• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Disclaimer
 Main
 References
 Appendix
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin / Florida Cooperative Extension Service ;
Title: Distribution patterns of selected emitters used for microirrigation of Florida citrus
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008437/00001
 Material Information
Title: Distribution patterns of selected emitters used for microirrigation of Florida citrus
Alternate Title: Microirrigation of Florida citrus
Physical Description: 21 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Boman, Brian J
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: February, 1989
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Irrigation engineering   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 13).
General Note: Florida Cooperative Extension Service bulletin 256
General Note: "February 1989."
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian J. Boman.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00008437
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6702
ltuf - AFL8979
oclc - 20975133
alephbibnum - 001122059

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Disclaimer
        Page i
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    References
        Page 13
    Appendix
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Back Cover
        Page 22
Full Text





































=-
--C-
----==-
5
~::
1::;3 iiii~:i

::~i~
rs
------111::::
-----
:::::1111::::
::::~
II:::::
i~i2 iii iiii iiii iiiii~l
iii~ .n~Ell
-I --I-I -~I-- II
"'
I~ii
-= ~ ~ .,~~
4 ~ ~ ;;;I
:::-






.:::
"'
:::: .::::
:::: isi.... .....iiCliei


i..iiii :::........ iiil
:::iiii::: ::: 1111
:::::
"' ::::

iiill
::::;;; :::
.I.I :::
"'"'
i i i C'iiil ibl~i;iiiii


~r_ 1 _1_1 1 ~_


!o/

6I 3 62 February 1989


Bulletin 256


Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida/John T. Woeste, Dean


Distribution Patterns of Selected Emitters

Used for Microirrigation of Florida Citrus













Brian J. Boman













The use of trade names is solely to facilitate the reader's understand-
ing of this study and does not constitute an endorsement or criticism
of the products by the author or by the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.































Brian J. Boman is Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering
and Citrus Irrigation Specialist, Agricultural Research and Educa-
tion Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Ft. Pierce.


Disclaimer








Distribution Patterns of Selected Emitters
Used for Microirrigation of Florida Citrus
Brian J. Boman

Introduction
Microirrigation has quickly become one of the most popular
methods of irrigation for citrus groves in Florida. Many growers prefer
spray or spinner emitters over drip systems since they provide a larger
diameter wetting pattern. This characteristic is especially desirable
in areas with coarse textured soils where lateral movement of soil
water is limited. The greater coverage diameters allow a larger
percentage of the root zone to be wetted by irrigation and can result
in greater soil moisture reserve and improved root development. The
larger wetting patterns of spinner and spray emitters also provide
advantages when the irrigation system is used to apply herbicides,
fungicides, nematacides, or fertilizer.
Spray emitters usually have slotted caps or deflector plates which
distribute water in distinct streams. Spinners have a moving part
which rotates to disperse the water stream over the wetted area.
Microirrigation spray and spinner emitters were characterized by Post
et al. (1986) as having: operating pressures of less than 30 psi,
discharge rates in the range of 5 to 25 gallons per hour (GPH), and
throw diameters ranging from 5 to 30 feet.
Uniformity of water distribution patterns is an important factor
in choosing spray and sprinkler emitters. High uniformity is important
for proper irrigation on sandy soils where lateral redistribution of water
is limited. One measure of uniformity is the equality (or inequality)
of the application rates within the area wetted by an emitter. Even
when the correct average amount of water is applied, excessive water
applications will occur in portions of the pattern if water is not applied
uniformly. These excessive water applications will, in turn, result
in deep percolation of water and leaching of nutrients out of the plant's
root zone. High uniformity is especially desirable for fertigation or
chemigation since the nutrient or chemical applications will be no
more uniform than the water distribution.
Although micro sprinkler and spray emitters have been installed
on thousands of acres of citrus, few studies of emitter performance
have been conducted. Johnston (1981) reported that the coverage
patterns for several emitter models varied considerably from the
manufacturer's specifications. Post et al. (1986) examined six spinner
type microirrigation emitters. Their study showed that the application
uniformity was much lower for microirrigation emitters than for
traditionally overlapped impact sprinklers. All six emitters they








evaluated produced poor ratings when standard concepts of uniformity
coefficients used for sprinkler irrigation were applied.
This bulletin documents the results of experiments conducted to
determine typical uniformity and coverage patterns for micro spray
and spinner emitters used for citrus irrigation in Florida. In addition,
the effects of operating pressure on emitter uniformity and flow rates
are presented. This information is needed for designers and operators
of microirrigation systems to obtain a proper match of emitter
performance for the soil and the crop to be irrigated.

