Group Title: Circular
Title: IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008574/00001
 Material Information
Title: IFAS standardized fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops
Series Title: Circular
Alternate Title: Standardized fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet (8 p.) : ill. ; 23 x 10 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hochmuth, George J ( George Joseph )
Hanlon, Edward A ( Edward Aloysius ), 1946-
Publisher: University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: George J. Hochmuth and Edward A. Hanlon.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 1995."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00008574
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6838
ltuf - AKL4984
oclc - 32981837
alephbibnum - 002027386

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// a Circular I1152
IFAS Standardized Fertilization
Recommendations for
Vegetable Crops
George J. Hochmuth and Edward A. Hanlon
Marston Science
L irr.4, 1
JUL 28 1995


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UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
UNIVrRSITY OF FLOMiA LIiRFLS






INTRODUCTION

This publication presents in abbreviated form the
fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops based on
soil tests performed by the IFAS Extension Soil Testing
Laboratory (ESTL) and replaces SS-SOS-907 (Notes m Soil
Science #38) It contains the basic information from which
ESTL soil-test reports and fertilization recommendations are
generated. For more complete coverage of the subject, refer to
IFAS Extension Circular 817, Soil, Container Media, and
Water Testing Interpretations and IFAS Standardized Fertilza-
tion Recommendations, and SP 177, Commercial Vegetable
Crop Nutrient Requirements m Florida.

SOIL TESTING

Soil testing is a tool in crop fertilization management.
Successful use of soil testing requires that: (1) you send to the
lab soil samples that adequately represent your field or
management unit, (2) the laboratory use calibrated soil-test
methods for predicting fertility requirements, and (3) the
fertilizer recommendations you get are based on measured
crop responses.
The ESTL extracts phosphorus (P), potassium (K),
magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), manganese
(Mn), and zinc (Zn) with the Mehlich-1 extractant and bases
fertilization recommendations for those nutrients on the test
results. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is not based on soil tests but
on crop need documented in research literature. Liming
recommendations are based on the Adams-Evans lime
requirement test, a calibration equation developed for Florida
soils, and the target pH for the crop for which the recommen-
dation is being made.

SOIL-TEST RATING LEVEL

The current UF/IFAS interpretation of the Mehlich-l
extractant is presented in Table 1. This interpretation scale has
been verified by field research on growers' fields throughout
Florida for vegetable production.
Table 1. Mehlich-1 soil-test interpretations used for vegetable crops.
Parts per million soil
Element
Very low Low Medium High Very high

P <10 10-15 16-30 31-60 >60
K <20 20-35 36-60 61-125 >125
Mg <15 15-30 >30 -





interpretations of results for Mehlich-1 extractable
micronutnents are presented in Table 2. These interpretations
have been developed from experience and some field testing
with vegetables. Because response to micronutrients is
commodity specific, these interpretations should be used as
guides only. Zinc, Cu, and Mn can build up with time since
they are quite immobile in the soil. The decision to add
micronutrients should include all sources such as fungicides
and micronutrient content in irrigation water.

Table 2. Interpretations of Mehlch-1 soil tests for micronutrients'

Soil pH (mineral soils only)

55--59 60-64 6.5-7.0

ppm

Test level below which there m
may be a crop response 0.1-0.3 0.3-0.5 0.5
to applied copper. !


...Lk.. I .4I .7.j, .:< aI 2.0-3.0 3.0--.0 5.0


Test level below which there
may be a crop response 30.-5.0 5.0-7.0 7.0-9.0
to applied manganese

Test levelbelow which there
may be a crop response 0.5 0,5-1.0 1.0--.0
to applied zinc,
From "Notes in Soil Science" No 9.1983.

SOIL-TEST RECOMMENDATION

Soil test reports from the ESTL are computer-
generated from soil-test data and crop information. Reports
contain the results of the tests (soil pH, ppm extractable P, K,
Mg, Ca, and Cu, Mn, and Zn, if requested), a rating of the P,
K, and Mg (very high to very low), and a fertilization recom-
mendation. The recommendation is composed of two parts: (1)
the rates of N, PO,, and KO fertilizer to apply, and (2)
footnotes that give important information about fertilization
management, such as application timing, special crop require-
ments, etc.
Table 3 contains crop descriptions, target pH, and N,
P,O,, and KO2 recommendations for each of the five soil-test
rating levels, for which footnotes will be printed for each of
the crop reports, and the references upon which the recom-
mendations are based. Table 4 contains the texts of the
footnotes.





Table 3. Target pH, and recommended N, PO, and KO fertilizer rates for commercial vegetable production Phosphorus and potassium rates are based on interpretation of a Mehhch-I soil test (Circular 817).


