DOCUMENT --Circular 759
S Natural Regeneration,
?, Direct Seeding
~Florida Cooperative Extension Service
SInstitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
SUniversity of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
Planning for regeneration begins with the landowner examining the land to be regenerated and then
defining the objectives for regeneration and management. This circular assumes that the landowner has
decided to have trees on a parcel of land, and it then provides three major alternatives for regeneration:
1) natural regeneration, and two methods of artificial regeneration, 1) direct seeding, and 2) planting.
Natural regeneration relies upon older pines left on the site to provide seed for new trees on the
regeneration site; these seed trees are then removed after a young stand of trees becomes established.
In direct seeding, the landowner sows seed on the land; these seed then germinate and a forest stand
results. The majority of sites in the South are planted with seedlings which have been grown at forest
tree nurseries, are lifted and sold to the landowner, and then are planted either by hand or machine on
the regeneration site. After weighing the advantages and disadvantages of these three regeneration
methods, the landowner can then select the method which best fits the specific site, objectives, and
Natural Regeneration 1
Direct Seeding 3
Where to direct seed 4
Assessing Success of Your Plantation 8
Literature Cited 10
Credits : Editor, Sally Knox. Graphic Design and Illustration, Ralph Knudsen
FOREST REGENERATION METHODS:
NATURAL REGENERATION, DIRECT SEEDING AND PLANTING
Mary L. Duryea*
Planning for regeneration begins with the land-
owner examining the land and then defining the
objectives for regeneration and management. Some
questions to ask concerning a parcel of land include:
* Do trees on the land need to be harvested first or
has the land already been harvested?
* Has the land been examined to see if the site has
been regenerated naturally?
* Will the present vegetation on the site be detri-
mental to small trees, by competing for water,
sunlight, or nutrients? (If the answer is yes,
some control of the vegetation may be desirable.)
* What is the soil like? Is the site: wet? dry? shal-
low? deep? (This will help in the selection of
species as well as determine whether the site will
be difficult to regenerate.)
In order to select specific practices for your
particular site and answer many of these questions,
it is helpful to consult a professional forester,
experienced in regeneration.
Setting objectives for a parcel of land means
making decisions about the present and future
management schemes. What are the reasons for
wanting a forest on the site? Would planting trees
be for: 1) aesthetic reasons, 2) providing future
income in 20, 30, or 40 years, 3) restoring marginal
or unused cropland, or 4) promoting wildlife? Many
more reasons for planting trees exist; many are
compatible with each other, such as wanting an
income and aesthetics.
Finally, some of the most important questions may
* How much will regeneration of this parcel of land
* Am I eligible for one of the cost sharing programs
such as the Forestry Incentives Program (FIP)?
Information on these programs can be obtained
from your county extension agent or county
forester, or the Agricultural Stabilization and
Conservation Service (ASCS) office.
* What will my rate of return on the forestry
investment be? (For ways to assess your forestry
investment see IFAS Circular 592, A Guide to
Comparing Returns From Forestry Investments to
Annual Crops, Eason and Flinchum 1984.)
This circular assumes that the landowner wants to
have trees on a parcel of land. It then provides
three major alternatives for getting the trees on the
land: natural regeneration and two kinds of artificial
regeneration: direct seeding and planting seedlings.
The landowner can then select the method that best
fits the specific site, objectives, and economic
Natural regeneration relies on older pine trees left
on the land to provide seed to regenerate the site.
This practice can only be employed if the site has
not yet been harvested. Plans are then made for
harvesting the present forest stand and leaving some
trees to provide the seed.
Pine stands, however, grow best where all trees
are of the same age and receive the same amount of
sunlight and so once the seedlings are established
the large seed trees must be removed. For more
information, some excellent articles describe the
process of natural regeneration (Williston and Balmer
1974, Boyer 1978, Lohrey and Jones 1983).
