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Group Title: Bulletin Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Title: Peanut harvesting, drying and storage in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008435/00001
 Material Information
Title: Peanut harvesting, drying and storage in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Talbot, Michael T ( Michael Thomas ), 1948-
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1985?
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peanut industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Michael T. Talbot.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00008435
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6700
ltuf - AEG9703
oclc - 14635745
alephbibnum - 000872451

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IV U LB i tDY.
[:L- i 9 l98o

IF.A.S.- Univ. of Florida
PEANUT HARVESTING,

DRYING AND STORAGE


IN FLORIDA


. . ..


/D(
~,nb


Bulletin 209







INTRODUCTION


The sixty thousand acre Florida peanut crop has a very high

per acre value. It is important that care be taken to harvest

the largest amount of peanuts possible and to market a product of

the best possible quality.

Even though the in-field cost of production is continually

increasing, the cost of harvesting, drying, storing, transporting

and selling the crop remains a major component of the total cost

of production. Reduction of harvest and postharvest (drying and

storage) losses is just as important as increasing yields through

improved production practices. This is especially apparent when

considering that all the cost inputs and energy inputs for seed,

fertilizer, lime, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc., are

wasted for that portion of the crop which is lost during harvest

and post harvest operations.

The harvesting and drying operations have more to do with

peanut quality than most other phases of production. Improper

dryer management either by the farmer or commercial dryer can be

responsible for ruining the quality of the crop after it is dug.

Proper harvesting, drying and storage management procedures

for improved quality and increased peanut production are outlined

in this bulletin.


HARVESTING



Harvesting is one of the most critical operations in peanut

production. Harvesting is a broad term used to describe all







procedures for gathering peanuts from the soil prior to

processing the peanuts for storage. Recommended mechanized

peanut harvesting procedures include field preparation, vine

clipping, digging, shaking, re-shaking, windrowing and combining.

A key to proper harvesting is having the right equipment in good

operating condition at the time needed.

Field Preparation

Areas for peanut production should be managed and main-

tained for efficient machinery operation. Smooth, well-drained

sands or loamy sands are easily managed and prepared for optimum

harvest efficiency.

Field preparation for efficient peanut harvesting begins

before planting. Good crop rotations and deep turning for deep

burial of trash during land preparation will reduce disease and

pest problems and enable the farmer to select a digging date

rather than being forced to dig because of a disease or pest

situation.

Preshaped beds greatly contribute to harvest efficiency and

can reduce plant disease by preventing water from standing around

the base of the plants. Bedding provides a firm wheel middle and

soft, unpacked soil media for optimum peanut production and

recovery at harvest.

Maintaining good leaf spot control, good weed control, and

otherwise producing a healthy crop of peanuts are important to

efficient harvest.

Additional field improvements may be obtained by keeping

field borders free of weeds and grass during the growing season.






This may be accomplished either mechanically or chemically.

Border areas should be soft and litter free at harvest time to

allow complete digger blade penetration before blades reach the

rows. A clean, sharp blade cuts peanut tap roots, while a dull

blade drags and pulls pods off under the soil.

When To Dig

Determining when to dig is important since peanut maturity

greatly influences yield, quality, sound mature kernel content

and subsequent dollar value per ton.

The most commonly used method of determining peanut maturi-

ty is the shell-out method. This involves the removal and shel-

ling of all the pods from several plants randomly selected from

each field. The average days to maturity (135 days for Florunner

and 120-125 days for Early Bunch) are used as a guide to deter-

mine the development stage of the nuts. After shelling, the

percentage of hulls, that are turning dark on the inside, is

determined. When 80% of the pods are dark, digging should begin.

The hull-scrape method is a more recent method which

involves removal and scraping the outside hull of all the pods

(white, soft, watery pods are removed but not scraped) from

several plants randomly selected from each field. All the pods

are separated into maturity groups on the basis of the color of

the pod determined by scraping and the pod physical characteris-

tics. The number of pods in each maturity group is used to

calculate the percentage of black pods and black plus brown pods,

which in turn are used with a nomograph maturity guide chart to

determine the approximate number of days until harvest.







