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Group Title: Circular
Title: Forage production practices by dairy producers in the Suwannee Valley
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 Material Information
Title: Forage production practices by dairy producers in the Suwannee Valley
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 17 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Staples, Charles R ( Charles Richard ), 1951-
Tervola, Robert S
French, Edwin C
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Harvesting -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Charles R. Staples, Robert S. Tervola, and Edwin C. French.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "October 1992."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00014449
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6908
ltuf - AJK7666
oclc - 27084067
alephbibnum - 001784291

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Full Text

~~ober 1992 Circular 1049


Forage Production

Practices by Dairy Producers

in the Suwannee Valley
Charles R. Staples, Robert S. Tervola, and Edwin C. French















Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
rl T"i RSTY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


Ocober 1992


Circular 1049



















































Charles R. Staples, Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Science; Robert S.
Tervola, Director, Suwannee County Cooperative Extension Office; Edwin C. French,
Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy; Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611.









INTRODUCTION


The information in this publication was obtained through a survey taken by personal interview.
Forty-eight dairies located in Lafayette, Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, and Gilchrist counties agreed to
participate. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the current practices of production
and purchasing of forages in the Suwannee River Valley.

Background of the dairies

1. With the exception of Lafayette county, which contains the most and the oldest dairies, the dairy
industry is a relatively new one to the Suwannee River Valley. Individuals from both south Florida and
the northern U.S. are initiators of these dairies.


COUNTY NUMBER OF DAIRIES AVERAGE YEARS OF OPERATION

LAFAYETTE 24 20.6
SUWANNEE 18 10.5
HAMILTON 2 3.0
COLUMBIA 2 7.0
GILCHRIST 1 9.0

TOTAL 47 15


2. With the exception of the one farm in Gilchrist county, the average farm has 396 cows. The
number of cows included in the survey totaled 18,592. According to the Dairy Summary of Florida
Agricultural Statistics, there are 25,215 cows in these five counties. Most of the "missing" cows were in
Gilchrist county and further away from the Suwannee River.


AVERAGE
NUMBER OF RANGE IN COW TOTAL NUMBER
COUNTY COWS/FARM NUMBERS/FARM OF COWS

LAFAYETTE 398 78-1200 9552
SUWANNEE 308 145-725 5544
HAMILTON 508 340-675 1016
COLUMBIA 240 130-350 480
GILCHRIST 2000 2000 2000

SUMMATION 396' 78-2000 18,592
SNot counting the one dairy in Gilchrist county.









3. Fifty-five percent of the dairies (26 out of 47) raised some of their own replacement heifers with
the average number of heifers per farm at 95 with the exception of the farm in Gilchrist.


NUMBER OF HERDS AVERAGE NUMBER
RAISING OF HEIFERS TOTAL NUMBER
COUNTY HEIFERS/TOTAL RAISED/FARM OF HEIFERS

LAFAYETTE 9 of 24 85 765

SUWANNEE 13 of 18 110 1430

HAMILTON 1 of 2 60 60
COLUMBIA 2 of 2 58 115

GILCHRIST 1 of 1 1700 1700

TOTAL 26 of 47 95' 4070

SAdjusted for number of herds per county and without Gilchrist.

4. The anticipated costs of having to comply with probable upcoming environmental regulations
was rated the top challenge to successful dairying in the future. Other responses are listed below.
Interviewees could respond with more than one answer so the total answers were greater than 47.
BIGGEST CHALLENGES TO
SUCCESSFUL DAIRYING

1. COSTS TO COMPLY WITH 13
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
2. ECONOMIC SQUEEZE (MILK, FEED 9
AND COW PRICES, DEBT)
3. HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS 8
4. LACK OF HIGH QUALITY FORAGES 5
5. LACK OF LAND 3
6. LACK OF QUALITY LABOR 3
7. EXCESSIVE MUD 2
8. NEGATIVE PUBLIC OPINION 1
9. INVESTOR DAIRIES 1
10. MILK IMPORTS 1
11. PERSONAL STRESS 1
12. WANTS MORE UNIVERSITY HELP 1
13. PRESENT FACILITIES 1
14. POOR BREEDING IN THE SUMMER 1
15. FINDING REPLACEMENT HEIFERS 1
16. INCREASING NUMBER OF DAIRIES IN 1
THE AREA










General forage background


5. The potential of each of these forages to fit into the dairy forage program were rated by 43 dairy
producers. Dwarf elephantgrass, perennial peanut, and winter clovers were essentially an unknown (no
opinion was held). Alfalfa was rated the highest and hairy indigo the lowest of the more well-known
forages.

