageways, swamps, marshes, and ponds.
During June through September, this site may
have water on or near the soil surface. It is easily
recognized by the flat topography and slash pines
and saw-palmettos.


Soils
The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to
somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured
throughout, or coarse textured in the upper part
and moderately coarse textured or moderately fine
textured in the lower part. Representative soil
series are: Braden, Eaton, Electra, Elred, Heights,
Immokalee, Lawnwood, Myakka, Nettles, Palmetto,
Pomona, Smyrna and Waveland.

Vegetation
The landscape position of this range site affects
plant-water relationships and causes slight
differences in plant composition from wetter to
drier areas. The natural vegetation of this site is
typically scattered pine trees with an understory of
saw-palmetto, gallberry, and wiregrasses. These
areas are often called prairies or dry prairies.

The relative percentages of annual vegetative
production by weight for this range site in excellent
condition are: grasses and grasslikes, 75 percent;
woody plants and trees, 15 percent; and forbs, 10
percent. Plants that characterize this site are:

* Grasses and grasslikes Chalky and creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, toothachegrass,
maidencane, panicum species, wiregrasses,
sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs gayfeather, red root, partridge pea,
deertongue, creeping beggarweed, perennial
legumes, and annual forbs.

* Trees and shrubs oak species, slash and
longleaf pine, gallberry, wax myrtle, saw-
palmetto, dwarf huckleberry, St. John's-wort,
sumac, and wax myrtle.

Grazing value
This range site has the potential for producing
significant amounts of desirable range grasses such
as creeping bluestem (1,800 to 3,600 lb/A), chalky
bluestem (500 to 750 lb/A), and lopsided indian-
grass (900 to 1,500 lb/A). Water control practices
and improved management techniques have
facilitated the use of some flatwoods for improved
pasture, vegetables, citrus, and urban development.
This is especially true in Central, South, and
Southwest Florida.

Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for this site in excellent condition ranges
from 3,000 to 6,000 lb/A depending on climatic
conditions. Suggested stocking rates are as follows:


Freshwater
Marsh
and Pond








Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor


Acres/animal unit 4 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+


Wildlife
The South Florida flatwoods are well suited for
deer, quail, and turkey. It is fair for squirrels and
well suited for many songbirds, particularly
warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks,
opossums, raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Mammals Florida panther, mangrove fox
squirrel

* Birds crested caracara, Florida grasshopper
sparrow, southeastern American kestrel,
red-cockaded woodpecker, bald eagle, Florida
sandhill crane, burrowing owl, black-shouldered
kite

* Reptiles eastern indigo snake, gopher tortoise,
striped newt, Miami black-headed snake, mole
snake

* Plants yellow squirrel-banana, Florida bear
grass, wiregrass genetian, mock pennyroyal,
Edison's ascyrum, fall flowering ixia, Bartram's
ixia

Use of prescribed burning in conjunction with
roller chopping every 2 to 4 years will enhance
growth and development of desirable range plants
and improve the range condition. If range is
burned in February, cattle grazing should be de-
ferred for 60 days unless a rancher wants to utilize
wiregrass. Grazing of wiregrass should begin 3 to 5
weeks following a burn. Allow cattle to remove 50
percent of standing forage and then rotate to
another pasture.

Upland hardwood hammocks
Descriptions
This range site occurs on rolling terrain with
nearly level to strong slopes, well drained soil area
with a coarse texture surface, and fine textured
subsoils. It is recognized by the occurrence of thick
stands of shade tolerant hardwoods and few pines.
There is usually more organic material and litter
present than on drier sites.


Soils
The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping,
deep, somewhat poorly- to well-drained and coarse-
textured throughout or coarse-textured in the
upper part with moderately coarse-textured to
moderately fine-textured subsoils. Representative
soil series are: Blichton, Bonneau, Flemington, Fort
Meade, Gainesville, Hernando, Mabel, Millhopper,
Shubuta and Zuber.

Vegetation
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for a site in excellent condition ranges
from 2,500 to 4,500 Ib/A depending on growing








conditions. The relative percentages of annual
plant production by weight for this range site in
excellent condition are: grasses and grasslikes, 50
percent; woody plants and trees, 30 percent; and
forbs, 20 percent. Plants that characterize this site
are:

* Grasses and grasslikes low panicums,
switchgrass, lopsided indiangrass, chalky and
splitbeard bluestem, paspalums, curtis dropseed,
pinewood dropseed, broomsedge, and sedges,
spike and long-leaf uniola.

* Forbs grassleaf goldaster, deertongue,
partridgepea, pepperweed, phlox, brackenfern.

* Trees and shrubs laurel oak, live oak, water
oak, pine species, greenbriar, grapevine,
elderberry.

Grazing value
The soil's moisture holding capacity and natural
fertility is relatively high and good quality forages
can be produced. Annual plant production (air dry)
from all plant groups averages 3,500 lb/A on sites
in excellent range condition.