1. Selecting the seed trees. Before the site is
logged, seed trees must be selected and marked
with paint. Selection means choosing the
best-looking trees for seed trees -- trees which
are the straightest and tallest and have large
crowns (lots of green needles) and no disease.
The number to leave on the site will vary
according to species (Table 1). More seed
trees are required for longleaf pine because it is
not a prolific seed producer and its large seeds
are often eaten by animals (Williston and Balmer
1974). Trees should be well-spaced over the site
to allow even distribution of seed.
2. Planning for a good seed crop. The frequency of
good seed crops varies from year to year and
species to species (Table 1). To insure successful
natural regeneration, the site should be logged
just prior to a good seed crop. You can observe
the seed crop by looking through binoculars in
the spring or early summer and counting cones to
determine the crop for the fall or looking at
* Assistant Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Gaines-
conelets to predict next year's crop (Figure 1).
Conelets resemble small pink or light green cones
and are located near the ends of the branches;
cones are green and are located further in on the
branches. Both conelets and cones are in the top
2/3 of the tree crown.
3. Logging. The landowner should supervise the
logging operation especially to insure that the
seed trees are not damaged by the logging.
Damaged trees may die or not produce a good
4. Preparing the site. The site must be prepared to
first incorporate the forest litter (organic matter)
and then expose mineral soil -- seeds need soil to
germinate and grow. Some site preparation
options are to burn, mechanically scarify, and/or
spray with herbicides (see Fact Sheet FOR-37,
Site Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Es-
tablishment, Jack et al 1984). The soil needs to be
exposed prior to October, when most seeds fall
from the trees. Sometimes the logging operation
is enough of a disturbance to expose the soil.
However, the completeness and intensity of the
site preparation may improve seedling estab-
lishment especially during periods of poor seed
crop or drought (Lohrey and Jones 1983).
5. Logging the remaining trees. When an adequate
seedling stand is established and about 1-2 years
old, the seed trees should be harvested (Boyer
1979). If you wait too long, seed trees will
affect the growth of the seedlings and logging
may damage the seedlings.
6. Controlling unwanted vegetation. Shrubs, small
trees, and herbaceous vegetation will compete
with small seedlings for nutrients, water, and
sunlight causing mortality or slower growth. For
the first few years, the planting site should be
observed to see if this unwanted vegetation is
affecting seedling growth and survival and
measures should be taken to control the weeds.
Chemical control, hand-cutting, and mowing are
three possible methods of control.
Table 1. Minimum number of seed trees to leave for natural
regeneration and the frequency of seed crops for each pine
species (seed tree numbers adapted from Williston and Balmer
Pine Number of seed trees to leave Frequency of
species per acre by diameter of trees seed crop (yrs)
10 12 14 16+
Slash 12 9 6 4 Every 3 years
Loblolly 12 9 6 4 Every 1-3 years
Longleaf 55 38 28 21 Every 3-5 years
Conelet ., ,
Figure 1. A pine branch showing both a) conelets
which can be used to predict next year's seed crop
and b) cones which can be used to predict the
present year's seed crop.
* The initial costs of establishing a forest stand may
be lower especially if site preparation is not
* Less heavy equipment and labor is required.
* The seedling has a naturally shaped root system
unlike seedlings which have been grown in a
* Chance of tip moth damage is reduced (Beaufait
and others 1984).
* For aesthetic reasons, the landowner may prefer to
see a forest stand which is unevenly and naturally
spaced versus a stand which is in rows.
A seed crop must be available and seed dispersal
must be timed correctly with site preparation so
that a suitable seedbed is available for the seed
Moisture in the soil is necessary for the seeds to
germinate; exceptionally dry years or sites may
result in poor germination or seedling mortality.
Insects and other small seed-eating animals may
consume all or most of the seed.
Competing vegetation may be a problem for
survival and growth for a longer time period than
with planting because seedlings are smaller or
seed may not be disseminated in the first year.
