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Group Title: Bulletin Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: Health management of sick, newly-arrived beef cattle
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 Material Information
Title: Health management of sick, newly-arrived beef cattle
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Richey, E. J ( Eddie Joe )
Prichard, David Louis, 1956-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1988?
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Diseases -- Diagnosis   ( lcsh )
Veterinary medicine -- Diagnosis   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.J. Richey and D.L. Prichard.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00008511
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6773
ltuf - AFD6583
oclc - 18631673
alephbibnum - 001053240

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Full Text
Bulletin 243


Health
Management
Of Sick,
Newly arrived
Beef Cattle


I I ILI I I I I &


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension







Health Management of Sick, Newly-Arrived Beef Cattle
E.J. Richey, DVM and D.L. Prichard*
Introduction

A successful program for the management of sick cattle must be simple and systematic; that is, a
sick animal must be easily identified and the treatment must be routine and require a minimum of
judgement decisions by the working crew.
The key elements in this program include:
A. Identifying sick cattle as soon as possible.
B. Keeping adequate records.
C. Systematic treatment of sick animals.
D. Evaluating sick cattle daily, and
E. Changing treatment, if necessary, until an improvement is noted.

A stocker operator wanting to use this program should consult a veterinarian prior to implementing
these procedures.

Identifying Sick Cattle As Soon As Possible

For the Experienced Stocker Operator:
Usually the experienced stocker operator backgrounderr) can readily identify sick animals by visual
inspection. We will not question this person's ability nor will we try to "fix it if it's not broke." If
you feel confident with your ability to identify sick animals, please skip this section and go to Records.
For the Inexperienced Stocker Operator:
The following technique is offered to the inexperienced stocker handler or anyone who does not have
the "knack" for identifying sick cattle:
On the morning following arrival, routine processing of the cattle begins. At this time it is
desirable to pull as many of the sick animals as possible. Elevated body temperatures and/or visible
signs of illness are used to identify the sick animals. As soon as the animal is restrained in the chute
TAKE ITS TEMPERATURE using a rectal thermometer.
The processing crew follows two rules for pulling sick cattle:
1. Designate as SICK all cattle with a rectal temperature of 1040F or greater.
2. Designate as SICK all visibly ill cattle REGARDLESS of the body temperature.
Visible symptoms of illness include excessive nasal discharges, labored breathing, harsh deep
coughing, moderate to severe depression or bloody diarrhea. Animals exhibiting only loose stools or
non-bloody diarrhea are not pulled as sick.

Animals designated as sick should be identified with numbered backtags glued to the forehead or
numbered ear tags. In addition, they should be vaccinated, wormed and injected with vitamins as well as
the non-ill animals. Castration and dehorning can be delayed if necessary. These procedures require
additional time and it is important that the processing and treatment of the sick cattle be completed
well before noon. In addition, castration and dehorning are very stressful to sick cattle.
NOTE: The value of 1040F was obtained from experience and data accumulation.
Occasionally, younger animals (recently weaned) will exhibit higher body temperatures.
If you notice that you are pulling a great number of animals that appear to be healthy
and that are also on feed, then change the pulling temperature to 1050F. Be Flexible,
don't "get in a rut" and stay there when you know things don't fit.

*E.J. Richey is Associate Professor and Extension Veterinarian, College of Veterinary Medicine,
Gainesville and D.L. Prichard is Assistant Professor of Animal Science and Extension Livestock
Specialist, North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, IFAS, University of Florida.
2









Records
Complete and accurate records are a necessity. They tell tomorrow what was observed and done
today. Processing crews should use a record card printed with a different form on each side. The first
form used is the EXAMINATION portion which is only filled out on the first day the animal is pulled as
sick (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Examination record.


Tag_ Pen Date 1st Pulled
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body Temp._ ;
NOSE: dry crusted
EYES: clear cloudy
LUNGS: heavy br. labored
DIARRHEA: bloody watery
DIGESTIVE: bloat drawn
FOOT ROT: yes no
NERV.SYS: staggering convulsi
DEPRESSION: slight moderal
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF ILLNESS: (S)light; (M)oderal
REMARKS:


Time of Day
Weight
discharge clear
ulcers watery
rapid cough
black
full
ons muscle twitch
e severe


te; (V)ery


The assigned tag number, body temperature and estimated body weight are recorded at the top of
the card. Visible symptoms are recorded by checking appropriate spaces. If a diagnosis is made, it is
recorded. The severity of illness is rated as slightly ill (S), moderately ill (M) or very ill (V). Space is
also provided for any additional remarks that pertain to the sick animal. (See examples 1-5).
Remember, all this is tojogyour memory tomorrow or, in your absence, to inform a substitute why
the animal was pulled as sick. The reverse side of the card is the TREATMENT portion of the record.
This portion will be discussed in subsequent sections.

