Front Cover
 List of authors
 Table of Contents
 What is the forest stewardship...
 Developing a management plan
 Wildlife management
 Timber management
 Soil and water conservation
 Recreation aesthetics and environmental...
 Woodland livestock grazing
 Additional reading
 Back Cover

Group Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: Florida's Forest Stewardship Program
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 Material Information
Title: Florida's Forest Stewardship Program an opportunity to manage your land for now and the future
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Alternate Title: Forest Stewardship Program
Physical Description: i, 29 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Duryea, Mary L
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1992
Subject: Forest management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forest landowners -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forest conservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 28-29).
Statement of Responsibility: Mary Duryea ... et al., editors.
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General Note: "January 1992."
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    List of authors
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    What is the forest stewardship program?
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Developing a management plan
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Wildlife management
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Timber management
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Recreation aesthetics and environmental enhancement
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Woodland livestock grazing
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Additional reading
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Back Cover
        Page 30
Full Text

January 1992 Circular 1020

Florida's Forest
Stewardship Program:

An Opportunity to Manage
Your Land for Now
and the Future

Mary Duryea, William Hubbard,
Deborah McGrath and Charles Marcus, editors

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, Dean

January 1992

Circular 1020

List of Authors

Sid B. Brantley, Range Conservationist, USDA Soil
Conservation Service.

Marion L. Clarke, Professor, Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

Mary L. Duryea, Associate Professor, Florida Coop-
erative Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

William G. Hubbard, Assistant in Forest Manage-
ment, Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Charles R. Marcus, Rural Forest Management
Assistance Coordinator, Florida Division of
Forestry, Tallahassee, Florida.

Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Deborah A. McGrath, Graduate Research Assis-
tant, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

James D. Mertes, Professor, Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, Texas.

Hans Riekerk, Associate Professor, Florida Coop-
erative Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

J. Scott Sanders, Biologist, Florida Game and
Freshwater Fish Commission, Tallahassee,

George W. Tanner, Associate Professor, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

John F. Vance, Biologist, USDA Soil Conservation
Service, Gainesville, Florida.

( ?r

Table of Contents

What is the Forest Stewardship Program? .....................1
What is Forest Stewardship?
Organization of the Forest Stewardship Program
Who is eligible to become a Forest Steward?
How does a landowner become a Forest Steward?
How does the Stewardship program benefit landowners?
How to use this stewardship publication
Developing a Management Plan ........................... .4
Why have a plan?
Beginning the plan
The resource assessment
Contents of the finished plan
Wildlife Management ......................................7
Why manage for wildlife?
Options for wildlife management
Relation to other resources
Practices that enhance wildlife habitat
Wildlife management in action
Timber Management ...................................... 11
Why manage for timber?
Options for timber management
Practices to enhance timber growth
Timber management in action
Soil and Water Conservation .............................. 15
Why soil and water conservation?
Options for soil and water conservation
Practices that enhance soil and water conservation
Soil and water conservation in action
Recreation/Aesthetics and Environment Enhancement .........19
Why manage for recreation?
Options for recreation
Practices that enhance recreational resources
Why manage for aesthetics and environmental enhancement?
Options for aesthetics and environmental enhancement
Aesthetics and environmental enhancement in action
Woodland Livestock Grazing .............................. 23
Why manage for grazing?
Considerations for grazing on your stewardship forest
Elements of a grazing program
Grazing management in action
Additional Reading For More Information ...................28

'*^ WIVI fFlA i l kh TFS

What is the Forest Stewardship


Mary L. Duryea and Deborah

A. McGrath

What do you enjoy most about owning your
forest land?

* Appreciating the aesthetic qualities or the
unique natural and historical features.

* Providing quality forage for grazing animals or
habitat for wildlife.

* Contributing to the long-term protection of the

* Receiving additional income from timber sales.

* Pursuing a recreational activity such as wildlife
observation, hiking, horseback riding or hunting.

If these interest you, and you want to do more to
provide for them, then you need to know about the
Forest Stewardship Program. The program is de-
signed to help Floridians manage their forestland
for a variety of natural resources. At the same
time, good stewardship means that these precious
resources will be enhanced and conserved for
ourselves and for future generations.

What is Forest Stewardship?
Forestland is one of Florida's most productive
natural resources. The benefits derived from these
forests are innumerable. Timber production, hunt-
ing leases and livestock grazing are among the
many income opportunities available to the forest
landowner. Woodlands protect soil and water
resources and provide wildlife habitat. Also, forests
offer recreational opportunities and beauty to all

Forest Stewardship is a commitment to your
land for now and for the future.

The most valuable aspect of the forest, however,
is its renewability. If cared for, forestland will yield
economic benefits to the landowner indefinitely.
Fortunately, long-term forest productivity can be

maximized without sacrificing the ecological diver-
sity of woodlands. The key is Forest Stewardship.

Forest Stewardship is the wise use and
management of resources that maintain and
enhance the value of the forest for present
and future generations.

Stewardship is based upon the strategy of mul-
tiple-use land management. With the help of natu-
ral resource professionals, a landowner develops a
management plan designed to increase the
forestland's economic value in a socially and envi-
ronmentally responsible manner. Each plan is
tailored to meet the landowner's priorities while
maintaining the ecological diversity of the forest. A
typical multiple-resource plan might provide for
conservation of soil and water, protection of wildlife
habitat and wetlands, timber production, livestock
grazing, recreation, and beauty.

Organization of the Forest
Stewardship Program
The Forest Stewardship Program was developed
and initiated by the National Association of State
Foresters and is funded by the USDA Forest
Service. Each state operates its own tailor-made
program to meet specific needs of landowners and
their forests. In Florida, five agencies and organi-
zations work together to implement the Program:
the Florida Division of Forestry (DOF); the Soil
Conservation Service (SCS); the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension
Service (IFAS-CES); the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission (FGFWFC); and the
Florida Forestry Association (FFA) (Figure 1). In
addition, private natural resource consultants also
participate in program operation.

The objectives of the Forest Stewardship
Program are to:

a encourage landowners to manage for multiple
natural resources;

Soil Conservation Service
6 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Figure 1. Five agencies work together to implement the Forest
Stewardship Program.

* increase public awareness of the importance of
Florida's forestlands; and

* improve the cooperation among natural resource
agencies to meet Florida's forest resource
conservation and management needs and

The goal for the Stewardship Program is to en-
roll at least 625 landowners owning 425,000 acres
over a five-year period. In the first year of the
program, over 100 landowners have participated
and several others have expressed an interest.

Who is eligible to become a
Forest Steward?
Over half of Florida's forestland is owned by non-
industrial landowners who receive most of their
income from sources other than their forests. Can-
didates for the program are those landowners who
are both interested in and committed to long term
multiple-use land management that is economically
viable and socially, ecologically and environmen-
tally responsible. In particular Forest Stewards
include private landowners who:

* do not presently actively manage their land but
would like to develop a management plan accord-
ing to the stewardship concept;

* are engaged in single-resource management of
their land, such as timber production, and are

interested in increasing income opportunities by
diversifying their activities; or

* are currently managing their land for multiple
resources and deserve recognition.

Any private non-industrial forest landowner
with a minimum of 25 acres of forestland who
wants to manage the land for its many resources is
eligible. If you are a landowner who (1) has not
actively managed your forestland in the past, (2)
has managed for one resource in the past and now
wants to diversify activities on your forestland or
(3) has been managing according to the steward-
ship concept and wants to receive recognition for
your effort, becoming a Forest Steward may be for

How does a landowner become a
Forest Steward?
Landowners may be nominated by resource
professionals, agency representatives, fellow land-
owners, or by their own initiative. First, a forest
management plan is developed with help from a
team of natural resource professionals (see Develop-
ing a Management Plan, p. 4). The landowner is
enrolled in the program at this point by signing the
"Forest Steward Landowner's Creed," which is a
pledge to follow and support the stewardship
concept. The landowner then receives technical
assistance and implements the management plan.
After implementation, the forestland is inspected
and approved by a Forest Stewardship team. The
Landowner then becomes a certified Forest

Those who enroll in the Florida Forest Steward-
ship Program have multi-resource management
plans developed based on primary and secondary
objectives. These objectives are determined by the
landowner with the help of any desired professional
assistance. One or two primary objectives are
chosen from the list of major resources to manage
(either timber, wildlife, recreation, grazing, envi-
ronmental enhancement, or soil and water conser-
vation). The other resources are also provided for
in the management plan. To become a Forest Stew-
ard, the landowner must meet minimum require-
ments for the management of each of these objec-
tives (see each individual resource chapter for pri-
mary and secondary management requirements).
The requirements are minimal and are designed to
provide flexibility in maximizing the benefits of
stewardship forestry.

How does the Stewardship
Program benefit landowners?
The Stewardship Program encourages landown-
ers to practice multiple-resource management and
seeks to recognize those who do. Landowners who
manage their land according to the multiple-
resource principal deserve recognition for leading
the community in good forest stewardship. Land-
owners who become certified as Forest Stewards
will be rewarded with a certificate and a sign to
post on their land.

The Stewardship Incentives Program (SIP) pro-
vides funds to landowners for practices carried out
on their stewardship lands. Up to 75 percent of the
costs of some practices may be reimbursed. Maxi-
mum payments are $5,000 per year per owner.
Cost-shared activities must be completed within 18
months and landowners must maintain and protect
stewardship resources for a minimum of 10 years.
Seven general SIP practices have been approved for
cost-share assistance in Florida:

* reforestation and afforestation;

* forest and native range improvement;

* soil and water protection and improvement;

* riparian and wetland protection and

* aquatic habitat enhancement;

* wildlife habitat enhancement including habitat
for listed threatened and endangered species
protection; and

* forest recreation and aesthetic enhancement.

Other benefits to the landowner are:

* increased long-term productivity of the land;

* increased economic opportunities and diversifica-
tion of the timberland investment portfolio;

* public recognition as a leader in wise forest-
resource management;

* integrated technical assistance from natural
resource agencies;

* improved skills in forestland management;

* the satisfaction of contributing positively to the
nation's environmental health and economic
well-being; and

* improved public perception of landowners as
true forest stewards.