* If the seed is abundant and a dense stand results,
a pre-commercial thinning may be necessary to
decrease the number of trees per acre. For
example, if there are more than 2000 slash pine
seedlings at age three, growth may be inhibited
and the site will require pre-commercial thinning
700-1000 trees per acre. This thinning may be
accomplished by hand-cutting or plowing up rows
of seedlings and leaving the remaining rows about
10-12 feet apart.
* Because the site is planted with seed versus
1-year-old seedlings, the rotation length (time until
harvest) may be increased by one or more years.
* The seed coming from the seed trees is not
genetically improved as when the seed comes from
a seed orchard.
* Natural regeneration may be less expensive initially
but more costly in the long run if it is necessary
to prepare the site or precommercially thin.
* Open sites without trees such as clearcuts,
abandoned fields, and stands after a wildfire or
windstorm cannot be naturally regenerated.
m The landowner does not have any control over
spacing between trees or stocking levels and so
often these can be very uneven.
* A successfully regenerated site may take longer to
reach harvest than with direct seeding or planting.
Direct seeding means that the landowner applies
seeds directly to the land; these seeds then ger-
minate and a forest stand results. A lot of the
principles for site conditions and site preparation are
the same as with natural regeneration but, in
addition, a known amount of seed is used. Direct
seeding is often employed on poor or inaccessible
sites or where little initial involvement is possible or
desirable. Sites which are drought or have high
erosion potential should be avoided. Three reviews
give detailed information on direct seeding (Lohrey
and Jones 1983, Williston and Balmer 1983, Beaufait
and others 1984).
1. Harvesting and preparing the site. First, the
present stand must be harvested and the site
prepared to create a mineral soil seedbed. Again,
as in natural regeneration, the options for site
preparation are burning, mechanically scarifying,
and/or spraying with herbicides (Jack et al.
2. Obtaining seed. Seed with greater than 85%
viability and with a minimum of 95% sound seed
should be used. After receiving seed, it should
be stored immediately in a refrigerator at 34-36F
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
3. Sowing rates. The amount of seed required will
vary according to species, method of sowing,
degree of site preparation, and general ease of
regeneration of the site. For instance, in an area
where summer showers are frequent and survival
is good, 0.6 lb/acre is adequate for slash pine.
However, in drier areas 1 lb/acre for broadcast
sowing, 0.75 lb/acre for row seeding on a disked
bed, and 0.5 lb/acre for spot seeding may be
required for adequate regeneration (Lohrey and
Jones 1983). In general for each species there is
an average amount of seed which is needed
Table 3. Amount of seed needed to direct seed an acre of
land and the approximate number of seeds per pound.
Iine Lbs of seed Approximate
Species needed per acre* number of
seeds per Ib**
Loblolly 0.5 18,200
Slash 0.6 13,500
Longleaf 2.5 4,900
Sand 0.6 75,000
*(Williston and Balmer 1983)
4. Treating seed. Seed is often treated with a
repellent for seed-eating insects, birds, and
mammals which will otherwise consume the entire
seed crop. The most common repellent for birds
is Thiram. Endrin, which has been used to repel
rodents is no longer available as a repellent. If a
substitute cannot be found, predation will be an
even bigger problem for direct seeding.
Loblolly and sand pine seed also needs to be
stratified, a process which subjects water-soaked
seed to cold temperatures for 20-60 days accor-
ding to species and improves its chance of
Stratified and repellent-treated seed can be
purchased from most commercial seed companies.
The repellent and stratification treatments each
increase the weight of seed by about 10% and 25%
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
5. Date of sowing. Longleaf and sand pine seed
should be sown in the fall when soil moisture is
high from rains. Longleaf pine appears to nat-
urally regenerate better in the panhandle than
the peninsula of Florida, perhaps due to the
wetter climate in the fall and winter.
