Group Title: Circular
Title: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00014478/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida citrus spray and dust schedule
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 13 v. : ; 23 cm. (folded)
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1974-197
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pests -- Control -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1967-197.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Citrus Commission Advisory Committee, 1967-1969; by the Florida Dept. of Citrus Advisory Committee, 1970-1973.
General Note: Description based on: 1976 edition.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014478
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6878
ltuf - AJE8131
oclc - 08265255
alephbibnum - 001735447
 Related Items
Preceded by: Better fruit program.
Succeeded by: Florida citrus spray guide.
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

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January 1974 Circular 393

FLORIDA CITRUS

SPRAY

AND DUST

SCHEDULE

111W74

Effective and Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals
in Citrus Production



Before using any pesticide:


Read the complete label
Read the Precautions in this
schedule

This program was compiled by the University of
Florida. lsitite.~nf ia &nces, and
U. S.,Departrltnt of rru Research
Service, .jtBJ~wyicetiC di rms|

F6r addition ip(rmratbn 'corsult your county Ex-
tensi n Director.

i...S. ilniv. of Florida|
Florida CooperatlextWExfM it S!eice
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesvllle







RESTRICTIONS ON PESTICIDE USE

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency or authorized state agen-
cies have approved labels for the pesticides mentioned in this Schedule,
prescribing conditions for their safe use, and establishing waiting periods
between application and harvest that will ensure the residues on fresh fruit
grown will not exceed the federally established tolerance. If used prehar-
vest, no limiting tolerances have been set for sulfur, copper, zinc, man-
ganese, and oil.
The following table is extracted from the EPA Compendium of Regis-
tered Pesticides as of December 1, 1973, and from registered state labels.


Dosage
Pesticide Lb. actual/acre


Waiting days (wd)
And other limitations
(see footnote)


Carzol SP 4.6$ 7 wd; registered for oranges, lemons,
grapefruit and tangerines
Chlorobenzilate 3.75 NTL
Comite 7.5 7 wd; registered only for oranges,
grapefruit and lemons. Do not
apply more than twice per year
Delnav 12.5 NTL; on lemon and lime do not apply
more than twice in 1 year; do not
make second application within
4 months after first
On other citrus do not reapply
within 3 months if fruit is present
during first application
Diazinon 10.0 21 wd
Difolatan 80.0 Do not apply when mature fruit is on
tree
Dimethoate 15 wd. when used at dosage of 0.5 Ib.
actual/100 gal. water. Regis-
tered for oranges, grapefruit,
tangerines and lemons; do not
apply during bloom period. Make
no more than 2 applications to
mature fruit
Ethion 10.0 30 wd; on grapefruit and orange only
7.5 21 wd; on lemon and lime; do not
apply more than once per
season
7.5 NTL; on grapefruit, orange, tangelo,
tangerine do not repeat within 90
days and do not apply more than
twice per season on tangerines
Ferbam 40.0 NTL
Guthion 7.5 28 wd; where 2 applications per
season; do not apply more than 2
times per fruit year
7 wd; where 1 application per season
Kelthane 8.0 7 wd
Lead arsenate 5.4 NTL; white grapefruit only, 1 to 6
weeks after bloom
2.6 NTL; pink and red grapefruit only, 1
to 6 weeks after bloom
Malathion 25.0 7 wd; do not apply during full bloom
Meta Systox-R 7 wd; do not apply more than twice
per season. Registered for
oranges, grapefruit, and lemons
Parathion 10.0 30 wd
4.0 14 wd
Phosphamidon 15.0 15 wd. Registered for only grapefruit,
lemon, orange and tangerine







Plictran 2.8 NTL; registered for oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines, lemons,
and limes only
Systox 2.5 21 wd; on orange, grapefruit and
lemon only
Torak 10.0 7 wd; do not apply more than twice a
year. Do not make a second
application within 3 months if
fruits were present on the tree at
the time of the first application
Trithion 5.0 30 wd
3.75 14 wd; 30 days required between
applications
2.5 NTL; 30 days required between
applications

tAll pesticides listed are registered for use on orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lime,
lemon, and tangelo unless otherwise noted in table.
(Carzol is limited to 4.6 Ib. per acre per year.
NTL= No time limitation; i.e., no waiting days required between last application and
harvest unless otherwise specified in table.