Systematic Treatment
When cattle are sick on arrival or shortly thereafter, there is usually insufficient time to diagnose
or identify the causative organisms before treatment begins.
The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) and diseases which result in diarrhea cause 99% of
the health problems during the first three weeks after arrival. BRD is caused by a combination of
respiratory viral infections plus stress, compounded by bacterial infections. The major stresses have
already occurred and the viruses are essentially untreatable. Therefore, the bacterial infections must be
controlled by the use of antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and sulfas). The sick cattle are medicated for
bacterial infections in general rather than specific diseases, with the exception of bloody diarrhea. In
all cases, cattle designated and identified as sick are medicated while in the squeeze chute for routine
processing. The SICK animals are medicated ONE of TWO ways, the deciding factor being the presence
or absence of BLOODYDIARRHEA
1. Sick animals WITHOUT bloody diarrhea pulled for visible signs or a high body
temperature are treated with: (for example)
Injectable OXYTETRACYCLINE
and
SULFA BOLUSES








2. Animals exhibiting BLOODY DIARRHEA with or without a fever (1040F or greater) are
treated with:
Injectable ANTIBIOTIC of choice
and
AMPROLIUM NEOMYCIN DRENCH
Cattle displaying non-bloody diarrhea are essentially ignored when processed. The loose stools may
be due to a change in diet or a heavy worm load. Cattle should be put on a high roughage diet and
wormed during processing. This often alleviates the problem.
The processing crew should be given NO CHOICE of treatment; treatments are designated in advance.
The only decision required is to determine the presence or absence of bloody diarrhea." This judgement
decision is usually made when a crew member is obtaining the body temperature.
It is necessary to record the medication administered to the animal on the TREATMENT portion of
the record (Figure 2). The tag number, date of treatment, body temperature, severity of illness (S, M,
or V) and the amount of each medication administered are recorded.

Figure 2. Treatment Record.
Name of Medication
__TAG
PEN O Wt.


DATE TEMP. REMARKS













The use of the EXAMINATION and TREATMENT portions of the record card is demonstrated in
examples from several treated animals (see Examples 1-5).
As cattle leave the squeeze chute, sick animals need to be separated from the non-sick cattle by use
of a cutting gate. All animals (sick and non-sick) should be held near the working area until the
processing operation is complete. This permits easy observation for the detection of reactions to
vaccinations or medications.
After processing is complete, non-sick cattle should be moved to drylots or small pastures, observed
twice daily for 14 days and pulled when and if detected as sick. Non-sick cattle in drylot or on pasture
need to be pulled as sick by visual inspection only. They need not be run through the chute and
temperature each day. Those cattle pulled as sick after processing should be administered the same
treatment program as the cattle designated sick on processing.

Evaluating Sick Cattle Daily
It is imperative that sick animals be rechecked and evaluated each day. Rechecking must be done as
early in the day as possible, well before noon, to obtain useful body temperatures. Sick cattle need to
be observed before they are moved to the working chute area. If possible, each animal should be noted
for appetite, respiratory difficulties, consistency of stool and degree of depression.








The first thing accomplished after an animal is restrained in the chute is to TAKE ITS
TEMPERATURE! Next, the record card is pulled and checked to see why the animal was pulled as sick
the first day. Then the new body temperature is recorded. At this point one should determine if the
animal's physical signs have improved; that is, if the animal appears visibly less sick than the day
before! Change in body temperature is not used to make this decision. It is based on the change in
appetite, respiratory difficulty, fecal consistency or change in depression.
Next, RATE THE SEVERITY OF ILLNESS: (S=Slight, M=Moderate or V=Very ill) using the visual
observations. Now the RECORD card for this day shows the date, body temperature and severity of
illness, as well as the previous day's information and treatment. It is NOT necessary to change the
"EXAMINATION" portion of the record filled out the first day the animal was sick. The
"EXAMINATION" portion is used to jog the memory and remind you of why the animal was pulled in the
first place.; Changes in the physical signs can be noted in the "REMARKS" section of the treatment
card.
When an animal starts on a medication, improvement must occur within 24 hours, or one should
assume the medication is not effective.
DID THE SICKANIMAL IMPROVE? The criteria for this decision are:
1. An animal with a temperature of 1040F or greater on the first day it was pulled has to
show a 2 degree reduction in fever or drop to less than 104F body temperature within
24 hours following treatment to be designated as improved.
2. An animal with a rectal temperature of less than 1040F on the first day has to
improve physically within 24 hours following treatment to be designated as improved
(i.e., from Very ill to Moderately ill, Moderately ill to Slightly ill, or Slightly ill to less
than Slightly ill).
If an animal has improved, REPEAT THE MEDICATION administered the day before. In sick animals
WITHOUT bloody diarrhea, TREATMENT NO. I is repeated (see Example 1). In animals pulled WITH
BLOODY DIARRHEA, the AMPROLIUM NEOMYCIN drench should be repeated even if a significant
firming of the stool is noted (see Example 2). Even if the fever has dropped 2 degrees or below 1040F,
or if a fever was not present the previous day, the injectable medication is repeated also. The
treatment (injectable medication and amprolium neomycin drench) should be continued for a total of
four days. The treatment schedule for animals exhibiting BLOODYDIARRHEA is outlined in Table 3.

Changing Treatments
When an animal DOES NOT IMPROVE, the medication needs to be changed, following a set schedule
of treatments. Changing treatments at daily intervals continues until the animal begins to improve (see
Examples 3 and 4). The successful treatment is continued until fever, depression, lack of appetite and
other clinical signs of illness are absent for two consecutive days. Tables 1 and 2 provide the producer
and the veterinary practitioner with suggested medications to select a treatment schedule.
Using a predetermined sequence of treatments eliminates having to choose what drugs to use next if
the previous treatment did not work. A change to the next treatment becomes systematic. The
advantage of this procedure is that if a disease organism is resistant to certain drugs, medication is
changed frequently until an effective treatment is found.
We are essentially using the sick animal as a laboratory test. If the treatment does not work......then
the animal will not improve; we must change treatment.
In cases of BLOODY DIARRHEA accompanied by a fever, the body temperature must drop 2 degrees
or below 1040F, else a change in the injectable antibiotic is required. Note that ONLY the injectable
portion of the treatment is changed; the drench medication remains the same.
Treatment sequences for medicating sick, newly-arrived and stressed cattle, with and
without bloody diarrhea, are outlined in Tables 1 and 3. Remember, if an animal fails
to improve within 24 hours after a treatment is administered, change to the next
treatment on the treatment schedule.








If an animal improves on a treatment, that treatment should be continued until clinical symptoms are
absent for two consecutive days. Then the animal is released.
If you are changing treatments looking for a medication that works, and you find it, then by all
means use this medication as TREATMENT NO. 1 on subsequent sick cattle pulled from this load.
However, remember what works on this load of cattle may not work on another load. SEARCH FOR
THE DRUG THAT WORKS by systematically changing treatments when animals do not respond to
medication.

GUIDELINES for the use of medications are outlined in tables 2 and 4. INJECTION SITES and the
proper NEEDLE SIZES for the administration of selected antibiotics are shown in Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7.

YOU must make up the LIST OF TREATMENTS to be used. Choose from the suggested treatments
listed in Table 2. It is advisable to consult your veterinarian prior to implementing this procedure. A
practicing veterinarian's experience in your area may enable him/her to advise in the selection of a
sequence of treatments.

Table 1: Treatment for sick animals not exhibiting bloody diarrhea.

TREATMENT NO. 1: Choose a suggested treatment (A through I) from Table 2.
TREATMENT NO. 2:
TREATMENT NO. 3: "
TREATMENT NO. 4: "
TREATMENT NO. 5: "
TREATMENT NO. 6: Treat for 3 days with OXYTETRACYCLINE. If no improvement, treat for 3 days
with SULFA BOLUSES. If no improvement, treat for 3 days with PENICILLIN.
Subsequent treatments, if required, should consist of 3 days of SULFA BOLUSES or
PENICILLIN.


If animal fails to improve within 24 hrs., change to the next treatment on your list.
If animal improves on a treatment, continue that treatment until clinical symptoms have been absent
for two consecutive days.

Table 2: Suggested antibiotic or chemotherapeutic treatments.

A. OXYTETRACYCLINE 100 mg/ml
B. SULFA BOLUSES (oral administration):
1. SULFADIMETHOXINE BOLUSES
2. SULFAMETHAZINE BOLUSES
C. Combination of OXYTETRACYCLINE & SULFA BOLUSES (A & B)
D. ERYTHROMYCIN "GALLIMYCIN 200"
E. TYLOSIN "TYLAN 200"
F. PROCAINE PENICILUN G
G. AMOXICILLIN "AMOXI-JECT"
H. AMPROVINE NEOMYCIN DRENCH (oral drench)








Table 3: Treatment for animals exhibiting bloody diarrhea.

TREATMENT
DAY

Ist DAY: Drench with 1 oz. of AMPROLIUM-NEOMYCIN for each 100 Ibs body weight. (see TABLE 4))
PLUS
Inject with ANTIBIOTIC of choice.

2nd DAY: Repeat the above treatment unless the fever, if present, has not dropped below 1040F. In that
case, drench as described on the 1st day and replace the injectable ANTIBIOTIC with another.
3rd DAY:
4th DAY:

The injectable treatment will require changing if the fever persists. Use the same criteria for improvement as
previously described. Once improvement is noted continue using that antibiotic for the injectable portion of
the treatment.
5th DAY If necessary, continue the injectable antibiotic portion of the treatment past the 4th day to control
& MORE a fever. The successful injectable treatment needs to continue until the fever is absent for 2
consecutive days before the animal is released.


Common Problems Encountered
Often situations are encountered which do not follow a pattern. It is virtually impossible to cover
all situations which arise. However, several of the more common ones are discussed in this section:
The normal body temperature of newly-arrived stressed cattle has not been determined. In this
program, any body temperature below 1040F upon arrival is accepted as normal. However, the body
temperature of some animals that have been treated for several days will settle between 103.50F and
1040F. In these animals, treatment may need to be changed. Treatment should be changed if the animal
exhibits a poor appetite or any degree of depression. If the appetite is good and the animal is alert,
treatment should not be changed. It is continued for a total of 5 days, and the animal is then released.

A large rise in the body temperature from one day to the next may be due to a poor thermometer
reading oni the previous day. This occurs when the animal's rectum is filled with air while the
temperature is taken. The thermometer probe is not getting a true reading of the body temperature. Be
alert for this situation. It is like placing the probe in a balloon. If a sudden increase is noted in the
body temperature one day after a sudden drop, change to the next treatment.
If poor appetites are noted in sick animals, administer injectable high potency B-complex vitamins,
an oral rumen inoculum, and drench the animal with 15-30 ounces of liquid feed supplement or a suitable
suspension of protein/vitamin supplement in addition to the scheduled medication. It is also advisable to
offer several different feeds to the animals. Give them a choice.
If diarrhea in an animal not being treated continues for more than 2 days after processing, or if a
sudden onset of diarrhea occurs in an animal, pull the animal as sick and begin the DIARRHEA
TREATMENT SCHEDULE (Table 3). In cases of severe diarrhea in which the animal is rapidly losing
condition (appears gaunt, caved in), it is necessary to replenish amino acids, electrolytes, B vitamins and
water. In addition to the designated treatment for bloody diarrhea, administer 1 gallon of an oral
nutrient-electrolyte solution via stomach tube twice a day, inject high potency B-complex vitamins: and
administer 500 ml of an amino acid-electrolyte-vitamin solution intravenously each day.
It is necessary that the daily checking, evaluation and treatment of sick animals be conducted well
before noon, preferably completed by 10:00 a.m. The elevated body temperatures exhibited by newly
stressed cattle in the afternoon and evening can result in erroneous evaluations of treatment.









Table 4: Suggested guidelines on drug use.*

I. OXYTETRACYCLINE, 100 mg/cc
Subcutaneous use in cattle with respiratory disease. Use 5cc/100 Ib (5mg/lb). Inject no more than 10cc per
site (see Figure 4). Do not sell or slaughter for 20 days after the last treatment with oxytetracycline.
II. SULFADIMETHOXINE BOLUSES
Oral use (15 gram boluses)
1. Use 1 bolus for every 600 Ib for initial treatment
2. Re-treat once daily with 1/2 bolus for every 600 Ib
3. Do not sell or slaughter for 7 days after the last treatment with sulfadimethoxine boluses.
III. SULFAMETHAZINE BOLUSES
Oral use (15 gram boluses)
1. Use 1 bolus for every 150 Ibs. for initial treatment
2. Re-treat once daily with 1 bolus for every 225 Ibs.
3. Do not sell or slaughter for 10 days after the last treatment with sulfamethazine boluses.
The following precautions should be observed in using SULFADIMETHOXINE or SULFAMETHAZINE:
1. Don't treat with sulfa boluses for longer than a 5-day period.
2. Avoid use of sulfa boluses in severely dehydrated cattle or in cattle that are not drinking.
IV. ERYTHROMYCIN (GALLIMYCIN 200)
Inject 1cc/100 Ibs (2mg/Ib) deep in the muscle. Do not sell for slaughter for 15 days after treatment with
this dose of erythromycin.
NOTE: If it is found that this dose is ineffective, then after a veterinarian-client-patient relationship has been
established, the veterinarian may want to recommend a higher dose of 5cc//00 Ibs (lOmg/lb) for treating
respiratory disease in new cattle. Inject deep into the muscles of the hind leg (see Figure 5). Use no
more than 10cc per injection site. Do not sell or slaughter for 30 days after the last treatment with
this high dose of erythromycin.
V. TYLOSIN (TYLAN 200)
Use 4cc/100 Ib (8mg/lb) injected into the hind leg.
NOTE: A veterinarian, after establishing a client-patient relationship, may recommend the use of 5cc/100 Ib (10
mg/lb) injected into the muscles of the hind leg (see Figure 6). Use no more than /Occ per injection
site. Do not sell or slaughter for 20 days after the last treatment with Tylosin.
VI. PROCAINE PENICILLIN G
Administer icc/150 Ibs into the muscles of the hindleg. Not more than 10cc should be injected in one
intramuscular site. Do not sell for slaughter for 11 days after the last treatment with this dose.
NOTE: If it is found that this dose is ineffective, then after a veterinarian-client-patient relationship has been
established, the veterinarian may want to recommend a higher dose of 10 cc/100 Ib (30,000 units/lb)
injected subcutaneously (see Figure 7). There is no limit on the volume used per subcutaneous injection
site. Do not sell or slaughter for 20 days after the last treatment with this high dose of penicillin.
VII. AMOXICILLIN (reconstituted to 250 mg/ml)
Use 2cc/100 Ib injected under the skin (see Figure B).Up to 30cc can be injected in one site. Do not use for
longer than 5 days. Do not slaughter for 25 days after the last treatment with this antibiotic.
VIll. AMPROLIUM (CORID 9.6% solution)
To be diluted and used orally as a drench for coccidiosis. Pour 6 oz. of CORID into a quart container and
then fill with water. Use 1 oz. (30ml) for each 100 Ibs of body weight daily for 5 days.
IX. NEOMYCIN SULFATE solution (200 mg/ml)
To be used orally as a drench for bacterial gut infections. Dosage is 3cc/100 Ibs. body weight. Dilute the
dose needed in at least 3 times as much water and administer orally.
X. AMPROUUM NEOMYCIN DRENCH
To be used orally as a drench for coccidiosis and bacterial gut infections. Add 24 liquid ounces (1 and 1/2
pints) of undiluted 9.6% AMPROUUM to a gallon container; add 1 pint of NEOMYCIN SULFATE solution (200
mg/ml); and then add enough water to the container to make a gallon of the mix. Administer orally as a
drench 1 liquid ounce per 100 Ibs body weight for 4 5 days.
Oz. AMPRO. + Oz. NEOMYC. + Oz. WATER-> Amount of Drench
24 + 16 + 88 -> 1 Gallon
12 + 8 + 44 -> 1/2 Gallon
6 + 4 + 22 -> 1 Quart
3 + 2 + 11 -> 1 Pint
* The route of administration and the dosages suggested may be different than the manufacturer's label guidelines.
However, on the advice of an attending veterinarian, these changes may be recommended to provide adequate
serum concentrations for approximately 24 hours and allow the control of susceptible bacteria by treating only
once a day. The withdrawal periods must be substantially lengthened to compensate for the higher dosages.








Quite often it is necessary to pull cattle found sick in the afternoon or evening. Set rules must be
followed:
1. Pull because of visible signs only.
2. Start medication with TREATMENT NO. 1, tag and put the animal in the sick pen.
3. If the body temperature is above 1040F the next morning, change treatment.
4. If the body temperature is below 1040F, repeat the treatment.
Elevated body temperatures obtained in the afternoon would seldom, if ever, be meaningful and should
not be used as criteria for sickness.
Repeated antibiotic injections into the same area (muscle) of the body will often result in
inflammation of the tissues surrounding the injection site. This inflammation is exhibited by a body
temperature rise, a swelling at the injection sites, and soreness which may cause the animal to become
lame. Be alert for soreness which may occur after multiple treatments. This soreness, causing a lack of
movement, may be erroneously interpreted as "DEPRESSION". One can expect to encounter a rise in
body temperature of 1-20F after an animal has received 3-4 treatments of erythromycin. If this occurs
it will be necessary to evaluate the animal by its appetite and other physical signs. To reduce the
possibility of causing tissue inflammation, the injection sites should be alternated from one side of the
animal to the other on a daily basis. A simple routine to insure that the injection sites are alternated
is to label one side of the chute EVEN and the other side ODD. Then on the EVEN days of the month,
inject the animal on the EVEN side; and on the ODD days of the month, inject on the ODD side.

Electronic Thermometer/Body Temperature
The electronic thermometer is a tool which is very useful for detecting animals which have an
elevated body temperature. Cattle do not maintain a body temperature within a very narrow range such
as humans. In the normal regulation of body temperature, cattle let their temperature fluctuate many
degrees rather than expend energy to hold it constant. Under stress conditions, cattle temperatures may
range from about 100 to 108 degrees, and follow a diurnal pattern. (Low temperatures in the morning
and high temperatures in the afternoon, not dropping until 4-6 a.m.) The magnitude of the fluctuation is
effected by the environmental temperature and humidity as well as the stress of transportation. The
diurnal variation occurs irregardless of the seasonal environmental changes.
The magnitude of temperature fluctuation in cattle may be as great as 6-7 degrees immediately after
arrival and then gradually settles into a normal diurnal variation of 2-3 degrees after the cattle have
adjusted to the new environment (usually 7-14 days).
Another problem encountered when using body temperatures is that the normal body temperature
rises with movement or excitement of the animal. However, it appears that when body temperatures are
at their diurnal lows and are not elevated by the stresses of movement, animals exhibiting fevers due to
infections may be separated from the normal cattle with a thermometer. Identification of sick animals
using the electronic thermometer has been very useful for the inexperienced stocker handler when used
with the following limitations:
1. Newly-arrived cattle should be divided into groups of not over 25 head and allowed to
rest overnight with free access to hay and water.
2. Processing and the taking of body temperatures starts at dawn and is completed within
three hours.
3. No animal is out of its pen or waiting for processing for over 30 minutes.
4. Extra care must be taken to move the cattle through processing with a minimum of
excitement or stress. Body temperatures need to be taken when the animal first enters
the chute.
The use of the electronic thermometer under conditions which conflict with the above four conditions
could result in misleading body temperatures.









The sick animal does not elevate its body temperature above the diurnal high in a consistent manner.
There may be a little more latitude in using the thermometer to monitor treatment responses in the sick
pen where temperatures are recorded daily and a change in the body temperature is the criteria being
watched. However, it is still advisable that the body temperature be obtained during the early morning
hours.
Use of Body Temperature and Visible Symptoms
For the Detection of Sick, Newly-Arrived Cattle
First, a brief discussion on the influence of infectious diseases on the animal's body temperature and
clinical symptoms. (NOTE: It will be helpful to refer to Figure 3 while reading this section).
In untreated infected animals, the body temperature begins to elevate after the incubation period for
the infectious organism. Some animals (as shown by curve A) will recover without exhibiting clinical
symptoms, and in others (as shown by curve B) the body temperature will continue to elevate and
clinical symptoms of illness appear. Gradually an animal's defense system overcome the infection and as
the animal begins to recover, the body temperature drops and clinical symptoms begin to disappear.
Finally, the body temperature returns to normal and the animal is said to be in a convalescent state --
on the way to recovery.
However, in some animals (as shown by curve C) the body defenses fail to overcome the infectious
process and the animal begins to succumb to the disease. The clinical symptoms continue to worsen
and eventually the body temperature begins to fall. If the animal cannot overcome the infection, the
body temperature will drop well below normal and death usually occurs.
If you pull as sick on processing those animals that "have a rectal temperature of 104oF or greater,"
you will have pulled most of the animals that are exhibiting clinical symptoms. In addition, you will
have pulled some animals that are not yet showing clinical symptoms but, in time, will become sick if
they go untreated.
Also, if you pull those animals that "exhibit visible signs of illness regardless of the body
temperature," you will pick up those animals that have severe gross clinical symptoms and exhibit body
temperatures below 1040F (zone Z). These animals can be noticed in the chute by anyone having just
minimal cattle savvy; they stand out like a sore thumb. Without the correct treatment these cattle are
on the way out! They will become chronicc" or die.
What you will miss are those animals that ARE INFECTED which have less than a 1040F body
temperature and show no clinical signs of illness. If the animal's natural defenses do not respond or if
your loving care is not adequate, those animals will begin to exhibit clinical symptoms a day or two
later. The feeding personnel or pen rider will pick up these animals in the pen -- still early detection.
Figure 3: Body temperature and animal response to infection.

IIIIII/ IIIIII
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS
VERY OBVIOUS






C
1040 F --- -

A ZONE Z

NORMALL) _








Therefore,
PULL AS SICK ON PROCESSING ALL ANIMALS THAT:
1. Have a rectal temperature of 1040F or greater, or
2. Exhibit visible signs of illness .... regardless of the body temperature.

IN CONCLUSION, REMEMBER THAT;
The key elements in this program were:
A. Identifying sick cattle as soon as possible.
B. Keeping adequate records.
C. Systematic treatment of sick animals.
D. Evaluating sick cattle daily, and
E. Changing treatment, if necessary, until an improvement is noted.

Any stocker operator wanting to use this program should consult a veterinary practitioner familiar
with shipped cattle before trying to implement these procedures.







Example 1: Using the body temperature to monitor improvement when the animal responds quickly to
treatment.


Tag Pen / Date 1st Pulled / ; Time of Day
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body Temp. /0; Weight


NOSE:
EYES:
LUNGS:
DIARRHEA:
DIGESTIVE:
FOOT ROT:
NERV.SYS:
DEPRESSION:
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF
REMARKS:


500 1/bs.


dry crusted discharge '* clear
clear cloudy ulcers watery
heavy br. labored rapid cough
bloody watery black .-
bloat drawn full __
yes no
staggering convulsions muscle twitch
slight moderate severe
__ el


LI A b ~QES LDIka4i1Mtd


Name of Medication
$A TAG /
CI w/.- .
4 PEN


DATE TEMP. 0 0 REMARKS

1-1L3 ID6. 0 At Z

/-/jL 102.1 SM 25 __ ______
/0 /./ -I- ie V __I
JJ/5L /<92.^ ^ ZS' ^___ __


/-/7 /O/. I9 Zo .I- IELgsLEV-D







The first treatment (OXYTETRACYCLINE and SULFA BOLUSES) reduced the temperature from 1060F to
102.10F. Since the temperature dropped more than 20F or to below 1040F within 24 hours after treatment,
the animal was designated as "improved" and the SEVERITY OF ILLNESS status upgraded from (M)oderately to
(S)lightly and the treatment was repeated daily until the animal was near normal for 2 consecutive days, at
which time It was released.


7AM/Ds


,


IL-NESS: (S)liglt; (M)oderate/(V)ery


7: 4M







Example 2: Treatment of an animal with BLOODY DIARRHEA and having a body temperature above 1040F on
the first day it was pulled -- animal responds to treatment.


Tag Pen Date 1st Pulled -7 ; Time of Day j ." .
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body Temp./Og.; Weight .LO


NOSE:
EYES:
LUNGS:
DIARRHEA:
DIGESTIVE:
FOOT ROT:
NERV.SYS:
DEPRESSION:
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF
REMARKS:


dry crusted discharge clear ve-
clear cloudy ulcers watery
heavy br. labored rapid cough
bloody ;'/ watery black
bloat drawn z full
yes no
staggering convulsions muscle twitch
slight ., moderate severe


IA/I/ IA


SIU/. 1W -5 '. A-


ILLNESS: (S)light; (M)oderate; (V)ery


Name of Medication
1T3 TAG w/
PEN AO 0 wt.


DATE TEMP./ 00 REMARKS

__ ___/ M 0$' __ __ __ __5'ox. ^--- OuA/ce^

Jf /03.3 M 1Z 25" ______
_? lo_. o S2_ (oz ______,
JzL / 1S. 50 J 2-5 _______
I-_II /o_._ S -__ _.-- ELE4fE-
L 6 /02.0 S 2611








The animal was pulled with a BLOODY DIARRHEA. Because the animal had a temperature of 1050F; the
body temperature was used to evaluate the response to treatment. The body temperature dropped to below
1040F within 24 hours of the first treatment; hence, the antibiotic injection (OXYTETRACYCLINE) was
repeated as well as the AMPROLIUM/NEOMYCIN drench. After 4 days of improvement the oral drench was
dropped from the treatment. However, because the SEVERITY OF ILLNESS rating was not quite normal, the
injectable OXYTETRACYCLINE was continued for another day.


--


7 l r A







Example 3: Using the body temperature to evaluate treatments and CHANGING TREATMENTS until an
improvement was noted.


Tag /0 Pen 2 Date 1st Pulled Z.- 7 ; Time of Day
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body Temp/O. /; Weight


NOSE:
EYES:
LUNGS:
DIARRHEA:
DIGESTIVE:
FOOT ROT:
NERV.SYS:
DEPRESSION:
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF
REMARKS:


~~J(S4M1


4i00 fhL _


dry crusted discharge ,' clear
clear cloudy ulcers watery wo,
heavy br. labored rapid cough -,.
bloody watery black
bloat drawn full
yes no_
staggering convulsions muscle twitch
slight moderate severe


ILLNESS: V (S)light; (M)oderate; (V)ery


The body temperature did not drop 20F or to below 1040F following TREATMENT NO. 1 or 2, hence, we
can assume the medications were not effective. Treatments were changed daily until TYLOSIN (TREATMENT
NO. 3) resulted in an acceptable improvement, a temperature drop to below 1040F within 24 hours after
treatment. Treatment with TYLOSIN continued until the animal appeared normal for 2 consecutive days.







Example 4: Using the SEVERITY OF ILLNESS to monitor improvement in an animal with less than a 1040F
body temperature.


Tag__ Pen 2 Date 1st Pulled /- ; Time of Day /
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body Temp/_IJ_; Weight Sd0


NOSE:
EYES:
LUNGS:
DIARRHEA:
DIGESTIVE:
FOOT ROT:
NERV.SYS:
DEPRESSION:
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF
REMARKS:


dry crusted discharge clear
clear cloudy ulcers watery ,
heavy br. labored _a rapid cough -'
bloody watery black
bloat drawn / full
yes no
staggering convulsions muscle twitch
slight moderate severe


ILLNESS: 4/ (S)light; (M)ode ;
ILLNESS: __q(S)light; (M)oderate; (V)ery


VI/AALP' PLL Jl2C oad AfRIZ/44L


Name of Medication
_ TAG
Z PEN zwt.5-o


DATE TEMP. O/ V REMARKS
1 _/03.3 / _S I___________

/o3.3 Z --- _A/_ E~4TIN_
I-/o /0.5 I s 3-____,__ ?
1-1/1 12.5 S ___25______ I
1-12 /o/.8 St _z 4r//

1-13 /o0 .0 0 __ =4Le-Ee ZE





The animal was pulled because of a nasal discharge, red and watery eyes, a drawn gut and severe
depression. Since its body temperature was below 1040F, we used the SEVERITY OF ILLNESS to monitor
treatments. No improvement was noted following TREATMENT NO. 1 (OXYTET + SULFA BOLUSES);
therefore, medication was changed to TREATMENT NO. 2. The ERYTHROMYCIN (TREATMENT NO. 2)
resulted in an improved SEVERITY OF ILLNESS rating, a change from (M)oderately ill to (S)lightly ill. The
ERYTHROMYCIN treatment continued until the animal was free of clinical signs and was eating for 2
consecutive days.







Example 5:Treatment of a WATERY DIARRHEA with a body temperature above 1040F...the injectable
medication needs to be changed.


TagJ/. Pen Date 1st Pulled /--/ ; Time of Day ." 1/6
When 1st Pulled as Sick: Body TempIS'.~ ; Weight 5"00


NOSE:
EYES:
LUNGS:
DIARRHEA:
DIGESTIVE:
FOOT ROT:
NERV.SYS:
DEPRESSION:
OTHER:
DIAGNOSIS:
SEVERITY OF ILLI
REMARKS: A


dry crusted discharge SL clear
clear cloudy ulcers watery
heavy br._ labored rapid cough
bloody watery MI black
bloat drawn full
yes no
staggering convulsions muscle twitch
slight moderate L severe


NESS:


?RAP EA --


fa V RLOO


(S)light; (M)oderate; (V)ery


//Mt4AL


(4RRI VED


6- Z:': V.


Name of Medication
/- TAG O -
PEN wt. CaO
I _-


DATE TEMP. 0 REMARKS

1-1, /O 3 '.3- S <--o LOOSE
/ __. 25 L0 e8


/-/o /. o 0 a. fELe k








Five days after arrival, this animal was pulled for having a prolonged diarrhea. Upon examination, it was
found to have a temperature of 105.30F. The BLOODY DIARRHEA treatment schedule (Table 3.) was used.
Following the first treatment, the body temperature did not drop to below 1040F. Therefore, the injectable
medication was changed to ERYTHROMYCIN while the AMPROUUM/NEOMYCIN drench was repeated. The
body temperature dropped to 100.50F within 24 hours following treatment with erythromycin, hence,
improvement. The ERYTHROMYCIN injections and the AMPROLIUM/NEOMYCIN drench continued through
day 4.


4M
/S.'







Figure 4: OXYTETRACYCLINE injection.


500 Ibs of body weight requires:

5cc/cwt x 5 cwt = 25cc

of oxytetracycline (100 mg/ml).









OXYTETRACYCLINE injection (100 mg/ml). Use a 1" x 16 GA needle to administer 5cc/100 Ibs body weight
under the skin. Grasp the skin high above and just behind the shoulder (just off the midline) and pull
up....insert the needle pointed downward so the drug will not seep out the needle hole. Inject only 10cc of
drug at this site. If the drug has a tendency to leak out of the needle hole, gently pat or hit the leaky hole
with your hand. The remainder of the dose is injected at other sites toward the rear of the animal. Every
8-10 inches, as you move back from the first site, lift the skin and inject as described above. DO NOT
inject more than 10cc per injection site. Alternate the injection sites from one side to the other at daily
intervals. ("ODD" and "EVEN" sides).

Figure 5: ERYTHROMYCIN injection






500 Ibs of body weight requires:

5cc/cwt x 5cwt = 25cc

of ERYTHROMYCIN (200 mg/ml).









ERYTHROMYCIN injection (200 mg/ml). Use a 1" x 16 GA needle to administer 5cc/100 Ibs body weight
deep in the muscle of the hind leg. The first injection site should be high on the rear edge of the hind leg
(upper round). Drop down about 4" for the second site and another 4" for the third site. DO NOT inject
more than 10cc per injection site. If the drug has a tendency to leak out of the needle hole, gently pat or
hit the leaky hole with your hand. Alternate the injection sites from one rear leg to the other at daily
intervals. ("ODD" and "EVEN" sides).







Figure 6: TYLOSIN injection.


S500 lbs of body weight requires:

5cc/cwt x 5cwt = 25cc

of TYLOSIN (200 mg/ml).








TYLOSIN INJECTION (200 mg/ml). Use a 1" x 16 GA needle to administer 5cc/100 Ibs body weight deep in
the muscle of the hind leg. The first injection site should be high on the rear edge of the hind leg (upper
round). Drop down about 4" for the second site and another 4" for the third site. DO NOT inject more than
10cc per injection site. If the drug has a tendency to leak out of the needle hole, gently pat or hit the
leaky hole with your hand. Alternate the injection sites from one rear leg to the other at daily intervals.
("ODD" and "EVEN" sides).

Figure 7: PROCAINE PENICILLIN G. injection.








500 Ibs of body weight requires:

10cc/cwt x 5cwt = 50cc dose

of PROCAINE PENICILLIN G










PROCAINE PENICILLIN G. INJECTION (300,000 IU/ml). Use a 1" x 16 GA needle to administer 10cc/100 Ibs
body weight under the skin. Grasp the skin just above and behind the shoulder and pull up....insert the
needle pointed downward so the drug will not seep out the needle hole. You may deposit the total dose in
one injection site. If the drug has a tendency to leak out of the needle hole, gently pat or hit the leaky
hole with your hand. Alternate the injection sites from one side to the other at daily intervals. ("ODD" and
"EVEN" sides).







Figure 8: AMOXICILLIN injection.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 05251 9690 1



500 Ibs of body weight requires:

2cc/cwt x 5cwt = 10cc dose

of AMOXICILLIN (250 mg/ml)


AMOXICILLIN INJECTION (reconstituted to 250 mg/ml). Use a 1" x 16 GA needle to administer 2cc/100 Ibs
body weight under the skin. Grasp the skin just above & behind the shoulder and pull up....insert the needle
pointed downward so the drug will not seep out the needle hole. You may deposit up to 30cc of this drug in
on injection site. If the drug has a tendency to leak out of the needle hole, gently pat or hit the leaky hole
with your hand. Alternate the injection sites from one side to the other at daily intervals. ("ODD" & "EVEN"
sides).






























DISCLAIMER
The mention of tradenames is solely to provide specific examples for illustrative purposes.
UF-IFAS does not endorse any tradename, or approve a particular product to the exclusion of
other products of similar composition.


































































This publication was produced at a cost of $866.84, or 36.2 cents per copy, to provide a systematic approach for
the health management of sick, newly arrived feeder cattle to cattle producers and veterinarians. 6-2.4M-88


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K.R. Tefertiller,
director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and
June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institu-
tions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H ..
and Ybuth publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state
purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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