Loblolly and slash seed should be sown in the
spring when freezing temperatures have past,
soil moisture is adequate, and daily temperatures
are warm enough for germination (Williston and
Balmer 1983). Seeds most often germinate in 2-4
weeks and begin growth before the hot dry
6. Methods of Sowing. There are many methods
used to sow seed (Figure 2). Large tracts of
land (>500 acres) are often broadcast sown
aerially by airplanes or helicopters. This method
is fastest and has the most accurate and complete
Another method for large tracts of land uses
row-seeding machines, which 1) plow a narrow
furrow or strip, 2) meter out a specified amount
of seed, and 3) pack the seed into the soil with
packing wheels (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston
and Balmer 1983).
Two methods for small tracts of land include
hand-sowing and spot-seeding. To hand sow,
hand-cranked seeders, with a metering device, are
most useful. One person can sow 15 acres in a
day (Lohrey and Jones 1983; Williston and Balmer
1983). Seed can also be sown on hand-raked
spots, approximately 2 feet in diameter and spaced
about 8 x 8 feet Six to eight seeds are pressed
1/2" into the soil at each spot (Lohrey and Jones
1983); 2-4 acres can be sown in one day using
this method. A small group of landowners can
also share the cost of a helicopter or airplane if
aerial seeding is preferred.
Where to direct seed
Direct seeding is often not successful on dry,
upland sands or coarse sandy soils where the soil
dries out too rapidly and moisture is unavailable for
the seeds to germinate. On these sites, germination
is enhanced if the seed is covered with soil (about
1/2") (Williston and Balmer 1983). In contrast, on
poorly drained sites where seeds or seedlings may be
flooded for more than 1-2 weeks, direct seeding may
not be successful. Also, on sites where heavy
grazing is present, survival may not be good because
animals will trample small seedlings. On sloped sites,
direct seeding followed by heavy rains may result in
seed being washed away (Williston and Balmer 1983).
Sites with heavy grass may have to be disked or
harrowed before direct seeding (Derr and Mann 1971;
Lohrey and Jones 1983). Sites with frost problems
or intense radiation should also be avoided (Wenger
Direct seeding may be used on small or large land
areas where natural regeneration or planting cannot
be applied. Natural regeneration may be impossible
because of the lack of trees as a seed source.
Planting may be difficult or expensive where terrain
is inaccessible or soil conditions make planting
difficult (Lohrey and Jones 1983).
* Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding
allows the introduction of new species or seed
* Compared to natural regeneration, direct seeding
enables better control over seed quantity, quality,
and distribution over the site (Lohrey and Jones
* Direct seeding has a lower initial cost than
planting (1/3 to 1/2 the cost of planting).
* Direct seeding can be employed on sites with
difficult access, or sometimes poor drainage
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
a Direct seeding may be more flexible than planting
-- for instance, when a forest fire or other
natural disaster occurs, it is often easier to obtain
seed rather than seedlings (Williston and Balmer
a Sometimes with improper planting, a "J" or "L"
shaped root system will result on the planted
seedling but with seeding a more natural, undis-
turbed root system develops.
a For aesthetic reasons, some people might prefer
seeing trees randomly spaced on a site instead of
* Because of bird and mammal problems, it is
necessary to treat the seed with repellents and
these repellents may not be available.
* Sometimes site preparation is more necessary than
with planting because of the requirements for
exposed mineral soil.
a Direct seeding requires more skill than planting to
do it right; the landowner is advised to seek help
from a forester experienced in direct seeding
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
* There are many sites where direct seeding is not
suitable (see section on where to direct seed).
* Relative to planting, there is less control over
spacing and stocking; thus, pre-commercial thin-
ning may be necessary to reduce the number of
trees per acre and establish even spacing between
Figure 2. Three common methods of direct seeding include a) aerial seeding with a helicopter, b) hand-
sowing with a hand-cranked seeder, and c) spot-seeding on raked spots.
m Because the forest stand is started with seed
instead of one-year-old seedlings, rotations may be
at least one or more years longer because of the
loss in growth.