For detailed information concerning either method mentioned

above, or other assistance in determining maturity, a county

cooperative extension agent should be contacted.

The actual number of days to maturity for a particular

variety will vary with the date of planting, leaf spot control,

light and heat intensity, soil type, rotation, and the amount and

distribution of rainfall. The time to ideal maturity will often

be longer than the averages if leaf spot is controlled or if

adequate moisture for pegging is delayed.

It is common for peanut yields to increase more than 10

percent during the last 10 to 14 days prior to optimum maturity

time. Digging too early should be avoided, since yield and grade

will be sacrificed. Naturally, it may be necessary to dig the

peanuts earlier than this optimum maturity time if there is a

weakening of the pegs, excess pod rot, white mold or other

disease problems or if the weather dictates.

Vine Clipping

Vines may need to be clipped in those fields that have an

excessive amount of weed and vine growth. This can be

accomplished by a rotary or flail type cutter with sharp blades

used to clip the top 1/3 or 1/2 of the vines, 3 or 4 days before

digging which will allow time for leaves and stems to wither and

fall to the ground.

Excessive clipping should be avoided because the efficiency

of inverting-type shakers would be reduced. Generally, vine

clipping is not necessary with present-day equipment. However,

in instances where there is excessive weed or vine growth,

harvesting efficiency can be increased by removing excessive






foliage prior to digging. Removal of this excessive foliage will

also allow the peanuts to dry more quickly in the field.


Digging

Digging losses represent a very high percentage (as much as

80%) of total harvest losses. Consequently, reducing digging

losses is a major consideration toward increased harvest effi-

ciency. Plant diseases can have a tremendous effect on digging

losses. White mold weakens the stems and causes nuts to pull off

in the ground. Leaf spot may also weaken stems, increasing

losses.

Both soil texture and moisture are critical factors in dig-

ging efficiency. High moisture can cause excessive digging

losses, especially in soils that are relatively heavy. Moisture

makes the soil stick together and requires more force to pull the

nuts out. This causes the stems to break and the nuts to remain

in the ground. Peanuts should be dug when the soil moisture is

relatively low so that the soil crumbles above the digging

blades.

Diggers should be inspected, adjusted and the blade

sharpened before going on the field. Sharp, rigid blades with a

very slight pitch provide optimum cutting action when they are

set to cut the taproot just below the pods. The digger-shaker

speed is critical and will vary widely, becoming a key factor for

the inverting shakers. The travel speed should be sufficient to

produce a flow of the soil and vines over the blades and through

the shaker. Excessive speeds may strip pods from the vines while

slow speeds may not allow soil to flow properly over the blades.







Shaking

Digger-shakers should provide adequate agitation to remove

soil from the pods and roots. The speed of the shaker conveyor

chain should be slightly faster than the forward speed of the

digger-shaker. This prevents a pileup of vines ahead of the

pickup point. Correct chain speed should lift the peanut gently

from the ground while excessive chain speed tends to snatch the

vines, leaving the pods in the ground.

Windrowing rods or inverting bars should be adjusted to

form a uniform, fluffy and well aerated window with no vines

remaining in the wheel middle.. Pods should not touch the soil.

Prolonged exposure during hot, dry periods may result in over-

drying of pods in contact with soil in full sunlight. Even with

the tunnel type of window, pods should be off the ground. When

re-shaking is necessary, a low shaker with very gentle action

should be used with extreme care.

Combining

Combining efficiency depends upon several variables

including window condition, cylinder speed, forward travel

speed, and internal combine adjustments. The quality of peanuts

for seed and market is greatly influenced by the operators's

proficiency in the use of the peanut combine.

Peanuts are normally between 35% and 50% moisture at

digging. However, harvest under these.conditions is practiced

only where ample drying facilities are immediately available.

Even if drying facilities are available, the drying cost and

drying time will be greater because more fuel and time are needed

to dry these more moist peanuts. At high moistures, the vines







and stems may be too tough for good pod removal and too much pod

damage along with too many loose shelled kernels can result.

Generally peanuts are allowed to remain in the window for

2 to 4 days, depending upon weather conditions. The moisture

content at combining is usually between 18% and 24% moisture and

the peanuts will rattle in the hull. Mechanical damage at this

moisture range is less severe than for very moist or dry peanuts.