Procedure
The emitter tests were conducted at the University of Florida's
Agricultural Research and Education Center at Fort Pierce. Complete
details of the experimental procedure are given in the reference by
Boman (1989). All tests were conducted indoors in a glass house with
a wind-free environment. Emitters were positioned on stake assemblies
eight inches above the tops of catch cans during the tests. A total
of 369 catch cans were placed on one-foot grid intervals in a matrix
extending to a radius of nine feet from the emitter. The catch
containers were 46-ounce metal cans with a diameter of 4.13 inches
and a height of 6.75 inches.
The emitters were connected to the water supply with two feet
of 0.16 inch (4 mm) diameter polyethylene (PE) spaghetti tubing.
A barbed adapter was used to make the connection to a one-inch
diameter PE supply line. The specified pressure was maintained
during the tests with an in-line pressure regulator and monitored with
a gauge in the supply line near the emitter. The tests generally
commenced about 2 A.M. in order to minimize evaporation losses.
An electronic timer, operating an electric solenoid valve, was used to
maintain a six hour duration for each of the tests. The volume of
water in each container was measured and recorded after each set
of tests.
Eleven types of spray emitters and five spinner types were
evaluated (Table 1). The emitters were selected randomly from lots
of approximately 100 emitters obtained from the dealer's or manufac-
turer's inventory. Most of the emitters were selected to be in the
"blue" base class with flow rates in the range of 10 to 12 GPH. Tests
were conducted using the full circle of catch containers. An exception,
the Hardie Microsprinkler III, had an application radius greater than
nine feet according to manufacturer's specifications. It was tested using
a 11-foot radius quarter-circle of catch cans.
Three emitters of each model were evaluated at 20 psi. The
emitter with the most uniform pattern at this pressure was also








evaluated at 15 and 25 psi. All data on distribution patterns, area
of coverage, and uniformity were based on 360 degrees of coverage.
Some of the emitter models, however, do not produce a full circle
pattern due to gaps in the pattern caused by the emitter design.

Table 1. Characteristics of emitters used in tests.

Size or Orifice
Manufacturer and model ID color diameter
In.

Spray emitters
Bowsmith Fan Jet Bow-FJ 40 0.040
Bowsmith Fan Jet II Bow-ii blue 0.040
Geor-Jet GeorJet blue 0.037
Hit Products Spray Jet Hit-40 40 0.039
Irridelco Fan Spray Irrid blue 0.040
Maxijet (360 X 12) Maxi blue 0.040
Mvicrojet (360 X 12) Micro blue 0.040
Olson Hydrojet Hydro blue 0.037
Rain Bird Micro Bird
Spray Jet RB-Jet blue 0.039
Solcoor Convex Spreader
with Orange Antimist Sol-Jet grey 0.044
Tornado Ray Jet Sprayer Ray Jet green 0.067
Spinner emitters
Hardie Microsprinkler Ill Hardie white 0.051
Netafim L.P. Minisprinkler Netafim black/black 0.050
Rain Bird Micro Bird
Spinner RB-Spin blue 0.039
Solcoor Bug Proof Spinner
with Orange Antimist Sol-Spin green 0.055
Tornado Mini Sprinkler Tor-Spin red 0.079


A computer program was developed to calculate the various perfor-
mance indicators and assist in analyzing the data. Parameters
calculated included the maximum, mean, and medium application
depths of applied water, the wetted diameter, the flow rate, and the
mean application rate. An additional performance indicator calculated
was the coefficient of variation (CV) of the catch depths. The CV is
independent of the scale of measurement, and thus allows dimension-
less comparisons of variability for emitters with different flow rates.