* Also, because the direct-seeded seedlings are one
year younger, it may be necessary to control
competing vegetation for a longer period of time
to insure successful survival and growth.
* The irregularly spaced stands which often result
from direct seeding are not well suited for access
by mechanical harvesting and fire equipment
(Williston and Balmer 1983).
* And finally, compared to planting, direct seeding
generally results in lower yields of timber (Willis-
ton and Balmer 1983).
The majority of sites which are regenerated with
pine in the South are planted with seedlings.
Seedlings are grown at and purchased from forest
tree nurseries. Although mainly bareroot seedlings
are planted, each year there is a slightly increased
number of containerized seedlings available for
planting, especially longleaf pine seedlings.
Seedlings are lifted at the nursery and planted
during the late fall and winter months. Care and
handling of lifted bareroot seedlings are extremely
important to planting success. If seedlings are
stored, they should be stored at cool temperatures
(33-35*F). Otherwise, they should be planted im-
mediately. Planting is accomplished either by hand
or mechanically. Two excellent publications on
planting are "Tree Planter's Guide" (Division of
Forestry 1983) and "Guide for Planting Southern
Pines" by Balmer and Williston 1974.
1. Species and stock selection. Selecting the species
to be planted can be a complex process but a
good rule of thumb for Florida is 1) on poorly
drained sites, plant slash pine, 2) on moderately
drained sites, plant slash or loblolly pine, and 3)
on dry sites, plant longleaf or sand pine. Using
genetically improved stock will insure better
growth and improved disease resistance. A
professional forester familiar with local condi-
tions could assist in choosing the proper species.
2. Site preparation. The purposes of site prepar-
ation are: 1) to clear away logging slash and
vegetation and create enough spots to plant
seedlings if they are to be hand-planted; 2) to
clear away logging slash and vegetation which
will be obstacles for machine planting; 3) to
incorporate organic matter into the soil; and 4) to
reduce the levels of unwanted weeds which will
compete with tree seedlings for water, light, and
The three major site preparation methods
include the use of 1) fire or prescribed burning,
2)mechanical methods such as chopping, disking,
shearing, and bedding, and 3) chemical herbicides.
For detailed information on these site preparation
methods see IFAS Fact Sheet FOR-37, Site
Preparation: Alternatives for Plantation Establish-
ment, Jack et al 1984.
3. Care and handling before planting. SEEDLINGS
ARE PERISHABLE. Realizing that seedlings
require special care when they are out of their
natural environment, will insure success in
regenerating your site. Successful survival and
growth depend on the care taken during storage,
transportation, and planting.
Seedlings should be picked up immediately after
they are lifted at the nursery. If necessary, they
can be stored at cool temperatures (33-35"F) for
1-2 weeks. If cold storage facilities are not
available, seedlings should be stored in the shade
(with good air circulation), kept moist, and
planted as soon as possible. Sand pine and
longleaf pine seedlings should not be stored but
should be planted immediately (within a week)
The best way to transport seedlings is in a
cooler or refrigerated vehicle. If this is not
possible, they should be transported in covered
vehicles and arranged so that air circulates among
the bales or bags. Transporting in open trucks
can cause excessive drying. Also, when seedlings
get too warm they may dry out or use up their
food reserves and die. If possible transport
seedlings at night in canopy-covered trucks.
4. Care during and after planting. The main con-
sideration during planting is protection of the
seedlings, especially the root systems. Seedling
roots should not be allowed to dry; putting
seedlings in buckets of water or covering them
with wet burlap will protect them until they are
in the ground. For-large acreages a planting bag
to hold seedlings is efficient and will protect the
roots if the seedlings are planted quickly and not
left in the bag for a long period (Figure 3).
When planting, it may be helpful to leave a
depression around the seedling to catch water.
Of course, if feasible, watering after planting will
-, -"- |5. Spacing. Usually about 500-800 seedlings are
SI lV planted per acre for a pulpwood plantation.