The good example set by Forest Stewards will
demonstrate the benefits of multiple-resource
management to the public, and other landowners
will be encouraged to practice forest stewardship.

How to use this stewardship
The purpose of this Extension circular is to help
you become familiar with Florida's Forest Steward-
ship Program and how to manage for multiple for-
est resources according to your goals and objectives.
After the next chapter, on Developing a Manage-
ment Plan, each of the five resource areas is
presented in a separate chapter. Each chapter
includes: (1) reasons to manage for the resource;
(2) options for managing the resource; and (3)
examples of management scenarios.

The list below provides sources of additional in-
formation about the Forest Stewardship Program.
These contacts can help tailor a plan to meet all
your stewardship needs. Related publications are
also listed in the chapter Additional Reading.
These can be obtained from your local County
Forester, or state forestry Cooperative Extension
Service office.

To find out more about how to become a Forest
Steward contact:

* your county forester (Florida Division of

* your county Extension agent (IFAS Cooperative
Extension Service);

* your Soil and Water Conservation Office (SCS);

* your regional stewardship wildlife biologist
(Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish

* a natural resource consultant in your area;

* or contact the Florida Division of Forestry State
Office in Tallahassee, (904) 488-9829.

Developing a Management Plan
Charles R. Marcus

Why have a plan?
Who would consider building a house without a
blueprint or taking a vacation without a road map?
Most people carefully plan before undertaking
these activities. The work goes more easily and
efficiently when a plan of action is developed and

This is especially true for the stewardship forest.
Management planning is essential for those who
wish to accomplish their objectives while maximiz-
ing returns, minimizing expenses and ensuring the
long-term productivity of their property. One ex-
ample that illustrates this is the sale of timber.
Studies have shown that landowners who properly
plan timber sales in advance receive significantly
higher returns and leave stands of timber that are
in better shape that those who do not (Figure 2).

-. Range of prices sudled
0.5 .

.e .....
.. ----------------

^ 0.4 ----------------... *"" -------

>0.2 -- -- --------------------

n II

0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 .80
Market Value ($/cu. ft.)

0.90 1

No Asstanc Market Infom lon Technial Assistnc

Figure 2. Planning and assistance pays off as this graphic
shows that as the value of the stand increases, infor-
mation and assistance becomes quite valuable (from
"The effect of timber sale assistance on returns to
landowners," Hubbard and Abt, 1989, Resource Man-
agement and Optimization, vol 6(3), pp. 225-234).

Planning other forest management activities in a
similar manner also results in higher revenues,
lower costs, reduced tax liability, more efficient
scheduling and fewer negative environmental

impacts. Landowners should remember that treat-
ments which enhance one resource should not
adversely affect others on the same site. However,
it takes advanced planning to minimize these
impacts and provide for each of the resources.

Beginning the plan
Because a stewardship management plan in-
volves all resources on a landowner's property, a
team of professionals with expertise in managing
each resource works together to develop the plan
(Figure 3). The team is composed of the following

* property owner;

* forester;

* resource biologist (ecologist, wildlife biologist or
related field);

* soil conservation specialist;

* others as needed or desired (recreation, fisheries
or grazing specialist, historian, archeologist,

Figure 3. The stewardship Planning Team is assembled with
professionals from various backgrounds.

These specialists may be employed by either
public agencies or private firms. In cases where the
landowner is already practicing active manage-
ment, personnel who are already involved can help
to develop the stewardship plan by using existing
plans as a basis.

The planning process begins with a meeting of
the landowner and the management team. At this
meeting, landowner's goals and objectives are
discussed and current management activities are

The resource assessment
A resource assessment of the landowner's prop-
erty, equipment, facilities, capital, experience and
time is part of the goal setting process. The
interagency team conducts a resource assessment
to evaluate the potential for achieving these goals
and identify priorities for treatment. The assess-
ment may determine, for example, that moisture
conditions preclude the development of certain
types of recreational facilities, or that soil erosion
problems must be corrected before management
activities are undertaken. Once completed, this
assessment serves as a basis for developing specific
management strategies.

The team first obtains maps and aerial photo-
graphs of the property, as well as soil surveys and
other reference materials. Then they use these
materials as a guide for determining the quality,
quantity and distribution of resources as they
survey the condition of the property on the ground.
Specifically, this would include the following:

Soil and water
Soil series, erodibility and topographic informa-
tion determine site sensitivity and degree to which
best management practices (BMPs) need to be
applied to protect water quality. Fragile sites
adjacent to protected waters, wetlands, drainage
networks or agricultural buffer zones are mapped
and highlighted for special care. Potential water
quality problems such as stream crossings, agricul-
tural runoff and off-site discharges are identified
and recorded. A record is made of recent pesticide
and nutrient applications. Vegetation types and
age classes also help to predict the cumulative
impact of forest management activities on runoff.
Inventories are also taken to evaluate the
hydrologic responses to rainfall frequency.

The information on the soil and water resources
will identify specific areas of concern and suggest

priorities. For example, bare soil areas on slopes
near open water will require immediate contouring
and revegetation. Similarly, approaches to culverts
that are easily obstructed need to be cleaned to
avoid erosion damage from overflows. The hydro-
logic and vegetation inventories may identify the
need for some flow control structures to regulate
the water regimes during the developmental stages
of the forest. Potential productivity for timber and
forage can also be determined from the soils

The presence, arrangement and condition of suf-
ficient suitable vegetation to provide food and cover
for desired species groups is the primary consider-
ation for managing wildlife. The wildlife biologist
notes the existing trees and other vegetation on the
site, as well as the potential for the site to support
particular species of trees, shrubs, grasses, legumes
and other essential habitat components. Additional
considerations must be made if any listed threat-
ened or endangered species are found on the
property, and some areas of mature timber must be
maintained for species which require this habitat

With the help of a professional forester, land-
owners can begin assessment of the timber resource
by dividing the property into "stands" which con-
tain similar combinations of tree species, ground
vegetation, soils and other features which make
each one distinct from the rest of the property. In
this way, planted stands are separated from
naturally occurring stands and areas of young
saplings from mature timber.

A professional forester then "cruises" each stand
to gather information to use as a basis for future
management recommendations. A preliminary
cruise identifies the tree species and measures the
number of trees per acre, density or "basal area,"
size classes, growth rate and disease incidence. The
information helps the landowner and the forester to
plan future stand management. The intensity of
this effort depends upon how intensively the
landowner wishes to manage this resource.

If the landowners decide to make a timber sale, a
more detailed cruise is used to determine
merchantable volume, timber quality and potential
products such as pulpwood or sawlogs which the
stand may yield. Private consulting foresters are
best equipped to handle this more intensive type of

cruise since they are familiar with local markets
and have adequate time to conduct an accurate

The resource inventory describes the herbaceous
plant communities present (species composition,
quantity and distribution of forage and vigor),
timber stand characteristics (age, density and dis-
tribution), and shrub canopy cover. A map of the
physical features (wildlife/livestock watering sites,
fences, roads, working pens and gates) and a de-
scription of historical and current livestock grazing
use (class of grazing animal, numbers, herds,
breeding programs and grazing systems) also helps
in developing the Forest Stewardship Plan. A local
soil survey will provide information regarding
existing soil conditions on each site that may
influence land-use decisions.

A forest recreation assessment includes all of the
considerations discussed in this section and
provides a site design which is used as a basis for
selecting the most desirable location for facilities
such as roads, trails, cabins, wildlife observation
stands, fishing sites and group campsites. Without
a resource assessment many of the key factors
which are essential to a successful recreation
endeavor may be overlooked.

Once the resource assessment is completed for
the resources previously mentioned, a recreation
capability analysis is developed. A procedure
should be devised for applying personnel and
program land management criteria to help select
the most feasible package of alternatives.

The forest landscape has many dimensions.
Landscape values can be addressed through a
systematic planning process. This process can be
expressed as follows: (1) establish the landowner's
goals and objectives as related to the aesthetical
appearance of the stewardship area; (2) define the
landowner's general philosophical attitude about
aesthetics and environmental enhancement as they
relate to other uses of the forestland; (3) prepare a
visual resource analysis of the forest property, as

described in the aesthetics chapter; (4) prepare a
map which overlays the most recent aerial photo-
graph; (5) note on the map the most desirable line
of sight to each scenic beauty area.

When the resource assessments are completed,
one person, usually the county forester, takes
responsibility for compiling observations from
members and writing the plan.

Contents of the finished plan
The first part of the plan describes the location of
the property and lists background information such
as ownership and management history or any
unique features. The landowner's management
goals and objectives are then briefly described.

The next section presents a general management
strategy for each of the resource areas (wildlife,
timber, soil, water, recreation, aesthetics and
grazing when desired). Each resource specialist
prepares a one-paragraph overview of how the
landowner's goals are to be accomplished. The
property is then divided into "stands" of similar
type vegetation, soil and timber, and are depicted
on what is called a stand map. Specific manage-
ment strategies and a timetable of activities are
then developed for each stand. Although a Stew-
ardship Forest provides for ample quantities of
each of the major resources, it is not necessary that
each individual stand or acre provide multi-
resource values.

The Forest Stewardship Plan serves as the basis
for all management decisions on a landowner's
property. It should be updated AT LEAST EVERY
FIVE YEARS to be a truly effective planning tool.

Landowners frequently are not aware of what
assistance is available, or where to obtain it.
Through the Forest Stewardship Program, land-
owners are introduced to a number of public and
private sources of assistance. Various government
agencies offer extensive information, usually at no
charge to the landowner, while private firms are
available at a fee for landowners with specific
needs which are beyond the scope of a public
agency's function.

Wildlife Management
Wayne R. Marion and J. Scott Sanders

Why manage for wildlife?
Habitat change and loss are major obstacles to
overcome in conserving wildlife populations now
and in the future. Urban development activities
have resulted in losing nearly 700,000 acres of
Florida's forestlands between 1980-87 (based on
information in "Forest Statistics for Florida, 1987,"
Resource Bulletin SE-101, USDA-FS, 1988).
Nonindustrial private landowners, who control
almost half the remaining forests in the state, have
the greatest potential for improving habitat condi-
tions and perpetuating wildlife populations.