Pounds/Acre/Cropping Season

IT .n N P20 KO


Crop Descnption pH (Ib/A) VL L MED IHI VHI VL L MED HI


BEAN Snap, Uima, Pole 6.5
BEET 6.5

BROCCOLI Cauliflower, 65
Brussels Sprouts

CABBAGE Collard, 6.5
Chinese Cabbage

CARROT 65
CELERY 6.5

CUCUMBER 6.5
EGGPLANT 6-5

IRISH POTATO 6.0

LETTUCE Crisphead. Romaine, 6.5
Endive, Escarole
MUSKMELON 6.5
MUSTARD Kale, Tunp 6.5
OKRA 6.5
ONION Bulb 6.0

ONION Bunching, Leek 6.5
PARSLEY 65

PEA Southem, Snow, English 6.5
PEPPER Bel, Specalty 6.5

RADISH 6.5

SPINACH 6.5

SQUASH Summer, Winter, Pumpkin 6.5

STRAWBERRY 6.5
SWEET CORN 60
SWEET POTATO 6.5

TOMATO Slicing, Cherry 6.5

WATERMELON 6.0


150 150 120


150 150
200 200

150 120
160 160

175 120


150 150 120


120 100

120 100
120 100

150 120
120 100

120 100
150 i 120

150 120
I


100 80 0

100 80 0
120 !100 0


0


0 120

0 120
0 150

0 150

0 150

0 250


au u i Izu luu
100 0 0 160 130

60 0 0 1403 140

80 0 0 150 120

80 0 0 150 120
100 0 0 150 120
100 0 0 150 120

80 0 0o 150 120
80 0 0 120 100

100 0 0 150 120
60 0 0 80 80

100 0 0 160 130

80 0 0 120 100

80 0 0 120 100
80 0 0 120 100

100 0 0 150 120
80 0 0 120 100
80 0 0 120 100

100 0 0 225 150

80 0 0 150 120


i 80


1 Footnote numbers are the corpuAte codes used in generabng footnote pnnout
2 Cr= Circular Bul = ulletn SSSAJ Soil Senc Societyof Amenca Joural SCSSFP= Sol & Crop Sienc Society of Amerca Proceedings
3K fenl]lzaon reconmelndatlonos lor potato not based on sal test results since yield response was riot conelaled with sl K


VHI Footnotes' References'

0 250251 Cir 100, 225C, 478. SP 177

0 250251 Cir22C, SP 177

0 250 251 350 351 352 354 Cir 555, 225C, SP 177

0 250251 350 351 352 354 COr 117E, 225C, SP100, SP 177

0 250 251 Cr 225C, SP 177

0 250 251 354 Cir 757,225, SP 177

0 250 251 350 351 354 Cir 101E, 225C, SP177
0 250251 350351 Cir225C, SP 177
352353354

140 250253 Cir 118, 225C, SP 177, SSSAJ 47:226-270,
SCSSFP 41:192-195
0 250 251 350 351 352354 Cir 123, 225C, SP 177

0 250 251 350 351 354 Cir 122C. 225C, SP 177
0 250251 Cr 225C. SP 177
0 250 251350 351 I Cr 225C, SP 177

0 250 251350351354 Cir 225C, Bul 238. SP 177
0 250251 Cir 225C, SP 177
0 250251 Cr 225C, SP177
0 250 251 COr 100, 225C, SP 177

0 250251350351 Cr 102E, 225C, Cir S-357, SP 177
352353354
0 250251 252 Cir225C, SP 177

0 250251 Cr 225C. SP 177

0 250 251 350 351 354 Cir 103D, 225C, SP 177
0 250350352353354355 Cir 142,225C, 1141, SP 177

0 250 251 Cir 99,122 225C, SP 177

0 250251 Cir 44011 551,225C, SP 77
0 250 251 350 351 352 Cir 98C, 225C. SP 177


353 354

250 251 350 351 352
353354


Cir 225C. SP 113, SP 177






Table 4. Footnotes used with vegetable crops.
250 Indicated fertilizer amounts, and the nutrients already in the soil, will
satisfy the crop nutrient requirement for this cropping season. Fertlizer
and water management are linked Maximum fertilizer efficiency is
achieved only with dose attention to water management. Supply only
enough imgation water to satisfy crop requirements. Excess ligation
may result in leaching of N and K, creating possible plant deficiencies.
For subsurface irrigation, maintain a constant water table between 18
and 24 inches below the top of the bed
On soils that have not been in vegetable production within the past 20
years, or where micronutrients are known to be deficient, apply 5 Ib
Mn, 3 Ib Zn, 4 lb Fe, 3 lb Cu, and 1.5 Ib B/A. Use soil testing to
monitor micronutnent status every 2 years. When deciding about
micronutnent applications, consider micronutlents added to the crop
via fungicides. Some mcronutnents can build up in the soil avoid
micronutnent toxicity.


251 For unmulched crops, fertilizer should be applied in split
applications to reduce leaching losses and lessen danger of fertilizer
bum. Broadcast all P,20 and micronutrients, if any, and 25 to 50% of
the N and K,0 in the bed at planting. Apply remaining N and KO in
sidedress bands during the early par of the growing season.
In cold soil or following fumigation, apply 20 to 25% of the
recommended N in the nitrate form
Additional, supplemental sidedress applications of 30 Ib N/A and 20 Ib
KO/A should be applied only if rainfal/imngation amounts exceed 3
inches within a 3-day period or exceed 4 inches within a 7-day penod
Avoid mechanical damage to plants when applying fertilizers.

252 The amounts suggested are generally sufficient for 2 or 3 crops in
succession.

253 Where scab-resrstant cultivars are grown, a pH between 6 0 and
6.5 is optimum. Where scab-susceptible cultivars are grown, the pH
should be below 5.2 or above 72. Band all phosphorus. Apply 50 to
70% of N and 50% of KO at planting or at emergence and the
remaining N and K at 35 to 40 days after planting.

350 Supply 25 to 50% of the N in the nitrate form i soils were treated
with muti-pupose furmgants and I the soil temperature wi stay below 600F

351 For mulched crops and subsurface imgation, incorporate 10 to
20% of the N and KO0, plus all of the PO, and micronutrients, if any,
into the bed. Apply the remainder of the N and KO2 two to three inches
deep in one or more bands about 6 to 10 inches from the plants.
For dnp imgation. incorporate 20% of the N and K,0 and all of the
P,0, and micronutnents, if any, into the bed. Apply the remainder of the
N and KO periodically through dnp tubes according to the rate of crop
growth. Consult SS-VEC-45, Fertilizer management for micro (drip)
irngated vegetable crops in Florida" for information on crop schedules.
For management systems where both seep and drip ligation are being
used, apply no more than 20% of the N and KO, plus all of the PO,
and micronutnents, if any, into the bed. Apply the remainder of the N
and K,0 periodically through dnp tubes according to the rate of crop
growth.
For overhead irrigation, Incorporate all of the N, PO, K20 and micro-
nutrients, if any, into the bed prior to installation of the plastic mulch.






Table 4 continued.

352 Amounts suggested are for the first crop. Squash and cucumber
following other crops on the same mulch may not need additional
fertilizer. If fertilizer is needed for the second crop, apply fertilizer using
a liquid-injection wheel or via drip irrigation.


353 From 25 to 30% of the N may be supplied from slow-release N
sources, such as sulfur-coated urea or isobutylidene-diurea (IBDU)


354 Transplants may benefit from application of a dilute, soluble
starter fertilizer, especially at cool soil temperatures.


355 For overhead irrigation, broadcast all the P,O, and micronutnents,
i any, and 25% of te N and KO into the bed Band remaining N and
KO0 in center of bed three inches deep
For subsurface rrigation, incorporate 10 to 20% of the N and KO, plus
all of the P,O, and micronutnents, if any, into the bed. Apply the
remainder of the N and KO two to three inches deep in one or more
bands about 6 to 10 inches from the plants.
For dnp irrigation, incorporate 20% of the N and K.O and all of the
P.O, and micronutrients, if any, into the bed. Apply the remainder of the
N and KO periodically through dnp tubes according to the rate of crop
growth, see SS-VEC-45 "Fertilizer management for micro (drip)
irrigated vegetable crops in Florida" and Cirm. 1141, Fertlization of
Strawbemes in Flonda"
For management systems where both seep and dnp imgation are
being used, apply no more than 20% of the N and KO, plus all of the
PO, and micronutnents, if any, into the bed. Apply the remainder of the
N and KO periodically through drip tubes according to the rate ol crop
growth, -




sclUvCE


George Hochmuth is Professor, Horticultural Sciences Department,
EdHanlonis Professor, Soil and Water Science Department, Coopera-
tive Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS), University of Florida, Gamesville, FL 32611






COOPERATIVEEXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OFFLORIDA, INSTITUTE
OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T Woeste, Director, in coop-
eraton with te United Stales DeOartment of Agriculture, publishes his infomaon
to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress, and s
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race color, age, sex,
handicap or nalioal origin The information in ths publication is available in
altemateformats Single copiesofextension publicaons(excludng 4-Handyouth
publications) are available free to Florda residents from county extension offices
Information on bulk rates, cles for out-of-state purcase is available from C.M
Hinton, Publicatons Oislbinbuon Center Unersity of Floida, PO Box 110011,
Gainesville, FL 32611-0011 Inforrnahon about alternae formats is available from
Educational Meda and Services, Universityof Floda. POBox110810 Gainesville.
FL32611-0810 This information waspublished 1989 as SS-SOS-907; revised and
updated June, 1995 as Circular 1152. Forida Cooperatve Extensin Service




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