,The rows on the planting site are most often 10
to 12 feet apart and seedlings are planted 5 to 8
.^ ffeet apart within the row. A 6 x 10 foot
-I- -i spacing will have 726 trees per acre (43,560 ft
i /acre : 60 ft/tree = 726 trees per acre).
i 6. Planting. Seedlings are either hand-planted or
i machine-planted. A two person hand planting
Screw can plant 1000-2000 seedlings per day. When
machine planting, two people can plant about
i 8000-10,000 seedlings per day.
Various tools are commonly used for hand
planting (Figure 4). The hole is made and the
tree is inserted with the root collar slightly below
the ground line (Figure 5). The soil is then
firmly packed around the seedling to avoid air
A small tractor and a mechanical planter are
used for machine planting (Figure 6). Before
planting begins, the following should be checked:
1) the planter must make a furrow deep enough
Sfor the entire root system, 2) spacing should be
checked and regulated to insure desired spacing
between each planted seedling, and 3) depth of
Figure 3. Tree planter loads a planting bag with trees planting should be checked; seedlings should be
which have been dipped in a bucket of water, planted at or just below the root collar. During
planting seedlings should be checked to make
sure: 1) that they are planted at the proper
D depth, 2) that they are planted straight up and
B that the roots are straight in the hole, and 3)
that the seedlings are firmly packed in the hole.
SC To check the latter, grab the top needles of the
seedling and firmly pull upward; if the seedling is
too loosely planted, it will come out of the soil.
Successful survival is more likely with planting
compared to natural regeneration and direct
m An evenly spaced plantation is more likely to
result from planting, and therefore a plantation
established from planted seedlings has better
growth and is easier for future harvesting opera-
a Planted seedlings will grow faster initially than
L seedlings from seed. Thus, planted seedlings will
more effectively compete with unwanted grasses,
herbs, and shrubs for moisture, nutrients, and
Figure 4. Commonly used tools for hand planting light.
are a) hoedads, (two shown) b) planting bars (two a With planting, wood yields are generally better
shown), c) dibbles for containerized seedlings (one than with seeded stands and the length of the
shown), and d) shovels (one shown), rotation is shorter (meaning an earlier harvest).
Figure 5. Steps for hand-planting pine seedlings.
1. Insert dibble or bar into soil at angle shown and
push forward to upright position.
2. Remove dibble or bar and place seedling in hole
with root collar just below ground line.
3. Insert dibble or bar about 1/2 way and pull handle
towards you to close hole at the bottom.
4. Push handle to close hole and firm soil at the top
of the seedling's roots.
5. Fill in last hole with heel.
6. Firm soil around seedling using hands or feet and
being careful not to damage seedling.
* Initial costs may be higher than for natural
regeneration and direct seeding.
* The planting site may be inaccessible to planting
machines or crews.
* Distortions of the root system such as "L" or "J"
shaped roots may result if care is not taken.
* Close attention to seedling care and handling is
critical; poor survival and growth may result if
seedlings are mistreated.
Assessing Success of Your Plantation
To assess the success of your regeneration efforts,
it is necessary to check survival of the seedlings.
One year after planting, seeding, or natural regen-
eration has occurred, is a good time for assessment.
A number of plots should be taken over the entire
planting site to get an idea of success over the
entire site (Table 2). Establish 1/100th acre circular
plots on each acre by randomly selecting a spot
within the acre and then anchoring an 11.78-foot
rope down at this spot. Next walk in a circle
counting the number of live seedlings in the plot.