Landowners can obtain both tangible and intan-
gible benefits from managing wildlife. Tangible
benefits primarily accrue from leasing rights for
hunting and other forms of outdoor recreation in-
volving wildlife. Fees collected from these activities
can provide income to pay property taxes and other
management costs. The provision of various
services (e.g., guides, dogs, lodging, meals, etc.)
associated with hunting can also provide another
source of income. Although public demand for
wildlife-related outdoor recreation (e.g., hiking,
camping, birdwatching, canoeing, etc.) has not yet
reached the point of providing significant income
for the private landowner in Florida, the potential
exists and will increase in the future. (See the
Recreation chapter for more information on
operating a commercial forestland enterprise.)

Intangible benefits from wildlife management
can include the excitement derived from observing
wildlife, the satisfaction of providing desirable
habitat for these species and the pride from
receiving recognition for conservation efforts.

Options for wildlife management
Any discussion of wildlife resources must begin
by recognizing the existence of potential for a vari-
ety of wildlife species groups. These include game
and nongame species, threatened and endangered
species, and even nuisance species. Management

strategies presented in this chapter will be based
upon the existing vegetative conditions and other
land uses on the property and in adjacent areas.
Managing the wildlife resource as the primary
objective requires, in some instances, that other
resources be managed at reduced intensity. For
example, timber harvests will be designed prima-
rily to improve wildlife habitat, with maximum
wood production a secondary benefit. A typical
Forest Stewardship Plan in this case would include
management strategies that accomplish the

* create, enhance or improve sufficient habitat to
support suitable populations of desired species;

* maintain healthy game populations selected by
the landowner in a manner consistent with
habitat carrying capacity;

* provide diverse and abundant populations of
desired nongame wildlife species, particularly
those that are dependent on mature timber;

* manage habitat and populations to protect flora
and fauna listed as threatened or endangered.

The key is that all resource management deci-
sions are based on creating and maintaining suffi-
cient habitat.

Where wildlife management is a secondary objec-
tive to other resources, the compatibility of various
management options becomes important. Those
wildlife species whose habitat requirements are
compatible with practices designed to enhance the
landowner's selected primary resources will thrive.
All stewardship plans should include wildlife
management plans to accomplish the following:

* enhance, maintain or create habitat for desired
species in a manner that is consistent with the
primary objective for the land;

* achieve and maintain a natural diversity and
abundance of game and nongame wildlife species
including those dependent on mature timber
(special consideration and/or protection should
be afforded resident threatened and endangered

* manage other resources in ways that provide
habitat needs of desired wildlife species, consid-
ering the species and the entire property.

Regardless of the landowner's goals, providing
suitable wildlife habitat should be considered when
performing any management activity.

Relation to other resources
It is no more logical to design a management
plan that considers only wildlife than it is to design
a plan that exclusively considers timber, soils,
water, or recreation. Wildlife populations are
closely related to these other resources. Practices
that encourage increased soil fertility, undisturbed
hydrological systems, diverse plant communities
and minimal disturbance are generally of the most
benefit to wildlife. Enhancing natural ecosystems
should serve as a goal for land management deci-
sions. However, habitat requirements sometimes
can be accommodated and occasionally improved by
management practices performed primarily to ben-
efit the other resources. Special efforts should be
made to recognize and protect threatened and
endangered species, preserve standing dead trees
(snags) on the property for wildlife use and incorpo-
rate BMPs in forestry and other land management

Practices that enhance wildlife
Maintaining diverse habitats or plant communi-
ties on a property is most often the emphasis for
wildlife management components in a stewardship
plan. This is particularly true when another
resource is the primary objective of the landowner.
When natural diversity and transition between
habitats does not exist on a property, the plan
should include measures to create it. This may be
accomplished by several practices.

The first step is to identify important habitats
such as wetlands and upland hardwood areas so
that steps may be taken to maintain and link these
areas. Ideally, strips of native vegetation 75 to 200

feet wide, containing a component of mature
hardwood and pine timber, should be left when
timber harvests are conducted. These areas will
provide structural diversity, cavities, and other im-
portant niches not available in recently reforested.

Streamside and wetland areas are another
essential habitat for wildlife. BMPs (see Soil and
Water Conservation, p. 15) should be used for
minimum widths of riparian areas. Pine planta-
tions and clearcuts should be kept as small as
practical, with adjacent stands being composed of
different age classes (5 to 7 years apart). This will
promote a diversity in the amount and type of
ground cover and species throughout the area being
reforested. Individual areas should be irregular in
shape to maximize the available edge effect. Stand-
ing snags, where available, should be retained at a
density of one to three trees per acre for the benefit
of cavity nesting species and to serve as perch sites.
In pine plantations prior to canopy closure, further
enhancement for wildlife will entail creating and
maintaining adequate forage. Mowing between the
rows of pine trees in February and/or August-
September will control undesirable trees and
shrubs while at the same time enhancing forage,
seed, mast and fruit production. Mowing on a 3-
year rotation will maximize diversity.

Between adjacent pine plantations or in areas
where two or more habitats come together, transi-
tion zones should be created or re-established.
These areas may also serve as firebreaks, access
points, and food plots. Openings within timbered
stands are also readily utilized by wildlife and add
to the diversity of an area. Depending on the spe-
cies featured for management, 2 to 5 percent of the
property should be maintained as permanent open-
ings. Supplemental plantings should provide a
year-round food source. Perennial grasses and
legumes as well as mast-producing trees and
shrubs should dominate these areas.

Aggressive thinning in pine-dominated stands
will ensure adequate sunlight for understory spe-
cies. Prescribed fire should be the primary manage-
ment tool used to maintain diversity in vegetative
composition and forage quantity and quality
(Figure 4). The season, frequency, and intensity of
fire should be based on the existing vegetative
communities and featured species.

Figure 4. The use of prescribed fire as a management tool in a
pine-hardwood forest.

Wildlife management in action
The following are two examples of current, ongo-
ing programs associated with Forest Stewardship
in Florida.

Example 1
Mr. Hollingsworth owns 348 acres in northern
Florida and has received the assistance of a wildlife
biologist with the Forest Stewardship Program in
clarifying objectives, assessing property and its po-
tential, and developing options through a written
management plan. The property is described as
mixed pine-hardwood uplands (54 percent), cypress
and associated swamp hardwoods (16 percent), per-
manent openings (15 percent), 30-year-old planted
slash pines (10 percent) and four freshwater ponds
(5 percent). Mr. Hollingsworth's primary manage-
ment objective for this land is to provide optimal
wildlife habitat, particularly for several featured
species, including white-tailed deer, wild turkeys,
Bobwhite quail and mourning doves. Suitable
habitats for nongame wildlife and species depen-
dent on mature timber also are provided.

The diversity of the plant communities and their
distribution throughout the property (Figure 5)
provide nearly ideal conditions to meet this land-
owner's primary objective. Other objectives of the
landowner include enhancement of timber, aes-
thetic and recreational resources on the property
and enrichment of the soil and water resource.

Proposed permanent openings are maintained in
mixed pine-hardwood areas. Portions of these
openings will be planted in supplemental small
grains and legumes. These openings and supple-
mental plantings, aside from being beneficial to

Figure 5. An aerial view of wildlife habitat areas interspersed
on the land.

wildlife, also enhance recreational opportunities
such as hunting and wildlife observation.

Wetlands on the property will be maintained and
protected from drainage. Nearly all resident wild-
life species on the property depend to some extent
upon these wetlands as essential habitat compo-
nents. Wetlands also serve an important function
in maintaining water quality as they naturally
filter polluted waters. Pine plantations on the
property were thinned in previous years to improve
the quality and growth of the timber and to create
an open canopy that encourages growth of desirable
forage. When market conditions become favorable,
the pine plantation will be harvested. Dead trees
(snags) that have resulted from beetle attacks will
be left during harvesting and site preparation for
planting. Longleaf pine will be used in replanting
since it has several advantages over other yellow
pines for wildlife. With longleaf pine, prescribed
fire may be used sooner and more frequently than
with other species of pines. Crown closure occurs
later in longleaf pine than in other pine species,
allowing for growth of desirable understory species.
Also, mature longleaf pines produce seeds that are
particularly desirable for a wide variety of both
game and nongame species.

Other management activities that are recom-
mended for this property include the construction
and maintenance of firelines throughout the prop-
erty, mowing permanent openings and property
line and roadway maintenance. It also is recom-
mended that firelines be disked annually during
the winter months when disturbance of the soil
encourages the production of beneficial native
legumes such as partridge pea (Cassia spp.),
ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and beggarweed

Figure 6. The edge between pine and hardwood forests often
provides ideal habitat for many native wildlife

(Desmodium spp.) (Figure 6). Idle areas should be
mowed during the late winter (February-March) to
provide additional quality brood rearing range for
young wild turkeys and Bobwhite quail. Property
lines and roadways will be inspected regularly to
ensure access for recreational activities and
equipment during emergency situations.

Example 2
Ms. Kjarlsburg owns 3,800 acres in north central
Florida that is managed primarily for pine timber
production. However, providing good wildlife
habitat receives strong secondary emphasis. The
natural features of the landscape and the overall
forest management strategy have created good
habitat diversity throughout the tract. Hardwood
hammocks, drainages and mixed pine-hardwood

stands have been connected by a network of
pine-hardwood buffer strips. Diversity within pine
stands is enhanced by limiting the size of indi-
vidual plantations and by arranging stands of vari-
ous ages and species in proximity of one another.
Grass strips 30 to 60 feet wide are maintained
between areas of pine and hardwood timber. This
mosaic not only provides sufficient habitat for a
broad spectrum of native wildlife species such as
deer and turkey but it also creates an aesthetically
pleasing appearance of the landscape.