Results and Discussion


Several of the spray emitter models had spoke patterns with a
few streams spraying minor amounts of water beyond the main area
of water application. It was therefore necessary to designate a term
which appropriately described the wetted area. This was accomplished
by defining the term "effective" radius (R,) to be the average distance
from the emitter for the most distant 5% of containers which received
water. The "effective" area (A,) of water applications by the emitter
was then calculated as the circular area within a distance of R, from
the emitter. The R,'s ranged from 5.6 to 11.5 feet for the emitters
tested (Table 2). The corresponding A,'s ranged from 100 to 415
square feet.
In several tests, one or two containers received much more water
than any of the other containers. This made comparisons among
different models difficult. Therefore, two additional terms were
defined. The absolute maximum application depth (Dxa was defined
as the greatest depth caught in any of the containers for a particular
emitter. The "effective" maximum application depth (Dx.) was defined
to be the average depth caught in the 5% of the containers that had
the greatest catch depths. The average depth (Da) was calculated by
averaging the depths of water caught in the containers located within
a distance of R~from the emitter. Comparisons of emitter performance
were generally based on D,. and Da*
Post et al. (1986) recommended using multiple performance
indicators in order to better characterize emitter performance. The
coefficient of variation (CV) of catch depths was selected as the primary
performance indicator for this study. The CV of the catch depths for
a particular emitter was calculated by dividing Da by the standard
deviation of the depths used to calculate the mean and multiplying
by 100 to express it as a percentage. Thus, low CV's imply high
uniformity and high CV emitters have low uniformity.
The average CV's for the eleven spray emitters (Table 2) were
about double the magnitude of the spray emitters. As a group, the
spray emitters would therefore have lower overall uniformity than
spinner emitters. The CV differences between spinners and sprays
are due to the larger deviations in catch rates within the wetted area
of the sprays as compared to the spinners. The sprays typically had
spoked patterns while the spinners generally had patterns that were
nearly continuous.
Pressure changes did affect the CV's of the spray emitters less
than the spinners. Most of the spray models had no definite trend
with pressure. Nevertheless, considering all the spray emitters,








operation at 20 or 25 psi resulted in higher uniformity than operation
at 15 psi.
Little change in CV's of the spinner models was detected between
the 20 and 25 psi tests. However, operation at 15 psi resulted in
higher CV's for three of the five spinner models. A drop in the
operating pressure from 20 to 15 psi resulted in a marked increase
in the CV's of the Netafim, Solcoor, and Tornado spinner models
(Table 2). The CV of the Netafim model more than doubled with
this pressure drop. The higher CV's in the 15 psi tests were due to
a more pronounced doughnut effect in some of the emitters at the
lower pressure.
The beginning of a doughnut pattern near the outer perimeter
of the distribution pattern is evident for the Rain Bird Micro Bird
spinner operated at 20 psi (Figure 1). This band of higher application
areas is located about six feet from the center. An area of low
application depths is also apparent at a distance of four feet from the
emitter. The distribution pattern of the same emitter when operated
at 15 psi shows the doughnut pattern is well developed (Figure 2).
A pattern of low application depths at a radius of four feet is
surrounded by a circle of high application depths at a radius of six
feet. This type of pattern is common for all types of irrigation
sprinklers when they are operated below their recommended pressures.
It is therefore recommended that spinner emitters be operated with
a pressure of at least 20 psi in the lateral PE tubing.
Distribution patterns of all emitters tested are presented in
Appendix II. Two of the spray emitter models, the Geor-Jet and the
Tornado, had no evident spoke patterns. However, definite spoke
patterns were prevalent in all of the other spray models. The
distribution pattern of the Microjet emitter in Fig. 3 represents a
typical pattern for spray emitters. The Microjet's CV of 174% was
similar to the overall spray emitter mean of 177%. About 50% of the
effective area received insignificant water applications (less than 10%
of Da) and a few of the containers received applicatation depths of
more than six times Da*
Some of the spray emitters had patterns where there was little
diffusion of the water stream (Figure. 4). In this case, most of the
water was applied to the outer three feet of the pattern. In fact, this
emitter had more than 90% of the total water applied to less than
20% of the effective area. Note also that area within three feet of
the emitter received insignificant amounts of water. This type of water
distribution pattern would probably be inappropriate on coarse-
textured soils which have little potential for lateral water movement.









Table 2. Performance characteristics of the same emitter tested at 15, 20, and
25 psi.
Flow Application depths
Pressure Rea rate Dxa oDx Da ein CV
psi ft GPH in. go o o