Calculate the average number of seedlings on these
plots and then multiply times 100 to determine the
number per acre. If there are 300 or more surviving
seedlings per acre on the site and these seedlings
are well distributed, a replant is not necessary. If
Figure 6. Machine planting of southern pine seedlings.
there are fewer than 300 per acre, then a decision
must be made whether to replant or not. If the
surviving seedlings are not well-distributed on the
planting site, then a replant may be necessary in the
understocked areas (Williston and Balmer 1983). For
direct seeding and natural regeneration, success
should be assessed for at least two years because the
seedlings are so small that they are hard to see and
also because mortality of these small seedlings is
Table 2. Calculations for determining the number of live seedlings per acre and survival percentage on a parcel of land
which has been regenerated. A) This is an example of the data collected from a 21-acre parcel of land; one 1/100-acre
plot was sampled on each acre for a total of 21 plots. B) Using the data collected and these formulas, we can then
estimate the number of live seedlings per acre. C) Using the estimated number of live seedlings per acre and the number
of seedlings planted, we can estimate survival.
A) Example of data collected from 21 plots on a 21-acre parcel of land.
Plot # Number of live Plot # Number of live
---- ---------- ---- ----------
1 6 8 0
2 3 9 5
3 5 10 7
4 5 11 3
5 7 12 9
6 8 13 6
7 4 14 5
Subtotal: 38 Subtotal: 35
Plot # Number of live
Total: 38 + 35 + 41 = 114 live seedlings on the 21 plots
B) Formulas for calculating the number of seedlings per acre.
(1) Total number
of live seedlings + Number of plots =
on the 21 plots
Example: 114 + 21 = 5.43
of live seedlings
Estimated number of
Example: 5.43 X 100 = 543
C) Formula for calculating the survival percentage of planted seedlings on the site:
(1) Estimated Number of Estimated
number of seedlings percent
live planted X 100 = survival
seedlings per acre for site
Example: 543 700 X 100 = 78%
Balmer, W.E. and H.L. Williston.1974. Guide for planting south-
ern pines. USDA Forest Service. State and Private Forestry.
Southeastern Area S & PF 7. 17 p.
Beaufait, W., P.P. Laird, M. Newton, D.M. Smith,'C.H. Tubbs,
C.A. Wellner, and H.L. Williston. Silviculture. Pages 413-455
In: Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. K.F. Wenger, ed.
John Wiley & Sons. New York.
Boyer, W.D. 1979. Natural regeneration of longleaf pine. Pages
6-11 In: Proc. Longleaf Pine Workshop. October 17-19, 1978.
USDA Forest Service. Technical Publication SA-TP3.
Derr, H.J. and W.F. Mann, Jr. 1971. Direct-seeding in the
South. USDA Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook no. 391.
Eason, M.A. and D.M. Flinchum. 1984. A guide for comparing
returns from forestry investments to annual crops. Coopera-
tive Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Circular 592. 9 p.
Florida Division of Forestry. 1983. Tree Planter's Guide. Dept.
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. F83G1.
Jack, S., K. Munson, and D. Flinchum. 1984. Site preparation:
alternatives for plantation establishment. IFAS, University of
Florida. Forest Resources and Conservation Fact Sheet FOR-
37. 4 p.
Lohrey, R.E. and E.P. Jones, Jr. 1983. Natural regeneration and
direct seeding. Pages 183-193 In: The Managed Slash Pine
Ecosystem. Proc. of Symp. held June 9-11, 1981. School of
Forest Resources and Conservation. University of Florida,
Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed.). 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the
United States. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook
No. 450. Washington, D.C. 883 p.
Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1974. Managing for Natural
Regeneration. USDA Forest Service State and Private For-
estry. Forest Management Bulletin. 6 p.
Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1983. Direct-seeding of south-
ern pines a regeneration alternative. USDA Forest Service.
Southern Region. Forestry Bulletin R8-FB/M1. 6 p.
This publication was produced at a cost of $1,206.30, or 40.2 cents per copy, to provide non-industrial private land-
owners, county agents, county foresters and other Florida residents with information on the various methods of regen-
erating land with trees. 7-3M-87
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publica-
tions) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is
available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication,
editors should contact this address to determine availability.