PRECAUTIONS

All precautions on the labels of pesticide containers should be read and
observed at all times with all pesticides.
Pesticides should not be discharged in or near the immediate vicinity of
any body of water. Furthermore, due care should be exercised by anyone
adding pesticides to spray tanks or other pesticide application equipment
to preclude contamination of any body of water.
Protective canopies should be placed on tractors pulling airblast
sprayers in order to minimize the hazards of spray drift to the operator.
Florida regulations require labels to carry instructions for decon-
tamination and disposal of empty containers of highly toxic pesticides.
Read and heed these instructions. Do not reuse containers.
Wash spray equipment daily to avoid hazardous accumulations.
All highly toxic pesticides should be kept in locked storage and never
be removed from the spray job.
Do not use pesticide chemicals where drift may be a hazard to the
public.
Waiting periods established by EPA (See Panel 1) should be observed
to ensure that the residue tolerances will not be exceeded. Additional
waiting periods intended to safeguard workers in sprayed groves may soon
be announced under authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.
Everyone responsible for grove operations should become thoroughly
familiar with the regulations when announced.
Special Precautions when Using Parathion, Guthion, Phosphamidon,
Systox, Torak, or Carzol.
1. When mixing and applying sprays, use a chemical cartridge res-
pirator approved for the specific pesticide, and wear protective clothing,
long sleeves, a washable rain hat, and natural rubber boots and gloves.
2. Start with clean clothing each day, and change if garments become
wet with spray. If a liquid formulation is spilled on garments, remove them
at once and take a bath. Take a thorough bath as soon as the work day is
finished.
3. Wash hands before eating or smoking.
4. Spray crews regularly using these materials should receive
cholinesterase tests before spraying begins and at 10-day intervals
thereafter.

OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION

This Schedule does not include descriptions of or recommendations
for control of all minor pests or pests occurring infrequently. See "Florida
Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases, and Nutritional Disorders"; Fla. Agr. Ext.

3






Cir. 137C, "Insects and Mites of Florida Citrus"; IFAS "Florida Insect
Control Guide"; and IFAS "Florida Plant Disease Control Guide"; quarterly
articles in "The Citrus Industry"; or consult your County Extension Direc-
tor.

PESTICIDE APPLICATION
Formulas in this schedule are for ground equipment only unless
otherwise specified.
For pesticides to be effective, thorough coverage of both inside and
outside foliage is essential. Although sulfur kills rust mite by fumigation as
well as by contact, all other recommended miticides and scalicides kill only
upon contact with the pest. Maximum control is possible only when sprays
contact the mites and scale insects by thoroughly wetting all fruit, leaf, and
twig surfaces before the pests can become numerous. Poor coverage
means poor control and costly failure.
Dilute sprays on mature citrus trees are greatly affected by insufficient
gallonage, poor distribution of spray, and increased ground speeds. Ma-
ture citrus trees of normal foliation require at least the height (in feet) of the
tree plus 5 gallons for adequate gallonage. Example: A 20-foot tree will
require 25 gallons. The sprayer should be nozzled to deliver two-thirds of
the volume of spray into the upper one-half of the tree. Airblast sprayers
should be pulled at 1 mph for maximum spray penetration. One mile per
hour is equivalent to 88 feet per minute.
Concentrate spray programs should be based on a dilute program that
has provided thorough coverage. Factors that make a concentrate spray
program successful include: (1) use only well-trained, competent spray
operators, (2) do not spray when the wind is above 8 mph in the grove, (3)
nozzle sprayer for two-thirds output in the upper one-half of the trees, (4)
reduce spray materials by 25% at 4X or higher concentrations to avoid
excessive residues, (5) do not exceed a ground speed of 1 mph, (6) use
concentrate oil sprays only upon recommendation of sprayer manufac-
turer, (7) shut sprayers off at the end of rows to avoid over-spraying, (8)
disconnect oscillators on dilute airblast machines at concentrations of 4X
or above.
Aerial applications are being made both commercially and
experimentally by helicopters and airplanes. Experimental data indicate
that citrus rust mites and aphids can be successfully controlled by aerial
applications, but scale insect control has not been demonstrated. The
following factors should be helpful in planning an aerial application: (1)
rates of material per acre should be equal to the quantity required for a
dilute spray (e.g. an acre requiring two 500-gallon tanks of dilute spray
should receive 2.5 pints of chlorobenzilate 4E), (2) materials should be
mixed with sufficient water to make 10 to 15 gallons of finished spray per
acre for mature groves and 5 to 10 gallons per acre in groves that require
one or less dilute tanks, (3) do not spray when wind is above 5 mph in the
grove, (4) spray only one row of trees per pass, (5) helicopter applications
are more effective at ground speeds of 20 to 25 mph between the tree rows,
(6) fixed wing aircraft should be operated at speeds specified by aircraft
manufacturers, and (7) use only materials having label approval for aerial
applications.

INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL
SCALES, MEALYBUGS, AND WHITEFLIES
Citrus snow scale is the only armored scale insect that can be regarded
as a serious pest of Florida citrus. Citrus snow scale generally attacks the
woody portions of the tree but can at times overflow onto fruit and leaves.
Two dilute sprays per year, preferably at postbloom and summer, are
recommended. Thoroughness of application is more important than
selection of a scalicide. Complete coverage of all wood is essential.
Glover (long) scale, chaff scale, yellow scale, purple scale, and Florida
red scale are present in most groves. However, populations of these in-
sects should remain quite low unless parasite activity is seriously retarded.
Postbloom and summer scalicide sprays are recommended to prevent

4







persistent green spots on tangerines and other early varieties intended for
the fresh fruit market.
Black scale, brown soft scale, and green scale are only serious in
groves where parasite activity is retarded.
Mealybugs can best be controlled by applying a recommended
scalicide before the fruit becomes infested. Scalicides applied after the
fruit has set will kill mealybugs that are exposed but not those that have
settled under the button.
Whitefly larvae often become numerous on the lower leaf surfaces in
March, June, and September. A postbloom spray applied after the adult
females have deposited their eggs and followed by a summer scalicide
application, provides the best control of whiteflies.
Sooty mold forms a black film on the upper surfaces of leaves and fruit.
It grows on excretions from whiteflies, black scale, brown soft scale,
mealybugs, and aphids. It is prevented by controlling these insects. Sprays
containing oil loosen sooty mold and aid its removal by rain and wind.

SCALICIDES
Oil.-Only oils with specific properties are now recommended for citrus.
These are designated FC 435-66 and FC 412-66. Growers should use only
oils which conform to those specifications. Spray oil meeting FC 435-66
specifications has the greatest pesticidal action without excessive adverse
effect on tree and fruit in mid-summer. It is intended for application in June
and July. Oil meeting FC 412-66 specifications is a lighter oil and has the
minimum adverse effect on tree and crop consistent with adequate pes-
ticidal effect. It is recommended for applications made after August or
where tree growth is less vigorous due to weather or season. Oil is applied
as an emulsion, diluted to a specified concentration of actual oil in the final
spray mixture. See Table II.
A 1% oil emulsion is effective for the control of Glover, purple, chaff,
yellow, Florida red, black, and brown soft scale. It also controls whiteflies
and protects against greasy spot. Lower concentrations are used for
spider mite control and for loosening sooty mold.
Precautions in the use of oil include: Do not apply oil spray when trees
are wilting or near wilting. Do not apply oil and sulfur within 3 weeks of
each other. Oil spray applied after October 1 may increase susceptibility of
trees to cold damage and may reduce the fruit crop the following year. Oil
sprays applied in the fall may inhibit solids formation in the juice and retard
coloring of fruit, and should not be applied within 60 days of anticipated
harvest.
Parathion is effective for the control of mealybugs and for Glover, chaff,
purple, yellow, Florida red, snow, black, and cottony cushion scale.
Parathion is only effective against black scale when applied in mid-May
when there is a peak hatch of crawlers. Do not use parathion for control of
brown soft scale. Parathion may be applied in any month. Normally, use 2.5
pt. of parathion 4 liquid* per 500 gal. See discussion under mealybugs.
Guthlon is effective for the control of black, yellow, snow, Florida red,
chaff, Glover, purple scale, mealybugs, and whitefly. Black scale is effec-
tively controlled with a postbloom application of Guthion. While Guthion
can be used in any month of the year, its use is restricted to 2 applications
per year to fruit. The recommended dosage is 5.0 pt. of Guthion LC 2
liquid* per 500 gal. See discussion under citrus rust mite, mealybugs, and
whitefly. Guthion should not be used in highly alkaline sprays.
Malathion is substantially less hazardous than parathion or Guthion
and may be used for the control of Glover, purple, yellow, red, snow, and
brown soft scale. Malathion may be applied in any month. Use 6.0 pt. of
malathion 5 liquid* per 500 gal. for light infestations, and 10.0 pt. for
moderate or heavy infestations. Use the higher rate for snow, Glover, and
yellow scale control.

* See Table III for other formulations. Whenever necessary, liquid formulations are
designated by numbers which are the pounds of active ingredient per gallon of for-
mulation. Thus parathion 4 liquid means a liquid formulation containing 4 Ib. of actual
parathion per gal.