Spray Emitters
Bowsmith Fan Jet
15 7.3 10.2 5.59 4.09
20 7.9 10.5 3.98 3.09
25 8.6 12.3 3.62 2.74
Bowsmith Fan Jet II
15 8.0 9.7 6.02 3.83
20 8.7 10.2 5.55 3.31
25 8.8 11.7 5.79 3.47
Geor-Jet
15 5.7 6.2 4.06 2.94
20 5.7 8.0 5.08 3.86
25 5.9 8.9 6.42 4.64
Hit Products Spray Jet
15 6.2 9.4 6.42 5.49
20 7.3 10.1 2.99 2.50
25 8.2 11.6 3.03 2.23
Irridelco Fan Spray
15 8.6 10.9 3.11 2.76
20 8.9 11.1 3.62 2.21
25 9.0 13.4 2.99 2.18
Maxiiet (360 X 12)
15 6.6 7.1 2.36 1.96
20 8.5 9.9 2.20 1.90
25 8.8 11.1 2.76 2.04
Microfet (360 X 12)
15 6.9 7.9 2.99 2.36
20 7.6 9.4 3.23 2.35
25 7.7 10.8 6.42 3.38
Olson Hydrofet
15 7.7 7.1 4.80 3.10
20 8.7 8.9 2.76 2.07
25 8.8 9.3 3.35 2.27
Rain Bird Micro Bird Spcray Jet
15 5.3 9.3 6.42 5.54
20 7.1 11.8 5.71 3.93
25 7.5 13.2 0.67 6.04
Solcoor Convex Spreader with Oran~qe Antimist
15 5.0 10.1 3.86 3.38
20 5.3 11.8 3.54 3.37
25 5.5 14.4 3.66 2.91
Tornado Ray Jet Sprayer
15 5.7 12.7 5.87 4.64
20 6.8 12.9 3.74 3.37
25 7.6 15.4 3.03 2.68
Spray emitter mean values
15 5.29 3.64
20 3.85 2.91
25 4.70 3.14


0.52 0.00
0.46 0.00
0.42 0.00

0.42 0.00
0.36 0.00
0.37 0.00

0.56 0.13
0.72 0.20
0.69 0.06

0.68 0.09
0.50 0.08
0.47 0.13

0.40 0.00
0.39 0.02
0.45 0.13

0.39 0.09
0.39 0.09
0.37 0.06

0.38 0.00
0.39 0.00
0.04 0.04

0.32 0.00
0.28 0.00
0.35 0.04

0.52 0.00
0.49 0.00
0.64 0.00

1.08 0.71
1.14 0.86
1.02 0.90

1.10 0.56
0.78 0.20
0.65 0.26

0.58 0.14
0.54 0.13
0.50 0.15








Table 2. (Continued).
Flow Application depths
Pressure R,' rate D ~b De, D~d median CV
psi ft GPH in, in, in, in. %


aAverage distance from emitter for the most distant 5% of containers
receiving water.
bAbsolute maximum application depth for all containers.
CAverage application depth for the 5% of containers receiving
the greatest application depths.
dMean appliCation depth (average application depth if all water discharged was applied
uniformly over the entire area within a radius of Re from the emitter).

The results of evaluations at 20 psi for three different emitters
of the same model are presented in Table 3. The median application
for seven spray emitters was near zero for the six-hour tests. A
median of zero occurs when at least half of the area within the wetted
diameter receives no water. In contrast, most of the spinners had
median applications near the mean application depth.
It is desirable to have a large percentage of the area receiving
near the average application. Seven out of the eleven spray emitters
had areas where the application depth was more than six times Da
(Table 4). One spray model had areas with application depths more
than fifteen times Da. None of the spinner models had areas with
application depths of that magnitude with respect to Da. The typical
spray emitter had more than half the effective area receiving


Spinner Emitters
Hardie Microsprinkler Ill
15 10.2 9.9 1.30 0.62
20 11.5 12.1 0.71 0.47
25 11.5 12.6 1.46 0.47
Rain Bird Micro Bird Spinner
15 8.4 6.7 1.14 0.67
20 9.1 8.6 1.81 1.08
25 9.1 11.2 2.56 1.37
Netafim L.P. Minisprinkler
15 6.0 13.9 3.43 4.23
20 6.1 14.4 2.01 1.80
25 6.6 17.0 2.28 1.97
Solcoor Buq Proof Spinner with Oranqe Antimist
15 6.0 10.6 2.44 2.31
20 8.1 14.4 2.13 1.72
25 8.7 16.2 2.56 1.16
Tornado Mini Sprinkler
15 5.1 15.4 6.42 6.16
20 5.9 17.4 3.98 3.64
25 6.5 20.0 3.39 3.17
Spinner emitter mean values
15 4.95 4.03
20 2.13 1.74
25 2.45 1.63


0.25 0.20 69
0.24 0.20 50
0.22 0.19 68


0.24 0.19
0.29 0.27
0.36 0.32

1.12 1.09
0.95 1.03
0.88 0.90

0.72 0.32
0.60 0.41
0.48 0.43

1.53 0.90
1.40 1.20
1.22 1.11

0.77 0.54
0.70 0.62
0.63 0.59














































(feet)









:::mm--::::------ : -- ::~~ : ::::
::::mm::::::::::::::::::::::::::::i:::::~ *



2 10::::::: ..... 121::
Distance from emii~iiitter (meters)


(feet)


....9 X of Avg.
I ....iiii ....iiiiiiiii,, Application

a6 < so

10-50





~~=Iiii!! soo~~ 5-200
::::-::::::::oo I ,



M > 0600
~ I i .iiiiiiiii . .9 > 0

21012
Distance from emitter (meters)



Figure 1. Distribution pattern of a Rain Bird Spinner emitter with a blue base
operated at 20 psi.