RATING OF FORAGE SPECIES BY 43 FLORIDA DAIRYMEN

FORAGE RESPONSES AVG. RATING*
SMALL GRAINS 37 2.9
CALLIE BERMUDA 35 2.9
PEARL MILLET 35 3.0
TIFTON 78 BERMUDA 33 3.3
SUDAN SUDAX 32 3.0
ALFALFA 29 3.8
HAIRY INDIGO 23 2.3
GRAIN SORGHUM 21 2.6
TROPICAL CORN 17 2.5
PERENNIAL PEANUT 10 3.2
WINTER CLOVERS 10 3.3
DWARF ELEPHANTGRASS 7 4.0
*5=HIGH AND 1=LOW


6. Sixty-nine percent of the dairies planted and
purchased all of their forage needs.


harvested some forages. The other dairies


7. The amount of land used for crop production was similar among the counties, averaging about
200 acres per farm.


COUNTY
* 700 ACRES PLANTED


LAND USAGE FOR CROP PRODUCTION BY 32
DAIRY FARMS IN SUVWNNEE VALLEY













METHODS OF MOVING MANURE WATER TO LAND


GUNS
8. Twenty-two out of 47 dairies moved manure 41
water to their land. Spreaders and irrigation guns were
the most common methods used. Only 9 producers had
PIPES
irrigation equipment in place and operating for crop 18%
production.


SPREADER
41%
22 OUT OF 47 DAIRIES



REASONS WHY FORAGE PRODUCTION
REASONS WHY FORAGE PRODUCTION 9. Thirty-six percent of the dairies
indicated that they were not able to grow enough
forage to meet the demand on their own farm. A
lack of land was the primary reason but labor,
LAND 43% equipment, and capital limitations were stated
also.

10. On the average, producers thought
that a 17 percent savings (range from 0 to 75
EQUIPMENT 16% POOR FORAGE 3% percent) could be obtained on their feed bill if they
DESIRE 3% grew their own forages rather than buying them.
KNOW-HOW 3%
KNOW-HOW 3% Eight farms had no opinion.

LABOR 16% CAPITAL 16%


11. Thirty-three dairies purchased forage for their cows. Coastal bermudagrass hay was by far
the most popular.


KIND OF FORAGE PURCHASED BY 33 DAIRIES
NEEDING MORE FORAGE

PERENNIAL PEANUT 3% CORN SILAGE 6%









COASTAL BERMUDA 91%










12. Forty percent of the dairies purchased hay from local dealers.


13. The range and average cost of coastal bermudagrass hay, corn silage, and perennial peanut hay
are listed below.


14. Twenty-five out of 27 producers bought their hay based upon its weight, with no regard for
water, protein, or energy content of the hay.
HAY PRODUCTION

1. Hay production was practiced on 25 dairies. The number of acres dedicated to hay ranged from
20 to 250 per farm with an average of 82 acres. Breakdown by county is listed below.

NUMBER TOTAL
COUNTY OF FARMS ACRES/FARM ACRES

SUWANNEE 8 65 520

COLUMBIA 1 60 60

LAFAYETTE 14 83 1162

HAMILTON 2 155 310

TOTAL/AVERAGE 25 82 2052


2. Coastal bermudagrass was, by far, the most
commonly grown forage for hay.


FREQUENCY OF FORAGE SPECIES USED
BY FLORIDA DAIRIES FOR HAY

ALICIA BERMUDAGRASS 4% ARGENTINA BAHIAGRASS 4%


COST OF PURCHASING FORAGES ($/TON)

FORAGE RANGE AVERAGE

COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS $39 TO $60 $50.00

CORN SILAGE $35 TO $40 $37.50

PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY $100 $100.00


COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS 92%
28 DAIRIES














3. Sixty-four percent of those surveyed
tested their soils at least once every three years.


4. Most producers fertilized their hay
fields only once or twice a year.


5. The average amounts of nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium applied per acre are
listed to the left.