Diazinon is also substantially less dangerous than parathion or
Guthion, and is recommended only for the control of citrus snow scale. Use
5.0 pt. of diazinon 4 liquid per 500 gal.
Dimethoate is also substantially less dangerous than parathion or
Guthion, and may be used for the control of Glover, purple, chaff, yellow,
and Florida red scales. Dimethoate is not effective against citrus snow
scale and black scale. Use 4.0 pt. of dimethoate 2.67 liquid per 500 gal.
Ethion or trithion at 3.75 pt. of the 4 liquid* is effective against citrus
snow scale when thoroughly applied as a dilute spray for mite control. See
discussion under "Miticides."
Parathion-Oil, Malathion-Oil, or Ethlon-Oil.-The combination of 0.5 to
0.7% oil with 1.25 pt. of parathion 4 liquid* or with 5.0 pt. of malathion 5
liquid*, or with 3.75 pt. ethion 4 liquid* (see Tables II and III) is excellent for
the combined control of spider mites and scale. See discussion of oil under
"Scalicides" and of ethion under "Miticides."

APHIDS
Aphids may occur in sufficient numbers to cause severe curling of new
foliage and stunting of twigs. While trees of all ages may be attacked,
control measures are generally warranted only for young trees or top-
worked trees since the proportion of new growth to old is much higher than
in mature trees. However, aphids should be controlled on Temple orange
trees of all ages.
Phosphamidon and dimethoate are highly toxic to honeybees and
should not be used when possibility exists of poisoning foraging
honeybees at time of treatment or within a few days thereafter. Meta Sys-
tox-R and Systox are moderately toxic to honeybees and should not be
applied directly on the bees at time of treatment. Late afternoon treatment
would avoid this hazard.

APHICIDES
Meta Systox-R 2 liquid at 5.0 pt. per 500 gallons or Systox 2 liquid at 5.0
pt. per 500 gallons will provide good control of aphids and may be used on
bearing trees.
Phosphamidon 8 liquid at 5.0 pt. per 500 gal. is an effective aphicide
and may be used on trees of all ages.
Dimethoate 2.67 liquid at 4.0 pt. per 500 gal. also is an effective
aphicide. See "Scalicide" section.

MITES AND THEIR CONTROL
Citrus Rust Mite.-Whether citrus is grown for the fresh fruit market or
for processing, rust mite should be controlled at all times to prevent rus-
seting of the fruit and excessive leaf drop. Periodic inspections of young as
well as old trees should be made throughout the year, including the rainy
season, as rust mite is not controlled by rain. During dry windy periods, rust
mite may cause leafdrop similar to that caused by spider mites.
Spider Mites (Red Spiders).-This group name includes the six-spotted
mite, the citrus red mite, and the Texas citrus mite. The six-spotted mite, a
spring pest, infests the underside of the leaves, causes yellow spotting,
distortion of leaves, and, in severe infestations, heavy leaf-drop. Six-spot-
ted mite can be controlled with any of the materials listed for citrus red mite
control. The citrus red mite and the Texas citrus mite feed on leaves, fruit,
and green twigs. Both mites cause a grayish sand-blasted appearance on
leaves. During periods of dry weather, heavy infestations may cause leaf-
drop and twig injury which, if occurring in the fall or early winter, results in
dead twigs. Throughout the winter, inspect twigs as well as leaves for
infestations on summer and fall growth.

MITICIDES
Chlorobenzllate is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4 lb. per
gal. It is effective against rust mite at 1.25 pt. per 500 gal. of spray, but is of

See Table III for other formulations.