Excessive field losses will result if peanuts are allowed

to field dry to below 18% moisture. Attempting to field dry

peanuts to 9% so that mechanical drying will not be required is

usually unprofitable. Combine losses increase sharply as the

vines, stems, and pods become drier. The increased harvest

losses will generally cost more than what mechanical drying would

have cost at higher moisture contents. Also, leaving the peanuts

in the window extended periods of time increases the chance for

exposure to adverse weather, insect infestation and aflatoxin

production.

Combining requires an experienced operator. A poorly

adjusted combine can result in excessive losses and damage. The

manufacturer's recommended speed and adjustments should be

followed as closely as possible. Adjustments are also necessary

as field moisture and picking conditions change during the day.

The best measure of combining efficiency is the quality of

peanuts coming in to the combine bin rather than the amount

harvested in a given time. Speed can be the enemy of peanut

quality. Fast moving combine parts may damage a high percent of

hulls and kernels. Both visible and non-visible damage opens the

door to insect and mold infestations.







DRYING


Proper drying (curing) of peanuts is an important part of

the overall production program. Along with the harvest opera-

tions, proper peanut drying has more influence on peanut quality

than any other operation. Adequate drying procedures must be

used to maintain desirable flavor, texture, germination and

overall quality.

Natural vs. Mechanical Drying

Peanut kernel moisture at digging normally ranges from 35%

to 50%. For safe storage this moisture must be reduced to 8% to

10%. The drying process must begin immediately after digging to

prevent molding and spoilage under normal harvest weather condi-

tions. Moisture must be removed at the proper rate to success-

fully dry peanuts. If moisture removal is too slow peanuts will

mold, while drying too rapidly will cause lowered peanut quality

due to off-flavor and hull-splitting.

Natural drying in the window will not adversely affect

quality if climatic conditions are favorable. Mild temperatures

and relatively dry air without rain for 5 to 10 days are favor-

able natural drying conditions. However, these conditions do not

occur in combination for sufficient periods of time over the

peanut producing areas of Florida to harvest the entire peanut

crop. The ever-present threat of adverse weather during the

natural drying process makes window drying risky. Rain during

the last days of the process encourages pod loss and splitting,

hull discoloration, and serious attack by mold and insects.






A combination of natural and mechanical drying offers the
best approach for Florida's peanut producing areas. Using this

method, peanuts are left in the window from 2 to 4 days after

digging or until kernel moisture content ranges from 18% to 24%.

At this moisture content the kernel will rattle in the hull.

Once this moisture range is obtained, peanuts should be combined

and placed in mechanical dryers for final drying.

Mechanical Peanut Drying

For the mechanical drying systems to operate properly, an
understanding of some of the principles of heated air drying is

necessary. Peanuts are placed in the drying bin or trailer and

the drying process is begun. Air at the desired temperature,

relative humidity and volume is forced up through the peanuts. A

drying zone is created in the trailer at a point where the air

enters. As the drying process continues, this drying zone moves

upward through the batch of peanuts until it reaches the top

layers, thus completing the drying process. In Figure 1, peanuts

above the drying zone are still at relatively high moisture

content while those below the drying zone are dry enough for safe

storage. The drying process must be continued long enough for

the drying zone to move upward through the entire bin of peanuts

and dry the top layer to a safe storage level. The combination

of drying air temperature, relative humidity, and flow rate

determines the degree of drying during a particular drying time

for a load of peanuts at a given initial moisture content. Pro-

longed exposure to drying air with a high temperature, low rela-

tive humidity and high flow rate can cause overdrying which

decreases overall quality. Exposure to drying air with low






temperature, high relative humidity, and low flow rate can cause

inadequate drying which can cause peanuts to mold or to deterio-

rate before the drying process is completed.

The following sections describe the recommended levels of

air temperature and air flow.


.WETTEST PEANUTS ON TOP
(LAST TO DRY)



DRYING ZONE


DRIED PEANUT!



SPLENUM CHAMBER


Figure 1. How Peanuts Dry in the Trailer.



Drying Temperature and Relative Humidity

Air is a mixture of several gases and it contains heat.