6. The amount of nitrogen applied per acre varied widely among producers. About as many
producers applied < 100 pounds/acre as those that applied > 400 pounds/acre. Fourteen out of the 25 hay
producers applied nitrogen after every harvest. The amount of nitrogen applied per acre tended to
increase the amount of forage estimated to be harvested per acre. Estimated yield ranged from 3.5 to 10.0
tons/acre with an average of 6.7.


FERTILIZER FREQUENCY
N
U
M 1o
B 9
R
0
F
6
P
R
D 2
U
E o
R o 1 2 3 4
S NUMBER OF FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS/YEAR
25 DAIRIES


AVERAGE AMOUNTS OF
FERTILIZER APPLIED PER ACRE

FERTILIZER LBS/ACRE

NITROGEN 236

PHOSPHORUS 36

POTASSIUM 135


PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCERS USING DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF
NITROGEN AND THEIR ESTIMATED HAY YIELDS.*

PRODUCERS LBS OF NITROGEN ESTIMATED YIELD

(%) (LBS/ACRE) (TONS/ACRE)

16 < 100 4.2

24 100 199 7.0

28 200 299 6.2

12 300 399 7.3

20 400- 500 8.1















7. The frequency of adding other chemicals to the
forage or soil were as shown to the right.


MEETING NUTRIENT NEEDS OF GRASS

70
% sO
F O 48
P 40

U 20
C 200-
E
R
8 *

MICIOELEMENTS SULFUR UME IN8ECTICIDE8 HERgICtDEB


8. Most producers harvested their hay three to
four times a year.


9. Additives were used on 12 percent of the dairy farms to try to help improve quality.

10. Hay was stored outside by 88 percent of the producers.

11. Fourty-four percent of the hay producers tested their forage for quality. Recollection of crude
protein contents ranged from 6.0 to 15.5 percent with an average of 11.9 percent. No one could recall the
energy content of their hay.

12. Weather was cited by most hay producers as the biggest problem to quality production with
other problems being of lesser concern.


PATTERNS OF CUTTING FREQUENCY


2.0 2 -3 3.0 -4 4.0
HAY CUTTING FREQUENCY PER YEAR


26 DAIsRIS


BIGGEST PROBLEMS IN PRODUCTION
AND FEEDING OF HAY

PROBLEM % OF RESPONSES

WEATHER 20

EQUIPMENT UPKEEP 2

LOW QUALITY 1

WASTAGE 1

TIME TO DO IT 1

ARMY WORMS 1

POOR INTAKE IN SUMMER 1









13. Eight producers stated that they were interested in trying a new forage in the near future.
Tifton 78 bermudagrass was mentioned the most often.


SILAGE PRODUCTION

1. Ten dairy producers (21 percent of those surveyed) stored their forage as silage.

2. Corn silage was twice as popular as sorghum silage. Bermudagrass silage was made by one
producer. In addition, one farm followed corn silage with sorghum silage. Another farm planted sorghum
and soybeans together.


Types, Amounts, and Estimated Yields of Forages Grown for Silage

Acres per Farm
No. of Yield
Silage Producers Range Average (Tons/A)

Corn silage 6 44-2800 166' 17.5
Sorghum 3 60-250 134 25.0
Bermudagrass 1 20 20 ?

'Excludes the farm growing 2800 acres.