little value against spider mites. Chlorobenzilate should not be used in
alkaline solutions.
Carzol SP is available as a 92% active water soluble powder. It is ef-
fective against citrus rust mite at 5 to 10 oz. per 500 gal. It may be used any
time rust mite control is needed. Carzol should not be used in alkaline
solutions.
Guthion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 2.0 Ib. per gal.
or as a 50% wettable powder. It is effective against citrus rust mite at the
dosage of 5.0 pt. of Guthion LC 2* per 500 gal. See discussion under
"Scalicides."
Sulfur applications often are followed by increases in citrus red mite
populations, and repeated applications or excessive amounts of sulfur
often are followed by increased populations of armored scales; however,
the dosage of 25.0 lb. of wettable sulfur per 500 gal. of spray is useful in the
postbloom spray and where supplemental rust mite control is needed
between the main sprays.
Do not use wettable sulfur in combination with oil emulsion. Any
application of sulfur should not be closer than 3 weeks to an oil application.
Sulfur dust users should note the following: Good coverage is just as
important in dusting as in spraying. Dust sites and tops of trees in two
directions, preferably when the air is calm and the leaves are covered with
dew. Night conditions usually are more favorable for dusting. Apply a total
of 0.5 to 1.5 Ib. per tree (depending on size) at each application.
Torak is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 lb. active ingredient
per gallon. It may be used at 4.0 pt. per 500 gal. to control rust mite and
spider mites in postbloom, or rust mite in summer sprays.
Trithion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4.0 Ib. or 8.0 Ib.
per gal., as a 25% powder, and as a 2% dust. Although Trithion sprays can
be used at any time, the preferred application is late fall and winter for
combined control of rust mite and spider mites. Use 2.5 pt. of the 4.0 lb.
material per 500 gal. of spray for this purpose, but increase the dosage to
3.75 pt. at other times. Trithion can be used with oil on oranges, but
Trithion may injure grapefruit if combined with oil in the summer or if
applied alone in the fall before the fruit is fully colored.
Ethion is available as a liquid concentrate containing 4.0 Ib. per gal. and
as a 25% powder. Its preferred use is in the late fall and winter for com-
bined control of spider mites and rust mite at the dosage of 2.5 pt. per 500
gal. of spray. Increase the dosage to 3.75 pt. at other times. When used at
3.75 pt. in combination with oil, it is an excellent summer spray for scale
insects, rust mite, and spider mites. See discussion under ethion-oil under
"Scalicides."
Delnav is available as liquid concentrate containing 8.0 Ib. per gal. Its
preferred use is for the combined control of rust mite and spider mites
during the late fall and winter. Use 2.0 pt. of 8.0 lb. material per 500 gal. of
spray.
Kelthane MF is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 4.0 Ib. per gal. It
can be used as a miticide at any time at a dosage of 5.0 pt. per 500 gal., but
is best used during the late fall and winter months for combined control of
rust mite and the spider mites. Kelthane should preferably be confined to
groves where ethion, Trithion, and Delnav no longer control the spider
mites. Kelthane should not be used in groves infested with snow scale
unless a scalicide is also included. Kelthane should not be used in highly
alkaline sprays.
Comite is available as a liquid concentrate containing 6.75 Ibs. active
Comite per gallon and is used at a dosage of 25 oz. per 500-gal. tank. Its
preferred use is during the late fall and winter for the combined control of
rust mite and spider mites. Comite should not be used in highly alkaline
solutions (over pH 10), tank mixed with oil, or applied within 2 weeks prior
to or following an oil treatment.
Oil is effective against spider mites at dosages of 0.5% and higher. See
discussion about scalicides.


* See Table III for other formulations.






Plictran is available as a 50% wettable powder and is effective against
citrus rust mite at a dosage of 20-30 ounces per 500 gallons. Do not tank
mix with oil. Do not apply oil within 4 weeks before or after application of
Plictran. Do not apply to lemons when yellow fruit is present. If possible,
time applications on citrus to avoid new flush or 'feather' growth,
especially with concentrate sprays, since temporary foliar injury may occur
on such growth.
Dimethoate is effective against citrus red mite at the rate suggested
under "Scalicides."

FUNGUS DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL

Melanose produces brownish, raised pustules on fruit, leaves, and
twigs of all varieties of citrus. A single copper spray containing 3.75 Ib. of
copper (metallic) per 500 gal. (see Table I) applied 1 to 3 weeks after
petal-fall usually controls melanose. Where the disease has been
troublesome in past years, or during very wet springs, or in the event of late
or scattered bloom, a second application should be made 4 weeks later.
See "Difolatan," below.
Scab, a wart-like growth on fruit, twigs, and leaves, may affect Temples,
Murcotts, Satsumas, grapefruit, tangelos, and lemons, particularly in
coastal and flatwoods areas. Either ferbam (at 7.5 Ib. of 76% wettable
powder or 6.0 Ib. of 95% wettable powder per 500 gal.) or copper (see
Table I) may be used. Two sprays must be applied, the first just before trees
begin to flush, and the second when 2/3 of the petals have fallen. Ferbam
is more effective than copper in the 2/3 petal-fall application. If scab is
likely to be severe, the copper concentration in the prebloom spray should
be 1.5 to 2.0 times that listed in Table I. Ferbam and copper should not be
mixed. See "Difolatan," below.
Where both melanose and scab control is necessary, use (1) ferbam
dormant and copper at 2/3 petal-fall if melanose is the primary disease, or
(2) copper dormant and ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall if scab is the primary
disease. For extra clean fruit, use copper dormant, ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall,
and copper at 2 to 3 weeks after bloom. Under conditions of high moisture,
summer and fall flushes may be protected by sprays applied when new
growth begins to appear.
Difolatan 4F at 4 to 5 gal. per 500 gal. may be used for scab and
melanose control in a single application as a delayed dormant spray in
groves where overhead irrigation is available to further distribute the fun-
gicide. Do not apply to mature fruit or postbloom to fresh market citrus, as
rind blemish, leaf burn, and premature defoliation may occur. Follow
directions on label carefully.
Greasy spot often causes serious premature defoliation during the fall
and winter. Infection occurs mostly in the summer, but symptoms do not
appear until 2 to 9 months later, the incubation period depending partly on
the variety affected. The greasy spot fungus also infects fruit rind, causing
specks to appear in areas between the oil glands. Living cells adjacent to
the specks retain a green color for longer than normal and such areas
often fail to respond to ethylene degreening treatment. On grapefruit, the
specks tend to be larger, giving rise to a condition that has been described
as "pink pitting." Rind infection is of economic importance only on fresh
market citrus.
Copper fungicides at 1.25 to 2.50 Ib. metallic copper per 500 gal. or oil
(FC 435-66 specifications) at 1.0%, applied in late June or July, will control
greasy spot on the spring flush and fruit rind and on any later flushes that
have grown out prior to spraying. Groves in which greasy spot is severe
may need an additional spray in August or September to control greasy
spot on the later flushes. Postbloom copper sprays applied for melanose
control also give some control of greasy spot on the spring flush, but they
are not as reliable as a June or July copper spray. Particularly on oranges,
copper sprays may blacken any existing corky areas on the rind and lead to
a further downgrading of fruit intended for the fresh market. To be weighed
against this possible disadvantage, is the fact that copper fungicides are
more effective than oil for greasy spot control when disease pressure is