When air is dry, it occupies a given space alone. As it occurs

naturally, air is rarely completely dry. Air shares space with

water vapor. The amount of space occupied by the water vapor is

a major concern when drying peanuts. The heat content of the air


ADEQUATE SUPP7
INCOMING AIR






is also important because the heat is needed to change liquid

water (in the peanuts) to vapor. The vapor then mixes with the

drying air and is removed.

The air temperature determines the heat content and to a

large extent the total water-carrying capacity of the drying air.

As air is heated, the heat content and the water-carrying capa-

city both increase. The relative humidity of the air can be

thought of as the amount of water vapor in the air relative to

the maximum amount it is capable of holding at the same tempera-

ture. Low relative humidities indicate the air has high water

vapor holding capacity (high drying potential), whereas high

relative humidity indicates low water vapor holding capacity (low

drying potential).

Peanuts should not be exposed to drying air with a

temperature above 95F (350C) or a relative humidity below 55% to

prevent off-flavoring, higher split content, overdrying and

overall quality deterioration. Under most weather conditions

during the peanut season the 950F (350C) maximum dryer thermostat

temperature setting is recommended. However, in Florida as

the season progresses into late fall, the prevailing natural air

temperature and humidity may be low enough to require a tempera-

ture below 950F (350C) to keep the drying air humidity above 55%.

Table 1 illustrates the reductions in relative humidity of the

heated drying air produced by a given temperature rise for

various natural air temperatures and relative humidities.

As a general rule, the temperature rise should be limited to

no more than 100to 150F (5.60to 8.30C). For example, in Table 1,






Table 1. Relative Humidity of Heated Air With Given Temperature
Rise, and Relative Humidity of Natural Air


Outside Temp. Relative Humidity of Natural Air
Temp. Rise. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

F (C)
55 ( 2.8) 83% 75% 67% 58% 50%
55F 10 ( 5.6) 70% 64% 57% 49% 42%
(12.80C) 15 ( 8.3) 59% 53% 47% 41% 35%
20 (11.1) 50% 45% 39% 34% 30%

F ( C)
5 ( 2.8) 84% 77% 67% 58% 58%
600F 10 ( 5.6) 70% 63% 57% 49% 42%
(15.60C) 15 ( 8.3) 60% 54% 48% 42% 36%
20 (11.1) 50% 46% 40% 35% 30%

F ( C)
5 ( 2.8) 84% 77% 68% 59% 51%
70F 10 ( 5.6) 71% 64% 57% 50% 43%
(21.1C) 15 ( 8.3) 61% 54% 49% 42% 37%
20 (11.1) 52% 47% 42% 37% 32%

F ( C)
900F 5 ( 2.8) 80% 76% 69% 60% 51%
(32.20C)


if the outside air temperature
humidity of the outside air is
(5.60 C) will be sufficient ti


is 70F
80%, a


(21.
temp


o lower the


1C) and the relative
ierature rise of 100 F
drying air relative


humidity to 57%, whereas a 150F (8.30C) temperature rise will
lower the drying air relative humidity to 49%, which is below the
55% minimum safe relative humidity. In addition to an upper
limit thermostat control of 950F (350C), many installations have
wired a humidistat in series with the thermostat to cut off heat
when relative humidity drops to 55%. This arrangement is very
effective in preventing drying too rapidly and losing quality if







the calibration of the humidistat remains correct.

Unfortunately, humidistats generally must be recalibrated at

lease once per season.

Proper Air Flow Rates and Drying Depths

Air must be forced through the peanut mass at rates

sufficient to remove moisture and prevent mold. This rate has

been established by-research to range from 50 to 75 cubic feet

per minute (C.F.M.) for each square foot (15.2 to 22.9 cubic

meters per minute for each square meter ) of drying floor while

operating against a static pressure head of 1 inch of water (249

Pascal). For a typical four-trailer drying system using 8 x 20

foot (2.4 x 6.1 meter) trailers, the drying area per trailer

would be 160 square feet (14.9 square meters). A total of 640

square feet (59.5 square meters) would be used for the four-

trailer system. The minimum air flow rate required for this

system would be 640 square feet (59.5 meters) multiplied by 50

cubic feet per minute (15.2 cubic meters per minute) which is

32,000 cubic feet of air per minute (61.0 cubic meters per

minute). The fan or fans selected must be capable of providing

this air flow rate while operating against the static pressure of

1 inch of water (249 Pascal). The manufacturer's fan rating

tables, for the particular fan used, can be used to determine the

air flow rate for the operating static pressure required.