3. Minimum tillage techniques were used on one third of the corn silage and sorghum crops
grown.

4. Seventy percent tested their soils in order to obtain fertilizer application recommendations.

5. The amounts of fertilizer applied varied widely among producers.


NEW FORAGES TO BE PLANNED IN THE FUTURE

FORAGE NUMBER OF PRODUCERS

TIFTON 78 BERMUDAGRASS 5

PERENNIAL PEANUT 2

FL501 OATS 1












Average Amount of N-P-K Application to Forages Used for Silage

Nitrogen (lb/A) P205 (lb/A) KO2 (lb/A)

Crop Range Average Range Average Range Average

Corn silage 50-300 202 40-108 63 40-300 150

Sorghum 63-300 163 28-150 71 63-280 152

Bermuda 295 25 95



6. Seven out of nine producers growing row crops fertilized only once during the growing season.

7. Irrigation was used by five out of six crops of corn silage and by one out of three crops of
sorghum.

8. The frequency of applying other chemicals to the crops is shown below.


AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT OF
CORN SILAGE AND SORGHUM SILAGE

7
N
U 6 CORN SILAGE E SORGHUM SILAGE
M
B 5-
E
R
4-
O 3 3 3
F
A
M 1

0
MICROS SULFUR LIME INSECTICIDE HERBICIDE

TOTALS: CORN SILAGE-6; SORGHUM-3.




9. Corn was harvested for silage when it reached "maturity." Criteria used to time the harvest of
sorghum varied from "experience" to "boot stage" to "dough stage" to "maturity."

10. A silage inoculant was used on two out of three sorghum fields but only on one out of six corn
fields.

11. A variety of structures were used to store the forage. A majority of those harvesting corn
silage stacked it on the ground with little protection from the environment.










Silage Storage Structures Used on Florida Dairies

Silo Type

Crop Bunker Trench Stack Plastic Bag
Corn silage 1 1 4 1
Sorghum 1 1 0 1
Bermuda 0 0 0 1

12. More than 14 days were required on the average to fill a horizontal silo and seal it.

13. Silages were analyzed for chemical composition by 100 percent of those growing sorghum but
only by 50 percent of those growing corn.

14. Weather was cited as the biggest problem to optimum harvest of forage for silage with
equipment problems a close second.


Biggest Problems in Producing High
Quality Silage

Problem Responses

Weather 4/10
Equipment upkeep 3/10
Timely harvests 1/10
Better varieties 1/10









PASTURE UTILIZATION


1. Twenty-one dairies utilized pasture to house and graze their animals. One third of those
planted higher quality annuals for grazing. Forage species and number of acres of each are listed below.


Types and Amounts of Forages Used as Pasture

Forage Number Acres Acres
of Farms (average) (range)

Bahia 12 166 22-550
Coastal 2 385 20-750
Bermuda

Bahia + Rye 1 770 770
Rye + Millet 4 60 40-150
Rye + Oats 1 400 400
Millet 1 60 60


2. Those 21 producers used their pastures mainly for their dry cows and heifers although lactating
cows also were routinely kept on pasture.


3. The average number of animals per acre was 2.7.


4. Only five out of 21 producers tested their soils prior to the spreading of fertilizer.

5. The amounts of fertilizer applied to each forage was highest for bermudagrass and lowest for
bahiagrass. The approximate ratio of N-P-K for bahiagrass and bermudagrass was 3-1-3 and for annuals
was 6-1-4.












Average Application of N-P-K to Pastures of Different Forage Species.

Forage Number of Nitrogen P,0, KLO
Farms (lb/A) (lb/A) (lb/A)

Bahiagrass 5 79 25 67

Bermudagrass 2 300 115 290

Millet, Rye, & Oats 7 149 25 89


6. Fifty-eight percent (7 12) of bahiagrass pastures were not fertilized and 33 percent (4 + 12)
were fertilized only once during the year. Fertilizer was usually applied twice to pastures planted with
annuals.


7. Applying microelements to the pastures was common while
insecticides was uncommon.


use of lime, herbicides, and


8. Rotational grazing of pastures was practiced by 100 percent of those growing annuals but only
by 29 percent (4 + 14) of those growing bahiagrass of bermudagrass.


APPLICATIONS OF FERTILIZER
TO PASTURES

N 10
U
M 9
B 8 PERENNIALS 3 ANNUALS
E 7]
Ra 7


A i
r :i
E o
s 0 1 2 3 4
NUMBER OF FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS/YEAR
DAIRY TOTALS: PERENNIALS-14; ANNUALS-7


AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL
AND ANNUAL GRASSES IN PASTURES

N7
U 6
M 6 ..... PERENNIALS
E 5 ::: ANNUALS







MICROS HERBICIDES LIME INSECTICIDES

TOTAL FARMS: PERENNIALS- 14; ANNUALS- 7










9. Supplementation of pastures with trace minerals was common, with salt being used frequently
and molasses being used infrequently as shown below.