Suggested stocking rates are as follows:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 8 to 13 12 to 19 18 to 24 23+


Upland hardwood hammocks are valuable for
watershed protection.
Wildlife
Habitat is good for raccoons and opossums, poor
for bobwhite quail, dove and most amphibians, and
fair for reptiles.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Plants needle palm, auricled spleenwort, dwarf
spleenwort, sinkhole fern

Mammals Florida panther, Florida black bear


* Reptiles eastern indigo snake


Wetland hardwood range site


Description
This range site is forested and nearly level with
somewhat poorly to poorly drained soils.
Soils
Soils are nearly level, somewhat poorly drained,
and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces.
Representative soil series are: Aripeka, Coxville,
Herod, Matmon, Megget, Nutall, Oleno
Portsmouth, and Plumer.

Vegetation
In excellent condition, vegetation in this range
site is dominated by eastern gamagrass,
switchgrass, chalky bluestem, maidencane, blue
maidencane, and longleafuniola. When the site is
in poor or fair condition, vegetation consists of
dogfennel and carpetgrass. The relative percent-
ages of annual vegetative production by weight are:
grasses and grasslikes, 40 percent; woody trees and
shrubs, 40 percent; and forbs, 20 percent Plants
that characterize this site are:

* Grasses and grasslikes chalky, creeping, and
South Florida bluestems, Virginia wildrye,
longleafuniola, eastern gamagrass, beaked
panicums, pineland threeawn, low paspalums,
sedges, and rushes.

* Forbs devil's shoelace, perennial legumes,
partridgepea, brackenfern, rabbit tobacco,
annual forbs, and pepperweed.

* Trees and shrubs saw-palmetto, grapevine,
greenbriar, American beautyberry, dwarf
huckleberry, caesarbur, live oak, persimmon,
and St. John's-wort.









Grazing value
Annual plant production (air dry) from all plant
groups for this range site in excellent condition
ranges from 2,000 to 3,500 lb/A depending on
growing conditions. Suggested stocking rates are:

Range Condition Classes
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Acres/animal unit 4 to 7 6 to 12 11 to 16 15+


Wildlife

Wetland hardwood hammocks are among the
most productive and diverse wildlife habitats. This
range site is a good habitat for wild hogs, deer, tur-
key, black bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers, owls,
and furbearers. It is poor for quail and dove. It is
good for reptiles and amphibians, being moist most
of the year.

Endangered and threatened plants,
animals and species of special
concern
* Plants adder's tongue fern, spleenwort, climb-
ing dayflower, and cuplet fern.
* Mammals Florida black bear and Florida
panther.

Definitions of range terms
Animal unit a mature cow (1,000 Ibs),
pregnant or dry, or its equivalent.

Animal unit month (AUM) forage or feed
necessary to carry an animal unit for one month.
(760 lbs of air dried hay = 1 AUM)

Decreasers palatable range plants that
decrease or disappear in number under heavy
grazing. Also called desirable plants.

Forbs are not grasslike but are herbaceous and
have net-like veins in the leaves and leaves are
often broad. Annual or perennial though the top
growth usually dies back after one year. (Ex:
partridgepea)


Grasses plants with jointed stems that are
often hollow between the joints (nodes). Leaves are
in two rows on the stem and veins in the leaves are
parallel. (Ex: chalky bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass)

Grasslikes look like grasses but have solid
stems with no nodes on the stems. Veins on the
leaf are parallel as in true grasses. (Ex: sedges and
rushes)

Increasers range plants that increase in
number as decreaser plants are weakened and die.
Usually less palatable than the decreasers.

Invaders plants absent in undisturbed areas of
the original vegetation of a range site and invade or
increase following disturbance or over-grazing.

Range condition indicates how healthy a
range is. Measures the current species composition
and production as compared to what the range is
naturally capable of producing (climax vegetation).
Range in excellent condition has 76 percent or more
climax vegetation, good condition 51 to 75 percent,
fair condition 26 to 50 percent, and poor condition
less than 25 percent.

Range site rangeland with similar soils and
climate throughout that results in similar vegeta-
tion. These native areas provide grazing for cattle,
and different sites require different management.

Range trend measure of any definite change
in range condition (i.e., excellent to poor) and is an
indication of whether the range is improving,
deteriorating, or remaining about the same.

Shrub plants with persistent, woody stems
with the top growth living over from one year to the
next. Generally a low growth habit and produces
several basal shoots instead of a single bole. (Ex:
wax myrtle, saw-palmetto)

Soil series a subdivision of a family and
consists of soils that are similar in all major profile
characteristics.

Tree tall, woody plant usually with a single
trunk. Plant height of 20 feet or greater at
maturity.









Definitins of range terms
Grasses and grasslikes


Common Name


Genus and Species


Creeping bluestem Schizachyrium
stoloniferum
Chalky bluestem Andropogon capillipes
South Florida bluestem Schizachyrium
rhizomatus
Lopsided indiangrass Sorghastrum elliotii
Switchgrass Panicum virgatum
Toothachegrass Ctenium aromaticum
Wiregrass Aristida stricta
Panicums Panicum spp.
Sedges Cyperus spp.
Rushes Juncus spp.
Cutthroat grass Panicum abscissium
Maidencane Panicum hemitomon
Low panicums Panicum spp.
Paspalums Paspalum spp.
Saltmarsh windmillgrass Estachys glauca
Dropseed spp. Sporobolus spp.
Sawgrasses Cladiumjamaicense
Little blue maidencane Amphicarpum
muhlenbergianum
Clubhead cutgrass Leersia hexandra
American cupscale Sacciolepis striata
Purple bluestem Andropogon virginicus
var. glaucopsis
Broomsedge bluestem Andropogon virginicus
Smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora
Big cordgrass Spartina cynosuroides
Marshhay cordgrass Spartina patens
Seashore saltgrass Distichlis spicata
Seashore dropseed Sporobolus virginicus
Seashore paspalum Paspalum vaginatum
Shoregrass Monanthochloe litoralis
Whorted dropseed Sporobulus virginicus
Gulfdune paspalum Paspalum monostachyum
Beaked panicum Panicum anceps
Lovegrasses Eragrostis spp.
Sand cordgrass Spartina bakeri
Gulf muhly Muhlenbergia filipes
Bluejoint panicum Panicum tenerum
Sloughgrass Scleria spp.
Muhly spp. Muhlenbergia spp.
Splitbeard bluestem Andropogon ternarius
Curtis dropseed Sporobolus curtissii
Pinewood dropseed Sporobulusjunceus
Spikeleafuniola Chasmanthium laxum
Longleaf uniola Chasmanthium
sessiliflorum


Virginia wildrye
Eastern gamagrass
Low paspalums

Forbs
Common Name

Gayfeather
Deertongue
Grassleaf goldaster
Creeping beggarweed
Aeschynomene
Red root
Dogfennel
Spanish needles
Yellow-eyed grass
Pickerelweed
Pennyroyal
Smartweed
Dayflower
Marsh pink
Aster
Duck potato
Cattail
Rattlebox
Begger-ticks
Sensitive briar
Devil's shoelace
Partridge pea
Bracken fern
Sea purslane
Glasswort
Sea blite
Sea lavender

Lemon bacopa
Pepperweed
Phlox
Rabbit tobacco


Trees and shrubs
Common Names

Cabbage palm
Oak
Gallberry
Fetterbush
Saw-palmetto
Tarflower
Wax myrtle
Dwarf huckleberry
St. Johns-wort
South Florida slash pine


Elymus virgincus
Tripsacum dactyloides
Paspalum spp.


Genus and Species

Liatris gracillis
Trilisa odoratissima
Pityopsis graminifolia
Desmodium incanum
Aeschynomene spp.
Lachnanthes caroliniana
Eupatorium capillifolium
Bidens bipinnata
Xyris spp.
Pontederia cordata
Piloblephis rigida
Polygonum spp.
Commelina spp.
Sabatia spp.
Aster spp.
Sagittaria latifolia
Typha spp.
Crotalaria spp.
Bidens spp.
Schrankia spp.
Tephrosia spp.
Cassia spp.
Pteridium aquilinum
Sesuvium spp.
Salicornia spp.
Suaeda spp.
Limonium carolinianum
(common)
Bacopa caroliniana
Ampelopsis arborea
Phlox spp.
Gnaphalium spp. esp.
G. obtusifolium


Genus and Species

Sabal palmetto
Quercus spp.
llex glabra
Lyonia lucida
Serenoa repens
Befaria racemosa
Myrica cerifera
Vaccinium myrsinites
Hypericum spp.
Pinus elliottii var. densa









Greenbriar
Buttonbush

Willow
Cypress
Persimmon
Maple
Longleaf pine
Turkey oak
Gopher apple
Prickly pear
Live oak
Slash pine
Bushy seaoxeye
Black mangrove
Matrimony vine
Bigleaf sumpweed
Lynoia spp.
Stagger-bush

Fetterbush
Rusty


Smilax spp.
Cephalanthus
occidentalis
Salix spp.
Taxodium spp.
Diospyros virginiana
Acer spp.
Pinus palustris
Quercus laevis
Licania michauxii
Opuntia spp.
Quercus virginiana
Pinus elliottii
Borrichia spp.
Avicennia germinans
Lycium carolinianum
Iva frutescens

Lyonia ferruginea and
Lyonia mariana
Lyonia lucida
Lyonia ferruginea


Scrub cypress
Sea myrtle
Bulmelia spp.


Sumac
Poison sumac
Winged sumac
Laurel oak
Water oak
Grape vine
Elderberry
American beautyberry
Caesarbur


Taxodium distichum
Baccharis halimifolia
Bumelia lanuginosa
Bumelia tenax
Bumelia celastrina

Toxicodendron vernix
Rhus copallina
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus nigra
Vitis spp.
Sambucus spp.
Callicarpa americana
Urena lobata

















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES.JohnT.Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the UnitedStates Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Forida32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 3/92.




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