8






heavy. Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surface is essential for sat-
isfactory greasy spot control.
Brown rot control can be obtained by spraying the lower 6 ft. of the tree
with neutral copper (1/2 the amount shown in Table I), applying the spray
around the middle of August in groves where the disease has been
troublesome in the past. Where brown rot is only an occasional problem,
spraying may be deferred until immediately after the first appearance of
affected fruit, when the entire tree should be sprayed. Chopping of cover
crops, hedging of trees, and pruning off low hanging branches will improve
ventilation and reduce the likelihood of infection.


PHYSIOLOGICAL SPRAYS

Nutritional Sprays.-Applications of zinc in nutritional sprays are
recommended wherever zinc deficiency symptoms appear. Spray
applications of manganese are recommended for any grove having per-
sistent manganese deficiency symptoms, and particularly for groves on
alkaline soils. Copper is recommended in nutritional sprays only where a
deficiency actually exists and when this element is not used in a disease
control program. Where boron deficiency is suspected, use 1.25 Ib. of
soluble borate containing 58 or 66% B.O, equivalent or 1.67 lb. of 46%
soluble borate per 500 gal. Sodium molybdate sprays at 5.0 to 10.0 oz. per
500 gal. are recommended to control yellow spot.
For additional information on nutritional sprays and fertilization, see
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C.
Maturity Sprays.-Lead arsenate is the only arsenical compound
cleared for use on grapefruit to reduce acidity. Use of arsenic on other
citrus is illegal. To avoid excessive phytotoxicity, arsenic should not be
applied to trees less than 7 years of age. The most effective use of arsenic
is obtained by spraying within 1 to 6 weeks after bloom. Use 2.0 to 6.25 lb.
of lead arsenate per 500 gal. for white varieties and 2.0 to 3.0 Ib. for pink
and red grapefruit. The lower amount is used for a high ratio of solids to
acids in mid-season, and the higher amount for a high ratio in the early
season. (See Sprays I, II, and III.)
Preharvest-Drop Control Sprays.-2,4-D is effective for reducing
preharvest drop of Pineapple, seedling oranges, and Temple oranges. For
further information, see the 1973 Spray and Dust Schedule.


CAREFULLY NOTE INSTRUCTIONS ON MANUFACTURER'S LABEL
ON ALL SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS


SCHEDULE

The main sprays in this program are the postbloom (I), summer (111),
and fall (V) sprays. These 3 will be adequate for most Florida groves. The
optional sprays are the spring citrus rust mite spray (II); the summer citrus
rust mite spray (IV); the dormant spray (VI) where mites and scab must be
controlled; and the delayed dormant (VII) for scab control. The grove
operator must check his trees regularly and be prepared to make
supplemental treatment If insect, mite, disease, or nutritional troubles are
not held under control.
I. Postbloom Sprays, March and April.
A. For melanose, scab, greasy spot, and rust mites-Use copper; plus
chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or wettable sulfur (Formula 1). Apply 1 to 3 weeks
after petal-fall for melanose control; or when 2/3 of the petals have fallen
for scab and melanose control. If scab is the primary disease, use ferbam
(Formula 11).
Supplements: For scale, mealybugs, and whitefly-Parathion or
malathion (Formula 1). For spider mites-Substitute Kelthane, ethion or
Trithion for chlorobenzilate or sulfur in Formula 1.
Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate (Formula 1).
Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 1).