10. Fencing and lack of land were the most common problems faced by those managing pastures
with weed control a significant challenge as well. Other concerns are listed in the table.


SUPPLEMENTATION OF PASTURES


0
F o6
D
A
I
R 30
E
S
o-
TR
21 DAIRIES


Biggest Problems in Managing Animals on
Pasture

Problem Responses

1. Fencing 4

2. Lack of land 4

3. Weed control 3

4. Shade 2

5. Weather 2

6. Keeping grazed 1










QUALITY MEASUREMENTS OF FORAGES FED ON DAIRIES


On a return visit to many of the dairies surveyed, a sample of forage was collected and chemically
analyzed. The objective was to determine the quality of the forage being fed on the dairy.

1. Coastal bermudagrass hay.
A. Quality index.
Sixty-two separate lots of coastal bermudagrass hay were core sampled and analyzed using
NIR technology at the Agricultural Research and Education Center at Ona, Florida. A quality
index (Q]) rating was assigned to each sample based upon its chemical composition. A QI of 1.0
indicates the forage will maintain the body weight of a mature cow when eaten without any
supplementation. In other words, the forage does not contain enough nutrients to support any
production (body weight gain or milk yield) by the animal. The higher the QI, the better the
quality of' the hay.

In our survey, only 19 percent of the sampled hay which was being fed to cows had any
potential to support production (QI's > 1.0). In addition, 31 percent of the hay (QI's of < 1.0)
would cause the cow to lose weight if she received no supplementation.

B. Total digestible nutrients (TDN)
The total digestible nutrient content of the hays are listed below and arranged according
to their QI.


Total Digestible Nutrients (Dry Matter Basis) of Hay Sampled on Dairies'

Quality Index Average Range % of Total
(%) (%) Samples
0.8 44.3 43.3 45.4 3
0.9 48.5 46.1 50.6 28
1.0 52.4 46.6 53.0 50
1.1 53.3 50.0 55.9 16
1.2 56.7 56.5 57.0 3

'Based on 62 samples of Coastal bermudagrass sampled from October and
November of 1990.

C. Crude Protein.
The crude protein (CP) contents of the hays ranged from 2.9 to 13.7 percent (dry matter
basis). As QI increased from 0.9 to 1.2, the average CP content increased from 7.0 to 13.4 percent.
However, the table illustrates that a forages' CP content is not a good indicator of quality. Some
forages which had a QI of 0.9 contained 11.2 percent CP which is a concentration suggesting a
forage of higher quality. Likewise, some forages which had a QI of 1.1 contained 8.1 percent CP,
suggesting a lower quality than actual. While a forage's CP is important information when
formulating a diet, it is a poor indicator by itself of quality. The amount of nitrogen used to
fertilize and the frequency of spreading it has a greater influence on a plant's CP content than its
maturity.










Crude Protein Content (Dry Matter Basis) of Hay Sampled on Dairies'

Quality Index Average Range % of Total
(%) (%) Samples
0.8 8.0 7.8 8.2 3
0.9 7.0 2.9- 11.2 28
1.0 8.7 5.4 12.6 50
1.1 11.4 8.1 13.2 16
1.2 13.4 13.2 13.7 3

'Based on 62 samples of Coastal bermudagrass sampled from October
and November of 1990.

D. Neutral Detergent Fiber.
The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of a forage is a measure of it's total fiber
content. As NDF content increases, quality decreases because the fiber portion of the plant is less
digestible than the nonfiber portion. Average NDF content decreased from 84.8 percent to 78.3
percent as QI increased from .8 to 1.2. Only 19 percent of the samples were < 80 percent NDF.



Neutral Detergent Fiber Content (Dry Matter Basis) of Hay Sampled on
Dairies'

Quality Index Average Range % of Total
(%) (%) Samples
0.8 84.8 84.2 85.4 3
0.9 83.8 79.7 86.4 28
1.0 81.1 72.8 84.0 50
1.1 79.3 74.9 80.3 16
1.2 78.3 77.8 78.9 3

'Based on 62 samples of Coastal bermudagrass sampled from October and
November of 1990.