% of Avg.
Application


;3


200-300





> 600


Figure 2. Distribution pattern of a Rain Bird Micro Bird Spinner emitter with a
blue base (same emitter as Figure 1) operated at 15 psi.












(feet)
9 63 03 69
% of Avg.
I II IApplication

lli ** 6< 10

i ..:: 10-50


'0 0 """ 5020

.. .: 200-300

I 'Ii~illis ::: *nr. === = soo 3 -400

2m *J *:~ ii 6 400-600

o m > 600

21012
Distance from emitter (meters)



Figure 3. Distribution pattern of a Microjet (360 x 12) emitter with a blue base
operated at 20 psi.



(feet)


:::: %d of Avg .
;i Application





0 0 - * * 2 - O150-200

1 -* 330 4 0

c i - _.......~== .. .ii ..15

2 -ii: ::::::: * (Eg- 00-500


,"2 "" -Wil 600


21012
Distance from emitter (meters)

Figure 4. Distribution pattern of a Bowsmith Fan Jet II emitter with a blue base
operated at 20 psi.








Table 3. Average emitter performance characteristics for three emitters of the
same model tested at 20 psi.

Flow _Application depths
I.D. Rea rate Dxa Dxec D.d median CV
ft GPH in, in, in, in. %


Spray emitters
Bow-FJ 8.0
Bow-it 8.7
Georjet 5.8
Hit-40 8.0
Hydro 8.7
Irrid 8.9
Maxi 8.4
Micro 7.7
Ray Jet 7.2
RB-Jet 6.9
Sol-Jet 4.6
Spray mean

Spinner emitters
Hardie 10.8
Netafim 6.3
RB-Spin 9.1
Sol-Spin 7.9
Tor-Spit 5.8
Spinner mean


10.6
10.0
8.1
10.2
9.0
11.6
8.8
9.7
14.4
10.8
10.5




11.9
15.1
8.4
13.2
17.2


4.64 3.30 0.46 0.00
5.79 3.74 0.36 0.00
5.55 4.05 0.69 0.11
2.99 2.41 0.42 0.03
3.07 2.26 0.31 0.00
3.98 2.62 0.38 0.01
2.40 1.69 0.34 0.07
4.49 2.60 0.42 0.02
5.98 3.40 0.77 0.25
8.62 5.24 0.57 0.00
4.49 4.32 1.23 0.88
4.73 3.24 0.54 0.12



0.83 0.47 0.21 0.10
2.48 2.18 0.95 0.96
1.46 0.90 0.25 0.23
2.13 1.59 0.55 0.38
4.57 4.17 1.41 1.16
2.29 1.86 0.67 0.58


a Average distance from emitter for the most distant 5% of containers receiving water.
b Absolute maximum application depth for all containers,
a Average application depth for the 5% of containers receiving the greatest application
depths.
d Mean application depth (average application depth it all water discharged was applied
uniformly over the entire area within a radius of R, from the emitter).

application depths less than 10% of Da. In addition, they generally
had 10 to 15% of the effective area receiving more than three times
Da. Nearly all of the spray emitters had areas with application depths
greater than three inches during the six-hour tests. Applications of
this magnitude will contribute to deep percolation and lower the
application efficiencies of when these systems are used on sandy soils.
In contrast, the average spinner emitter had 48% of the effective
area receiving depths within -t50% of Da. The spinners also generally
had insignificant area (less than 1 %) with more than three times
Da. Unlike most spray emitters, the spinner patterns were generally
continuous. Areas that received no water were generally in "shadow"
areas caused by the support post for the emitter.