Wildlife management activities include mowing
of permanent openings and between the rows of
planted pines in those stands where canopy closure
has not yet occurred. Pine plantations are thinned
as early as practical. Following thinning, these
pine plantations are incorporated into the overall
prescribed burning program. Forage production is
enhanced by annual winter maintenance of
firelines and strip disking prior to pine regenera-
tion. Portions of the permanent openings are to be
planted in various small grains and legumes to
provide a supplemental food source and to enhance
recreational activities. Snags are allowed to
remain standing to provide food sources and cavity-
nesting sites to benefit wildlife; however, the
forester has recommended frequent inspection in
the areas surrounding the snags to prevent the
potential spread of beetle infestations. Wetlands
on the property will be preserved and protected
from drainage. Nearly all resident wildlife species
on the property depend to some extent upon these
wetlands as critical habitat components.

Timber Management
William G. Hubbard and Charles R. Marcus

Why manage for timber?
Timber management, defined as growing trees
for commercial harvest, can be important not only
to the landowner but to the people of Florida as
well. The state's 16 million acres of forest land
produce pine and hardwood timber which is used to
manufacture over 5000 different products that we
all use in our daily lives. Sales of these products
generated $5.6 billion in revenue and a payroll of
$1.3 billion within the state during 1989. Unfortu-
nately, as discussed in the previous chapter,
Florida's forest lands are rapidly disappearing

This makes it essential that the remaining for-
estlands be actively managed to ensure a continu-
ous supply of wood for the future. Company-owned
timberlands and public lands alone cannot grow
enough wood to satisfy future demands. Non-
industrial private forest landowners, who as a
group own almost half of the state's forest lands,
can significantly contribute to future timber sup-
plies through active management. For that reason,
all Forest Stewardship management plans include
strategies for improvement of the timber resource.

Timber harvests benefit landowners by providing
them with periodic supplemental income. Returns
from investments in timber management compare
favorably to other available alternatives. Ad
Valorem tax liability can be reduced by active
management, and federal income tax rules provide
credits for reforestation and general management
expenses. Other resource amenities such as wild-
life populations, recreational opportunities, soil sta-
bility, water quality, grazing forage and aesthetic
appearance can also be enhanced by properly
planned timber management practices. Active
management does not have to involve intensive or
expensive treatments; it simply refers to conduct-
ing practices which improve the growth and quality
of the timber resource on at least a portion of a
landowner's property.

Options for timber management
Landowners may decide to manage their forest
lands primarily to maximize the growth of mer-
chantable timber. Management recommendations
for these landowners also provide for the other
resources listed in this publication, but in a way
that complements efforts to encourage volume
growth. Other landowners may wish to manage
their timber as a secondary objective, in a way that
mainly focuses on improving the other resources.

Regardless of the landowner's objectives, certain
steps are essential to encourage long-term growth.
First of all, timber harvests should be supervised
by a professional forester and planned before the
first tree is cut. This will allow the landowner to
accomplish the following goals.

* Realize higher timber sale profits. A profes-
sional forester can evaluate the quality of the
timber before a sale, and is familiar enough with
local market conditions to help landowners get
"top dollar" for their timber.

* Avoid site damage during harvesting. A prop-
erly written timber sale contract will delineate
exactly which trees or which portions of the
property are to be harvested. Penalties for dam-
aging structures, fences, and historical areas, or
operating equipment in environmentally sensi-
tive areas will also be specified. Prior planning
will reduce the likelihood of erosion on steep
slopes, protect water quality of adjacent streams,
and maintain areas of unique vegetation.

* Reduce reforestation costs. If the contract states
that loggers must keep stump heights low, it will
be easier to prepare land for planting. Con-
trolled burning and other vegetation control
practices performed before the harvest can also
improve site preparation and reduce costs.

* Protect other resources. This can be accom-
plished by retaining snags, pockets of mature
timber, mast-producing trees, buffers along
waterways, and similar measures which the
other chapters describe in greater detail.

Harvested stands should be reforested in a
timely manner, preferably within 3 years, to main-
tain productivity. It may be desirable to wait a
year before replanting to allow residue to decom-
pose. This can reduce the likelihood of insect
damage to newly planted seedlings and make the
site easier to prepare for replanting.

Tree species that are best adapted to the particu-
lar site should be selected for planting. Generally
speaking, soils with a layer of clay, limestone or
similar material within 5 feet of the surface will
grow slash, longleaf, or loblolly pine quite well. A
layer of clay between 5 and 10 feet deep would indi-
cate a site best suited to longleaf pine. If the clay
layer is more than 10 feet deep, sand pine should be
planted for profitable timber production. (However,
landowners whose main objective is to improve
wildlife habitat or aesthetic values may consider
planting longleaf or hardwoods on these sites).

Hardwood species should be chosen based upon
both their favorable characteristics and site suit-
ability. For example, a landowner may want a par-
ticular species for mast production, showy flowers,
minimum maintenance, or good growth. A forester
can provide more detailed advice for selecting
hardwood species.

Spacing depends upon the landowner's objective.
Generally, more trees per acre are grown where
pulpwood production is emphasized and markets
for smaller trees are available. Wider spacings are
favored for hardwoods and where intervals between
timber harvests will be greater.

The age at which timber is harvested depends
upon the landowner's overall objectives. Those who
are primarily concerned with timber production
will want to conduct a harvest before annual
growth rates begin to decline (also know as "biologi-
cal maturity"). A forester can determine if a stand
has reached biological maturity by using volume
tables and performing a few measurements. Land-
owners who consider timber production to be a sec-
ondary objective may wish to allow the timber to
grow to a larger size before harvest. Selective
cuttings, smaller clearcuts, and more irregularly
shaped harvest area are also appropriate where
timber production is not the main emphasis.

Regardless of the primary objective, timber
stands should be harvested before widespread
decline occurs. Some area of mature timber and/or
snags should be left in all cases to accommodate
wildlife species which depend upon them. Practices
such as controlled burning and removing diseased
or suppressed trees, if conducted periodically, will
help to maintain vigorous growth, thereby reducing
hazards to the surrounding stand.

Practices to enhance timber
To improve the timber resource, there are three
choices that the landowner can make:

* regenerate the stand;

* perform intermediate stand management;

* harvest the stand.

Stand regeneration
If the resource assessment indicates an insuffi-
cient number of desirable trees for adequate timber
growth or if the site has recently been harvested,
the landowner should plan to establish a new stand
of seedlings. Stands which contain a sufficient
number of good quality seed trees can be regener-
ated naturally with a minimum of expense
although regeneration success can be variable. If
no seed trees exists, seedlings can be planted
(Figure 7).

In both cases, some site preparation is required
to expose bare soil for seedfall, facilitate tree plant-
ing, reduce competition and to allow seedfall and

S- .. ., ^*
Figure 7. Pines are often planted to ensure adequate stocking
rates, re-introduce desirable species, and utilize
genetically improved planting stock.

growth in full sunlight. A forester can prescribe
site preparation treatments which are cost-effective
and cause minimal site disturbance.

Site preparation can be accomplished using
either manual, chemical, or mechanical means.
Prescribed treatments should be environmentally
sound, protect other resource values, and enhance
(rather than destroy) soil productivity. On some
sites, however, intensive site preparation is neces-
sary to ensure adequate seedling survival and

Intermediate stand treatments
Intermediate stand treatments are conducted
between stand establishment and final harvest to
protect timber stands and improve tree growth.
They include fireline plowing, controlled burning,
thinning and release treatments.

Firelines are generally plowed during the fall
and winter months. They serve to provide protec-
tion against wildfire, improve access to the stand,
and enhance other resource values. For example,
firelines can create an edge between cover types
beneficial to wildlife population and can further be
improved by supplemental grass plantings. Soil
erosion can result from fireline construction;
however, proper precautions such as following the
contour, establishing water bars, using the right
equipment, and avoiding stream channels will help
prevent this.

Controlled burning can reduce potential damage
from wildfire, improve timber growth, increase
accessibility and enhance other resources. Winter
is the safest time to burn. However, the growth of
desirable forage plants can be improved by burning
during the spring and summer if conditions permit.
Landowners should hire experienced professionals
to execute controlled burns to minimize liability for
fire or smoke-related damage.

Thinnings reduce the number of trees per acre in
a stand, which allows the remaining trees more
room to grow (Figure 8). Overcrowded stands of
young trees can be precommercially thinned, either
manually or by mechanical means such as drum
chopping. Commercial thinnings allow landowners
to receive income by harvesting diseased, poor
quality or unwanted trees.

Release treatments are performed in existing
stands where the growth of desirable trees is sig-
nificantly impaired by vegetative competition.

Figure 8. A thinned stand often provides additional income
and allows room for remaining trees to grow to more
valuable sizes.

Alternative methods include controlled burning
where the preferred species are old enough to
withstand fire; mechanical methods, which provide
short-term benefits but require considerable hand
labor; and chemical treatments, which are some-
what more expensive but provide the most effective

NOTE: The USDA Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Service (ASCS) and the Steward-
ship Incentive Program (SIP) provide cost-sharing
for regeneration and intermediate treatments
through a number of programs. Federal income tax
codes allow amortization or annual expense deduc-
tions for various management costs. Consult either
a forester or a CPA who is knowledgeable about
forestry practices for more information.

Harvesting timber
The need for planning before the harvest and
seeking professional assistance has already been
discussed. Prior planning helps facilitate regenera-
tion, protects other resource amenities, and
maximizes financial returns from the timber sale.

There are three primary ways of harvesting
timber: clearcutting, shelterwood or seed tree
cutting, or selective cutting. Clearcutting provides
the highest financial return, as well as the opportu-
nity to replant at a controlled spacing with geneti-
cally improved seedlings. For this reason, land-
owners whose primary objective is timber produc-
tion would tend to favor this method. However, it
also has the most potential to adversely affect other
resources and increases regeneration costs. These
effects can be minimized by smaller clearcuts and
careful planning, but landowners who regard

timber as a secondary objective may want to con-
sider other alternatives.

Selective, shelterwood, or seed-tree harvesting
create a more aesthetically-pleasing appearance,
favor several wildlife species, reduce the likelihood
of soil erosion and lower regeneration costs. How-
ever, these methods are not without their disadvan-
tages. Damage to residual trees, inadequate or
delayed seedfall, lower sales prices, and depletion
of the genetic stock by "high-grading," or removing
the best trees and leaving the runts, cause most
landowners not to favor these methods. More active
supervision and management of the timber sale are
also needed to ensure long-term success.

Timber management in action
The following two examples illustrate active tim-
ber management. Both landowners consider timber
as a primary objective but provide for multiple
resources on their properties.

Example 1
The first landowner has 1000 acres in northeast
Florida. Most of the property has been converted to
planted pines. Stands ranging in age from newly
planted seedlings to mature sawtimber are inter-
spersed in blocks no larger than 80 acres to allow
for continuous harvests and create diversity for

wildlife. Regeneration is completed within two
years of each harvest. Upland sites are planted
with longleaf pine, while slash pine is planted in
the flatwoods. All stands are thinned and burned
at regular intervals. Wide firelines are plowed
between stands and seeded with rye grass. Roads
follow contours and the banks are stabilized with
bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). An 80-acre
mixed hardwood stand which contains a cabin with
outdoor picnic facilities has been left in the center
of the property. A hunting club maintains all
improvements and controls access.

Example 2
The second landowner has 60 acres located in
the Florida panhandle. Young planted pines, which
are surrounded and bisected by grassed access
roads, occupy 40 acres of this property. The
landowner mows between the rows on a three-year
cycle to encourage the growth of desirable legumes
and cover for wildlife. He has also erected numer-
ous nesting boxes. Thinning and burning will begin
when the trees are older.

The remaining 20 acres consists of bottomland
hardwoods surrounding a creek. The landowner
has built a boardwalk to the creek to observe wild-
life, which includes a large resident alligator. No
harvesting is planned for this area.

Soil and Water Conservation
Hans Riekerk and John F. Vance

Why soil and water
Forest landowners who wish to practice steward-
ship on their lands need to assess the potential
negative impact of their management activities on
soil and water resources both on and off their prop-
erty. Soil and water conservation is focused on the
prevention of erosion and off-site movement of sedi-
ments, nutrients and pesticides, the maintenance of
normal water levels in wetlands, and the reduction
of flood flows into estuaries. The soil and water
components of a forest determine its character and
productivity. Influence by people over time has
changed the soil and water balances that exist on
our forestlands, making conservation an important
and necessary management practice. For example,
intensive management practices of site prepara-
tion, herbicide and fertilizer use, and fire control to
increase wood production have altered forest condi-
tions in some areas. If not performed properly
these practices have the potential for significant
topsoil and nutrient loss. This often results in
reduced productivity and increased off-site water
pollution. Additionally the cumulative effects of
drainage projects in a region often result in reduced
water storage capacity and increased downstream
flooding, as well as reduced fish/wildlife habitat
and species diversity.

Avoiding costly penalties for non-compliance
with state and federal regulations provides an addi-
tional incentive to manage the soil and water
resource. Familiarity with the policies of the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers and Environmental
Protection Agency, and the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation and Water Management
Districts, can save landowners considerable
aggravation and money.

Options for soil and water
Landowners should employ Best Management
Practices (BMPs) to minimize soil erosion and wa-
ter pollution, and Wetland Management Guidelines
(WMGs) to protect the wetland resource. These
BMPs and WMGs include recommendations for
runoff diversion structures for forest roads and skid
trails, streamside buffer zones, contour operations,
and wetland forest harvesting and regeneration

Regardless of the landowner's objectives, recom-
mendations of a forest stewardship management
plan must adhere to minimum standards that
include the BMPs and WMGs for soil and water
conservation. These standards also promote tim-
ber, wildlife, recreational and aesthetic values.

Landowners who have environmentally sensitive
forestlands with high erosion potential should
design their management plans primarily to protect
and enhance the soil and water resources. This in-
cludes lands adjacent to estuaries, areas containing
wetland-dependent endangered species habitat or
buffer zones between agricultural lands and open
waters. In such cases, management activities are
focused on prevention of erosion and off-site move-
ment of sediments, management of nutrients and
herbicides, maintenance of long-term water levels
in wet areas, and the reduction of flood flows into

Even where management activities emphasize
other resources, the forest stewardship manage-
ment plan must include soil and water conservation
as a necessary component. BMPs and WMGs help
landowners to protect the soil and water resources.
They apply where primary management activities
could adversely affect soil and water conditions, or
on sites where soil and water management plays an
important role.

When soil and water conservation is the primary
objective, wood production may be limited to careful
single-tree group selection harvesting with low-im-
pact equipment to minimize soil and water distur-
bance. Reforestation of badly eroded or mined
areas requires special management practices such
as contouring, grade stabilization structures, water
and sediment control basins, land smoothing, cover
crop and tree planting on fragile areas, and live-
stock exclusion. Recreation activities on areas
where soil and water conservation has been given
highest priority should be limited to low-impact
activities with a minimum of vehicular access and
exposure of soil. In all cases, the forest understory
and ground cover should be managed to reduce soil
exposure and enhance filtering action, and to im-
prove cattle forage (where applicable) and wildlife
food, cover and nesting.

Soil and water resource conservation as a sec-
ondary objective automatically includes the use of
BMPs and WMGs. However, special attention is
needed on deep sandy soils where high infiltration
rates require special nutrient and pesticide man-
agement practices to protect the ground water
resource. Heavier clay soils also require special
consideration to prevent erosion and compaction.
Water management during silvicultural, grazing
and recreational activities, for wildlife habitat man-
agement, or for reduction of flood flows, may
require special drainage or retention projects and

Soil and water conservation efforts enhance the
productivity and quality of other resources. They
promote sustainable timber production by reducing
the erosion of fertile topsoil. BMP buffer zones pro-
vide a high diversity of species and stand structure
for wildlife habitat and aesthetic and recreational
values. In turn, sustainable timber production pro-
vides the economic basis for keeping the land in for-
est cover and protecting soil and water resources.

Practices that enhance soil and
water conservation
Where soil and water conservation is a major
goal, the management activities will include inten-
sive conservation practices that address specific
conservation needs. Examples include the

* establishing and maintaining a vegetative cover
on forest and grazing lands which have a high
erosion potential;

* restoring actively eroding areas and protecting
them from damage during silvicultural or graz-
ing operations;

constructing access roads and firebreaks on
highly erodible slopes in a manner that reduces
erosion potential; this includes planning for
gentle grades, constructing turnouts, installing
water bars and planting grass seed on temporary

* using prescribed burning to promote herbaceous
ground cover for erosion control purposes;

* limiting pesticide use and nutrient additions
(including aerial applications) to the type and
amount as specified on the product label;

* managing drainage networks to perpetuate
longterm water table levels and maintain wet-
land functions.

Where the soil and water resources are managed
as a secondary goal, all management activities will
follow the BMPs and WMGs. The effectiveness of
soil and water conservation practices can be evalu-
ated against the stated objectives in the steward-
ship management plan with the help of conserva-
tion experts. These experts can recommend the use
of BMPs during harvesting, site preparation, road
construction, stream crossings and firelines. Ero-
sion control and soil conservation measures such as
contouring, mulching and replanting may be sug-
gested, as is the amount of active erosion and soil
displaced by windrowing. The rate and method of
pesticide application and the degree of brush and
weed control as well as information on soil tests
and nutrient additions may be recommended.
Finally, any wetlands are inspected to evaluate
compliance with the management guidelines and to
assess new changes in hydrologic characteristics.

Soil and water conservation in

Example 1
Mr. Gillis has 80 acres of eroded land on his
property in northwest Florida, of which 20 acres
has been mined as a borrow pit for highway
construction. The contractor failed to stabilize and
restore the area, and over a 15-year period the
borrow pit has eroded into a series of gullies (see
Figure 9). It was evident that many tons of sedi-
ment had washed away and had been deposited

Figure 9. This site had eroded into a disastrous system of
gullies. This is the property before soil restoration,
1985. Note reference tree (1) and cliff (2).

downstream. Mr. Gillis requested assistance in
developing and implementing a management plan
to control the erosion and restore the area for
stewardship certification.

The two-phase management plan first called for
stabilizing the severe gully erosion in the borrow
pit. A retention dam was built with a standpipe
outlet in the sediment settling basin. Land con-
touring upstream from the basin included small
diversion channels leading to a central grassed
waterway to intercept and filter overland runoff.
The smoothed land was mulched, seeded to grass
and planted with loblolly pine. The second phase
of the management plan addressed the less eroded
but bare sites of the remaining 60 acres by
establishing loblolly pine.

Figure 10 of the borrow pit was taken from
approximately the same location as Figure 9 (note

the reference trees and bluff in the background)
and shows the results four years after soil rehabili-
tation and revegetation. The retention dam at the
left curves from the bluff toward where the ob-
server stands near the other end of the dam. The
outfall standpipe was mostly buried by the accumu-
lated sediments, but is still visible as a white con-
trol structure amidst the luxurious grasses in the
settling basin in front of the dam. The grassed wa-
terway leading into the settling basin is clearly vis-
ible at the right, but the small runoff diversion
channels cannot be seen amongst the trees in the
background. It is evident that the effort was
successful and that the pine stand has become well
established on the stabilized soil.

Example 2
Mr. Corrigan acquired 320 acres of farm and
woodland property. About 180 acres of the better
drained (Dothan) soil had been abandoned after
cropping to soybeans and corn that caused consid-
erable erosion on the steeper slopes of area#1B (see
Figure 10). An inventory of the woodlands showed
a total of 35 acres in upland hardwoods that in-
cluded a 3-acre sinkhole lake, 61 acres in cutover
pine flatwoods and 47 acres of floodplain swamp
along Moore's Branch. The bigger trees on the
property had been selectively logged about 15 years
ago without any further forest management mea-

Mr. Corrigan wished to manage the land prima-
rily for timber production with soil and water con-
servation, wildlife management, and recreation as
secondary objectives. The recommendations for the
stewardship management plan were developed in
consultation with the various agencies and called
for road and fire-break installations, and land-use
distributions with various management practices
as detailed in the following paragraphs.

Figure 10. Soil rehabilitation and revegetation by forest stewardship and soil conservation practices has improved the site in Figure
9, in 1990. This view is from the dam. Note reference tree (1); cliff (2); retention dam (3); outlet stand (4); sediment
settling basin (5); grassed waterway (6); and pine tree planting (7).