The depth at which peanuts may be dried depends upon the

initial moisture content. Under no circumstances should drying

depth exceed 4 feet (1.2 meters). A 4-foot (1.2 meters) drying

depth may be used for peanuts of 25% initial moisture content or

less. The depth should be reduced to 3 feet (0.9 meters) for

14






moisture contents ranging from 25% to 35%. A 2-foot (0.6 meters)

drying depth should be used for peanuts in excess of 35%

moisture.

It is important to distribute peanuts evenly over the

entire drying bin to insure uniform air flow and drying. Plenum

chambers, air ducts, control gates and transition sections should

be well constructed and free of air leaks. Baffles or slide

valves should be used to adjust air distribution proportionately

between trailers or drying bins. Uniform trailer construction

and proper duct openings are desirable.

Peanut Response to Drying

When peanuts are placed in the drying bin and air at the

desired temperature, humidity, and rate is forced through them, a

drying pattern similar to the one illustrated in Figure 2 will

occur. Peanut hulls tend to lose moisture rather rapidly during

the early stages of drying while kernel moisture is removed at a

lower rate. After the drying process has proceeded for several

hours, moisture losses from the hull and kernel tend to equalize.

This point is represented where the two lines cross in Figure 2.

The time required for equalization to occur depends primarily

upon the initial moisture content of the peanuts.

After the equalization point is reached, additional

moisture loss from hulls is minimal. However, kernel moisture

continues to decrease. Moisture removed from the kernels is

transferred to the hulls before being removed completely from the

peanut.






40

S M -- HULLS
cr KERNELS
30
I.-
I |

20-





_0.

0 20 40 60 80 100
TIME(HOURS)


Figure 2. Drying Characteristics of Peanut Hulls and Kernels
with Air at Recommended Drying Rate.


Time required to dry peanuts at various moisture contents
can be estimated by use of Figure 2. For example, if peanuts
initially at 20% moisture content are dried to 10% moisture
content, approximately 50 hours (67 17) of drying time will be
required. The moisture content of the peanuts must be actually
measured to determine the end of the drying cycle.
Managing the Drying System
Quality control is dependent upon frequent moisture
checks as peanuts approach the 12% moisture level. Under average
climatic conditions, heat may be cut off, leaving the fan in






operation to cool the crop when peanuts reach 10% to 10.5%

moisture. Drying continues as the coasting effect lowers the

moisture another 1% to 1.5% below the cut-off point. This effect

is due to unequal moisture levels between the hulls and kernels

as previously mentioned. The average moisture for any lot should

not be allowed to go below 8.5% with no portion of the lot

containing less than 7% moisture or more than 10%.

Intermittent Drying Systems

These drying units are the same as conventional ones, but

are controlled by a timing device to regulate time on and time

off for both fan and heater. Peanut dryers may be turned off 15

to 20 minutes of each hour with an intermittent timer. The 25%

to 33% reduction in power and fuel input may result in a 10% to

12% increase in drying time. Intermittent curing/drying is

gaining in popularity because of fuel and electricity savings.

Peanuts containing more than 25% moisture should be cured by

continuous drying to prevent any delay in reaching the desired

moisture content.

Solar Drying

Work on the use of solar energy to heat the drying air

needed for drying peanuts has been conducted in the southeast for

several years. Solar drying systems have been shown to save 50%

to 75% of the LP gas drying energy. This fuel savings would

require several years to pay for the capital expenditure for the

solar drying system. A standard peanut drying fan must be used

to mix ambient air with solar heated air and force it through the

peanuts to be dried. Therefore the electric fan energy is not

reduced using the solar drying system. For 24-hour drying, a







solar heat storage system is required for drying at night or

during periods of limited sunlight. To prevent disastrous drying

delays the system should be capable of adding conventionally

heated air to the drying air whenever needed. To insure proper

drying and quality maintenance, an extensive system of sensors

and valves to monitor and control the air conditions throughout

the solar drying system is required. As the cost of fossil

heating fuels continues to increase, the application of solar

drying will become more feasible. If the solar drying system is

designed for multiple uses like heating buildings and drying

several crops, the economics could also be improved.