Table 4. Mean catch frequency distribution (% of total area) for three emitters
of the same model tested at 20 psi.
Emitter Percent of mean application depth (Da)
ID 0-10 10-50 50-150 150-200 200-300 300-400 400-600 >600
Spray emitters
Bow-FJ 56 9 14 4 5 4 4 4
Bow-II 70 8 5 2 3 3 3 6
Georjet 49 14 15 5 6 4 5 2
Hit-40O 54 12 11 4 6 6 5 2
Hydro 58 10 10 4 5 4 4 5
Irrid 55 13 10 4 6 3 6 3
Maxi 46 14 13 5 11 6 5 0
Micro 51 10 13 6 7 5 4 4
RB-Jet 65 10 8 2 3 3 4 5
Ray Jet 42 12 18 7 12 4 5 0
Sol-Jet 26 14 31 15 12 1 1 0
Mean (sprays) 52 11 13 5 7 4 4 4

Spinner emitters
Hardie 2 9 78 7 2 1 1 0
Netafim 17 14 40 23 6 0 0 0
RB-Spin 14 14 53 10 6 1 2 0
Sol-Spin 7 28 37 14 13 1 0 0
]"or-ggin 23 18 31 13 14 2 0 0
Mean (spinners) 13 17 48 13 8 1 0 0


Summary and Conclusions
Traditional concepts of irrigation uniformity cannot be applied to
microirrigation spray and spinner systems. Unlike most sprinkler
applications, these microirrigation emitters are normally used in a
non-overlapping manner where a uniform distribution over the entire
wetted area is desirable. Most of the spray-type emitters apply water
in distinct streams or spokes, quite unlike traditional sprinkler
irrigation. These spoke patterns made it difficult to appropriately
describe performance parameters such as coverage area, average
application depths, and subsurface moisture distribution.
It was quite evident, however, that the spinner-type emitters had
significantly higher distribution uniformities than spray emitters.
The typical spoke pattern of the spray emitters generally resulted in
only about half of the effective area actually being wetted. The
spinners generally applied water to more than 85%/ of the effective
area. Doughnut patterns, however, were more pronounced in some
spinner models when they were operated at 15 psi.
The CV of the catch depths was selected to be the most appropriate
uniformity indicator for these emitters. CV values less than 100%







for these types of emitters can be considered as "good" water distribu-
tion. CV values over 200% indicate patterns that have a large portion
of the effective area that receive no water. These high CV's may also
signify that the pattern has areas with very high application depths
relative to the mean.
In a field setting, the uniformity of the emitters may be affected
by climatic conditions, maintenance state, or factors relating to the
system design and installation. Presumably, emitters exhibiting good
uniformity under controlled laboratory conditions will perform more
favorably in the field than emitters which perform poorly in the
laboratory. However, proper maintenance of both the emitters and
the filtration system is essential to achieve proper performance and
uniformity from the emitters in the field.
When selecting a particular emitter for an installation, one must
be aware that emitters have different performance characteristics.
The emitter selection process should consider uniformity as well as
other factors such as cost, wind effects, system constraints, main-
tenance, and soil type so that the best emitter for a particular field
condition is selected.
The question of how non-uniform applications of water to the soil
surface affect soil moisture distribution within a soil profile and the
resulting availability for plant growth was not addressed. In order
to maximize application efficiency and minimize deep percolation
from irrigation with microirrigation emitters, care should be taken
to select emitters which are compatible with the soil and operating
characteristics of the designed system.









References

1. Boman, B. J. 1989. Distribution patterns of microirrigation spinner
and spray emitters. Applied Engr. Agr. 5(1):50-56.

2. Johnston, R. D. 1981. A comparison of low volume sprinklers. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 94:36-37.

3. Post, E. C., D. E. Peck, R. A Brendler, N.J. Sakovitch, and L. Waddle.
1986. Evaluation of low-flow sprinklers. California Agriculture.
July-August, pp. 27-29.










U.S. Customary to SI Conversion Factors


Multiply
by

25.4

2.54

0.3048

6.894

3.79

45.5

3.79


To Convert


inches (in.)

inches (in.)

feet (ft)

pounds per square inch (psi)

gallons (gal)

gallons per minute (GPM)

gallons per hour (GPH)


To


millimeters (mm)

centimeters (cm)

meters (m)

kilopascals (kPa)

liters (L)

liters per hour (L/h)

liters per hour (L/h)


Appendix I.









Appendix II.

Emitter Distribution Patterns

The distribution patterns presented in this section are that for
a single emitter of each model tested indoors with a no-wind
environment. All patterns are for a test duration of six hours and
tests were conducted with a distribution line pressure of 20 psi.
Emitters were located on stakes 8 inches above the containers and
connected to the supply line with two feet of 4 mm spaghetti tubing.
The figures representing the distribution patterns are presented in
a box that is 19 feet square with one-foot markings. The following
terms apply:
Diameter = 2 times Re (the average distance from emitter for
the most distant 5% of containers receiving water)
Avg. App. = Average application rate.
Max = the average application depth for the 5% of containers
receiving the greatest application depths.
Mean = the average application depth for containers within a
distance of R, from the emitter.