An access road (and firebreak) was to be
constructed from the north end of the property,
gradually descending through the abandoned field
along the boundary of the upland hardwood forest
(Area #3) down to the swamp, and up the gradual
slope along the pine flatwoods (Area #6) and loop-
ing back along the soil boundary separating areas
#1A and #1B in the abandoned field. Road con-
struction, soil stabilization and maintenance for
land sloping up to 8 percent followed the BMPs
with wing ditches at least every 120 feet and cross
ditches or culverts every 200 feet. Firebreaks in
addition to the road were to be constructed along
the property line and around the pine flatwood
area, taking care that none would terminate too
close to Moore's Branch.

Establishment of pine plantations was recom-
mended for stands 1,4,6, and 8, which comprise
almost three-fourths of the property. This requires
discing the abandoned crop fields, particularly
where the gullies are most prevalent. The pine
flatwoods area can be chopped and bedded parallel
to Moore's Branch. Stand 7 provides an adequate
Streamside Management Zone to minimize erosion.
Loblolly pine was selected for the cropland and
slash pine for the flatwoods, based on existing soil
types. These activities will be performed over a
four-year period to create diverse age classes and
take full advantage of tax benefits.

Hardwood management requires different tech-
niques. In Stand 7, group selection harvesting in
patches up to five acres creates openings for natu-
ral regeneration of desirable mast-producing spe-
cies such as oak, ash, and bay, as well as valuable
timber species such as cypress and sweetgum. No
harvesting is allowed within 35 feet of the channel
bank. Desirable mast-producing hardwoods,
shrubs, and ground cover are left undisturbed
around the lake to protect water quality and
maintain wildlife habitat.

The upland hardwoods in Stands 3 and 5 are to
be managed in a slightly different manner. All
merchantable timber is to be harvested in the
spring, except for three to five large oaks per acre.
A hot summer fire reduces logging slash and mini-
mizes stump sprouting. In the winter, loblolly
pines are hand-planted at a density of 750 trees per
acre. The end result will be a mixed pine-hardwood
stand with value for timber production and for

Implementation of the plan to produce timber
while protecting the soil and water resources and
improving game wildlife habitat for recreation is
now in progress. Inspection and evaluation of the
program for stewardship certification and award
will occur at the end of the second year, and again
in five years for reevaluation of stewardship


Aesthetics and Environmental

Marion L. Clarke and James D. Mertes

Why manage for recreation?
Most land in Florida is not owned primarily for
recreation. Timber, speculation, and a variety of
other objectives usually take precedence over recre-
ation when decisions are made to buy and sell land.
Recreational opportunities, however, soon become
part of many landowner's management plans. If
managed properly they can provide direct benefits
to the owner through personal and family activi-
ties, and indirect benefits to others. Quality hiking,
camping, fishing, hunting, horseback riding, and
other outdoor recreational activities are desperately
needed in Florida as our population continues to
grow at one of the fastest rates in the country.
Management of your stewardship forest in a man-
ner compatible with outdoor recreation can bring
you benefits in addition to those received from
other more traditional sources.

Options for recreation
Recreational use as a primary objective of
private forest land provides an opportunity for the
landowner to generate income from the land.
Where this is the case the management program
may include the following:

* identification of desired uses and appropriate
management recommendations followed;

* use of the property for some form of recreation;

* creation and active maintenance of recreational
facilities as well as forest management to en-
hance aesthetic and recreational opportunities;

* minimization of environmental impacts from
recreational activities;

* in those areas where hunting is identified as a
recreational use, a visible effort made to improve
the area for that purpose; examples may include
wildlife plantings, prescribed burnings,
increased ecotone or diversity management, and
the development of compatible recreational

Participating landowners may also wish to
manage recreational opportunities as a secondary
consideration to other resources. Usually, this in-
volves making improvements for use only by family
and invited guests, or, in the case of absentee
landowners, by members of a hunting club or other
group under a lease agreement. The guidelines in
the previous paragraph still apply, although the
landowner's program will tend to involve less
intensive development of facilities.

Recreational uses must be compatible with the
primary management objective. For example, if
recreation is a secondary objective with woodland
livestock grazing, then recreational use may have
to be restricted to compatible activities and users
will have to be kept away from animals and grazing
areas. In this instance, as with the primary objec-
tive, the environmental impact of recreational
objectives must be minimized.

Practices that enhance
recreational resources
A variety of recreation options are available to
the forest steward. Selection of the most appropri-
ate mix must reflect the nature of the forest tract,
location, potential users, environmental implica-
tions and the economic and personal objectives of
the landowner. Viable options include picnic areas,
campsites, equestrian trails, walking and biking
trails, fishing sites, group camps, boat docks, and
outdoor education areas. On tracts where hunting
opportunities are offered on a fee basis, the land-
owner should have a specific program of habitat
management which includes wildlife planting and
control of incompatible encroachments. Also, there
may be opportunities to identify and interpret
historical and archaeological sites as well as other
unique ecological or landscape features.

For those who wish to make a reasonable profit
on the enterprise, it may be necessary to obtain
specialized training in recreation area manage-
ment, guest relations, marketing, budgeting, and

fiscal management. It is important to understand
that the development of a quality recreation enter-
prise will require an initial investment, appropriate
maintenance and annual reinvestment in specific
resource treatments and guest facilities.

It is essential for the landowner to understand
the recreation needs and participation trends
within the region of the state where the property is
located. Development of a viable private recreation
enterprise requires knowledge of not only the natu-
ral resource base and appropriate resource man-
agement practices, such as wildlife habitat manage-
ment, but also key business, marketing and people
management skills. Landowners must understand
the recreation potential and experience for which a
charge is made, and how to protect not only the
resource and people purchasing units of outdoor
recreation, but also himself/herself against any li-
abilities which may arise in conjunction with recre-
ational use. A survey of all safety hazards should
be made and, based on the nature of any dangerous
situations, appropriate remediation as well as secu-
rity and warning devices should be installed. If a
fee is charged, the owner is not indemnified under
the Florida Recreation Use Statute (citation).
Depending on the character of the property and the
nature of the recreation activities and facilities
provided to the paying guest, liability insurance
may be needed.

To minimize the adverse impact of outdoor recre-
ation on the environment, the landowner must be
knowledgeable of the types of activities that cause
the greatest site damage. Undesirable environmen-
tal effects include vegetation damage, soil compac-
tion and erosion, water pollution, littering,
landscape damage from off-the-road vehicles, man-
caused fire and destruction of wildlife habitat.
Environmental damage can also occur as a result of
careless construction and maintenance. The land-
owner should seek assistance in preparing an envi-
ronmental compliance checklist to guide the plan
through each step of implementation. This will
insure consistency with the guidelines of the stew-
ardship program as well as compliance with all
applicable federal, state, county, and municipal
environmental statutes and ordinances.

Assessing the success of the recreation manage-
ment program can be accomplished in terms of both
quantitiative and qualitiative criteria. Through
systematic monitoring of the forest ecosystem, as
well as the condition of the land and facilities, the
stewardship landowner can determine the extent to
which the land is responding to specific treatments

and users are responding favorably to the recre-
ational environment and opportunities provided. If
the forest tract is operated as a recreation enter-
prise, then a major assessment criterion will be the
extent to which revenues exceed costs to the point
where it is possible to not only reinvest in appropri-
ate maintenance and site enhancement but also to
realize a respectable return on any funds invested
in the recreation enterprise.

Why manage for aesthetics and
environmental enhancement?
The visual qualities of the forest landscape make
an important contribution not only to Florida's
beauty but to the state's economy and tourism in-
dustry as well. A blighted forest landscape implies
lack of concern for the forest environment. The
public will frequently judge the character of a land-
owner by the appearance of his property. An aes-
thetically attractive forest is normally a productive,
well-managed forest. Most people would not be
willing to pay to recreate in a devastated and pol-
luted forest setting. Forest lands which are allowed
to deteriorate in this manner often serve as an
impetus for citizens' groups to advocate increased
regulation of forest management activities.

Enhancing aesthetics is probably the least ex-
pensive type of management program to imple-
ment, if no obvious damage has been done in the
past. With proper planning, landowners can
conduct a variety of management practices and
still maintain aesthetic values.

On some forest tracts, there may be severely
blighted areas such as abandoned mine pits, pol-
luted ponds, log stacking areas or field sawmills,
recently burned or highly eroded roads, trails, fire
breaks, stream banks or lake shorelines. The land-
owner can obtain technical assistance from the
stewardship team to help in preparing specific site
treatments which emphasize visual enhancement.
In most instances, the costs of rehabilitating these
types of blighted areas are not excessive. Many
such areas, when restored or enhanced, have poten-
tial for outdoor recreation development or wildlife
habitat improvement.

Part of the process of aesthetic and environmen-
tal enhancement is to maintain the forest in a
clean, well-kept manner. Trash and debris of all
kinds, including any non-historic equipment from
past timber or mining operations, should be
removed. No dump sites or areas where debris has
been burned should be visible. Fences should be

kept in good repair and wildflowers should be used
to add color variety to highway easements. Fre-
quent visual inspection of the property needs to be
made to ensure that the standards set are being

Options for aesthetics and
environmental enhancement
Landowners may wish to manage for aesthetics
as their primary objective if their properties con-
tain either unique vegetational communities or his-
torical, geological locations. Site conditions and
influences from surrounding properties may also
limit landowners' ability to feature the manage-
ment of other resources, making aesthetics the
most practical choice for those who wish to become
Forest Stewards. The following are some examples
of practices that would improve aesthetics

* maintaining species diversity and unique eco-
logical areas or restoring vegetative diversity to
affected areas;

* retaining trees with good fall colors;

* planting or maintaining native flowers and trees,
shrubs, and wildflowers that are best adapted to
specific sites;

* identifying and maintaining scenic areas and
unique historical or geological features;

* amelioration of unsightly areas.

When aesthetics are considered as a secondary
objective, all management activities should be per-
formed with consideration given to enhancing and
maintaining the aesthetic values and environmen-
tal qualities present on the property.

Management for aesthetics is highly compatible
with other resource management activities. Recre-
ation and aesthetics and environmental enhance-
ment are highly compatible. If a land manager
starts with an aesthetic/environmental enhance-
ment objective it can be easily moved to a
recreation objective.