Cost of Owning and Operating Peanut Drying Equipment

There are two major factors affecting operating costs of

a particular peanut drying system: (1) initial moisture content

from which the peanuts are to be dried and (2) the number of tons

of peanuts to be dried per year.

The following economic analysis (Table 2) gives a break-

down of the various cost involved in purchasing and operating a

typical two-Trailer peanut drying system.

The following costs are for a small farm operation drying

70 tons (63.6 metric tons) or less per year. Large commercial

plants specializing in quantity processing may operate at lower

costs. All of the cost figures presented here should be used

only as examples, keeping in mind that figures will vary consid-

erably depending upon the individual operation. Figures presented

in Table 2 are based on drying peanuts with an initial moisture

content of 20%. The total cost will be slightly higher or lower

for peanuts at higher or lower initial moisture contents.






Table 2. Estimated Cost of Owning and Operating Peanut Drying
Equipment


Variable Costs

Electricity,
89 KWH per 4 tons (4.4 metric tons) at $0.08
L.P. Gas,
70 gal (0.3 cubic meters) per 4 tons at $0.80
Labor
1 hour per 4 tons (4.4 metric tons) at $3.50

Variable Cost for Drying 4 tons (4.4 metric tons)
Variable Cost for Drying 1 ton (1.1 metric tons)

Fixed Costs

Depreciation
1 Dryer & Timer (cost $2,200; salvage value
$150; 10-yr. life)

1 Shelter (cost $2,000; 25 yr. life)

Trailers, 2 (cost $3,400 salvage value
$340; 10-yr. life)

Interest (1/2 combined cost of equipment,
$7,600 x 14.0% interest)
2
Repairs, maintenance, taxes and insurance
(estimated at 3% of new cost)


= 7.12

= 56.00

= 3.50

= 66.62
= 16.66


$205.00

$ 80.00

$306.00

$532.00

$228.00


Fixed Cost $1,351.00

Total Drying Cost Per Ton at Various Volumes

Tons Dried Per Year
i 30 (27.2) 40 j(3637 54 60 (54.5) 70 (63.6)
Variable Cost $16.66 $16.66 $16.66 $16.66 $16.66
Fixed Cost $45.03 $33.78 $27.02 $22.52 $19.30

Total Cost $61.69 $50.44 $43.68 $39.18 $35.96


STORAGE

Storage facilities for peanuts should be weatherproof and

free from insect and disease bearing litter. Bins should have

provisions to control air circulation and prevent condensation.

Adequate air space should be provided between the surface of

stored peanuts and roof or ceiling of the building. Avoid
19








storage of seed peanuts in buildings where temperatures may

become too high. Buildings having exposed sheet metal roof or

side walls may reach excessive temperatures during fall months

where no aeration is provided.

The latest recommendations as to amount and kind of

insecticides to use on stored nuts should be checked and followed

carefully. This is extremely important, since most peanuts are

used for human consumption.

Machinery and handling methods must be carefully planned

to maintain quality peanuts. Belt type conveyors and elevators

should be used whenever possible. The auger and chain-cleat

types may crush pods and divide kernels which invite insect

infestation and lower both grade and germination. If pneumatic

conveyors are used, they should be constructed to prevent

cracking of pods and kernels by impact. Sharp turns in conveyor

ducts must be avoided and air speed must be carefully controlled.

When necessary to walk over the surface of stored

peanuts, board walkways should be provided. Boards prevent

crushing and cracking damage to nuts which could also invite

insect infestation. Peanuts should be removed from bins by gravi-

ty flow when possible; otherwise, care should be exercised not to

damage nuts in handling.



This public document was produced at a cost of $576.60, or 34 cents per copy, to improve peanut harvesting, drying
and handling and to provide basic principles of post harvesting technology. 12-1.7M-85

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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