B. For rust mite, spider mites, and scale-Use chlorobenzilate, or Car-
zol and oil (Formula 2), or ethion and oil (Formula 3); or Kelthane or
Trithion plus either parathion or malathion (Formula 4). Apply when mites
first appear.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only). (Formulas 2 or 4)
C. For rust mite, scale, mealybug, and whitefly-Use Guthion (Formula
5); or combinations of chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or sulfur, with either
parathion or malathion (Formula 6).
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only). (Formulas 5 or 6)


II. Between Postbloom and Summer Sprays, if necessary.
A. If rust mite appears before time for summer spray, use wettable
sulfur, or chlorobenzilate, or Carzol (Formula 7), or dust with sulfur.
Supplement: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 7).
Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 7).
B. For rust mite and spider mites-Use Kelthane, Trithion, ethion, or
Delnav (Formula 8).
Supplements: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 8).
For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 8).


II. Summer Spray, June through August.
A. For rust mite, greasy spot, and scale-Use (1) chlorobenzilate or
Carzol with oil (Formula 2), or ethion with oil (Formula 3); or (2)
chlorobenzilate or Carzol with either oil plus parathion or oil plus malathion
(Formula 2). Time application for rust mite control. For greasy spot control,
oil should be applied in July.
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 2).
B. For scale, rust mite, and greasy spot-Use Guthion (Formula 5); or a
combination of either parathion or malathion with either chlorobenzilate,
Carzol, or sulfur; plus copper (Formula 7).
Supplement: Maturity-Arsenic (on grapefruit only) (Formula 7).
C. For scab control on June bloom fruit-Use ferbam at 2/3 petal-fall
(Formula 11).


IV. Between Summer Spray and Fall Mite Spray, if necessary.
A. If rust mite becomes numerous before time for fall mite spray-Use
sulfur spray or dust, or chlorobenzilate or Carzol.
B. For scale and rust mite-Use Guthion (Formula 5) or combinations
of either parathion or malathion plus either chlorobenzilate, Carzol, or
sulfur (Formula 6, omitting lead arsenate).


V. Fall Mite Spray.
A. For spider mite control and rust mite control-Use Formula 9 in
September and October if population of spider mite is low. Formula 10 is
preferred in November and December. Do not use nutritional supplements
in the fall.
Supplement: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formulas 9 or 10).


VI. Dormant Spray, January or February (if needed).
A. For spider mites, rust mite, and scab-Use a combination miticide
for spider mite and rust mite; for scab, use a copper fungicide and apply
before any appreciable spring growth (Formula 10).
Supplements: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 10).
Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate (Formula 10).


VII. Delayed Dormant Spray.
A. For Scab-Use copper (Formula 10) or ferbam (Formula 11) when
pinpoint growth begins.
Supplements: For scale-Parathion or malathion (Formula 10).
Nutritional-Zinc, manganese, borate with copper (Formula 10).

10






SPRAY FORMULAS REFERRED TO IN SCHEDULE


,lead general instructions for further information on spray chemicals.)
Quantities of materials are for 500 gallons of dilute spray.
For concentrate spraying, see footnote*.


6 o
ormula 1


S Neutral coppers
Chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid
or Carzolt
r or wettable sulfur
SSupplements (if needed):
Zinc
Manganese
Borates (58-66% B20,)
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)
02 Parathion 4 liquid
Z or malathion 5 liquid

rC Kelthane MFt
or Trithion 4 liquid
or ethion 4 liquid




Formula 2

Chlorobenzilate 4 liquid
.or Carzolt
Oil (See Table II)
or oil (See Table II) plus
parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid
Supplement:
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)


Amount per 500 gal.

(See Table I)
1.25 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 to 10.0 oz.
25.0 lb.

(See Table I)
(See Table I)
1.25 lb.
2.0 to 6.25 Ib.

2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
III)
5.0 pt.
3.75 pt. (See Table III)
3.75 pt. (See Table III)




Amount per 500 gal.

1.25 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 to 10.0 oz.
1.0%
0.5 to 0.7%
1.25 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 pt. (See Table III)

2.0 to 6.25 lb.


Formula 3

Oil (See Table II)
plus ethion 4 liquid
Supplement (if needed):
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)


Formula 4

Kelthane MF
or Trithion 4 liquid
or ethion 4 liquid
or Delnav 8 liquid
Parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid


Amount per 500 gal.

0.5 to 0.7%
3.75 pt. (See Table III)

2.0 to 6.25 lb.


Amount per 500 gal.

5.0 pt.
3.75 pt. (See Table III)
3.75 pt. (See Table III)
2.0 pt.
2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
Ill)







Supplement:
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)




Formula 5

Guthiont LC
Supplements (if needed):
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)
Neutral coppers


2.0 to 6.25 lb.


Amount per 500 gal.

5.0 pt. (See Table III)

2.0 to 6.25 lb.

(See Table I)


Formula 6 Amount per 500 gal.

Chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table III)
or Carzolt 5.0 to 10.0 oz.
or wettable sulfur 25.0 lb.
Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III)
or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
IIl)
Supplement (if needed):
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit 2.0 to 6.25 Ib.
only)


Formula 7

Parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid

Chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid
or Carzolt
or wettable sulfur
or neutral coppers-Use 1/2 amount shown
In Table I
Supplement:
Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)


Formula 8


Kelthane MFt
or Trithion 4 liquid
or ethion 4 liquid
or Delnav 8 liquid
Supplements (if needed):
Parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid

Lead arsenate** (grapefruit
only)



Formula 9

Chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid
or Carzolt
Supplements (if needed):
Parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid


Amount per 500 gal.

2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
Ill)
1.25 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 to 10.0 oz.
25.0 Ib.




2.0 to 6.25 lb.




Amount per 500 gal.

5.0 pt.
3.75 pt. (See Table III)
3.75 pt. (See Table III)
2.0 pt.

2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
III)
2.0 to 6.25 lb.




Amount per 500 gal.

1.25 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 to 10.0 oz.

2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
III)







Formula 10

Trithion 4 liquid
or ethion 4 liquid
or Kelthane MFt
or Delnav 8 liquid
Supplements (if needed):
Neutral coppers
Parathion 4 liquid
or malathion 5 liquid

Zinc
Manganese
Borates (58-66% BO,)


Amount per 500 gal.

2.5 pt. (See Table III)
2.5 pt. (See Table III)
5.0 pt.
2.0 pt.

(See Table I)
2.5 pt. (See Table III)
6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
III)
(See Table I)
(See Table I)
1.25 lb.


Formula 11 Amount per 500 gal.

Ferbam 7.5 lb.
Supplements (if needed):
Wettable sulfur 25.0 lb.
or chlorobenzilatet 4 liquid 1.25 pt. (See Table ll)
or Carzolf 5.0 to 10.0 oz.
Parathion 4 liquid 2.5 pt. (See Table III)
or malathion 5 liquid 6.0 to 10.0 pt. (See Table
III)


*Most materials except oil and borax can be applied as concentrate mixtures. Con-
centrations of 6 times usually give good control at 1/8 dilute gallonage.
**For pink or red grapefruit, see note under Physiological Sprays.
tDo not use Guthion, Kelthane MF, chlorobenzilate, Comite or Carzol in highly alkaline
sprays.


USEFUL TABLES FOR MIXING SPRAY FORMULAS


TABLE 1. POUNDS OF COPPER, ZINC, AND MANGANESE COMPOUNDS
TO EQUAL THE STANDARD DOSAGEt PER 500 GAL. OF WATER:.

Metallic content shown on label (%)

34-36 48 52-56 75 80 85-90

Copper 11.0 8.5 7.0 5.0 4.5
Zinc 10.0 7.0 -
Manganese 8.5 6.5 4.5 -


tThe standard dosage required to correct deficiencies, based on the metal content per
500 gal. is 3.75 Ib. for copper, 5.0 Ib. for zinc, and 3.75 Ib. for manganese.
tFor concentrate sprays, multiply the pounds required by 0.75.
For information on use of soluble sulfates, see Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C.


TABLE II. GALLONS OF OIL CONCENTRATES TO USE
FOR EACH 500 GAL. OF SPRAY


If % oil in the stock is and the percentage oil desired
in the spray tank is

0.5% 0.7% 1.0% 1.3%

97+ 2.55 3.55 5.10 6.60
90-92 2.75 3.85 5.50 7.15
83-84 3.00 4.20 6.00 7.80








TABLE III. EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF LIQUID AND POWDER
FORMULATIONS OF PESTICIDES

Formulations

Pesticide Wettable Powders Liquids
Percent active ingredient Pounds active Ingredient per gall
15 25 50 2 4 5 6 I

Pounds per 500 gal. Pints per 500 gal.
Parathion 4 2.5 2.5 1.25 0.625
5 3.0 3.0 1.5 0.75
8.5 5.0 5.0 2.5 1.25
Malathion 15.0 6.0 3.75
25.0 10.0 6.25
Ethion 5.0t 2.5t
7.5 3.75
Trithion 5.0t 2.5t 1.25
7.5 3.75 1.875
Guthion 2.50 5.0
Systox 5.0 1.67


tFor fall and winter use only.


THIS PUBLIC DOCUMENT WAS PROMULGATED AT AN
ANNUAL COST OF $1,191.49 OR A COST OF $.048 PER
COPY FOR THE PURPOSE OF ADVISING CITRUS
GROWERS ABOUT RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR
CONTROL OF PESTS ATTACKING CITRUS.


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