E. Harvesting Practices.
Thirty-two producers responded to the question "How often do you cut for hay?" 19
percent of the producers (6 + 32) worked at making hay at less than six week frequencies. This
is the same percentage of producers who possessed hay which had a QI > 1.0. 50 percent of the
producers (16 + 32) made hay that was older than 6 weeks of age. This practice is likely
responsible for the poor quality of hay fed on the dairies surveyed. A major reason for this delay
in harvest is regular summer rains. Most producers indicated that weather was the major










problem encountered in making hay. However, if producers attempt to make hay at four week
intervals instead of at six week intervals, they should be able to get the grass stored within six
weeks of regrowth most of the time.


Hay-Cutting Frequency Reported by Florida Daily Managers

Weeks of Regrowth

4 4-5 5 5-6 6 6-7 7 6-8 8 8-10

Responses 1 1 3 1 9 3 1 11 3 1

2. Corn and Sorghum Silages.
Only a few samples of corn and sorghum silages were collected. The corn silage appears to have
been harvested at about the right maturity based upon their average moisture content. The CP content
is similar to that reported in the feed composition tables of the National Research Council. TDN of corn
silage was lower than that normally seen for corn silage grown in cooler areas of the U.S. This is usually
due to the higher NDF content of corn silage grown in Florida.

Sorghum appears to have been harvested on the immature side based upon its chemical
composition. A'i the plant matures, it dries out and the grain content increases. Although it depends
somewhat on the variety, sorghum should be harvested and stored at a moisture content about 72 percent.
At this maturity, it's TDN should be closer to 60 percent and it's CP content closer to 7 percent.


Chemical Composition of Corn Silage and
Sorghum Silage Sampled on Dairies

Crude Total Digestible
Number of Moisture Protein Nutrients, %
Forage Samples (%) (% DM)

Corn silage 4 67.3 7.9 57.8

Sorghum silage 3 78.3 10.7 56.6


SUMMARY OF SURVEY RESULTS

Industry Characterization.
1. The dairy industry in the Suwannee River Valley is relatively young. The average farm has been
operating 15 years and is smaller in size than the state average (396 vs. 545 cows per farm).

2. Although over two-thirds of the dairies grow some forage for their cows, over three-fourths of the dairies
purchase some forage to meet their forage needs, primarily Coastal bermudagrass hay.

Hay Production.
1. Nearly sixty percent of farms produce Coastal bermudagrass hay.

2. Average amount of nitrogen applied per acre generally matches the University of Florida's
recommendations (80 pounds of nitrogen per cutting).









3. Over 70 percent of Coastal bermudagrass hay used as feed on Suwannee Valley dairies was of poor
quality; characterized as a "maintenance" hay, at best.

4. Management steps suggested by university personnel to improve hay production and utilization based
upon currently reported practices include:

a) chemically analyze hays (only 44 percent tested hays) and
b) store hay off of soil to reduce hay losses (88 percent stored on soil).

Silage Production.
1. Only about 20 percent of farms made silage; irrigated corn silage was the most popular.

2. Average amount of fertilizer applied per acre was less than that recommended by University of Florida.

3. Management steps suggested by university personnel to improve silage production and utilization based
upon currently reported practices include:

a) cover and seal forage after packing in silo and
b) chemical testing of silage after opening.

Pasture Management.
1. Although nearly 50 percent of farms grazed animals on pasture, majority of nutrients for diets came
from feed bunk. Bahiagrass was the most common pasture grass.

2. Rotational grazing was practiced only with annual forage crops, not with perennial forage crops.

3. Management steps suggested by university personnel to improve pasture utilization based upon
currently reported practices include:

a) applying fertilizer to soils,
b) testing soils prior to fertilization,
c) providing free access salt to all grazing animals.

























































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES John T Woeste.
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress, and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to 'ace, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4 H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices Information on bulk rates or copies for out of state purchasers
is available from C.M Hintor, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida. Gainesville Florida 32611 Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 10 / 92




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