Manufacturer/Model

Spray emitters
Bowsmith Fan Jet ......
Bowsmith Fan Jet II ..
Geor-Jet .............
Hit Products Spray Jet ...


Page No.


..........
. . . . . .



...........


....................


Irridelco Fan Spray ...........
Mnaxijet (360 X12) ............
Microjet (360 X12) ...........
Olson Hydrojet ..............
Rain Bird Micro Bird
Spray Jet ................
Solcoor Convex Spreader
with Orange Antimist ........
Tornado Ray Jet Sprayer .......


.... ... .... ... .... ... 18

.... ... .... ... .... ... 19
.... ... .... ... .... ... 19


Spinner emitters
Hardie Microsprinkler Ill ................... ............... 20
Netafim L.P. Minisprinkler ................... ............. 20
Rain Bird Micro Bird
Spinner .... ... .. .. .... ... ... .. ... .. .... .. .. .. 20
Solcoor Bug Proof Spinner
with Orange Antimist ................... ............... 21
Tornado MiniSprinkler ................... ............... 21







Bowsmith Fan Jet 40

Test Data % of Avg.
Application
Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi 1

diameter: is.e feet i -
.... 50-150
Avg. App.: 0.08 in/hr 0-0

Flow Rate: 10.2 gph I~i~

Mex: 3.09 in--
mm 300-400
Mean; 0.46 in ~
::::~400-600
Median: 0.00 in .::'
> 600
C.V.: 181


Bowsmith Fan Jet II Blue Base 360 X 11

Test Data ... .. %of Avg.

Duration: 6.0 hr Ap .....o

Pressure: 20 psi 05

Diameter: 17.5 feet ."

Avg. App.: 0.06 in/hr "~~i~: ii:~ ii 5-5
. .. iii 150-200
Flow Rate: 10.2 gph .~ i '. ...''' i= i
:i::.. ""3=12 3 200-300
Max: 3.31 in 3040

Mean: 0.36 in Ii 40060

Median: 0.00 in i .. 0-0>0

C.V.: 236


Geor-Jet Blue Base


Test Data % of Avg.
Application
Duration: 6.0 hr
< 10
Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 11.3 feet pl 5-5

Avg. App.: 0.12 in/hr .
.. :::=:: 1 5 0 2 00
Flow Rete: B.0 gph :,:~ji:ii:S=:::
:: ..:: i ::5. .. 200-soo
Max: 3.86 in .::::::::::
:::- ** *300-400
Mean: 0.72 in 2
400-600
Median: 0.20 in
> 600
C.V.: 146


16








Hit Products Spray Jet 40
''''''''''''''''''



"`

=::: ~
II~ ---II ~~~ .111
1111
"-"" ------
II----~ --"""

'iiii
iiiiiiI~i~i"'~" "'""'~'~
::::--11------11:::-11~:11::::
::::--11::::::11...1':11~~1::::
II"'
I;;;
---ii-~;1:-:::::---:~I~~::::---
II:::::~~::::::::::::=E:::::::
i==~ ~ --::::::::::::
:::i;;::::::::
"'" "
-=:: I:~
'II
.......
.......,.,....
-
:-: ---



Test Data

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 14.6 feet


Avg. App.: 0.08 in/hr

Flow Rate: 10.1 gph

Max: 2.50 in

Mean: 0.50 in

Median: 0.08 in

C.V.: 145





Test Data

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 17.9 feet

Avg. App.: 0.07 in/hr

Flow Rate: 11.1 gph

Max: 2.21 in

Mean: 0.39 in

Median: 0.02 in

C.V.: 164


% of Avg.
Application

< Io

-- 10-50

50-150

150-200

200-300




iiil 400-600

> 600


% of Avg.
Application

< 10

10-50

so-iso

150-200

200-300




400-600

S> 600


% of Avg.
Application

< 10


10-50




150-200




~i5 300-400

400-600

> 600


Test Date

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 16.9 feet


Avg App .: 0 .07 in/hr

Flow Rate: 9.9 gph

Max: i.90 in

Mean- 0.39 in

Median; 0.09 in

C.V.: 143


Irridelco Fan Spray Blue Base



~~iii.~ ~ ~ i











::: ~ '::: 2::: ::::mum


mm ..:::mm
iilili ***







::: ii

... 5..