A visual resource analysis with the following
goals is used as a basis for aesthetic enhancement

* The character of the landscape is defined the
overall impression created by its unique combi-
nation of visual features such as land, water,
vegetation, geologic formation, and structures.

* Macro-landscapes are distinguished from micro-
landscapes. The latter may be feature or focal
landscapes such as forest meadows, lakes,
streams, or geologic features, or those influenced
by such natural phenomena as cloud patterns or
sunsets. In most Florida forest settings, the ma-
jor aesthetic areas will be micro-feature or focal
landscapes; however, in some areas panoramic
landscape vistas may be found.

* Land uses adjacent to the forest land are inven-
toried. These may or may not complement a
potential scenic vista from within the forest area.
In some instances, it may be necessary to create
a buffer screen around the perimeter of the

* Areas to be protected from development are
identified and mapped.

* Consideration is given to other forest uses so
that, depending on the nature of the manage-
ment practice or activity, landscape contrast will
be minimal.

a Areas of highest scenic beauty are identified, as
these are the most desirable areas for recreation
facilities such as forest drives, trials, picnic
areas, and campgrounds.

* Key sequential aesthetic experiences to be
realized along each forest visual variety are iden-
tified, described and mapped. Visitors can be
exposed to panoramic views or more detailed
views such as a clear stream or brook, a forest
pond or a wetland. When a panoramic view is
considered, keep in mind that the view should be
enclosed by the forest and not provide a back-
ground which reveals any form of visual blight
within the forest property or on an adjoining

* Consideration is given to such factors as motion,
light, atmospheric conditions, season, distance of
the viewer from the scene, location where the
observer will view the scene, and the time of
exposure. Prepare notes on each scene which
consider these variables. Any management
activity such as vegetation clearing, road build-
ing, fire line clearance, power lines or construc-
tion of buildings could impact one or more of
theses factors, thereby enhancing the visual
dominance of a management activity and
creating greater visual contrast.

A map which overlays the most recent aerial
photograph of the forest can highlight:

* areas of highest scenic beauty;

* areas where scenic beauty could be enhanced by
specific landscape treatments such as suggested
in the previous section; and

* areas where management activities on or off the
property could result in an adverse visual im-
pact. Keep in mind that certain management
practices such as reforestation, wildlife habitat
plantings, erosion control, and selected timber
harvesting for stand improvement or to open
specific vistas can provide opportunities for
visual enhancement of the property.

Note on the map the most desirable line of sight
to each scenic beauty area. This establishes a point
of view and defines the key viewshed as it is best
seen from a road, trail, or picnic table. In other
words, the most attractive vista is framed for the
visitor through the location of a curve in the road or
trail, a clearing at a scenic turn-out, or the siting
and orientation of a building such as a group lodge
or rental cabin.

The final product will be a series of overlay maps
which can be used to aid the landowner in optimiz-
ing the most outstanding visual resources of the
property to enhance the attractiveness of the forest
for outdoor recreation. Keep in mind that the
higher the visual quality of the setting the higher
the quality of the recreation experience. People
will pay more to recreate in areas which are not
only highly aesthetic but also highly serene, par-
ticularly when the serenity enhances the prospects
for frequent viewing of a variety of wildlife.

Aesthetics and environmental
enhancement in action
An excellent example of the application of recre-
ation, visual resource management and environ-
mental enhancement concepts can be found at
the Austin Cary Demonstration Forest near
Gainesville, Florida. Throughout the forest are
examples of scenic forest drives, buffer screening,
open meadow vistas, forest clearings planted with
flowering trees and shrubs, and aesthetically pleas-
ing erosion control treatments. The roads curve
through the property providing the traveler with

visual variety and a pleasant mix of scenic vistas.
It is common to view wildlife such as deer along the
roads and in meadows, and occasionally see feral
hogs in managed forest clearings. The group lodge
and outdoor facility are sited on a lake with a com-
manding view of water and trees (Figure 11). Pic-
nic areas are oriented towards scenic vistas which
feature native flowering trees (Figure 12). Along
the highway the brush is mowed, and there are no
large signs or billboards which block the traveler's
view of the roadside forest landscape. A tasteful
system of routed wood sign graphics provides excel-
lent directions for driving forest roads or walking
forest trails. Because of the size of the tract, the
stand densities and a buffer zone around the prop-
erty, the settings are serene as well as aesthetic.
Any one or a combination of these features could be
developed and managed on a forest steward's

Figure 11. Forested picnic area at the University of Florida's
Austin Cary Forest.

Figure 12. Scenic view as seen from lodge at University of
Florida's Austin Cary Forest.

Woodland Livestock Grazing
George W. Tanner and Sid B. Brantley

Why manage for grazing?
Native grasses and other herbaceous plants that
grow in Florida's forests provide livestock forage
that requires very minimal effort to manage.
Woodland grazing provides landowners an opportu-
nity for annual income from the sale of beef and can
strengthen your stewardship forest portfolio.

Considerations for grazing on
your stewardship forest
A grazing management plan developed by a
range specialist serves as a guide to the land user.
The plan will identify the amount and location of
forages on the property, as well as physical features
such as existing fences, watering sites, working
pens, etc. In addition, the plan will determine the
maximum number of animals that can optimally
graze on the property without damage to natural

Grazing management recommendations take
into account the class of grazing animals, seasons
of use, and key grazing plant species. Different
classes (e.g., bulls, heifers, commercial brood cows)
of livestock may require different pastures, supple-
mental feeding schedules, and require varying
amounts of forage each day. The grazing manage-
ment plan will create a schedule for resting differ-
ent areas of the property during the year, to allow
grasses to recuperate and produce seed. It is im-
portant to identify the preferred grazing species of
plants so that their use can be monitored closely to
prevent overgrazing.

Grazing intensity will be adjusted so that half of
the current year's growth on all grazing plants
(particularly key species) will be left at the end of
each grazing season. This moderate use of forage
will provide the grass plants sufficient leaf area to
produce the energy and nutrients necessary for
maintenance of adequate growth. As forest stands
age and canopy cover increases, forage production
declines. Therefore, a planned reduction over time

in the number of animals that graze certain
portions of the property will reduce the risk of over-
grazing those stands. Thinning, harvesting and
regeneration will increase sunlight to the forest
floor and stimulate the replenishment of forage
allowing increased animal stocking levels.

Regeneration sites should be protected from
grazing for at least one growing season to allow
establishment of newly planted pines and regenera-
tion of the forage base. Pines are most susceptible
to grazing damage during the first year following
planting. Typically, pines are planted in the winter
months; therefore, cattle should be excluded from
the site until at least the following winter or possi-
bly longer if the forage base is not yet sufficient.
Care must be taken not to overgraze the site at this
time to avoid delays in forage and tree growth.

Supplemental feeding troughs/mineral feeders
and water developments must be located away from
newly regenerated areas. Cattle will naturally be
drawn to these areas due to the increased forage
supply. Therefore, all items that tend to congre-
gate cattle (supplemental feed sites, water) should
be located away from regeneration sites. Site
damage can be avoided by keeping supplemental
feeding locations away from water sites and new

Understory shrubs often compete with herba-
ceous plants for sunlight, water, and nutrients,
more so than overstory trees. This may be con-
trolled by mechanical means. Roller chopping and
prescribed burning will enhance forage production
for cattle. Pine trees will need to be maintained at
wider than normal spacings (Figure 13) to accom-
modate the mechanical equipment and not inflict
root damage to the trees. Roller chopping should
be performed every 4 to 7 years depending upon
density and species composition of shrubs. Care
must be taken to leave adequate cover for wildlife

Figure 13. Trees planted in wide row spacing (4'x8'x40')
allowing continual forage production. (Photo by
C.E. Lewis)

Maintaining the proper number of animals in
relation to the amount of forage produced on the
property is critical, regardless of a landowner's
primary management objective. It is better for the
forest environment to undergraze than to over-
graze. Recommendations for grazing should
emphasize protection of other resources. Managing
competing vegetation will insure ample forage pro-
duction for cattle. However, if timber production is
the primary objective for the stand, periodic roller
chopping among pine stands will not be an option.
In this case, prescribed fire should be sufficient in
maintaining understory shrubs in a manageable
state and stimulating herbaceous forage production
in more open areas.

Moderate levels of forage use will not be detri-
mental to timber production or populations of
native wildlife species. Overgrazing, however,
adversely affects all natural resources (soil, water,
aesthetics, timber, wildlife, etc.) and therefore must
be avoided by landowners wishing to qualify as
forest stewards.

Elements of a grazing program

Planned grazing system
The resource inventory is used to develop graz-
ing system alternatives. Deferment periods should
range from 30 to 120 days depending on the rate of

regrowth following grazing. As a minimum,
planned deferments should be scheduled during
late spring or summer at least once every three
years to allow plants the opportunity to set seed in
the absence of grazing.

Proper use
Stocking density is adjusted so that half of the
current year's growth on all grazing plants is left at
the end of each grazing season. Supplemental feed
troughs and water facilities are located away from
areas recently (less than 3 years) planted to pines.
Grazing is deferred for one growing season on pine
plantations following their establishment.
Thinnings are scheduled to maintain an open
canopy and planting densities are modified to
accommodate forage production according to

Cross fences
For optimum grazing management, fences
should be located so that livestock distribution is
enhanced, timber management practices are not
significantly hindered, and different range sites,
forest stands, or pasture species are separated. If
new pastures or timber stands are planned, similar
carrying capacities should be maintained within
associated pastures. Planned fences should be
located so that costs for right-of-way clearing and
water facility establishment are minimized.

Dates for seeding are March 1 through July 31.
Reseeding is not feasible when tree canopy closure
is imminent. Native grass seedlings will generally
need two growing seasons of rest for establishment.
Consult county Cooperative Extension Service or
Soil Conservation Service personnel for site-specific

Shrub management
Prescribed burning can help reduce competition
from shrub species common to most of Florida's
forested sites. Extreme care must be taken when
burning under pine stands, especially young
plantations. Contact Division of Forestry for site-
specific recommendations. Roller chopping will
reduce saw-palmetto cover for several years follow-
ing treatment. However, to avoid excessive root
damage, roller chopping should not be performed
any closer to the base of a tree than the width of its

When a site is managed for introduced forage
species, fertilization may be warranted. Consider-
ations should be made for runoff and percolation of
these elements. Contact the county Cooperative
Extension Service for site-specific information on
soil analysis and fertilization recommendations.

Decisions in these six areas are noted by the For-
est Stewardship Management team and are incor-
porated in the Forest Stewardship Plan and SCS
Conservation Plan of Operations. An important
part of implementation is record keeping. In order
to effectively monitor and revise the plan when
deemed necessary, a record must be kept detailing
the dates livestock are grazing each pasture, how
many cattle are in each herd, and any management
treatments performed.

The effectiveness of the grazing portion of the
Forest Stewardship Plan can be measured in terms
of plant composition and vigor, as well as quantity
of forage available for grazing. Due to uncontrol-
lable situations such as severe weather, wildfire,
disease or pest outbreaks, portions of the planning
process must be periodically repeated if the plan is
to remain a useful, dynamic tool for the landowner.
It is recommended that the landowner contact the
lead agency representative if major reconstruction
of the plan is needed. Suggested stocking rates and
a livestock grazing synopsis will provide a basis for
evaluation of the plan's effectiveness (Table 1 and
Figure 14).

Table 1. Suggested stocking rates for woodland grazing on a
Stewardship Forest.

Forage per acre
(Ibs-dry weight

Acres per cow month

Livestock Grazing Synopsis
1. Do animal stocking rates allow 50 percent of
the current year's growth on key grazing
species to be left at the end of the grazing
season? (Y/N)
2. Are newly planted pine stands protected from
grazing? (Y/N)
3. Has competing vegetation been controlled to
acceptable levels? (Y/N)
4. Is significant damage from livestock grazing
evident on newly-planted pines? (Y/N)
5. Are mineral feeders/supplemental feed
facilities located away from newly-planted
pines? (Y/N)
6. Additional comments:

Figure 14. A livestock grazing synopsis provides a basis for
evaluation of the program's success.

Grazing management in action
A hypothetical situation is described below of a
landowner who owns 3000 acres in a slash pine
flatwoods area. This property is divided into five
pastures of differing age stands of timber and a
bahia grass pasture. Detailed management plans
for grazing and timber management of this prop-
erty by 87 brood cows and 5 bulls are further out-
lined below. Also included is an example of the an-
nual grazing plan (Figure 15) associated with this
property. Please note: the values presented in this
example are based on estimated annual forage
production and should not be used to establish
stocking rates for other situations.

Pasture 1. This 940-acre pasture is stocked with
8- to 12-year old stands of slash pine originally
planted at about 700 trees/acre. Current cattle
stocking rate is 18 acre/animal and should not de-
cline greatly for the next 3 to 4 years. This pasture
alone would support 52 cows for 1 year.

Pasture 2. This 109-acre pasture is planted
bahia grass that receives low to moderate rates of
fertilization each year. Current cattle stocking rate
is 2.5 acre/animal, and the pasture could support
22 cows for 1 year.

Pasture 3. This 849-acre pasture is stocked with
12- to 16-year old stands of slash pine originally

Figure 15. Annual grazing plan prepared for the Stewardship Forest of Stewart Shipp.

planted at 700 trees/acre. Current cattle stocking
rate is 20 acre/animal but will begin to decline
sharply soon. This pasture will support 42 cows for
1 year.

Pasture 4. This 474-acre pasture is stocked with
3- to 6-year old stands of slash pine originally
planted at 700 trees/acre. Current cattle stocking
rate is 12 acre/animal and will not decline greatly
for the next 4 to 5 years. This pasture will support
39 cows for 1 year.

Pasture 5. This 628-acre pasture is stocked with
22- to 26-year old stands of slash pine originally
planted at about 1000 trees/acre. It has never been
thinned. Canopy cover is complete and forage pro-
duction is so low that cattle are not grazed at all.

Estimated cattle stocking rates were based on
field inspection of forage production and a recom-
mended moderate level of grazing use (50% of
standing biomass). Pastures 1, 3, and 4 will be

used in a three-pasture, rotational system for the
brood cow herd (see annual grazing plan). The five
bulls will remain in Pasture 2 when they are not
with the brood herd for the 4-month breeding sea-
son. Estimated forage production within these pas-
tures is more than will be grazed by the 92-head
herd; therefore, grazing pressure will remain low
throughout the year, eliminating possibilities of
overgrazing, tree damage, or wildlife habitat

Pastures 1, 3, and 4 will be grazed on a 4-month
cycle during the height of the growing season (April
through July) and on an 8-month cycle during the
remainder of the year. The 4-month breeding
season will correspond to the period of maximum
forage quality.

Seventy-five acres of Pasture 2 should be fenced
off and planted to slash pine in a (4 foot by 8 foot)
by 40 foot, wide-row configuration. The bahia grass
sod will need to be scalped in the planting rows to

provide some degree of competition release during
early tree establishment. This area can be fertilized
as before and the grass cut and bailed for an emer-
gency hay supply. Bulls must be excluded from this
area until the trees reach at least 15 feet in height.
At that time, the remaining 34 acres of bahia grass
should be planted and protected in a like manner.

Slash pine stands in Pasture 3 need to be
thinned in the near future to maintain or improve
the present level of forage production. Stands 1
and 4 should be thinned when they reach the age of
this stand. Removal of 30 to 40 percent of the

merchantable volume is recommended, as is consul-
tation with a forester to develop thinning plans.

Slash pine stands in Pasture 5 are at the prime
age for pulpwood harvesting. Replanting at a wide-
row configuration is recommended if the landowner
wishes to expand the cattle herd numbers in the
future. Otherwise, standard single-row planting
will provide adequate forage for the present herd
with a moderate amount of herd increase. The
shape of Pasture 5 is conducive to cross-fencing to
protect newly planted sites after harvesting and
site preparation.

Additional Reading For More


The following publications can be ordered by
writing or calling: Forestry Extension Office,
University of Florida, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall,
Gainesville, FL 32611; (904) 392-5420.

Management plans
Flinchum, D.M., 1988. Developing management
plans for forestry alternatives. Unnumbered.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 12 p.

Wildlife management
Marion, W. R., and J. A. Hovis. 1985. Developing a
hunting lease in Florida. Wildlife and Range
Sciences Fact Sheet WRS-1. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville. 3 p.

Marion, W. R. and M. Werner. 1986. Management
of pine forests for selected wildlife in Florida.
Wildlife and Range Sciences Circular 706.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 19 p.

Marion, W. R. and C.A. Gates. 1988. Hunting
lease arrangements in Florida and the South-
east. Wildlife and Range Sciences Circular 793.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 19 p.

Tanner, G. W. and W. R. Marion. 1989. Wildlife
habitat considerations when burning and roller
chopping Florida range. WRS-6. Florida Coop-
erative Extension Service, IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Timber management
Duryea, M. L. 1987. Forest regeneration methods:
natural regeneration, direct seeding, and plant-
ing. Circular 759. Florida Cooperative Exten-
sion Service, IFAS, University of Florida. 10 p.

Duryea, M. L. and J. C. Edwards. 1987. Planting
southern pines. Circular 759. Florida

Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville. 10 p.

Jack, S., K. Munson, and D. M. Flinchum. 1984.
Site preparation: alternatives for plantation
establishment. Forest Resources and Conserva-
tion Fact Sheet FRC-37. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville. 4 p.

McEvoy, T. J. 1988. Federal income tax informa-
tion for forest landowners. Fact Sheet FOR-21.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 4 p.

Munson, K. R. 1984. Forest soils of Florida: useful
groupings for forestry purposes. Forest
Resources and Conservation Fact Sheet, FRC-33.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 4 p.

Flinchum, D. M. Identifying and measuring your
forest product. Forestry Circular 662. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville.

Soil and water conservation
Riekerk, H. 1988. Water management regulations
in forestry. Forestry Fact Sheet FRC-7. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville.

Riekerk, H. 1991. Best Management Practices to
reduce water pollution from forestry. Forestry
Fact Sheet FRC-8. Florida Cooperative Exten-
sion Service, IFAS, University of Florida,

Recreation and aesthetics
Sampson, R. Neil, and Dwight Hair, 1990. Natural
Resources for the 21st Century. Island Press.
347 p. (Includes chapters on recreation,
wetlands, water resources, wildlife, fisheries,
outdoor recreation and wilderness).

Sloan, Kenneth R., 1986. Forest Aesthetics:
Management Considerations and Techniques.
Publication FR-03986. Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources. 100 p.

Woodland grazing
Tanner, G. W. 1983. Determining grazing capacity
for native range. Wildlife and Range Sciences
Fact Sheet FRC-31. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida,

Tanner, G. W. and C. E. Lewis. 1984. Alternative
tree spacings for wood and forage production in
Florida. Forest Resources and Conservation
Fact Sheet, FRC-36. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville. 2 p.

Tanner, G. W. and M. R. Werner. 1985. Develop-
ing a grazing lease in Florida. Wildlife and
Range Sciences Fact Sheet, WRS-32. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville. 4 p.

Tanner, G. W. and C. A. Gates. 1988. Survey
results of grazing leases in Florida, 1984. Wild-
life and Range Sciences Circular 781. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville. 12 p.

Duryea, M. L. and C. J. Olmstead. 1989. A for-
ester could be your greatest a$$et. Circular 845.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville. 2 p.

Hubbard, W. G., R.C. Abt, and M.L. Duryea. 1989.
Is your forest-resource enterprise profitable?
Circular 836. Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Olmstead, C.J., M.L. Duryea, and J.B. Harrell.
1989. Forestry assistance for Florida landown-
ers. Circular 844. Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.
13 p.

McEvoy, T.J. 1991. An introduction to the
management and ecology of Florida's hardwood
forests. Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Ewel, K.C. and Karla Brandt, 1989. Ecology and
Management of Cypress Swamps. Bulletin 252.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
University of Florida. 20 p. (For Sale publica-

Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 1/92.

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