Microjet 360 X 12 Blue Base


% of Avg.
Application

< 10

:: 10-50






mm 200-300



~il 400-600

> 600


Test Data

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 15.2 feet

Avg. App.: 0.06 in/hr

Flow Rate: 9.4 gph

Mex: 2.35 in


Mean: 0.39

Median: 0.00

C.V.: 169


Rain Bird Micro Bird Spray Jet Blue Base


Test Data

Duration: 5.3 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 15.6 feet

Avg. App.: 0.09 in/hr

Flow Rate: 11.8 gph

Max: 3.93 in

Mean: 0.49 in

Median: 0.00 in

C.V.; 212




Test Date

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 17.3 feet

Avg. App.: 0.05 in/hr

Flow Rate: B.9 gph

Max: 2.07 in

Mean: 0.28 in

Median: 0.00 in

C.Y.: 198


% of Avg.
Application

< 10

:: 10-50

ill s-iso


iso-200

2oo-soo

soo-4oo

400-600

> 600


% of Avg.
Application

< to

10-50

iii 50-150

: 150-200

200-300

300-400

-400-600

1 > soo


::: mm""

.. ...
1..... i j


iii


r--





. .










- ii ::: -
-







Solcoor Bug

Test Data

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi

Diameter: 16.2 feet .

Avg. App.: 0.10 in/hr .

Flow Rate: 14.4 gph .

Max: 1.72 in

Mean: 0.60 in

Median; 0.41 in

C.V.: 80


Proof Spinner (Green) w/Orange Antimist


% of Avg.
Application

is! ****..... I f ....... < so

...II~lii~Iiii~iiii~i=i i 10-50





':::::~I1:::::=:::::::muuumamm

..i !!!!!555!""!!!!!!!!!!!::::::: 00-600
::: -::::::- ---
::I: 111:::::::::Iiiiiiiiii> 600i


Tornado Mini Sprinkler Red Base


Test Date

Duration: 6.0 hr

Pressure: 20 psi








Max: 3.64 in

Mean: 1.40 in

Median: 1.20 in

C.V.: 85


% of Avg.
Application

< 10

1o-so










3~400-600

> 600


3 M== i~ii==iili-M .



-: :::ll::iii~ill::ii~ii::
.. L i: ::: 11 *..







Hardie Micro Sprinkler III White Base


...::::...:::: Application
----::::
::::::::::::::::::::1111:::: ,10
811L~~.... i XofPIVg.
...::::::::---::::::::::::111::::
i --- -----------------
;;.::::::::::::::::::::::::~I:::: 10-50
---;;;;;;;;;;;;---;iii;iiiiiiiiiii
et ;;;::::::::::::::::-.::::::::~:::::::
IIIi 50-150
"'""""""""'""""""""""
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::i:
/hr I "'"''""""""
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;: 150-200
iiiiii;i;;iiii;;;;;;;;;;;;i;;iiiii


h


FlowRateo: 12.1 gp






Max: 0.47 in

Mean: 0.24 in

Median: 0.20 in

C.V.: 50


200-300

300-400

400-600

> 600


Netafim L.P. Minisprinkler Black/Black

Test Data % of Avg.
Application
Duration: 6.0 hr
< 10




atesue: 20 rs



ediaene: 1.03 in e

Cv.V.:p. 5.6 nh


Rain Bird Micro Bird Spinner Blue







Avaton 60 P




:::: :::;;;; ::::




C.V.:ate 836gp


Base











(0



0 > 00








Solcoor Grey Base Convex Spreader w/Orange Antimist


Test Data % of Avg.
Application
Duration: 6.0 hr
< 10
Pressure: 20 psi
.......10-50
Diameter: 10.6 feet




Flow Rate: 11.8 gph
..............}}-200-300
Max: 3.37 in ::::::Ii:
S300-400
Mean: 1. iA in
400-600
Median: 0.86 in
> 600
C.V.: 92








Tornado Ray Jet Sprayer Green Base


Test Data % of Avg.
Application
Duration: 6.0 hr
... <10
Pressure: 20 psi
10-50
Diameter: 13.6 feet
50-150
Avg. App.: 0.13 in/hr
BB= ~ B ~ E- 150-200
Flow Rate: 12.9 gph
~~ii~I::::::::~ iii~200-300
Max: 3.37 in :m :mm
:: m ------ 0040


1 400-600
Median: 0.20 in
> 600
C.V.: 128





















21



















































This publication was produced at a cost of $1,280.00, or 25.6 cents per
copy, to provide Florida growers with the results of a study done on
uniformity and other characteristics of distribution patterns of com-
monly used microirrigation emitters. 5-5M-89


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTI- d
TUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, G.L. Zachariah, director,
in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this
information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of ...owmo
Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to
race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding
4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices.
Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton,
Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs