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Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008296/00020
 Material Information
Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
Alternate Title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1998
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1987; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00008296
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6654
oclc - 20304921
lccn - sn 92011064
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Table of Contents
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        Page ii
    Main
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1998 Annual
Research Report
for the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station















UNIVERSITY OF
"FLORIDA
Agricultural Experiment Station
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences















































Front Cover Photographs:


Back Cover Photographs:


Design and layout:


Background: Sugarcane field. Photo supplied by the Sugarcane Growers Cooperative of Florida.


Top left: Rosa Muchovej, assistant professor with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, takes notes on growth of sugarcane near Clewiston. While most sugarcane
is now grown on the area's organic muck soils, Muchovej and other UF researchers are develop-
ing new management practices to grow cane on less desirable sandy soil, thereby minimizing
the environmental impact of sugarcane. Photo by Milt Putnam, University of Florida, IFAS
Educational Media and Services.
Bottom left: Dov Borovsky, professor with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, has developed a diet pill for mosquitoes that makes them starve to death.
Holding a genetic model in his Vero Beach laboratory, Monday 12/1, Borovsky says the pill
could be on the market next year and "may start a mosquito famine." The diet pill, ten years in
development, is expected to revolutionize control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases.
Middle: Breakthroughs in biotechnology are improving animal health as well as the ability of
crop plants to resist pests and increase yields.
Bottom right: Scientists at the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
are using DNA testing to police polluters. There team of UF scientists including Salina Parveen, a
doctoral student from Bangladesh, shown Thursday, isolate E. coli bacteria in water samples and
test it for resistance to antibiotics and its DNA. E. coli is present in the digestive tracts of all
warm-blooded animals, and by looking at the bacteria found in water and its DNA patters,
scientists are able to tell if the pollution is human and manmade.

Billie J. Hermansen, University of Florida, IFAS Educational Media and Services


Editors: Chuck Woods and Chris Eversole, IFAS Educational Media and Services









Contents


Report by the Dean for Research..................... 1

Selected Research Accomplishments .................. 2

Changes in Faculty .................................. 38

Research Administration ........ ................... 39

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ................... 39
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ................... .. 39
Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs FAMU ........... 40


Center for Aquatic Plants .
Center for Natural Resource
Center for Biomass Program


. . . . . . . . . . . .
Programs ...............
s . . . . . . . . . . .


........ 40
........ 40
........ 40


Campus Research Programs ...........

Agricultural and Biological Engineering ......
Agronom y ............................
Animal Science .........................
Dairy and Poultry Sciences ................
Entomology and Nematology ..............
Environmental Horticulture ...............
Family, Youth and Community Sciences ......
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences .............
Food and Resource Economics .............
Food Science and Human Nutrition..........
Forest Resources and Conservation ..........
Horticultural Sciences ....................
Microbiology and Cell Science. .............
Plant Pathology ........................
Soil and Water Science ...................
Statistics............................. .
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation ..........
College of Veterinary Medicine .............


Research and Education Centers

Central Florida REC Apopka, Sanford,
Citrus REC Lake Alfred ..........
Everglades REC Belle Glade .......
Florida Medical Entomology Lab Vero
Ft. Lauderdale REC Ft. Lauderdale ..
Gulf Coast REC Bradenton, Dover . .
Hastings REC Hastings ...........
Indian River REC Ft. Pierce ........


...................... 152

Leesburg .............. 152
. .. .. ... ... ... .. .. .. 158
. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... 177
Beach ................. 180
...................... 184
. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. 189
. . .. ... ... .. .. .. .. 195






North Florida REC Quincy, Marianna, Monticello ............. 203
Range Cattle REC Ona ............................... 207
Southwest Florida REC Immokalee ........................ 211
Subtropical REC Brooksville ............................. 216
Tropical REC Homestead ............................... 218
W est Florida REC Jay .................................. 225

Director's Financial Report ............................ 230

Index ................................................. 231















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&ichard Jones


00


To our readers:


As you review this 1998 Annual Report of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (FAES),
I call your attention to the breadth and depth of
our research programs. Although our mission "to
generate new knowledge" is simply stated, it is quite
comprehensive because this mission covers a broad
array of agricultural, natural resource and human
activities. The mission is even a bigger challenge
because most of our applied research addresses
issues at the interfaces of these activities wherein
problems often become complex and contentious.

The first part of the report contains an example of
current research in each of our units. You will note
the increased role of molecular biology across our
programs. This technology has made a big impact
on our understanding of biological systems and it
puts us on the verge of solving many critical prob-
lems in agricultural production and natural resource
protection. It also plays a major role in the progress
of human health issues such as food safety.

You will note also research in natural resources such
as studies of Florida's unique scrub landscapes, new
statistical methods for directional analyses, and lake
renovation studies, among others. There are several
examples of work impacting human health such as
a study of an oyster borne human pathogen, a study
of repellents for disease transmitting insects, design
of a model for predicting encephalitis and a study of
the relationship between diet and immunity in
elderly citizens.

There are, of course, many examples of work in the
agricultural sector, including the development of
better plants and animals, pest resistance and more
efficient production practices. Because several recent
disease introductions have potential to cause severe


damage, especially to our tomato and citrus
industries, I call your attention to the relatively
large number of projects addressing plant diseases.

Lastly, you should note the important work at the
interface of agriculture and environment that
addresses the impact of nitrates on environmental
policy. FAES has recently entered into a joint
arrangement with the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Suwannee
Valley Water Management District, Florida
Department of Health, Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, and other state and local
agencies to analyze the situation and to develop
BMP's for the Suwannee Valley Water Management
District before problems arise. The fact that such a
broad multi-agency group has come together to
address a potential problem in a preventive manner
is a very positive development.

In addition to the highlights noted, this 1998
Annual Report contains a list of faculty by unit,
publications, titles of current research projects, and
a brief financial report. Completed research is
reported in scientific journals, bulletins, circulars,
books and conference proceedings. Our scientists
also participate extensively in field days, short
courses, conferences and other public informational
programs to inform producers and consumers
about recent research findings as well as to collect
information to help set new research directions.

Richard L. Jones
Dean for Research and Director,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida







Agricultural and Biological Engineering


Impacts of Alternative Citrus Production
Practices on Groundwater Quality

Situation: The recent National Pesticide Survey
conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency found widespread nitrate contamination of
drinking water wells. Approximately 52 percent
of all water wells were found to contain nitrate
concentrations above background levels. Approxi-
mately 1.2 percent and 2.4 percent of the urban
and rural drinking wells, respectively, were found
to contain concentrations above the Maximum
Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/1. The survey
revealed a consistent pattern of fertilizer sales and
higher crop values, indicating that agricultural
practices may be an important contributor to the
nitrate problem.

In predominantly agricultural regions of Florida,
the frequency of drinking water wells contami-
nated by nitrates exceeds the national frequency
found in the EPA survey. Of 3,949 drinking water
wells analyzed for nitrate by the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS) and the Florida Department of Environ-
mental Protection (FDEP), 2,483 (63 percent)
contained detectable nitrate, and 584 wells (15
percent) contained nitrate above the EPA MCL.
Of the 584 wells statewide that exceeded the MCL,
519 were located in the Central Florida Ridge citrus
growing region, encompassed primarily by Lake,
Polk and Highland counties.

Rationale: As a result of the Florida groundwater
quality surveys, FDACS formed a multi-agency
(FDACS/FDEP/IFAS/SWFWMD) Nitrate Study
Committee in October 1992. The Study Committee
recommended that a long-term research project be
initiated to evaluate the impacts of alternative
citrus nutrient and water management practices on
groundwater quality beneath the vulnerable sandy
soils in the ridge citrus region of Central Florida.
The objectives of the established research project
are to (1) generate baseline groundwater quality
data from several commercial citrus groves in the
ridge citrus region in order to relate current
groundwater quality trends to existing and historic
management practices, (2) develop recommenda-
tions for alternative nutrient and water manage-
ment practices for each cooperator site intended to
reduce off-site water quality impacts associated
with citrus production, and (3) assess the impacts


Wendy D. Graham


Q.)
Pt-


of alternative management practices on ground-
water quality, fruit yield and fruit quality.

Planning for the Ridge Citrus Water Quality Project
began in 1992. Site selection and instrumentation
was completed in 1993. Baseline hydrologic and
groundwater quality monitoring of cooperator sites
was begun in September 1993. The baseline
monitoring data show that groves managed at sites
with groundwater tables within 3 to 6 feet of the
land surface do not show groundwater nitrate
levels above the EPA MCL. However, mature groves
managed at sites with groundwater tables 10 or
more feet below ground level often show nitrate
concentration above the MCL throughout the
monitored depth of the aquifer (i.e., the top 20
feet). Data from a native vegetation site on the
Central Florida ridge show virtually no detectable
nitrate.

During the fall of 1994, a series of meetings was
held with grower cooperators to discuss recom-
mended changes in nutrient and water manage-
ment practices. The following site specific best
management practices (BMPs) were established in








December 1994 and implemented in January
1995: (1) application of a combination of slow
release and dry soluble fertilizer at a rate of 160
lb/acre/yr split into three applications, (2) applica-
tion of 18 doses of liquid fertilizer at a rate of 160
lb/acre/yr applied through a fertilizer system, (3)
application of a combination of 18 doses of liquid
fertilizer at a rate of 70 lb/acre/yr through a
fertilizer system and three applications of foliar
spray fertilizer at a rate of 57 lb/acre/yr, and (4)
use of irrigation scheduling based on tensiometer
measurements to minimize excess leaching.

Impact: Analysis of post-BMP monitoring data
indicates that all sites show statistically significant
downward trends of nitrate concentration in
groundwater over time. The average downward
trends range from 0.32 mg/l/yr to 5.14 mg/l/yr,
and are greatest for the fertigation/foliar spray
BMP. If the current rate of decrease continues, all
sites will be in compliance with the nitrate MCL
within two to four years of BMP implementation.
Testing of leaf nutritional status shows that leaves
at all groves have remained either very close or
slightly above the optimal range of N, P, K, Ca and
Mg concentrations. No significant changes in fruit
weight or juice quality that can be attributed to
the prescribed changes in management practices
have been observed.

Long-term impacts of the alternative citrus nutri-
ent and water management practices implemented
at the grower cooperator sites were modeled using
the Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model
(LEACHM, Hutson and Wagenet, 1992). These
simulations confirmed field observations that
groundwater nitrate concentrations below mature
citrus groves that receive 220 to 240 lb/ac/yr
Nitrogen (N) as three split applications of dry
soluble fertilizer can be expected to exceed the
Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum
Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/l a majority of
the time. Fifty-year simulations of the improved
nutrient and water management practices pre-
dicted that reducing the rate and increasing the
frequency of N application, and improving irriga-
tion management, both increases N uptake by
plants and reduces average groundwater nitrate
concentrations to within EPA standards. Modeling
results confirm that of the practices tested in the
field, the 127 lb N/ac/yr fertigation/foliar spray
BMP will be the most effective, and the 160 lb
N/ac/yr slow release/dry soluble BMP will be the
least effective for improving groundwater quality.
Modeling results further predict that to maintain
the average groundwater nitrate concentration


beneath the EPA MCL in this region, the N rate
must be cut to 152 lb N/ac/yr if the fertilizer is to
be applied in three split applications of dry soluble
fertilizer; to 185 lb N/ac/yr if the fertilizer is
applied in three applications of slow release/dry
soluble fertilizer; or to 205 kg/ha/yr if the N is to
be applied in 18 split fertigation applications. If 57
lb N /ac/yr is applied as foliar spray, modeling
results predict that an additional 166 lb N/ac/yr
may be applied in 18 split fertigation applications
(for a total N application rate of 223 kg/ha/yr)
while maintaining the average concentration of the
leachate below the EPA MCL.

Hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring
and modeling of the citrus groves will continue
through 2000 to examine the long-term impacts
of the recommended citrus management practices
on groundwater quality. Measurements will also
continue to monitor the effects of alternative
management practices on the horticultural
response (i.e., fruit yield, fruit quality, leaf
nutritional status) and economic return.

Collaborators: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Institute
for Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS):
Wendy D. Graham, Groundwater Hydrologist,
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Depart-
ment; Ashok K. Alva, Soil Chemist, Citrus
Research and Education Center; H. Max Still,
Citrus Extension Agent, Highlands County Exten-
sion Service; Brian McNeal, Soil Chemist, Soil and
Water Science Department; T. Adair Wheaton,
Citrus Horticulture, Citrus Research and Education
Center; Larry Parsons, Citrus Horticulture, Citrus
Research and Education Center. FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND
CONSUMER SERVICES (FDACS): Richard Budell,
Assistant Director, Division of Agricultural Envi-
ronmental Services; Marlene Czerniak, Project
Manager, Division of Agricultural Environmental
Services; George Wiegand, Professional Geologist,
Division of Agricultural Management Services;
Rick Edwards, Field Technician Supervisor.
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION (FDEP): Mike Thomas, Professional
Engineer, Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground
Water Resources. ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL
RESEARCH STATION: Ed Rawlinson, Research
Associate, Agricultural Engineer. SOUTH FLORIDA
COMMUNITY COLLEGE: G. Tim Turner, Jr.,
Instructor in Agricultural Technology and Citrus
Specialist. SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT (SWFWMD): Ron
Cohen, Professional Engineer, Engineering Section
Resource Project Department.


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Agronomy


Molecular Biology to Improve Forage Grass
Quality

Situation: Florida's livestock industries are based
primarily on the production and utilization of
warm season perennial grasses. These tropical and
subtropical C4 grass species, in contrast to the
temperate C3 forage species, are generally lower in
forage quality, which imposes major constraints on
animal performance and productivity. Lignin, and
its phenolic monomers, are major "anti-quality"
factors which lower the digestibility of grass cell
walls and reduce rumen microbial activity by: (a)
presenting a physical barrier to microbial attack,
and (b) providing phenolic lignin degradation
products with antimicrobial activities. Although
genetic variability exists in lignin content and in
forage grass quality, improving forage quality
through use of traditional plant breeding methods
has been slow and limited. Molecular biology and
genetic engineering technologies offer promise for
improving forage grass quality and animal produc-
tivity by reducing or modifying the type and
quantity of grass lignin produced. The lignin
biosynthetic pathway is well understood with the
enzymology of many key enzymes completed.
Brown midrib mutants of maize and sorghum,
having defective O-methyl transferase (OMT) and
cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) lignin
biosynthetic genes, have been shown to produce
reduced and modified lignin compared to that in
normal plants. Mutants of those species have
given improved forage digestibility and animal
performance of up to 20 percent.

Rational: This research focuses on the use of
molecular biology and genetic engineering to
down-regulate and/or modify lignin biosynthesis
to improve forage grass quality. To that end, both
OMT and CAD lignin biosynthetic genes have been
isolated and cloned in Pennisetum and sorghum.
Needed genetic engineering (tissue culture and
transformation) technology in forage grasses has
been lagging behind that of food and cash crops.
Consequently, we selected maize as our model
crop to evaluate the technology to down-regulate
lignin synthesis. A repeatable monocot transforma-
tion system was established and antisense con-
structs were assembled to drive the sorghum
OMT in the antisense (reverse) direction. Maize
transformation was accomplished by micro-
projectile bombardment of callus tissue, followed


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by regeneration of the callus into plants.
Transgenic plants have been identified with OMT
activities being reduced as much as 60 percent
compared to control plants. In addition, several
transgenic plants have expressed the "brown
midrib" phenotype. Both the OMT activity reduc-
tion and the brown-midrib phenotype are heritable
and are being evaluated in the next generations.
Further characterization of the transgenic plants is
in progress to evaluate the effect of reduced OMT
activity on digestibility and lignin content, and
also to determine whether lignin type has been
changed as it is in the natural brown-midrib
mutants. Research is also being initiated to extend
this technology to bahiagrass, Pennisetum sp. and
other tropical forage grasses.

Impact: Future improvements in animal perfor-
mance and productivity will likely be accom-
plished with increased quality and utilization of
tropical and subtropical forages rather than from
further increases in grass yields. Because large
areas in Florida and the tropics are devoted to the
production of forage grasses, even small increases
in forage quality can produce significant returns in
animal productivity. For example, Florida now has
2.5 million acres in bahiagrass, the primary grass
in most pasture-based animal production systems.
Since transformation of that species has now been
shown to be possible, we are targeting bahiagrass
as a species within which lignin composition and
quantity might be manipulated. Once successful
in bahiagrass, this technology also has the poten-
tial of being applied to other forage grasses grown
in Florida and tropical regions of the world.









Animal Science


Putting a Finger on the Reproductive
Pulse Of Mares

Situation: Reproduction in many livestock species,
including horses, is characterized by poor effi-
ciency, which results in increased production costs.
Much of this poor reproductive efficiency stems
from intensive management systems in which the
timing of mating or insemination of the female is
dictated by human managers. The labor involved
in monitoring large herds of animals to determine
optimal times for mating, especially in the horse
industry, is tremendous. Furthermore, the pro-
longed breeding period (estrus) of mares, seven
days, makes it even more difficult to determine the
appropriate time for breeding. This problem is
further compounded by the fact that owners of
expensive stallions prefer to limit mating to one
time per estrus. Nationally, the conception rate per
estrus in mares is approximately 45 to 55 percent.
This means that mares must be maintained for
several estrus periods without being bred. The
problem becomes exacerbated with the restricted
breeding season imposed by economic pressures.
The breeding season extends only for a few
months, from April to June, increasing the need for
a higher per estrus conception rate. At average
daily maintenance costs of $10 to 15 per day or
more, few horse breeders can afford to maintain
nonpregnant mares. Therefore, there is a tremen-
dous need for management procedures which
would assure mating at the appropriate time.
One procedure that would be effective would be
to stimulate ovulation at a predictable time,
permitting effective scheduling of stallions and
minimizing the labor involved in monitoring the
estrous cycle of mares.

Rationale: Administration of the ovulating
hormone, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), or its
hypothalamic releasing hormone, Gonadotropin
Releasing Hormone (GnRH), would theoretically
stimulate ovulation and accomplish that goal.
However, equine LH is not available, eliminating
administration of that hormone as an option. The
other potential procedure for managing breeding
time, administration of GnRH, is not well under-
stood. Indeed, the stimulation of LH release by
GnRH represents one of the most important aspects
of endocrinology today, signal transduction. Signal
transduction is defined as the sum total of mecha-
nisms involved in stimulation of a target organ cell


Don Sharp


by an appropriate specific endocrine hormone.
Signal transduction involves cell-surface receptor CC
binding, intra-membrane transmission of that
event through specialized intermediary proteins
called "G" proteins and sub-membrane transmis-
sion and amplification of the event through
"second messenger systems." In many species
studied to date, signal transduction requires an
intermittent or "pulsatile" application of the signal
hormone to prevent extinction of the response
hormone. Presented with a large bolus or continu-
ous application of signal hormone, pituitary cells
(gonadotropes) undergo loss of responsiveness
known as "down regulation" or "desensitization."
Desensitization occurs prior to down regulation
and may be associated with the inactivation of the
"G" protein complex and/or second messenger
systems within the gonadotropes. In contrast, the
reduced responsiveness due to down regulation C4
refers to the loss of cell-surface receptors as the
receptor-ligand complex is internalized faster than
the receptors can be recycled on the surface of the
cell. In practical terms, administration of hormones
such as GnRH requires intermittent or "pulsatile"
application through expensive, fragile peristaltic
pumps. Large livestock species, including horses,
are not readily compatible with such fragile and
expensive solutions. Furthermore, the nature of
GnRH signaling to the equine pituitary to induce
LH release is not well understood. The equine
gonadotrope does not appear to undergo down
regulation or desensitization as readily as other
species, raising the question of whether or not the






mechanisms of signal reception and transduction
are somehow different in this species. If so, study
of these mechanisms will shed light on the mecha-
nisms of other species. In fact, the mechanisms of
signal transduction and pulsatile secretion are
poorly understood in general, making study of this
phenomenon critical to a better understanding of
endocrine signaling systems. We have taken a
multi-faceted approach to the study of this prob-
lem. First, we are cloning the receptor to compare
its structure with the consensus structure of other
species. Second, we have developed a useful in
vitro perifusion system in which equine pituitary
gonadotropes can be studied under a variety of
experimental treatment regimes and the messenger
RNA encoding the GnRH structure measured to
evaluate the effect of signal frequency. Further-
more, we will study various aspects of known
second messenger system components to learn
how they may differ in a species that is tolerant
of continuous GnRH signal whereas most other
species are not.

Impact: It is known that a point mutation in the
gene sequence for GnRH receptor in some experi-
mental models can greatly influence the binding
affinity and other properties of the GnRH receptor.


Our studies may lead to a better understanding of
the importance of the structure of the ligand
binding domain of the GnRH receptor. The
importance of this understanding is that it will
lead to more rational drug discovery in the design
of drugs that interact with target cell receptor in an
intermittent pattern. This knowledge extends
beyond reproduction to include most of the endo-
crine system. Furthermore, these studies may lead
to development of management procedures which
capitalize on the knowledge obtained to stimulate
the hypothalamic-pituitary system of horses and
permit "scheduled breeding" and increased
reproductive efficiency.

Collaborators: Funding from the U.S. Department
of Agriculture Competitive Grants Program.
Collaborators include: Colin Clay, Colorado State
University; Karin Eidne, MRC, Edinburgh, UK;
Michael J. Fields, Department of Animal Science,
University of Florida; William W. Thatcher, Depart-
ment of Dairy and Poultry Science, University of
Florida; Frank Simmens, Department of Dairy and
Poultry Science, University of Florida; Peter J.
Hansen, Department of Dairy and Poultry Science,
University of Florida, and Michael Porter, Depart-
ment of Animal Science, University of Florida.


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Vemon V Vandiver


Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants


Eradication Program of Wild Red Rice (Oryza $- .
rufipogon Griff.) in Florida \t

Situation: The genus Oryza has 22 species, includ-
ing 20 wild and two cultivated species. Some
major rice weeds are from the rice complex. Red
Rice, 0. sativa L var. fatua Prain, is a widespread
weed in cultivated rice, including production areas
in the United States. Wild Red Rice, 0. rufipogon is
often found in non-taxonomic literature in the
United States. Oryza rufipogon has apparently been
erroneously applied to Red Rice in that literature,
and thus has created confusion. A population of O.
rufipogon, Wild Red Rice, was collected and
documented, though originally misidentified, in
July 1959. It was growing in Taylor Slough, near
the Royal Palm Visitor Center, Everglades National
Park, Homestead, Dade County, Florida. This
collection site is 100 km from the commercial rice
production region of Florida in the Everglades
Agricultural Area. The perennial, 0. rufipogon, has
not been reported previously in the United States
prior to the present infestation. It has been re-








ported in Australia, Burma, Central America, Sri
Lanka, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the
Philippines, South America and Thailand. Wild
Red Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) was again
collected in Taylor Slough in the Everglades
National Park on Nov. 27, 1985, and its identifica-
tion confirmed June 17, 1987. Earlier
misidentifications of the 0. rufipogon in the Park
were due to the similarity of closely related species
in this complex of cultivated rice. All specimens
of Wild Red Rice collected before Nov. 27, 1985
consisted of only the shoot of the fruiting plant.
The inflorescence of 0. rufipogon is very similar to
0. sativa. The 0. rufipogon found established in
Florida is a perennial with a stout rhizome and
fibrous roots. 0. sativa L var. fatua is an annual
with a fibrous root system. The rhizome is a
reliable means of identification for 0. rufipogon.

Rationale: A competitive weed in rice fields,
0. rufipogon has the undesirable characteristic of
hybridizing with 0. sativa, cultivated rice. With its
competitive growth and inferior grain quality,
0. rufipogon lowers the quality and yield of
domestic rice. This plant is an important weed
in cultivated rice, represents a threat to the
Everglades National Park (both an International
Biosphere Reserve and a United Nations World
Heritage Site) and poses a threat to aquatic and
wetlands habitats elsewhere in Florida and other
states.


Dairy and Poultry Sciences


Partitioning Carbohydrates to Improve Dairy
Ration Formulation

Situation: Properly balanced diets are essential to
maintaining the production, health and profitabil-
ity of dairy cattle. The nutritionist needs to know
the nutrient composition of feeds in order to
balance diets that will meet a cow's requirements.
Determining the correct composition has been a
problem with carbohydrates, particularly the
neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDSC).
The NDSC are the most highly digestible carbohy-
drates, and include organic acids, sugars, starch
and pectin. They can account for 30 to 45 percent
of a cow's diet. Because of the diversity of carbohy-
drates in NDSC and difficulties with their measure-
ment, their content in feeds has been estimated as
a single, calculated number. That presents a
problem for balancing dairy cattle diets, because


Impact: An effort to eradicate the Wild Red Rice
population was initiated in 1988. The control
strategy includes mechanical removal of inflores-
cence to prevent additional seed dispersal, and
treatment of the standing crop of vegetation
with an application of a 1.5-percent solution
(v/v) of the Rodeo formulation of glyphosate
[N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]. The original area
infested with the population was approximately
0.6 ha. Current efforts include frequent surveys
of the area of the previous infestation and the
surrounding areas, and also treating selected
vegetation, including any emerged Wild Red Rice
plants. Vegetation surveys are conducted approxi-
mately monthly to detect any newly emerging rice
shoots and to control selected weeds which can
hide incipient Wild Red Rice populations. The last
observed Wild Red Rice seedlings at a site off the
old Ingram Highway were treated on May 8, 1996.
Three Wild Red Rice plants were treated near the
Anhinga T'ail on July 7, 1997.

Collaborators: The organizations involved in this
program are the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences; the National Park Service,
U. S. Department of the Interior; and the Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture.


the different NDSC differ greatly in their digestion
characteristics. Feeding high levels of NDSC can
support high production or can cause animal
health problems. Consequently, it is essential to be
able to analyze feeds for NDSC as they relate to
how the animal digests them.

Particularly hard hit by lack of carbohydrate
information are the by-product feeds. By-product
feeds are animal feeds such as citrus pulp, whole
cottonseed, bakery waste and distiller's grains that
are left over from the production of human food
and clothing. They cannot be used by people, but
they make excellent cattle feeds. Cattle consume
hundreds of thousands of tons of by-product feeds
each year, diverting what would have been waste
from our landfills. However, the NDSC in many of
the by-product feeds used in Florida, particularly


































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Mary Beth Hall


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the nutrient composition of feeds. Nutritionists can
use the analyses to formulate rations designed to
meet cows' nutrient requirements and keep them
healthy.

Impact: When something can be measured, it can
be managed. We developed a system to separate
NDSC into the four nutrient fractions. Recommen-
dations for their levels in diets are being estab-
lished. Feeding trials with dairy cows already
indicate that the different carbohydrates are
fermented differently by bacteria in the cow's first
stomach, the rumen. The different NDSC have
differing effects on rumen acidity. These differ-
ences may lead to feeding strategies to reduce
digestive upset, while providing the cow with
energy to meet her daily requirements.

Carbohydrate type also affects the types of nutri-
ents the cow receives from her diet, which in turn
affect her production. A preliminary study showed
that changing the type of NDSC fed could change
the amount of milk and butterfat a cow produced.
More starch produced more milk, while more
soluble fiber produced more butterfat. It appears
that the NDSC type affects the amounts of lipo-
genic ("fat making") or glucogenic ("glucose
making") nutrients available to the cow. Poten-
tially, rations could be balanced to custom design
the composition and amount of a cow's produc-
tion.

A better understanding of the amounts and types
of carbohydrates in feeds allows the formulation of
healthier, more efficient rations. By increasing the
efficiency with which a cow uses her diet, nutrient
excretion into the environment can be reduced. By-
product feeds can be used to better advantage
when their feeding value is known more precisely.
It is in society's best interest that they be diverted
from becoming waste in landfills. Improved
knowledge of the nutrient content of feeds will
also remove some of the risk from ration formula-
tion, enhancing the health, production and profit-
ability of our cows, and our dairy industry.

Collaborators: This research was supported in part
by the Milk Check-Off Program. Collaborators
include scientists at University of Minnesota and
West Virginia University.


citrus pulp, are poorly described. When the
composition and nutritional value of a feed are not
well understood, the feed is not used to its best
advantage in rations.

Rationale: Four classes of carbohydrates that
reasonably divide the NDSC are organic acids,
sugars, starch and soluble fiber. The latter includes
carbohydrates such as pectins, which are digested
by microbes, but not by mammalian enzymes.
Sugars and organic acids are soluble in alcohol and
water, whereas starch and soluble fiber are not. By
separating the sugars and starch in feed with
alcohol and water solutions, they each can be
measured directly and without interference. The
organic acids and soluble fiber fractions are then
calculated by difference, but with less error than in
the original NDSC calculation. The analyses
involved are simple, or are commonly used.
Chemical analyses provide the most workable
means for commercial laboratories to determine









Entomology and Nematology


Finding New Repellents and Attractants for
Human and Animal Protection

Situation: Repellents for use on man and animals
have been available for protection since the advent
of Deet-based compounds (N, N-Diethyl-m-
Toluamide) in 1947. About 20 different base
materials were available from 1947 to the late
1980's for use as repellents. After that time, all but
Deet-based compounds were lost for use through
EPA regulations and because of their potential
carcinogenic or toxic properties. In 1997-98
problems with Deet-based materials were seen,
especially for formulations used on children. The
states of New York and California have now placed
restrictions on labels which include reduction in
the percent of N, N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide in the
formulation to 7 percent or less. The reduction in
N, N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide present reduces the time
of protection and requires retreatment of this
repellent. As this is the last available base material,
its loss from general use would present a problem
for keeping mosquitoes and other arthropods from
biting or transmitting disease-causing organisms to
both adults and children. It is under these limita-
tions that the necessity to come up with "new to
science" repellents becomes so critical for human
protection.

Rationale: Plants and animals have evolved in a
highly competitive environment. They have
undoubtedly developed protective chemicals to
reduce the feeding of insects, mites and ticks in
order to survive. Those that require pollination or
other positive interaction would have also devel-
oped attractants for the same reasons. Under these
theories, a program was set up to search for
chemicals which are present in nature for use as
new attractants and repellents.

Impact: Screening materials on a massive scale
required the development of test equipment for
laboratory as well as field experimentation.
Olfactometer test equipment was designed and
constructed to measure feeding rates of insects and
ticks on treated hosts in the laboratory and field.
These now patented research tools continue to
evolve as parameters are identified, defined and
tested.

The laboratory and field Olfactometer systems have
been used as a rapid screening system for over
3,900 chemicals and formulations of attractants


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Jerry F Butler Ct


and repellents. Tests have been conducted against a
wide range of insects and ticks in order to evaluate
their potential activity as attractants, repellents and r-.
feeding stimuli. New repellents and attractants
have been identified, leading to 73 patents on
chemicals as well as test equipment. A field trap
system was also developed to verify the activity of
selected attractants and repellents. Semiochemicals
with attractant and repellent activity have been
identified for mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles
quadrimaculatus, Culex sp.; flies the horn fly
Haematobia irritans; the house fly Musca
domestic; the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans; the
red fire ant Solenopsis invicta; tick species Orni-
thodoros turicata, Amblyomma sp., Dermacenter
sp. and the webbing clothes moth, Tineola
bisselliella.







In 1998, three of the patents on geraniol as a
repellent were licensed for commercial develop-
ment, resulting in the first new repellents marked
in many years. Geraniol is an EPA GCAS
(Generally Considered as Safe) compound with
limited restrictions for use. New products are now
available for protecting against mosquitoes, biting
and nonbiting flies (MosquitoSafe"), ticks
(TickSafe"), and fire ants (Red FireAntSafe").
These formulations are now available with world-
wide distribution against mites, ticks, flies, fire



Environmental Horticulture


Improved Floriculture Crops using
Biotechnology

Situation: Floriculture is an increasingly important
part of U.S. agriculture that includes cut flowers
and cut foliage, as well as flowering potted plants,
bedding plants and garden plants. The vast market-
ing chain that comprises the U.S. floriculture
industry is made up of more than 42,000 florists,
10,000 growers and 3,000 wholesalers, as well as
numerous importers, distributors and transporters.
In the state of Florida, floriculture crops alone have
an estimated wholesale value of $600 million
annually, ranking second in the U.S. behind
California.

One of the most common causes of quality loss of
floriculture crops is flower petal and leaf senes-
cence. This process may occur prematurely
when plants are subjected to adverse conditions
during shipping, marketing and in the consumer
environment. Ethylene gas encountered in the
postproduction environment and produced by
plants is one of the most detrimental factors
leading to senescence of floriculture crops. If
methods could be developed to reduce the effects
of this "ripening hormone," producers could
expand their markets by being able to store and
ship plants for longer periods of time.

Rationale: In an effort to alleviate the detrimental
effects of ethylene on quality of ornamental crops
during shipping and handling, we are now using
genetic engineering to increase flower longevity by
making plants insensitive to ethylene. We have
introduced a mutant version of the "ethylene
receptor" gene (ETR1) from Arabidopsis thaliana
into normal petunia plants to confer ethylene
insensitivity. Flowers from engineered plants
containing the mutant "ethylene receptor" produce


ants and mosquitoes from Repello Products Inc.,
319 Willis Avenue, Mineola, NY 11501.

Collaborators: Jerry F. Butler, Professor of Medical
and Veterinary Entomology, Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida.
Granting/Licensing agencies from industry:
International Flavors and Fragrances Inc. 1515
Highway 36, Union Beach, NJ 307735. Repello
Products Inc., 319 Willis Avenue, Mineola, NY
11501.


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as much ethylene as normal plants but do not
sense it, and therefore do not respond with acceler-
ated petal wilting. In the laboratory, ethylene
treatment that normally leads to petal wilting in
one day does not induce wilting after as much as
four to five days.

By using the newest technologies and genes
proven to be involved in perception of ethylene,
we can gain a better understanding about the
mechanism of ethylene action in flowers. We will
then be able to use this information to devise
better ways to alleviate the problems caused
by ethylene during shipping and handling of
flowering greenhouse crops. Plant molecular
biology techniques have now advanced to a point


David G. Clark








where it is economically feasible and technologi-
cally possible to start considering genetic engineer-
ing of floriculture crops for desirable commercial
traits. It is likely that the technology gained from
these experiments will lead to the successful
genetic engineering of ethylene insensitivity in
many important greenhouse crops that respond to
ethylene. We are now moving this project forward
to investigate horticultural performance of these
plants in relationship to limitations that might
hinder their commercial success.

Impact: We know the technology is available that
will allow us to create new varieties of flowers that
are insensitive to ethylene and have a longer
lasting floral display. We know that control of
ethylene sensitivity has major implications for
solving an array of postharvest problems for many
ethylene sensitive ornamental crops. However, we
also know that there could be potential problems
associated with eliminating an ethylene response
system; plants did not evolve such elaborate


hormone biosynthesis and perception systems to
make it more difficult for growers to ship flowering
plants. The plants have evolved these systems for
their own benefit. In conducting experiments
while breeding these ethylene insensitive plants,
we have discovered some potential limitations to
production that need to be addressed before these
plants will become commercially viable. By
investigating these problems, we will also be able
to shed significant light on the role of ethylene in a
number of different physiological processes within
the plant. This research has major implications on
the direct success of one of the first important
commercial traits that can be genetically engi-
neered in a wide number of ornamental crops.

Collaborators: Jim Barrett and Terril Nell, Environ-
mental Horticulture Department, University of
Florida; Harry Klee, Horticultural Sciences Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Funding was provided
in part by The Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, Inc.
and Monsanto Co.


Family,Youth and Community Sciences


Determining Hazardous Levels of Vibrio vulnificus
in Raw Oysters

Situation: Each year, a small but significant
number of Floridians suffer life-threatening illness
from consuming raw oysters containing a common
bacterium called Vibrio vulnificus. This organism
is natural to Gulf of Mexico waters and can be
found in nearly all oysters between the months of
April and October. Importantly, it only causes
disease in persons with preexisting chronic ill-
nesses, such as liver disease, cancer, diabetes,
AIDS and other disorders.

Rationale: It was not known how much of this
organism posed a health threat to consumers. The
Food Safety program in the Department of Family,
Youth and Community Sciences conducted
research to measure levels of Vibrio vulnificus in
raw oysters linked to human infections.

Impact: Results showed that when Vibrio
vulnificus levels reached 1,000 cells per gram of
raw oyster meat, illnesses began to appear in
Florida's population. With this information, it is '
now possible to more accurately implement
consumer health warnings. The Department of
Family, Youth and Community Science's research
program continues to provide scientifically-based
information to enhance the safety of Florida foods.


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11







Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences


Effects of Habitat Restoration on the
Largemouth Bass Population at Lake Kissimmee

Situation: Altered hydrology of many Florida lakes
and rivers (primarily for flood control) has stabi-
lized lake water levels compared to historic
hydrologic regimes. As a result, stabile water levels
have allowed "permanent" stands of emergent
plants in the narrow zone of lake fluctuation in
many systems. This plant growth accelerates
deposition of organic matter and reduces habitat
quality for many native sport fishes.

Rationale: In an effort to improve fish habitat in
one of Florida's premier fisheries, an extreme
drawdown and muck removal project was initiated
on Lake Kissimmee in 1996. Total cost of the
restoration was in excess of $5 million, and the
restoration effort was funded cooperatively by the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission,
the South Florida Water Management District, the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
the Osceola County Board of County Commission-
ers and the Polk County Board of County Commis-
sioners. Two years later, Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences researcher Mike Allen is now evaluating
the effectiveness of the 1996 habitat restoration,
particularly its effect on the largemouth bass
population at Lake Kissimmee. Density and
biomass of largemouth bass and other fishes are
being estimated in restored and unrestored areas of
the lake. Habitat attributes including dissolved
oxygen, temperature, depth and plant biomass are
also compared between restored and unrestored
areas of the lake. Major habitat types in the lake
will be quantified using GIS (Geographical Infor-
mation Systems). Total impact of the habitat
restoration on the fish populations of Lake
Kissimmee will be estimated by extrapolating fish
abundances in each major habitat type to the
entire lake area. Preliminary results suggest that
restored areas are highly productive for young


Mike Allen


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largemouth bass and other sport fishes, whereas
unrestored areas are largely uninhabitable. This
project, funded in part by the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission, began in May 1998
and will continue until May 2000.

Impact: Freshwater fishing is a billion-dollar
industry in Florida. Total direct expenses for
resident and nonresident anglers targeting large-
mouth bass alone exceeded $250 million in 1991.
Additionally, direct expenses comprise typically
about one-third of the total economic impact.
However, the decline in Florida's fish habitat
threatens to reduce the value of many popular
fishing waters. Poor habitat could reduce fishing
quality and subsequent resident and nonresident
fishing expenditures, thus diminishing the recre-
ational fishing industry. Fishery managers hope to
use studies like this to identify strategies that
sustain and improve Florida's freshwater fisheries
in the future.









Food Science and Human Nutrition


Nutrient Supplementation Affects Immune
Function in the Elderly

Situation: Nutritional status and the ability to fight
off infection decline with age. A poor nutritional
state increases the susceptibility to infection.
Nutrient supplementation improves nutritional
status and overall health. We are using the amino
acid arginine (a protein building block) to
manipulate immune function in the aged.

Rationale: We recently completed a study in
elderly nursing home residents with pressure
ulcers (bedsores). This study demonstrated that
arginine supplementation is well tolerated in this
population but affects at least one aspect of im-
mune function differently than that observed in
younger populations. The stress of the pressure
ulcer appears to contribute to this effect. To further
investigate the effect of arginine supplementation
on immune function in the aged, we have supple-
mented the diets of young, adult and aged mice
with arginine. Overall, measures of immune
function were depressed in the aged animals.
Arginine supplementation improved immune
function. Future studies will address the
interaction between age and stress in arginine
supplemented humans and animals.

Impact: If we can boost immune function in the
aged, we may reduce the incidence of infection.
Ultimately, this will improve quality of life and
save health care dollars.


Food and Resource Economics


Cuba's Agriculture and Fisheries Sectors

Situation: Because of the geographic proximity of
Florida and Cuba and the striking similarity of
their traditional agricultural production patterns, a
resumption of trade and commercial relations
between the United States and Cuba, whenever it
may occur, will have important implications for
the agricultural sector in Florida. Moreover, given
the extensive volume of agricultural trade between
the two countries prior to the imposition of the
U.S. embargo in 1960, many opportunities are
likely to develop whenever the embargo is lifted.


Bobbi Langkamp-Henken


Collaborators: Nursing home study: Joyce K.
Stechmiller, PhD, ARNP, College of Nursing,
University of Florida. Animal study: thesis work of
Brandon Lewis.


While no one knows when such a change may
take place, Florida and U.S. agriculture need to be
prepared for such an eventuality.

Rationale: To provide timely information on this
important issue, in 1992 the Department of Food
and Resource Economics launched a comprehen-
sive research program to study Cuba's agricultural
and fisheries sectors. The project is not intended to
suggest any change in U.S. policy toward Cuba.
Rather, the research is designed to provide objec-
tive and current data and information on these
sectors for federal and state legislators and


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Tom Spreen


government agencies, private firms, agricultural
industry associations, consumer groups and others
to help assess the challenges and opportunities for
agriculture in Florida, the U.S. and Cuba which
may arise from a lifting of the U.S. embargo.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the
economic deterioration that occurred in Cuba as a
result of the elimination of Soviet subsidization,
sources of current and reliable data were necessary
in order to develop a realistic and up-to-date
assessment of conditions in Cuba's agricultural
and fisheries sectors. However, the last year for
which the Cuban government released its detailed
statistical summary was 1989. To obtain more
current data, the project established a collaborative
research arrangement with the University of
Havana's Center for Research on the International
Economy. Funding obtained from the John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation enabled
travel to and from Cuba to further support this
collaborative research effort.

Impact: Results from the joint research activities
have received wide dissemination through the
publication of more than 40 reports, journal
articles, research papers, extension briefs and
magazine articles and more than three dozen


presentations at professional meetings and
conferences throughout the United States, Central
America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe
and in Cuba. These presentations include invited
Congressional testimony and seminars at the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and the U.S. State
Department.

In an especially innovative effort to disseminate
the results of the project to policy makers, analysts
and other interested parties, a day-long conference
was organized in Washington, D.C. in March of
1998. The conference program consisted of a series
of joint presentations by faculty collaborators from
the University of Florida and the University of
Havana and related question and discussion
sessions. Conference papers were provided to
attendees and all conference presentations and
discussions were simultaneously translated. More
than 100 people attended the conference from a
wide range of organizations including agricultural
commodity groups, private firms, universities and
embassies, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S.
Department of State, U.S. Agency for International
Development, Central Intelligence Agency, United
Nations affiliate institutions and a number of other
international organizations. The conference was
widely covered by the news media.

The project has received outstanding support from
state and federal officials, agricultural industry
associations and commodity groups, and private
firms throughout Florida and the United States.

Collaborators: Jose Alvarez, Everglades REC, Belle
Glade; Bill Messina, Chuck Adams, Jim Ross, Tom
Spreen, John VanSickle, Kamal Dow, Carlos
Jauregui, Fred Royce, Anne Moseley and Doug
Smith, Food and Resource Economics Department,
Gainesville; Ron Muraro, Citrus REC, Lake Alfred;
David Zimet, North Florida REC, Quincy; Tim
Hewitt, North Florida REC, Marianna; Center for
Research on the International Economy, University
of Havana, Cuba; U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Economic Research Service.


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School of Forest Resources and Conservation


Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability

Situation: The U.S. forest products industry faces a
challenging dilemma. The demand for wood
products continues to increase steadily, while the
land base for timber production decreases each
year. To meet our escalating wood demands from a
shrinking land base, it will be necessary to im-
prove forest productivity and yield on southern
industrial forest holdings through application of
research findings. Forest growth rates in the South
have increased impressively over the past 30 years,
but there is still room for improvement. Research
plantings have shown that southern pine growth
on industrial lands could be increased by a factor
of two or more if improved genetic stock were
planted and managed with enhanced silvicultural
techniques. The challenge now is to determine
what combination of management factors (such as
site preparation, fertilization and competition
control) and biological factors (such as genetic
differences in nutrient use efficiency, leaf area
display or disease resistance) may be helpful for
translating these experimental results into opera-
tional industrial applications. Yet, even attaining
accelerated growth rates through intensive man-
agement raises a host of new problems. For
example, it is increasingly apparent that very
rapidly growing trees are more susceptible to some
forest diseases and pests. The issue of wood quality
in rapidly growing trees is a concern. It also will
be important to understand what steps must be
taken to guarantee the sustainability of higher
levels of productivity through successive rotations.

Rationale: To prepare forestry to face these com-
plex challenges as we move into the 21st century,
the University of Florida, U.S. Forest Service and
forest industry are working together through the
recently-formed, interdisciplinary Forest Biology
Research Cooperative (FBRC). Until recently, most
forestry research cooperatives in the United States
have focused their attention on a single facet of
forest management, such as fertilization, pest
management or tree genetic improvement. In
response to the increasing complexity of questions
facing the forest industry, the FBRC was formed in
1996 with the express intent of taking a multi-
disciplinary approach to understanding the biologi-
cal and physical limitations to pine productivity in
the South. The FBRC's mission has been organized
into CRIS Project No. FOR-03541 to optimize forest
productivity, health and sustainability of inten-


Tim Martin,Tim White and Eric okela


sively managed forest ecosystems. Research will
be pursued primarily through a series of large,
intensively-studied field experiments that also
provide sites for much research on basic processes.
With an initial staff of eight UF scientists and the
support of 10 industrial cooperators, the FBRC will
use these studies to understand the interactive
effects of genetics, pests, silviculture, ecophysiol-
ogy, nutrition and soils on the productivity of
southern pines.

Impact: In the past, growth gains resulting from
single-discipline forestry research efforts have been
measured in modest increments of the magnitude
of 25 percent or less. However, current southern
pine production biology research indicates that
growth rates of forests on industry lands have the
potential to be two to three times greater than
present rates. These gains can be realized by
planting high quality genetic stock with superior
growth potential and disease resistance, and
managing that stock under integrated, intensive
silvicultural systems. Florida has always been in
the top five states nationally in annual reforesta-
tion. Currently, nearly 200,000 acres are planted
each year. This pattern of planting in Florida
causes industry lands to have a higher proportion
of plantations than in other states. The FBRC will
play a pivotal role in generating the knowledge
necessary to understand how to deploy the im-
proved planting stock and manage these growth
increases, to communicate this knowledge to
industrial cooperators, and to facilitate the transfer
of this information to non-industrial forest land
managers.

Multiple benefits will accrue as these advances are
applied on industrial forest lands. One important


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benefit will be economic. Forest industry already
contributes over $9 billion annually to Florida's
economy through wages and value added manu-
facturing, and the FBRC's research will enable
industry to increase this contribution in a sustain-
able manner while the forest land base shrinks.
This research will also help the United States'
forest industry to maintain its position in an
increasingly competitive global market. The
FBRC's research also will play an important
environmental role. By meeting wood demand on
fewer acres, the forest industry can shift harvesting
pressure away from environmentally sensitive
forested areas that are required to meet other
societal needs.

Collaborators: The Forest Biology Research Coop-
erative is supported in part with funding, in-kind



Horticultural Sciences


Molecular Approaches to Understanding
Diseases ofTomato

Situation: Plant diseases are a major challenge to
Florida agriculture, particularly for tomato grow-
ers. The Florida tomato industry is Florida's
number one commodity and has a farm gate value
in excess of $400 million annually. Plant diseases
and bacteria can greatly affect tomato yields, fruit
quality and the potential for profitability.

Rationale: In order to control the responses of
plants to diseases, it is essential to understand the
inherent mechanisms whereby plants recognize
the presence of pathogens and attempt to mount a
defense. Genes that regulate the defense response
are logical targets for intervention using genetic
engineering. IFAS researchers have identified a
major role for the plant hormone ethylene in the
response of tomato plants to disease-causing
bacteria and fungi. Ethylene acts as a signal that
pathogenic organisms are present and stimulates
turn-on of other genes responsible for fighting off
the disease-causing organisms. How the plant uses
the ethylene signal can determine the outcome of
the disease.

Impact: Now that IFAS researchers have identified
ethylene as a key component of the tomato defense
response, they have turned their attention to what
defense genes are regulated by ethylene. They are
using recently developed "genomics" techniques to


contributions and hands-on collaboration by the
following forest products companies and govern-
ment entities: Champion International, Foley
Timber and Land Co., International Paper Co.,
Jefferson Smurfit Corp., Kimberly-Clark Corp.,
Rayonier, Tenneco Packaging, The Timber Co.,
Union Camp Corp., United States Department of
Agriculture Forest Service, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, University of Florida Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida School of Forest Resources and Conserva-
tion, and the Florida Division of Forestry. Univer-
sity of Florida scientific collaborators include
George Blakeslee, Nicholas Comerford, Eric Jokela,
Shibu Jose, Tim Martin, Don Rockwood, Robert
Schmidt and Tim White.


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catalogue all of the plant genes that are turned on
in a plant that is infected and to identify those
specific genes that are regulated by ethylene. These
techniques should identify the critical genes that
are involved in both defense and symptom devel-
opment. These genes, once identified, will be
prime candidates for genetic engineering to more
effectively help the host plant fight off the disease
causing organisms.

Collaborators: Robert Stall, Jeff Jones, Plant
Pathology Department, University of Florida.
Funding was provided in part by the USDA
National Research Initiative, National Science
Foundation and the Lyle Dickman Chair.


H.J. Klee









Microbiology and Cell Science


Identifying Biological Regulators of Methane
Production

Situation: Anaerobic microorganisms, which
account for over 25 percent of the protoplasm on
earth, play a major role in the global carbon cycle
and production of greenhouse gases. Methane gas,
a contributor to global warming, has more than
doubled in atmospheric concentrations over the
past 300 years and is increasing at a rate of almost
1 percent per year. Fortunately, when properly
controlled, biomass conversion to methane pro-
vides inexpensive energy for Third World commu-
nities as well as innovative projects in the U.S.
Thus, researchers are working on ways to improve
the biological production of methane in controlled
systems as well as understand the physiology of
methane production and its global impact.

Rationale: Microbiology and Cell Scientists are
focused on understanding the microbial conversion
of biomass to methane. The rationale is that a
better understanding of the physiology of the
methanogens will provide insight into how their
metabolic pathways can be modified for increased
economic benefit. Through these studies, an ATP-
dependent protease has been identified which may
be involved in regulating the levels of the central
enzyme of acetotrophic methanogenesis, the
carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex. The
methanoarchaeal protease or proteasome is also
providing an ideal model for understanding the
analogous 26S proteasome of higher organisms.
The 26S proteasome is now known to be involved
in a diversity of functions including cell growth
and the generation of peptides which are presented
to the immune system.

Impact: Through biotechnology, Microbiology and
Cell Scientists now produce large quantities of
methanogen proteasomes which are used to screen
protease inhibitors developed by the pharmaceuti-
cal industry. In fact, low doses of proteasome
inhibitors are showing much promise as future
drugs in the inhibition of dividing cancer cells
and may even prove effective in modulating the
immune system. The methanogen proteasomes
in particular are useful for analyzing protease
inhibitors because of their multicatalytic peptide


Julie Maupin-Furlow


hydrolyzing activity which is analogous to the
proteasome of higher organisms. Another
application of this research includes the use of
proteasome antibodies to monitor microbial stress
responses in anaerobic consortium employed for
bioremediation, desalination and wastewater
treatment. Thus, investigation of methane
production by Microbiology and Cell Scientists
has provided a better understanding of metabolism
while making useful contributions to industry.

Collaborators: Henry C. Aldrich, UF Microbiology
and Cell Science Department, University of Florida;
John M. Flanagan, Biology Department,
Brookhaven National Laboratories; James G. Ferry,
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department,
Pennsylvania State University.


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Plant Pathology


An Integrated Approach for Controlling
Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper and Tomato

Situation: Pepper and tomato production is a
major component of the vegetable industry in
Florida and also is a major supplier of fresh market
fruit in the United States. Bacterial spot disease of
pepper and tomato can cause significant disease
losses in these crops by defoliating the plants and
also by producing lesions on the fruit that renders
them unacceptable to the consumer. Control of this
bacterial disease is extremely difficult. Chemicals
such as antibiotics and copper compounds have
been used in the past to protect plants; however,
the bacterial strains have developed resistance to
these compounds, making them less effective.

Rationale: As a result of the difficulty of control-
ling bacterial diseases, a multifaceted approach has
been undertaken in an effort to reduce losses
associated with the bacterial spot disease patho-
gen. The first area of research has focused on
identifying sources of plant resistance. Plant
resistance can be a very effective method for
controlling diseases. Therefore, for many years
pepper and tomato germplasm has been screened
for resistance to the bacterial spot pathogen. As a
result, a number of sources of resistance have been
identified and characterized. Furthermore, several
types of resistance show promise for use in com-
mercial varieties. The second area of research has
involved studying variation that exists within the
pathogen. In any disease control strategy, it is
essential to understand the variation within the
causal agent. If one works with a very narrow
range of strains, then control strategies are likely to
be ineffective. An extensive collection of strains
was obtained over several years by going to fields
in Florida, Mexico, several countries in the Carib-
bean and several countries in Central America.
Strains were also obtained from researchers on
other continents. The strains were characterized as
to pathogenic race. Certain races can overcome
certain resistance genes, while other races can
overcome other resistance genes. Understanding
what races exist in nature can be useful in deter-
mining strategies for developing resistant pepper
and tomato varieties. Several new races of the
pathogen have been identified in the past few
years. All of the strains were also characterized
using biochemical, physiological and serological
techniques. Several phenotypic groups were


Jeffrey B.Jones


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identified, and representative strains of the groups
were analyzed using genetic techniques to deter-
mine genetic variation within the bacterium. As a
result of these analyses, it was determined that the
strains causing bacterial spot of pepper and tomato
actually represent three distinct species, two of
which are worldwide in distribution. A third area
of research has been to develop alternative strate-
gies for control of the disease. Conventional
chemical control strategies for reducing bacterial
diseases have been less than effective; therefore,
alternative control strategies have been studied.
One alternative strategy was to use bacteriophages,
which are viruses that infect and kill bacteria, to
control the disease in the greenhouse and field.
Bacteriophages were selected which attacked
diverse strains of the bacterium and which
specifically attacked the bacterial spot pathogen
but not beneficial microorganisms. In several
seasons of testing, bacteriophage applications were
significantly better than the standard bactericide
application for controlling disease in the green-
house and field and for increasing yield.

Impact: The researchers have identified resistance
genes in these crops and are either transferring
this resistance to horticulturally more advanced
material or have provided the resistance sources
to commercial seed companies. By using several
resistance genes, it is quite possible to develop
varieties that which will be resistant to the major
bacterial pathogens that cause problems in Florida.
The researchers have also determined that there is
tremendous diversity within the organisms associ-
ated with bacterial spot disease of pepper and


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tomato. Their research has also shown that at least
three different bacterial species are associated with
this disease and that it is important to develop
control strategies for all three species. Further-
more, the use of novel control strategies such as
applying bacteriophages to kill the bacterium has
been shown to reduce disease severity and result
in increased yields.


Soil and Water Sciences


Arsenic:The Legacy of the Cattle-Fever Tick
Eradication Program in Florida

Situation: In the early 1900s, Florida's cattle
industry was plagued by a tick-borne disease
known as bovine babesiosis (cattle fever) which
resulted in poor quality beef and cost the cattle
industry millions of dollars per year. Beginning in
1906 and running through the 1940s, a series of
state and federal programs were enacted to elimi-
nate the cattle fever tick from Florida. The only
officially sanctioned method for tick eradication in
Florida, which was an open-range state until about
1947, was to herd up the cattle and drive them
through dipping vats containing arsenic trioxide.
At one time, there were over 3,000 active dipping
vats in the state. To maintain arsenic concentra-
tions in the vat, it was recommended that they be
emptied and refilled with fresh arsenic solution
each spring. A common practice was to simply bail
out the vat, dumping the solution directly onto the
ground adjacent to it. A typical vat held 2,000
gallons of a solution containing in excess of 1,900
milligrams of arsenic per liter (ppm). The tick
eradication program was not fully completed until
1962. The legacy of this program is a large number
of sites around the state with soil and ground
water contaminated with arsenic. Beginning
around World War II, experimental use of chlori-
nated pesticides such as DDT, Toxaphene and BHC
for tick eradication occurred, resulting in soil
contamination with these chemicals in addition to
arsenic at many vat locations.

Rationale: Arsenic, classified as a carcinogen as
well as a simple poison, can enter the body
through inhalation of dust and ingestion of
contaminated drinking water, making vat sites a
potential health risk. It should be noted, however,
that there are no known instances in which people
or animals have been harmed by exposure to these


Collaborators: Brent K. Harbaugh and J. W. Scott,
Gulf Coast REC, Bradenton; Robert E. Stall and
Gerald V. Minsavage, Plant Pathology Department,
University of Florida; L. E. Jackson, AgriPhi, Inc.


.













Dean Rhue


vat sites. Our research objective was to investigate ZI
the behavior of arsenic at these sites and to deter- e*Q
mine, based on soil and hydrologic properties, the COD
potential for off-site migration and groundwater
pollution. Results of our research are aimed at
helping to assess the seriousness of the arsenic
contamination at individual sites.

The first obstacle to studying dip vats is to find
them and then to obtain access to them for study.
Our research has been limited by these two
constraints. The fact that the location of most of
the vats in the state is unknown, plus the liability
issue regarding clean-up, has further complicated
the situation. The vats that we have studied have
been located on public land in Alachua County.

Delineating an arsenic plume by the traditional
method of laying out a grid, sampling by depth,
and analyzing soil samples for total arsenic in the
laboratory is time-consuming and labor-intensive.
To speed up this critical process, we adapted an






arsenic quick test to a rapid, on-site assessment of
arsenic contamination, allowing the delineation of
the plume to be completed more quickly, often in
less than a day. Soil and water sampling is then
limited to specific areas and soil horizons known
to encompass the contaminant zone.

Impact: Arsenic-contaminated plumes have been
delineated at several sites with widely different soil
and hydrologic properties. The extent of arsenic
migration is strongly related to soil and hydrologic
properties at each site, primarily soil clay content,
presence of iron oxide coatings on sand grains and
depth to the water table. Arsenic plumes vary from
small, highly concentrated zones adjacent to the
vat in the case of deep, well drained soils with


relatively high clay content, to highly elongated
zones with maximum arsenic concentrations over
300 yards down-gradient from the vat in the case
of poorly drained soils with little clay and minimal
iron oxide coating the sand grains.

In addition to simple chemical transformations of
arsenic in soil, evidence has been obtained that
arsenic is being volatilized by soil microbes and
fungi at dip vat sites and that the potential exists
for such natural attenuation of arsenic via atmo-
spheric dispersal.

Collaborators: John E. Thomas, Bill Reve, Jack
Gillen, Florida Division of Recreation and Parks.


Statistics


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Ramon Lttell and Brett Presnell


Impact: The new models for predicting directions
were used to further confirm hypotheses by UF/
IFAS entomologist Thomas Walker about butterfly
migratory directions toward Florida being affected
by distance from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. In
another application, the model indicated that sea
turtles were disoriented by lights on shore and
traveled toward the lights rather than toward moon
reflections on the ocean.

Collaborators: Ramon C. Littell, Brett Presnell
and Scott P. Morrison, Department of Statistics,
University of Florida.


20


Statistical Models for Predicting Directions of
Movement

Situation: Naturalists and ecologists often try to
predict insect and wildlife movement. Flight and
migratory directions are erratic, and statistical
summaries based on numerous observations are
needed to establish an overall trend of direction.
Statistical models are needed to relate flight
directions to other data, such as weather or
geographical position.

Rationale: Statistical analysis of directional data is
plagued by the unique characteristic of directions
that zero degrees is the same as 360 degrees.
Therefore, statistical summaries of directions are
not necessarily meaningful. For example, the
average of 359 degrees and 1 degree is 180 degrees,
which is in the exact opposite direction. Standard
statistical computer programs do not distinguish
between directional and other types of data.
Therefore, specialized statistical models are needed
to summarize directional data and make predic-
tions of migration directions. Statistical models for
directional data have been in existence for many
years, but they have been extremely limited in
applications for prediction due to computational
difficulties. Researchers in the Department of
Statistics at the University of Florida formulated a
new prediction model by mathematically project-
ing a point in space to a point on the compass.
It turned out that relatively easy statistical compu-
tations could be used to estimate prediction
equations using this model.








Wildlife Ecology and Conservation


Studying Scrub Lizards in Naturally Fragmented
Habitats and Designing Strategies for Managing
Wildlife in Human-Dominated Landscapes

Situation: One of the most pervasive influences of
humans on natural landscapes is fragmentation of
once continuous landscapes into isolated habitat
patches. This fundamental change in landscape
structure poses special problems for wildlife
species and also for maintenance of natural
ecological processes (e.g., disturbances such as
fire) that are critical for wildlife and ecosystem
function. For example, animals often respond to
local fluctuations in resources (e.g., food) by
migrating, or populations may go extinct in local
areas during resource shortages and recolonize
during periods of resource abundance. The ability
of individuals to move between patches of high
quality habitat may be important to the overall
survival of the species, but is often compromised
as natural habitats become isolated fragments
within a developed landscape. In contrast, habitat
changes may favor other generalist species with
strong dispersal abilities. Predicting the effects of
changing landscapes on wildlife and design of
reserve systems within the constraints of human-
dominated landscapes are a central focus of
conservation efforts in Florida and worldwide.
Many landscapes in Florida are highly dynamic
because habitats are maintained by natural distur-
bances such as fire and flooding. Florida also
harbors an enormous diversity of habitats that are
naturally fragmented (e.g., scrub ridges in a forest
matrix, cypress wetlands and pine uplands), as
well as fragmented by development. Florida
provides a rich laboratory for understanding the
response of wildlife species to habitat fragmenta-
tion.

Rationale: Florida scrub is a unique shrub-domi-
nated community found along the coast and on
relic sand dunes on the central ridge of Florida
peninsula. These dunes, formed from ancient shore
lines when sea levels were much higher, are
naturally fragmented into an archipelago of habitat
islands. Florida scrub has more endemic species
than any other terrestrial habitat in the Southeast-
ern United States. Researchers from the Depart-
ment of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and
collaborators from other units in IFAS are using a
variety of research tools to investigate the response
of one of these endemic species, the Florida scrub


Lyn Branch ^


lizard, to habitat fragmentation. This species can c
serve as a model for other species that are habitat
specialists with poor ability to move between
habitat patches. Using Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) and remote sensing, researchers
have developed landscape-level habitat models that
identify key habitat variables and accurately
predict the distribution of scrub lizards. Recent
advances in computer hardware and software
allow cross-scale analyses and incorporation of
large-scale processes, such as disturbance, succes-
sional dynamics and habitat fragmentation, into
these models. Population models based on demo-
graphic studies of lizard populations have been Z
developed to predict long-term responses of lizard "
populations to different fire management strategies
and to changes in the size and distribution of
habitat patches. Molecular genetic analyses provide
a historical perspective on the response of lizards
to habitat fragmentation by indicating past levels
of gene flow among habitat patches. Research will
be integrated with studies of other scrub species to
develop models of the dynamics of animal popula-
tions in patchy landscapes. Faced with the growing
need to predict the response of wildlife to land-
scape change, an important question that is rarely
addressed by ecologists is: "Do ecologically similar
species respond to landscape structure in a similar
manner?" By integrating results of studies of key






species in the same landscape, particularly species
that differ in fundamental ways such as their
ability to move across the landscape or their
response to disturbances such as fire, this research
will identify common themes and potential con-
flicts in managing multiple species in increasingly
human-dominated landscapes.

Impact: This research serves as a model for
evaluating and predicting the effects of landscape
change on wildlife species and provides an impor-
tant empirical base to evaluate ecological theories
that are increasingly used in conservation plan-
ning. The multi-species comparisons developed in
this study provide important insights for managers
faced with managing multiple species on a single
landscape and will be useful to scientists and


policy makers currently involved in reserve
planning for Florida scrub. In addition, the habitat
and population models will aid managers in the
design of "on-the-ground" plans for fire manage-
ment in Florida scrub.

Collaborators: University of Florida collaborators
include B. Bowen, Department of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences; W. Farmerie and A.M. Clark,
BEECS, Molecular Services Core; and D.G. Hokit
and B. M. Stith, Department of Wildlife Ecology
and Conservation. Funding has been provided in
part by the Department of Defense, particularly the
Avon Park Air Force Range, the National Biological
Service, Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Com-
mission and UF/IFAS.


College ofVeterinary Medicine


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Donald J. Forrester


Polluted Waters and the Decline of Wading Birds
in Florida:The Life Cycle and Transmission of
Eustrongylides ignotus, a Pathogenic Nematode.

Situation: The number of reproducing wading
birds (herons and egrets) has declined dramatically
in Florida over the past 40 years. Several reasons
for this have been suggested, including habitat
alterations, movements of birds to other areas and
diseases. During the past 10 years, we have deter-
mined that the nematode parasite Eustrongylides
ignotus is a major mortality factor in nestling
wading birds in Florida and can cause losses up to
80 percent in some colonies. Infections of this
parasite by wading birds are acquired when
infected fish are eaten. Repeated reproductive
failure due to this disease could be a continuing
significant factor in the decline of breeding wading
birds in the state.

Rationale: Research was initiated in August 1994
and completed recently. The purpose was to study
the life cycle of the parasite Eustrongylides ignotus,
including a determination of the free-living aquatic
oligochaete worms and various fishes that serve as
intermediate hosts and are involved in the trans-
mission of this parasite to wading birds. In addi-
tion, the environmental conditions needed for the
production of infected intermediate hosts were
studied. Both laboratory and field studies were
conducted over a three-year period. Field studies
were undertaken at 176 different wading bird


wetland foraging sites throughout peninsular
Florida during that time. Over 63,000 fishes and
10,000 oligochaete worms were collected, identi-
fied and examined for infections. Experimental
studies on various factors such as temperature,
dehydration and salinity that affect development of
the nematode and behavioral changes in interme-
diate host fishes were conducted in the laboratory.








Impact: Infected fish were identified in 30 (17
percent) of the wetland sites examined in the state
of Florida. The most numerous infected fishes were
mosquitofish and sunfish. The numbers of fish
were higher at sites where infected fishes were
found than in areas where no infected fishes
occurred. In addition, signs of frequent human
disturbance such as the removal of sediment to
construct ditches and dikes, improve water flow or
increase storage capacity were observed at all of
these sites. Another significant finding was that all
sites with infected fishes had a history of receiving
anthropogenic nutrient input such as sewage
effluent, urban runoff or agricultural runoff and
had low dissolved oxygen concentrations. All
unaltered sites were negative for infected fishes. It
was also found that fish could be infected by one
of two routes. One was by the ingestion of eggs of


the nematode that had been deposited in the water
via the feces of an infected bird. The other was by
ingesting infected aquatic oligochaete worms. Thus
the nematode may use one or two intermediate
hosts in its life cycle. Infections in the oligochaete
worms may be a method of allowing the parasite
to survive during harsh environmental conditions.
Infected mosquitofish were ingested more fre-
quently by predatory fish than were non-infecte to
lessen the risk of further mortality due to this
disease. One example of such an action would be
to design nutrient-rich wetland sites in such a way
that they would not be attractive to wading birds.

Collaborators: Donald F. Coyner, Ph.D. Graduate
Student; Marilyn G. Spalding, Assistant Research
Scientist; and Donald J. Forrester, Professor.


Central Florida REC


Application of Biotechnology in the
Development of Improved Grape Varieties for
Florida

Situation: Florida is the second largest consumer
of grape products in the United States; therefore, a
very large local market exists. In 1998, wine
produced from the CFREC/IFAS Florida Hybrid
Bunch Grape variety, Blanc du Bois, won a major
international award. It was ranked within the top
40 out of 2,142 wines tested and was considered
for "best of show" at the nation's third largest wine
tasting competition. Therefore, our existing market
and demonstrated high-quality products suggests
the potential for an expanded industry. The Florida
grape industry is small (under 2,000 acres), but
vibrant, being composed primarily of several
wineries and many "u-pick" farms. It is generally
considered that improved varieties are required for
expansion of the industry to occur.

Devastating freezes in the early 1980s in Central
Florida created thousands of acres of vacant
agricultural land. Grape is a high-value cold-hardy
crop that is suitable for establishment on large
acreages, due to it's multiple uses for fresh fruit,
juice, jelly and wine. Florida has had burgeoning
grape industries on and off over the past 300 years;
in fact, grape production in Florida preceded that
of any other region of the U.S. However, produc-
tion always was cyclic due to intense disease
pressure, which prohibited cultivation of European


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Dennis j. Gray


Vitis vinifera varieties for more than a few years at
a time. Pierce's disease (PD), which is lethal to all
V. vinifera varieties, was the primary problem. An
IFAS breeding program was initiated in 1930 and
continued until 1993. This program developed a
number of PD-resistant varieties, collectively
known as Florida Hybrid Bunch Grapes (FHBG),
by hybridizing high-quality V vinifera varieties
with disease-resistant native species. The resulting
varieties are resistant to PD, but tend to still be
relatively susceptible to various fungal diseases,
notably anthracnose.


23







Rationale: The foremost need is to develop high-
quality grape varieties with improved disease
resistance. Specific goals are to increase fungal
resistance in FHBG varieties like Blanc du Bois,
making them easier to grow, and to modify V.
vinifera varieties so that they are both PD and
fungal disease resistant. The past breeding ap-
proach to variety improvement, while somewhat
successful, is too slow. Advances in biotechnology
and genetic engineering have provided tools for
more rapidly improving crops like grape by en-
abling genes to be added to individual plants
without sexual reproduction. In this way, genes
coding for a specific trait, like PD resistance, can
be added to existing varieties. Presumably, such
genetically altered plants retain all of their desir-
able varietal characteristics and differ only by
having enhanced resistance. This is particularly
important for a crop like grape, where varietal
characteristics, such as wine quality, are highly
appreciated and deviation from type is undesirable.

The biotechnology program has been in place at
the Central Florida Research and Education Center
(CFREC) since 1984. During the intervening time,
the in vitro developmental biology of grape was
resolved in order to develop the culture systems
needed to accomplish genetic engineering. Our
genetic engineering research commenced approxi-
mately five years ago and resulted in the successful
insertion of a gene for disease resistance into the V.
vinifera variety, Thompson Seedless. This particu-
lar event was significant because it demonstrated
for the first time the insertion of a useful gene into
a major grape variety (Thompson Seedless ac-
counts for 40 percent of the grape acreage in the
U.S.). It also led to enhanced funding opportunities
that enabled our current progress. Currently, we
are progressing to insert genes for PD resistance
into a number of V vinifera varieties. We also are
using a process of in vitro selection in order to


develop anthracnose-resistance in both V vinifera
and FHBG varieties. To date, genetically-engineered
Thompson Seedless shows mild resistance to PD
and in vitro selected Chardonnay shows high-level
resistance to anthracnose disease. Research
programs to design better genetic elements that
will function more efficiently in grape and to
accomplish in vitro selection of Blanc du Bois are
underway. In 1999, an experimental vineyard will
be established at the new CFREC in Apopka.

Impact: With a very large local market for grape
products already in place, expansive growth of the
Florida grape industry is dependent on the avail-
ability of significantly improved varieties. CFREC
research programs show promise of providing
improved varieties in the near future. The value of
V vinifera and/or FHBG varieties with enhanced
disease resistance would provide the impetus for
dramatic expansion of acreage. This would create
new opportunities for growers to keep land in
cultivation and serve to maintain the agricultural
economy of the state, particularly in Central
Florida. Locally-produced grape products would
benefit Florida citizens.

Collaborators: Financial support has been received
in part from the Florida Grape Growers via the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services' Viticulture Trust Fund. Profigen, Inc., a
biotechnology company, has provided funding and
resources for research on genetic engineering of
grape through a technology licensing agreement
with the University of Florida. Lakeridge Winery
and Vineyards, Clermont, has provided free access
to valuable germplasm used in the research and is
a test site for experimental plants. Grape growers
Byron Biddle, George Comer, Earl Kiser and Joseph
Stephany are also providing testing sites through-
out the state.


Citrus REC


Management of Diseases Caused by Citrus
TristezaVirus

Situation: Tisteza is a group of diseases caused by
citrus tristeza virus (CTV). One of the most
economically damaging diseases is "decline" or
"quick decline" in which trees growing on sour
orange rootstocks die after being infected. Because
sour orange is usually the most desirable root-


stock, this disease has been catastrophic when it
has moved into an industry grown on this root-
stock. Stem pitting is another disease which
greatly reduces the growth and yield of infected
trees, regardless of the rootstock used. Often, the
resulting fruit are too small to market. Because
CTV populations are vegetatively propagated in
citrus budwood for as long as hundreds of years


24


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William Dawson, T Sotyanaroyana, M. Mawassi and S. Gowda


and further mixed by aphid transmission from tree
to tree, they tend to be very complex with mixtures
of different viral genotypes and many defective
viruses. The population structures and diseases
often change when transmitted to different citrus
varieties. Historically, CTV diseases have been
more damaging when transmitted by its efficient
vector, the brown citrus aphid. This vector recently
entered Florida and now is well established in all
major citrus growing areas.

In Florida, CTV has been widespread, infecting
nearly all orange trees and 30-50 percent of the
grapefruit. The predominant type of CTV isolate in
commercial citrus is very mild and causes no
disease, even in trees on sour orange rootstocks.
The other type causes decline and death of trees on
sour orange rootstocks. This disease has been
managed by avoiding the use of sour orange
rootstocks. However, not being able to use the sour
orange rootstock leads to other serious horticul-
tural and disease problems including the citrus
blight disease. With the brown citrus aphid, the
15-20 percent of the acreage on sour orange
rootstocks is expected to be lost in the near future.
The stem pitting disease caused by certain isolates
of CTV that has been devastating in other citrus
producing areas of the world has not occurred in
Florida commercial plantings. However, with the
new vector, there is a concern of the possible
development of stem pitting diseases in both
grapefruit and sweet orange over the long term,
either from increased spread of existing isolates
into commercial citrus or from the introduction
and spread of severe foreign isolates.

Rationale: There is general agreement that the best
long term solution is the development of resistant
citrus plants. There are several laboratories
throughout the world working toward this goal.


However, because the most optimistic estimates of
the development and use of resistant trees in the
field is 15-20 years away, we are attempting to
protect existing trees and the next plantings using
mild strain cross protection. This has been a
method of managing some diseases caused by CTV
by "immunizing" trees with a milder form of
disease. However, the traditional approach has two
flaws. First, the protecting virus isolate also causes
yield losses and is economically effective only
under severe disease pressures. Secondly, there are
no known mild isolates related to the virus that
presently causes decline in Florida. We are at-
tempting to create "ideal" mild strains of CTV by
genetically engineering severe isolates of CTV to
prevent them from causing diseases. We are
mapping the viral sequences that cause disease
and replacing them with the corresponding se-
quences from mild isolates of the virus. The result
will be a virus almost identical to the severe virus,
except for its lack of capacity to cause disease. At
the same time, we are engineering the immunizing
virus to no longer be transmitted from tree to tree
by aphids. We have developed a genetic system
that allows us to manipulate the genome of CTV,
we are mapping the determinants of diseases. We
expect to be testing the cross-protecting ability of
mild hybrids to protect against decline within the
next two years. If stem-pitting diseases become a
problem in Florida, we will custom design protect-
ing isolates to manage those diseases.

Impact: The major goal is to prevent the decline
diseases caused by CTV in trees on sour orange
rootstocks. This will restore the use of sour orange
rootstocks wherever they are useful. This will
reduce losses due to CTV, but more importantly
it will allow effective management of the citrus
blight disease and other diseases caused by nema-
todes and fungi and will provide the optimal
horticultural rootstock for numerous soil types. If
stem-pitting diseases become a major problem in
Florida, this approach will allow maintenance of
the industry until desirable resistant citrus geno-
types are produced through genetic engineering.

Collaborators: Support for this research came in
part from the Florida Citrus Production Research
Advisory Council, a Cooperative Agreement with
USDA Agricultural Research Service; a grant from
the National Citrus Research Council and an
endowment in honor of Addie S. and J.R. Graves.
This research is part of a team effort that includes
other UF/IFAS scientists and scientists from
Orlando, Spain, Israel and California.


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25







Everglades REC


Ecology of the American Crocodile in Florida

Situation: The American crocodile is a federally
listed endangered species, whose main population
center is in an area of South Florida likely to be
affected by ecosystem restoration projects. In
particular, modified water deliveries to Everglades
and Biscayne National Parks may affect nesting
and nursery areas for crocodiles. Although the
status of the American crocodile has long been a
matter of concern, it now appears that the popula-
tion has stabilized in this region. However, like
other species of wildlife in South Florida, the
survival of crocodiles has been linked with re-
gional hydrological conditions, especially water
levels and salinities. Alternatives for improving
water delivery into Biscayne and Florida Bays and
changes in land use in Southwest Florida may
change salinities, water levels and availability of
nesting habitat in the receiving water bodies. To
ensure the continued survival of an endangered
species in a changing environment, it is important
to research and monitor the population. For
crocodiles, population parameters most susceptible
to hydrological conditions are distribution, growth,
survival and nesting effort and success.
Rationale: In South Florida, we have the unique
opportunity to integrate endangered species
conservation with ecosystem restoration and
management. Certainly this is not always the case,
and we are fortunate here. American crocodiles
thrive in healthy estuarine environments; in
particular, they are dependent on freshwater
deliveries. In this regard, crocodiles can be used to
evaluate restoration alternatives and set success
criteria for Florida Bay. Crocodiles also can be used
as an indicator of negative impacts of freshwater
diversion due to coastal development in Dade,
Collier and Lee counties.

Perhaps even more importantly, we have an
opportunity to reevaluate the status of the Ameri-
can crocodile. This naturally provides an excellent
opportunity to spotlight the success of an endan-
gered species recovery effort. Continued research
and monitoring will be an essential component of
this effort. The objectives of this project are to: (1)
monitor the nesting effort, failure and success of
the American crocodile in Florida exclusive of the
Crocodile Lakes National Wildlife Refuge and
Turkey Point Power Plant site; (2) monitor growth
and survival of crocodiles throughout Florida; (3)


Frank Mazzotti


I-





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26


determine relative abundance, distribution and
habitat relation of crocodiles in recently discovered
crocodile colonies in Biscayne Bay, Southwest
Florida and Broward County; (4) map and evaluate
crocodile habitat throughout the historical range
of crocodiles; (5) provide a method to evaluate
the effectiveness of restoration alternatives, gaps
in existing protection of crocodile habitat and
potential damage from development activities;
(6) synthesize existing databases on crocodiles in
Florida.

Impact: The results of this study will be used to
reevaluate the status and distribution of the
American crocodile in Florida and will become the
foundation for the reassessment of the listing
status of this species. The proposed project will
continue to monitor the response of crocodiles to
habitat alterations from ecosystem restoration or
commercial development. This study will provide a
rationale for evaluating restoration alternatives and
for setting restoration success criteria for the
world's largest ecosystem restoration effort.
Collaborators: U.S. National Park Service; U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers; U.S. Geological Survey,
Biological Resources Division; U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service; Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission; Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation; South Florida Water Manage-
ment District; Metro-Dade County Parks and
Recreation Division; City of Sanibel and Marco
Island Airport.








Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory


Using Models to Understand St. Louis
Encephalitis Transmission

Situation: In many Florida counties, transmission
of the St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus occurs
each year in wild birds. However, human cases
occur only sporadically, and epidemics are rare.
Human cases generally occur when there are high
levels of transmission in birds, but the factors
determining the level of transmission in a particu-
lar year are unknown. The transmission cycle is
complex, involving several species of wild birds
and at least one species of mosquito. The interac-
tion between mosquito and wild bird populations
probably determines the level of transmission each
year, but this is difficult to identify with the limited
data available. Many counties monitor transmis-
sion intensity by placing chickens in areas where
they will be bitten by mosquitoes and testing them
regularly for antibodies to the virus. Ideally, we
would like to predict high transmission levels in
time to initiate control programs such as insecti-
cide spraying to reduce mosquito populations. This
is difficult, however, when we do not know the
factors that most influence transmission.

Rationale: A mathematical model is being devel-
oped to represent the transmission cycle between
SLE, wild birds and Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes.
The model is being used to describe the popula-
tions of mosquitoes and birds and to explore what
combinations of factors lead to high levels of
transmission. As our understanding of the factors
regulating transmission increases, we can add
different bird population data to the model or
include additional species of mosquito. Ultimately,
the model can be used to identify aspects of the
bird or mosquito populations which indicate that
there will be high levels of transmission later in
the year.


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J. F Day and C. C. Lord


Impact: Early warning of potentially high levels of
human SLE transmission would be advantageous,
allowing for strategic control of mosquito popula-
tions. Identification of the factors regulating SLE
transmission is the first stage in developing early
indicators of dangerous transmission conditions.
This problem is well-suited to a modeling ap-
proach, as it allows the exploration of many
variations in the SLE transmission cycle. The
model has already shown that variation in the
mosquito population alone cannot explain the
variation in SLE transmission that is observed from
year to year. The model has also shown that host
choice in mosquitoes can affect the seasonal
change in infection in sentinel chickens. Our
current work with the model focuses on how the
wild bird nesting season may influence transmis-
sion of the SLE virus.


Ft. Lauderdale REC


Improved Monitoring Systems forTwo
ImportantWeevil Pests of Ornamental Palms in
Florida

Situation: Every year, new insects are introduced
into Florida and become pests. Often new plant
species are introduced that are attacked by native


insects. Insect management strategies that balance
wise management of environmental resources with
the production of plants for food, fiber and orna-
mentals are important long-term goals for Florida.
Alternative pest management strategies include use
of insect-resistant plants, classical biological


27





















Robin Giblin-D
Robin Giblin-Davis


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the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have now been
identified and synthesized with the support of the
University of Florida and U.S. Department of
Agriculture, T-STAR-Caribbean Grants. Pheromones
comprise 8, 9 or 10 carbon, methyl branched,
secondary alcohols. (4S,5S)-4-Methyl-5-nonanol
was identified as the major aggregation pheromone
of the West Indian sugarcane weevil, Metamasius
hemipterus sericeus and the South American palm
weevil, Dynamis borassi. The novel (5S, 4S)-5-
methyl-4-octanol (cruentol) was identified as the
aggregation pheromone for the palmetto weevil,
Rhynchophorus cruentatus. We identified ethyl
acetate, ethyl propionate and ethyl butyrate as
important plant host kairomones for M. h. sericeus
and R. cruentatus. The identification of these
molecules has allowed the study of the chemical
ecology of these weevils and the development of
effective monitoring tools by producing "better
mouse traps" for protecting ornamental palms and
sugarcane in Florida. For the West Indian sugar-
cane weevil, the most cost-effective
semiochemical-based bait is a three-way combina-
tion of sugarcane (250 g), ethyl acetate (400-800
mg/day), and pheromone (3 mg/day). For R.
cruentatus, the most cost-effective semiochemical-
based trap is a two-way combination of sugarcane
(500-1000 g) and pheromone (3 mg/day). Physical
trap parameters were studied and it appears that
traps with greater surface area work better. Height
of trap placement and color of trap body do not
appear to affect trap efficacy. Attempts to integrate
the similar chemical ecology of M. h. sericeus and
R. cruentatus into an optimized trap design for
both species failed because pheromones for M. h.
sericeus caused lowered trap counts for R.
cruentatus when pheromones from both species
were present together.

We documented the impact that R. cruentatus can
have on growers of the Canary Island date palm,
Phoenix canariensis, in South Florida where R.
cruentatus exists and is allowed to get out of hand.
R. cruentatus yield for a field site with an active
epidemic during 1997 was about 83,000 adult
weevils. Loss to the grower at this site, where all
trees were eventually killed by the weevil, was
$285,000-$380,000 (based on the number of palms
per hectare and a $300-$400 wholesale price for
this size palm). Information is now being prepared
to inform growers of the potential lethal risk that
R. cruentatus poses for this non-native palm. The
costs of aggressive phytosanitation at the first
symptoms of infestation by R. cruentatus and
prophylactic pesticide treatment at times of prun-


control and the use of biorational controls.
A relatively recent alternative to conventional
pesticides is the use of very small amounts of
insect behavior-modifying chemicals (IBMC) or
semiochemicals.

Rationale: Semiochemicals are chemicals that act
as signals between organisms. Pheromones are
semiochemicals that act intraspecifically (within
species), whereas kairomones act interspecifically
(between species) with the receiver benefiting.
These chemicals are crucial for life-sustaining
functions of insects, including food and mate
location, reproduction and defense. The most
useful semiochemicals are aggregation and sex
pheromones. Insects use these chemicals to locate
food and mates. Aggregation pheromones attract
adults of both sexes and can be used for monitor-
ing and mass trapping. While monitoring is
primarily used to achieve more efficient timing
of insecticide application, mass trapping is used
to lower pest populations. Because most
semiochemicals are species specific, one can target
an individual pest without harming beneficial
predators in the agricultural or urban environment.
The semiochemicals that are used in operational
programs are synthetic preparations of the natural
products produced by the host or pest. These
chemicals have relatively low toxicity, are easily
biodegraded and are used in extremely small
quantities. Preliminary data from our lab suggested
that the behaviors of certain weevil groups, includ-
ing the palm and sugarcane weevils newly intro-
duced or native to Florida, were affected by
semiochemicals.

Impact: The male-produced aggregation phero-
mones of several palm and sugarcane weevils in


28








ing, stress or transplanting should be factored into
the predicted cost of production and maintenance
of Canary Island date palms in Florida. To prevent
the spread of R. cruentatus populations, Canary
Island date palms shouldn't be transplanted from
sites with an epidemic because early weevil
infestations are not easily diagnosed and stressing
of palms can call in colonizing weevils before
removal from the nursery.

Optimized semiochemical traps designed by us for
monitoring M. h. sericeus in palm nurseries are
now being used in Belle Glade for monitoring this
weevil in sugarcane.

Semiochemical trapping will have a significant
impact on monitoring populations of R. cruentatus


and M. h. sercieus but can not be relied upon in a
mass-trapping strategy to lower the destructive
potential of R. cruentatus during an epidemic in
Canary Island date palm nurseries. Care should be
taken when monitoring or mass trapping in or
near small plots of highly susceptible palms such
as Canary Island date palms because pheromone
could call more weevils into a site. We have tested
a variety of pesticides that are toxic to the adults of
M. h. sericeus and R. cruentatus and can be
employed to knock populations down.

Collaborators: Jorge Pea, Tropical REC, Home-
stead; Gerhard Gries and Regine Gries, Simon
Fraser University; Cam Oehlschlager, ChemTica,
and Tom Weissling, Fort Lauderdale REC.


Gulf Coast REC


Developing NewTropical Pumpkins

Situation: Tropical pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata
[Duchesne] Poir.) known as calabaza in Puerto Rico
is a pumpkin-like fruit that is grown throughout
the New World tropics and subtropics. This species
is also known as auyama in the Dominican Repub-
lic, calabash or pumpkin in the English-speaking
islands, ayote in Central America and zapallo in
South America. It is a basic food that is consumed
almost daily in all of these areas. Butternut squash,
a close relative, grows well in temperate climates
but does not perform especially well in subtropical
Florida.

Unimproved tropical pumpkins produce fruits over
an extended period on trailing vines that may
spread up to 50 feet from the base of the plant.
Fruit weight varies from 5 to 50 pounds. Fruit
shape is variable in unimproved types and may be
globe, round, oval, obovate, pear, oblate or pear-
shaped. Likewise, there is much variation in rind
color, pattern and surface smoothness. Flesh color
and thickness also varies considerably, with bright
orange, thick flesh being preferred by consumers. A
first attempt at tropical pumpkin improvement was
made in 1979, when the La Primera variety was
introduced by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station. This variety produced high yields of
uniform fruit but was not widely accepted because
of light colored flesh.

Rationale: The goal of the University of Florida
tropical pumpkin improvement program is to


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D. N. Maynard


develop a short-vined plant that will produce high-
quality fruit with a hard rind, superior internal
flesh, and good culinary and nutritional composi-
tion. Short-vined plants can be spaced closer
together for higher yield potential and have a
concentrated fruit set which is better adapted to
commercial production practices.

The focus of the variety program at the present
time is on development of hybrids. With hybrids,
the seed industry will have exclusivity, which
should provide the incentive and profit necessary


29







for commercial seed production and sales. Seed
costs to the grower will be increased, and the
practice of farm-saved seed will be eliminated if
hybrids are adopted. Nonetheless, the grower
should benefit from the availability of high quality
commercial seed and improved varieties. Consum-
ers also will benefit by the availability of high
quality pumpkins at competitive prices.

Impact: More than 100 experimental tropical
pumpkin hybrids have been developed and
evaluated. Several of these hybrids have been



Hastings REC


Identifying the Inheritance Pattern of Resistance
to External Tuber Symptoms of Potato Corky
Ringspot Disease

Situation: Corky ringspot (CRS) is a unique soil-
borne disease affecting potato tubers. The disease
is unusual because it is caused by tobacco rattle
virus, which is transmitted to potato by the stubby
root nematode, Paratrichodorus minor. The disease
is a severe problem in North Florida and has
increased in importance in recent years in potato
producing areas of Washington and Idaho. The
disease presently must be controlled with expen-
sive nematicides because there are no suitable
potato varieties with resistance to the disease. As
part of a cooperative research effort with USDA
scientists located at the Vegetable Laboratory in
Beltsville, Md., 21 potato seedling families result-
ing from crosses made with parents hypothesized
to possess different combinations of recessive and
dominant genes for resistance to CRS were planted
in an infested field at the Hastings REC. All
progeny tubers were harvested and examined for
symptoms of CRS.

Impact: We determined that resistance to external
tuber symptoms of CRS is controlled by two
independent dominant genes. Although resistance
to internal tuber symptoms is more complicated,
this genetic information will dramatically acceler-
ate the process of identifying and isolating the
gene for resistance from existing potato breeding
parents and ultimately incorporating this resistance


advanced to larger trials in diverse environments,
including Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Chile,
Thailand and Brazil. Final evaluations will assist in
identifying the premier hybrids for introduction to
the industry.

Collaborators: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Tropical Agricultural Research; G. W. Elmstrom,
SunSeeds Inc.; R. B. Carle, Central Florida REC,
Leesburg; L. Wessel-Beaver, University of
Puerto Rico.


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factor into acceptable potato varieties. Crosses
designed to initiate this process are underway at
Beltsville.

Collaborators: UF/IFAS funding for State Project
HAS03553 was used to support this research.
Kathleen Haynes and R. W. Goth, USDA Vegetable
Laboratory, Beltsville, Md. are cooperators.


D. Weingartner








Indian River REC


Compost: aValuable Soil Amendment in
Vegetable Crop Production Systems

Situation: Recent Florida state regulations have
prohibited biodegradable materials (i.e., yard
wastes, wood chips) from being deposited into
regulated landfills. In recent years, private facilities
and public municipalities have been producing
commercial qualities and quantities of agricultural
grade compost. Compost can be a valuable source
of minor elements and organic matter. It improves
water retention capacity, reduces nutrient leaching
and has soil-borne disease suppression properties.
Florida's vegetable crop production areas are
characterized as being sandy and infertile. They
also contain minimal organic matter and are
susceptible to nutrient leaching. Therefore, com-
post as a soil amendment can have several valu-
able benefits for Florida's vegetable crop produc-
tion areas.

Rationale: Commercial compost utilization in
Florida's vegetable crop production systems is still
in its infancy. Collaboration between scientists in
the Horticultural Sciences Department and the Soil
and Water Science Department have shown
compost to be a valuable and beneficial soil
amendment in vegetable crop production systems.
With ample quantities of commercial compost
available in Florida, its utilization needs to be
increased so that growers will benefit from its
chemical, biological and physical properties.

Impact: With compost production facilities associ-
ated with each of Florida's major landfills and an
increasing number of private sector facilities,
substantial amounts of compost are presently
available for major commercial vegetable crop
growing areas. Although feedstock type, ratios and
length of maturation can affect compost quality,
we have demonstrated that commercial grade
compost used as a soil amendment has been an


R. Stofella


excellent source of micronutrients, organic matter,
increased soil-borne disease suppression and CO
reduced nutrient leaching. Immature compost has
been demonstrated to provide effective biological
weed control in row alleys without any deleterious
effects on the vegetable crop.

Collaborators: Palm Beach County Solid Waste
Authority; Bedminister Corp.; Horticultural Sci-
ences Department, University of Florida; Soil and
Water Science Department, University of Florida.







North Florida REC


Issues for Profitable Beef Cattle Production

Situation: Cattle market conditions have been in a
dynamic situation since 1995 because of increased
cattle imports and the overall supply situation.
Imports have increased due to lower U.S. tariffs
and improved health standards for imported cattle.
Premiums have been reduced for selected selling
practices such as uniformity and conditioning. The
changing market situation has implications regard-
ing production and management practices for
small herd producers. A survey of small herd
operations in two regions of Florida was conducted
to identify attitudes towards recommended produc-
tion practices under the changing market condi-
tions and to determine if producers are adapting to
these changes. The results of the survey indicated
that differences exist in management practices
between South and North Florida cattle producers
and that production systems are changing as
producers adapt to lower market prices. The need
for forage-based diets is critical for producers to
make a profit in the depressed market situation.
Rationale: Beef cattle production is a widespread
agricultural enterprise throughout Florida. In 1996
Florida ranked ninth in beef cows nationally and
was the second leading state in terms of calf
marketing. Although Florida has four of the top
10 commercial herds in the U.S., most of the cattle
operations are smaller than 50 head. The small
herds exist throughout Florida along with the large
commercial herds, making beef cattle the third
most important agricultural commodity in Florida.
Over the past decade, herd size has decreased in
part because of changes in: (1) land management
as a result of a changing resource base and shifts
in relative prices of products and inputs, (2) land
tenure patterns as a result of the expansion of
suburban sprawl, and (3) environmental regula-
tions. The small herds persist and are maintained
for various reasons including: (1) providing a
source of cash flow, (2) green belt tax relief and
(3) profit potential.
The changing market conditions affect profit levels
and cause changes in production practices. Some
of the changes in production practices increase
efficiency, some improve performance and some
may result in slightly higher market prices.
Producers must answer management questions
concerning: (1) stocking rates, (2) reproduction
management programs, (3) pasture management


Timothy Hewitt and David Zimet


toz


and grazing programs and (4) when and how
to market.
Impact: Florida beef cattle producers have various
needs based upon their specific set of resources
and the size of their herd. Current production and
marketing practices of producers were gauged and
reported. Both research and extension implications
were noted from the survey results. Economic
considerations in the decisions that beef producers
must make were analyzed and reported to
producers. The production problems that were
identified most frequently were: (1) forage quality,
(2) health and nutrition, (3) high costs, and (4)
reproductive problems.
Several marketing problems, commonly men-
tioned, have management implication that include
uniformity and lack of cattle for group sales. Other
frequently noted marketing problems were market
knowledge, lack of local markets and market
uncertainty. Producers indicated they understand
that the combined set of problems greatly
influences profitability.
As a result of the survey, certain practices have
been identified as being important to Florida beef
producers. By improving calving rates and sire
selection, along with dehorning and castrating
calves, herd health and forage utilization returns
are enhanced. The North Florida Research and
Education Center will be heavily involved in forage
utilization and management decision-making with
the programs at the new Consolidated Beef
Research Unit.









Range Cattle REC


Finding Ways to Improve Tropical Forage
Production During the Cool Season

Situation: Florida cash receipts from the livestock
industry in 1997 totaled $1.2 billion. To help
support this industry, Florida grows about 3.5
million acres of improved pasture with about 70
percent seeded to bahiagrass. This warm-season
grass produces about 87 percent of its forage
during long days (April-September) with only
13% of its production during short days (October-
March). This forces livestock producers to plant
cool-season annual forages, stockpile warm-season
forages, feed hay or use other forms of supple-
ment, costing Florida growers millions of dollars
to over-winter livestock.

Rationale: The predominate view on the limitation
of forage production during late fall and early
winter is that cool temperatures restrict growth.
Results of models indicate temperature, light and
rainfall were adequate to produce forage yields
greater than currently achieved. Rather than
temperature limitation, forage production might be
constrained by a photoperiodic-induced dormancy
triggered by short days. To test the short-day
dormancy idea, lights were placed in the field in
mid-summer to compare 16 hours of daylight
during the fall and winter period with normal day
length using four warm-season grasses. In front of
the lights, there was a gradient of irradiance for
each cultivar, and plants were harvested at various
distances from the light and with no light.

Impact: Preliminary results indicate that the
extended photoperiod had altered plant develop-
ment and many of the cultivars were larger. Actual
field dry matter yields under the lights, relative to
grass grown with no additional light was impres-
sive. Pensacola bahiagrass expressed dry matter
yield increases of 40 percent in September, fol-
lowed by 80% in October. Florona stargrass and
Tifton 85 bermudagrass also responded to ex-
tended photoperiod with 30 and 60 percent yield
increases in October followed by dry biomasses
increases of more than 100 percent in December
compared to the grass grown with no additional
light. Physiologists indicate the irradiance was
insignificant in terms of photosynthetic input.

Assuming these results are confirmed in longer
term studies, it appears that a major limitation of


Paul Mislevy g*.Q


several Florida forage grasses is dormancy induced
by photoperiod. Therefore, concerns about tem-
perature or stress-induced limitations on growth
are not the primary limitation in fall forage produc- e
tion. A major advance in warm-season forage CV
production during the critical late fall and early
winter period may be possible by repressing
photoperiod-induced dormancy in warm season
grasses, such as bermudagrass, stargrass and
bahiagrass.

The final goal would be to generate and/or
identify warm season forage germplasm that does
not have photoperiod induced dormancy. The
germplasm can then be incorporated into present
day cultivars.

Collaborator: T. R. Sinclair, USDA Agricultural
Research Service.


33







Southwest Florida REC


Precision Agriculture Thrust

Situation: The annual farm-gate value of Florida
agriculture places it second only to California in
total value. The ingress of precision agricultural
techniques has been slow to evolve in this state,
with work progressing mostly in the engineering,
agronomy and soil science disciplines. However,
the cropping systems are adaptable enough and
grower interest is increasing. Incremental improve-
ments in this agriculture arena can lead to major
increases in crop value.

Rationale: Precision agricultural methods involve
a common-sense approach to the management of
crops, including resource management, environ-
mental strategies and cost-of-production concepts.
When linked with selected technologies (variable
rate applicators, geo-positioning equipment,
selected remote sensors, etc.), industry enthusiasm
and grower interest, the development of a strong
precision agricultural research and extension
program is appropriate for the Southwest Florida
Research and Education Center.

Impact: All research efforts have been interdiscipli-
nary programs. Funding sources in part have
involved several national companies, one state
agency and several smaller efforts supported
directly by local growers. Projects in citrus, sugar-
cane, vegetables, wildlife and animal science are
either funded or are being reviewed by granting
agencies. Total funding will exceed $85,000 during
this fiscal year. The relative infancy of these
efforts, one to two years, means that only interim
results are available for clients. However, several
popular articles, a day-long Precision Agriculture
Forum, preliminary directions based on remote


jeffMullahey


sensing and soil grid sampling along with a
unified front of growers, agricultural industry
personnel and SWFREC/IFAS professionals are
paving the way for this technology.

Collaborators: Southwest Florida REC: Michael
Fanning, Animal Scientist; Martin Main, Wildlife
Biologist; Jeff Mullahey, Range Scientist; Rosa
Muchovej, Agronomist; Thomas Obreza, Soil
Scientist; Fritz Roka, Agricultural Economist;
Robert Rouse, Citrus Horticulturist; Charles
Vavrina, Vegetable Horticulturist; Edward Hanlon,
Center Director; Ginger Allen, Senior Statistician;
Steve Coates, Biological Scientist/Range Scientist;
UF/IFAS Colleagues John Schueller, Mechanical
Engineering; Industry Colleagues: United Agricul-
ture Products, Terra International, Chemical
Containers, Florida Fruit & Vegetable Association,
Florida Sugarcane League.


Subtropical Agricultural Research Station


Savanna' Stylo, a New Legume for Florida

Situation: Despite numerous studies showing the
economic advantages of calving replacement
heifers at two years of age, only about half of the
cattle producers in Florida are able to use this
management option. For a large part, this is due to
the fact that tropical grasses are used as the forage
base in the state. The nutritional quality (crude


protein and digestibility) of tropical grasses
declines rapidly during the late summer and into
the fall. This is one of the reasons average weaning
weights in Florida, around 350 to 450 pounds, are
low compared to the rest of the United States.
Additionally, the nutritional quality of the grasses
in the fall will often not sustain positive gains in
replacement heifers until winter annual pastures
are ready for grazing without the use of expensive


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purchased supplements. Until recently, there were
no legumes that would help fill this gap in fall
forage quality. Legume evaluation trials conducted
at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station in
Brooksville and in cooperation with other research
centers in the state have shown that Savanna' stylo
(Stylosanthes guianensis), a newly released legume
cultivar from the forage program at the IFAS Indian
River REC, Fort Pierce, has excellent potential for
filling this late summer/fall forage gap.

Rationale: Savanna makes most of its growth after
August and by October can have almost twice as
much standing forage as other commonly used
legumes such as hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta)


or alyceclover (Alysicarpus vaginalis). This is a
result of much higher leaf production during this
time period because of its perennial growth habit
and, compared to the annuals hairy indigo and
alyceclover, its later onset of flower production.
As an additional consequence of this higher leaf
production, Savanna plants will have between 10
and 20 percent higher digestibility and up to 4
percent higher crude protein levels than hairy
indigo or alyceclover. The levels of digestibility and
crude protein found in Savanna during the late
summer and fall will support weight gains in
growing heifers in excess of 1 lb per day compared
to weight loss commonly found on tropical grasses
during the same time period.

Impact: In addition to the obvious improvements
in animal performance that can be expected with
the increased use of Savanna in beef cattle opera-
tions in the state, which currently contribute $300
million to the state's economy, development of
Savanna opens up new income opportunities for
seed producers in the state. Recent estimates put
the current acreage of Savanna between 4,000 to
5,000 acres with further increases in acreage
expected. Currently several seed companies are
producing Savanna seed, which is selling for $2.50
to $3.50 per pound, and demand continues to
exceed supply. Since this is a strongly reseeding
perennial, continued seed sales represent expanded
acreage being planted to this cultivar. Besides
being used in pasture situations for beef cattle
production, Savanna is now also being used to
establish wildlife food plots as far north as the
panhandle of Florida.

Collaborators: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service; Indian River REC,
Fort Pierce; Department of Agronomy, University of
Florida.


Tropical REC


A DiagnosticTool for Simultaneously Battling
Sugarcane Ratoon Stunting and Leaf Scald
Diseases

Situation: Ratoon stunting disease and leaf scald
disease are the most costly diseases of sugarcane in
Florida and worldwide. Two different sap-dwelling
bacteria cause the diseases. Ratoon stunting


disease has been a major problem, perhaps from
the outset of sugarcane cultivation in Florida.
Unfortunately many diseased plants do not show
visible symptoms, but sugar production is greatly
reduced. A specific strain of the bacterium that
causes leaf scald disease has been present in
Florida for about three decades, but this strain is
not highly contagious and was managed through


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resistant varieties. However, during the late 1980s
a new highly contagious strain of the bacterium
appeared and has affected many popular varieties
of sugarcane.

Rationale: Ratoon stunting disease afflicts about
90 percent of sugarcane plants in Florida. Losses in
sugar production from this disease exceed $70 per
acre or about $30 million for Florida annually. A
serology-based, highly specific diagnostic test was
devised for the sap-dwelling bacterium that causes
this stunting disease. This test was first used to
prove that resistance to the disease is inherited,
and now it is being used to guide the effort to
breed new resistant varieties and identify fields
with high levels of infection.

A culture medium was devised on which only the
leaf scald bacterium can grow, providing a means
to diagnose the disease by isolating the bacterium
from diseased plants. With this medium, pure
cultures were made available to support highly
refined scientific studies. In one of these studies,
the DNA fingerprints of several hundred samples
of this bacterium from all major sugarcane produc-


--


West Florida REC


Introduction and Evaluation of Ornamental
Plants

Field experiments were initiated to determine the
influence of drip irrigation on landscape perfor-
mance of ornamental grasses. Additional field
experiments were initiated to evaluate the influ-
ence of weed control strategies on landscape


performance of ornamental grasses. Field experi-
ments were initiated to evaluate ornamental plants
(vines) for enhancing the presence, abundance and
seasonal occurrence of beneficial insects. Green-
house experiments were initiated to determine the
response of woody landscape plants to root knot
nematodes. Summer 1998 landscape performance
evaluations and winter 1998 hardiness studies are


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36


ing regions of the world were examined. This
investigation showed that there are at least eight
distinct strains of the bacterium in the world, but
only two of these strains are now present in
Florida. Moreover the study showed that the
devastating outbreaks of the leaf scald disease
during recent years in Florida, Louisiana, Texas
and elsewhere have been caused by one of these
strains. In Florida, this strain is a newly introduced
exotic strain that is much more contagious than
the indigenous strain.

The diagnostic tests for both bacterial pathogens
have been linked into a single tool so that both
pathogens can be detected simultaneously in the
same sample of sugarcane sap. A great deal of time
and money will be saved by the use of this DNA-
based procedure called "multiplex, nested PCR."
This superior diagnostic tool is very sensitive and
produces results rapidly. It should be useful not
only in guiding the breeding of resistant varieties,
but also in supporting quarantine efforts to prevent
the introduction of new strains of the pathogens.

Impact: Wherever the sugarcane industry may
elect to use this technology on a systematic basis,
the losses caused by these diseases will be reduced
significantly. Certainly, a reduction in annual
losses of about $40 million per year should be
possible in Florida. Savings of this magnitude will
be needed by the industry in making adjustments
to more stringent water quality standards now
being required for ecosystem restoration in South
Florida.

Collaborators: This has been a team effort led by
Michael J. Davis, Tropical REC, Homestead;
Philippe Rott, CIRAD-CA, Montpellier, France;
Dean W. Gabriel, Robert E. Stall and Gustavo
Astua, Plant Pathology Department, University of
Florida.







in progress for 64 different perennial crops. The
experiment is replicated in two sites both in Jay
and in Milton. Growth regulator studies have been
completed and are being prepared for publication
on four tropical perennial species. Propagation
and rooting studies have been completed and are
being prepared for publication on three perennial
species. Establishment of a two-acre research
and teaching garden to evaluate performance of
approximately 160 species of perennials was
completed and will begin generating data in 1999.
Over 40 industry representatives and 1,000 con-
sumers have utilized the garden and been added to Rick Schoellhorn and Mack Thetford
mailing lists.



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37







Changes in Faculty


Retirements
Carlos H. Blazquez, Associate Professor, Citrus
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred
James M. Davidson, Vice President and Professor
Emeritus, Office of the Vice President and Soil
and Water Sciences
Albert E. Kretchmer Jr., Professor, Indian River
Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce
John E. Moore, Professor, Animal Science
Robert E. Stall, Professor, Plant Pathology
John R. Strayer, Distinguished Service Professor,
Entomology and Nematology
Patricia A. Wagner, Associate Professor, Family
Youth and Community Sciences
Willie E. Waters, Center Director and Professor
Emeritus, Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton
Henry R. Wilson, Professor Emeritus, Dairy and
Poultry Sciences

Deceased Faculty
Stephen A. Hilliker, Associate Professor, Family
Youth and Community Sciences

New Faculty
John D. Arthington, Assistant Professor, Range
Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona
Janaki R. Alavalapa, Assistant Professor, Forest
Resources and Conservation
Kenneth R. Berger, Assistant Professor, Agricultural
and Biological Engineering
William F. Brown, Acting Assistant Dean for
Research and Professor, Range Cattle Research
and Education Center, Ona
Chadwick C. Chase, Courtesy Associate Professor
and Acting Center Director, Subtropical
Agricultural Research Station ARS,
Brooksville
Jianjun Chen, Assistant Professor, Central Florida
Research and Education Center, Apopka
William F. Debusk, Assistant Professor, Soil and
Water Science
Theresa M. Ferrari, Associate Professor, Family
Youth and Community Sciences
Renee M. Goodrich, Assistant Professor, Citrus
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred
Michael G. Jacobson, Assistant Professor, Forest
Resources and Conservation
Elizabeth M. Lamb, Assistant Professor, Indian
River Research and Education Center,
Ft. Pierce


Michael V. Martin, Vice President and Professor,
Food and Resource Economics
Robert J. McMahon, Assistant Professor, Food
Science and Human Nutrition
Martha C. Monroe, Assistant Professor, Forest
Resources and Conservation
Rusty Okoniewski, Acting Director, Research
Programs, Office of IFAS Sponsored Programs
George F. O'Meara, Professor and Acting Center
Director, Florida Medical Entomology
Laboratory, Vero Beach
Madeline E. Rasche, Assistant Professor,
Microbiology and Cell Science
Balasubr Rathinasab, Assistant Professor,
Horticultural Sciences
Mark A. Ritenour, Assistant Professor, Indian River
Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce
Pamela D. Roberts, Assistant Professor, Southwest
Florida Research and Education Center,
Immokalee
Donn G. Shilling, Professor and Center Director,
West Florida Research and Education
Center, Jay
Taylor V. Stein, Assistant Professor, Forest
Resources and Conservation
Milton E. Tignor, Assistant Professor, Indian River
Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce
Gary J. Wilfret, Professor and Acting Center
Director, Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton
Rerdinan F. Wirth, Assistant Professor, Indian
River Research and Education Center, Ft.
Pierce
Allen F. Wysocki, Assistant Professor, Food and
Resource Economics
Roy P. Yanong, Assistant Professor, Tropical
Aquaculture Laboratory

Resignations
Laura K. Guyer, Associate Professor, Food Science
and Human Nutrition
Andrew C. Hammond, Courtesy Professor and
Center Director, Subtropical Agricultural
Research Station ARS, Brooksville
Charles D. Morris, Associate Professor, Florida
Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach
Cheng-I Wei, Professor and Acting Assistant
Dean for Research, Food Science and Human
Nutrition


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38


88








RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION

The University of Florida Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences


1 JOHN V. LOMBARDI President & Prof.
1,2,3 MICHAEL V. MARTIN Vice President for
Agr. & Nat. Resources & Prof.


Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station

Office of the Dean for Research and
Director
1022 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110200
Gainesville, FL 32611-0200
Telephone: (352) 392-1784
FAX: (352) 392-4965

2 RICHARD L. JONES Dean for Research and
Director, FAES, Prof.
2 EVERETT R. EMINO Asst. Dean, Prof.
2 WILLIAM F. BROWN Acting Asst. Dean,
Prof.
4 JUDY F. KITE Coord., Admin. Services
1,2,3 RUSTY OKONIEWSKI Acting Director, IFAS
Sponsored Programs
2 THOMAS D. STADSKLEV Manager, FL
Foundation Seed Producers, Inc.

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects

REA00002 Research Administration Non-
projected
R. L. Jones J. T. Neilson
E. R. Emino
REA00008 Administration of McIntire-Stennis
Funds and Projects
R. L. Jones J. T. Neilson
E. R. Emino
REA00784 General Administration of Federal
Grant Fund Research


R. L. Jones
E. R. Emino


J. T. Neilson
J. L. Shonkwiler


REA01604 Regional Research Coordination,
Southern Region


R. L. Jones
E. R. Emino


J. T. Neilson
J. L. Shonkwiler


REA03472 Biological Control Working Group
Activities
R. L. Jones
REA03511 CBAG Management Grant for Tropical
and Subtropical Agriculture
D. F. Davis

Research Grants
Davis, D. F. T-STAR Management Grant for Topi-
cal & Subtropical Agriculture Caribbean.
USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricultural
Research). 02/01/96-01/31/00. $72,114.
Emino, E. R. Florida Tomato Committee Research
Projects. FL Tomato Comm. 11/01/95-
10/31/03. $207,000.
Emino, E. R. Turfgrass Research. FL Turfgrass
Research Foundation. 09/02/96-10/31/02.
$69,950.
Jones, R. L. Support of Agricultural Research of
Mutual Interest. USDA-ARS (Research Support
Agreement). 10/01/96 09/30/01. $608,924.
R. L. Southern Association of Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Executive Director. Mississippi
State University. 04/01/98-06/30/99.
$159,197.
Jones, R. L. Cooperative Support Agreement.
USDA Cooperative State Research Service.
10/01/97-09/30/98. $47,300.
Jones, R. L. Research in Support of Plant Variety
Development. FL Foundation Seed Producers.
04/01/96-06/30/98. $269,845.
Jones, R. L. To Study and Help Make Available to
the Farmers of Florida, New & Improved
Varieties of Crop Seed & Other Plant Materials
to Adequate Quantities & Reasonable Prices.
FL Foundation Seed Producers. 07/01/97-
06/30/99. $55,061.


I Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency ;3y


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Center for Cooperative
Agricultural Programs FAMU
215 Perry Paige Building
Tallahassee, FL 32307
Telephone: (352) 599-3546
FAX: (352) 561-2151

2,3 LAWRENCE CARTER Asst. Dean & Assoc.
Prof., 1890 FAMU Programs


Center for Aquatic Plants
7922 NW 71 Street / PO Boxll0610
Gainesville, FL 32606-0610
Telephone: (352) 392-9613
FAX: (352) 392-3462

1,2 RANDALL K. STOCKER Dir. & Prof.


Center for Natural Resource
Programs
1051 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110230
Gainesville, FL 32611-0230
Telephone: (352) 392-7622

1,2 P. S. RAO Acting Dir. & Prof.


Center for Biomass Programs
129 Newins-Ziegler Hall / PO Box 110415
Gainesville, FL 32611-0415
Telephone: (352) 392-1511
FAX: (352) 392-2389

1,2,3 WAYNE H. SMITH Dir. & Prof.


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


40 I Resident Instruction


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CAMPUS RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Agricultural And Biological Engineering


1 Frazier Rogers Hall/P.O. Box 110570
Gainesville, FL 32611-0570
Telephone: (352) 392-1864
Fax: (352) 392-4092

1,2 C. DIRELLE BAIRD Chair & Prof., Energy &
Ag Proc.
1,2 LARRY O. BAGNALL Prof., Ag. Proc &
Aquatic Weeds
2,3 HOWARD W. BECK Assoc. Prof., Informa-
tion Technology
1,3 KENNETH R. BERGER Asst. Prof.,
Packaging
1,2,3 RAY A. BUCKLIN Prof., Farm Structures &
Waste Management
1,2 KENNETH L. CAMPBELL Prof., Water
Management
1,2 KHE V. CHAU Prof., Energy & Proc.
1,2 DAVID P. CHYNOWETH Prof., Anaerobic
Digestion
1,3 BYRON T. FRENCH Assoc. Prof., Machinery
1,2 WENDY D. GRAHAM Assoc. Prof.,
Groundwater Hydrologist
1,2,3 DOROTA Z. HAMAN Prof., Water
Management
2 JAMES HANSON Asst. Sci., Crop Modeling
1,2 JAMES W. JONES Dist. Prof., Plant
Modeling & Systems Analysis
1,2,3 PIERCE H. JONES Asst. Director. Energy
Extension & Prof., Environment
2 JONATHAN JORDAN Asst. In., Remote
Sensing
1,3 JAMES D. LEARY Asst. Sci., Energy,
Environ. Control
1,3 CAROL J. LEHTOLA Asst. Prof., Safety
2 EDWARD P. LINCOLN Assoc. Prof., Algae
Production
1,2 JOHN W MISHOE Prof., Crop Modeling
Instrumentation Systems
1,2,3 ROGER A. NORDSTEDT Prof., Waste
Management
1,2 ALLEN R. OVERMAN Prof., Water
Management & Pollution Control
3 WENDELL PORTER Asst. In., Energy &
Electric Motors


1,2,3 DONALD R. PRICE Prof., Systems
Engineering
1,2 LAWRANCE N. SHAW Prof., Veg.
Mechanization Engineering
1,2 SUN-FU SHIH Prof., Hydrology
1,2,3 ALLEN G. SMAJSTRLA Prof., Water
Management
1,2 GLEN H. SMERAGE Assoc. Prof., Biological
& Ecological Systems
2,3 MICHAEL T. TALBOT Assoc. Prof., Grain
Drying & Energy
1,2 ARTHUR A. TEIXEIRA Prof., Food
Engineering
1,2,3 FEDRO S. ZAZUETA Director of
Information Technology, & Prof., Water
Management

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS
Research Projects:
AGE02882 Remote Sensing Application to
Abandoned Well Assessment in Florida
S. F. Shih
AGE03096 Lower St. Johns and Lake George
Agriculture Inventory
S. F. Shih
AGE03174 Equipment Engineering for Vegetable
Production
L. N. Shaw
AGE03191 Intelligent Information Retrieval
Technology for Electronic
Dissemination of Agricultural
Information
H. W. Beck
AGE03258 Energy Analysis and Measurement of
Agricultural Systems


R. C. Fluck
D. R. Price


C. D. Baird


AGE03285 Anaerobid Decomposition of Energy
Crops, Wastes, and Metals
D. P. Chynoweth
AGE03333 Decision Support System for Vegetable
Production
J. W. Jones


I Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency 41


o%.
















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41


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


I Resident Instruction






AGE03349 Integration of Spatio-Temporal
Variability for Field-Scale Productions
of Groundwater Contamination
W. D. Graham
AGE03385 Simulation Models for Forage
Production
A. R. Overman
AGE03456 Improvement of Thermal Processes for
Foods


AGE03689 Agro-Ecosystem Indicators of
Sustainability as Affected by Cattle
Density in Ranch Management
Systems
K. L. Campbell
AGE03704 A Multimedia Instruction and Learning
System for Higher Education


G. H. Smerage
T. A. Bewick


H. W Beck


G. H. Smerage


AGE03491 Parameter Sensing and Control
Systems for Drying Agricultural
Commodities


M. T. Talbot


K. V. Chau


AGE03492 Microirrigation of Horticultural Crops
in Humid Regions


A. G. Smajstrla
F. S. Zazueta


D. Z. Haman


AGE03508 Interior Environment and Energy Use
in Poultry and Livestock Facilities
R. A. Bucklin
AGE03569 A Markets Development Program for
Composts in Florida
R. C. Fluck
AGE03593 Development and Application of
Comprehensive Agricultural
Ecosystems Models


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AGE03596 Animal Manure and Waste Utilization,
Treatment, and Nuisance Avoidance for
a Sustainable Agriculture
R. A. Nordstedt L. 0. Bagnall
E. P. Lincoln
AGE03680 Using Remote Sensing Techniques to
Assess Stress Conditions in Wetland
and Upland Vegetation
S. F. Shih
AGE03682 Beneficial Reuse of Reclaimed Water in
Florida
A. R. Overman
AGE03687 Development of a Precision Agriculture
System to Manage Florida Citrus
J. K. Schueller


A. A. Teixeira


AGE03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and
Subtropical Agricultural Research
(T-STAR)
J. W. Jones

Publications:
Akpoji, G. A., Graham, W. D. and Rao, P. S. C.
1997. Stochastic Modeling of Solute Transport
in Variably Saturated Porous Media With
Random Recharge. European Geophysical
Society Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria.
April.
Albrigo, L. G., Timmer, L. W, Townsend, K. and
Beck, H. W. 1997. Copper Fungicides Resi-
dues for Disease Control and Potential for
Spray Burn. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Albrigo, L. G., Valiente, J. I. and Zazueta, F. S.
1998. Use of Internet Video-Conferencing
Technology for Distance Education in Agricul-
ture. Computers in Agriculture. 7th Interna-
tional Conference Proceedings, ASAE. pp.
402-418.
Alva, A. K., Paramasivam, S. and Graham, W. D.
1998. Impact of Different Nitrogen Manage-
ment Practices on Leaf Nutritional Status and
Yield of Valencia Orange Trees and Ground-
water Nitrate in a Sandy Entisol. Journal of
Environmental Quality. 27(4):904-910.
Annable, M. D., Rao, P. S. C., Hatfield, K., Graham,
W. D., Wood, A. L. and Enfield, C. G. 1998.
Use of Partitioning Tracers for Measuring
Residual NAPL: Results From a Field-Scale
Test. Journal of Environmental Engineering.
124(6):498-503.
Auernhammer, H. and Schueller, J. K. 1997.
Precision Farming. In B.A. Stout and B. Cheze,
eds., Engineering handbook, Vol. III, Plant
Production Engineering. American Society of
Agricultural Engineers.


K. L. Campbell








Bartz, B. J., Shaw, L. N., Schueller, J. K., Stall,
W. M. and Stoffella, P. J. 1998. Shielded Flame
Weed Control in Row Middles for Vegetable
Production on Plastic Mulched Row Middles.
ASAE Paper No. 981094. Presented at the 1998
ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando,
FL., July.
Beck, H. W. 1998. Decision Information Systems
for Citrus. Florida Agricultural Conference and
Trade Show. Citrus & Vegetable Proceedings.
University of Florida Cooperative Extension
Service. Pp. 11-13.
Beck, H. W. and Xin, J. 1998. Using Java, CORBA
and ODBMS to Develop Agricultural Data-
bases. Proceedings of the 7th International
Conference on Computers in Agriculture.
ASAE, Orlando, FL.
Beinroth, F. H., Jones, J. W., Calixte, J. P.,
Papajorgji, P. and perez Alegria, L. R. 1997.
Evaluation of Land Resources Using Crop
Models and GIS. In Tsuji, G.Y., G.
Hoogenboom and P.K. Thornton (eds.),
Understanding Options for Agricultural
Production. Kluwer Academic Press, Boston,
pp. 293-311.
Boote, K. J., Jones, J. W and Hoogenboom, G.
1997. CROPGRO Model for Grain Legumes. In
Tsuji, G.Y., G. Hoogenboom and P.K. Thornton
(eds). Understanding Options for Agricultural
Production. Kluwer Academic Press, Boston,
pp. 99-128.
Bottcher, A. B., Tremwel, T. K. and Campbell, K. L.
1997. Phosphorus Management in Flatwood
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Shih, S. F. and Ta, C. H. 1997. The Assessment of
18 and 19 Jan. 1997 Freezes in Florida Using
NOAA Satellite AVHRR Data. Proceedings of
the Florida State Horticultural Society.
110:97-100.
Shih, S. F. and Chang, L. W. 1998. Accuracy
Improvement for GPS Application. First
International Conference on Geospatial
Information in Agriculture, Vol. 11:82-89.
Shih, S. F., Glaz, B. and Barnes, R. E., Jr. 1998.
Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Everglades
Agricultural Area During the Past 19 years.
Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida. Vol. 57.
Shih, S. F., Glaz, B. and Barnes, R. L., Jr. 1998.
Reducing Subsidence of Organic Soils in
the Everglades Agricultural Area. Natural
Resources Forum: Linkages in Ecosystem
Science, Management & Restoration.
pp. 126-127.
Shih, S. F., Kan, K. Y., Chen, C. E. and Snyder,
G. H. 1997. Some Water Management Schemes
for Rice Production. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Florida Proc. 56:83-89.
Smajstrla, A. G.,Boman, B. J., Haman, D. Z., Pitts,
D. J. and Zazueta, F. S. 1997. Field Evaluation
of Microirrigation Water Application Unifor-
mity. IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL. Bulletin 265 (revised), 8 pp.


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Smajstrla, A. G., Boman, B. J., Clark, G. A.,
Haman, D. Z., Pitts, D. J. and Zazueta, F. S.
1997. Field Evaluations of Irrigation Systems:
Solid Set or Portable Sprinkler Systems. Fla.
Coop. Ext. Svc. Bul. 266 (revised). IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 10 pp.
Smajstrla, A. G., Bomas, B. J., Haman, D. Z., Pitts,
D. J. and Zazueta, F. S. 1997. Basic Irrigation
Scheduling in Florida. IFAS Bulletin, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 249. (revised). 9 pp.
Smajstrla, A. G. 1997. Simple Water Level Indicator
for Seepage Irrigation. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser. Circ.
1188. IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL. 4 pp.
Smajstrla, A. G. and Pitts, D. J. 1997. Tensiometer
Service, Testing and Calibration. Fla. Coop.
Ext. Svc. Bul. 319. IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL. 5 pp.
Smajstrla, A. G., Haman, D. Z. and Zazueta, F. S.
1997. Irrigated Acreage in Florida. IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Circular
1187. 5 p.
Smajstrla, A. G., Zazueta, F. S. and Haman, D. Z.
1997. Lawn Sprinkler Selection Layout for
Uniform Water Application. IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL. Bulletin 320, 4pp.
Smerage, G. H. 1997. Modeling Complex Microbial
Death Kinetics. Presented at Symposium on
Predictive Microbiology, 1997 Annual Meeting,
Institute of Biological Engineering.
Talbot, M. T. and Fletcher, J. H. 1997. A Portable
Demonstration Forced Air Cooler, IFAS
CIR1166 reviewed and added to IFAS FAIRS
CD-ROM #AE096.
Talbot, M. T. 1997. Design of Sweet Corn Precool-
ing System and Consumer Tray Pack System.
Technical Evaluation of Recommendation for a
Cooling System and Processing Equipment for
Farm Operation in Hawaii. Present to Norman
Sletteland, Consultant, Hilo, HI, January.
15 pp.
Tan, C. H. and Shih, S. F. 1998. Spatial Resolution
of Remotely Sensed Data for Land Use/Cover
in South Florida. First International Conference
on Geospatial Information in Agriculture, Vol.
11:75-81.
Tan, C. H. and Shih, S. F. 1998. Comparison of
Spatial Interpolation of Temperature by Remote
Sensing and Mathematical Techniques. Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida Proc. Vol.
57.


Tan, C. H. and Shih, S. F. 1998. The Selection of
Cell Size for Remotely Sensed Data in Geo-
graphic Information Systems. ASAE 1998
Annual Meeting, Paper No. 983135.
Teixeira, A. A., Balaban, M. O. and Welt, B. A.
1997. Estimation of Thermal Death Rate
Constants From Inoculated Cans of Pea Puree
Undergoing Thermal Processes. In: Engineer-
ing and Food in ICEF 7. (R. Jowitt, ed.)
Sheffield Academic Press. Pp. K41-44.
Teixeira, A. A. and Tucker, G. S. 1997. Critical
Control Points for On-Line Computer Simula-
tion Control of Canned Food Sterilization
Processes. Chapter 16 in: Food Engineering
2000. P. Fito, E. Ortega-Rodriquez and G.V.
Barbosa-Canovas, eds. Chapman and Hall.
International Thomson Publishing, New York.
pp. 291-297.
Teixeira, A. A. and Smerage, G. H. 1998. Predictive
Microbiology in Food Sterilization: Mechanistic
Modeling of "Shoulders" and "Tails" in Ther-
mal Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Spores.
Proceedings of the Institute of Biological
Engineering Annual Meeting, July 10-12.
Teixeira, A. A. 1997. Preparing Posters for Techni-
cal Presentations. Contributed article in ASAE
Resource Magazine, April, pg. 15.
Thomas C. V., DeLorenzo, M. A., Bray, D. R.,
Weldon, R. N., Bucklin, R. A. and Martin, J.
G., III. 1997. A Stochastic Economic Analysis
of Large Herringbone and Parallel Milking
Parlors. Journal of Dairy Science. 80(10):2418-
2428.
Thomas M., Crane, J. H., Ferguson, J. J. Beck, H.
W. and J. W. Noling. 1997. Two Computer-
Based Diagnostic Systems for Diseases, Insect
Pests and Physiological Disorders of Citrus and
Selected Tropical Fruit Crops. Hort Technology.
7(3):293-298.
Thompson, S. A., Molenda, M., Ross, I. J. and
Bucklin, R. A. 1998. Loads Caused by Bottom
Unloading Wall Flumes in a Model Grain Bin.
Transactions of the ASAE. 41(6):1807-1815.
Thourot, C. S. and Overman, A. R. 1997. Redesign
of a Center Pivot Irrigation System for Dairy
Waste Management. Project Agreement -
Gustafson's Dairy, University of Florida, and
USDA-NRCS.


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Vladimirova, S. V., McConnell, D. B. and Bucklin,
R. A. 1997. Shade Level, Wind Velocity and
Wind Direction Affect Air Temperatures Inside
Model Shade Structures. SNA News Line.
Southern Nurserymen's Association, Inc.
Marietta, GA. 27(3):14-16.
Welt, B. A., Teixeira, A. A., Chau, K. V., Balaban,
M. O. and Hintenlang, D. E. 1997. Heat Trans-
fer Simulation for Thermal Process Design.
J. Food Science. 62(2):230-236.
Willcutts, J. F, Overman, A. R., Hochmuth, G. J.,
Cantliffe, D. J. and Soundy, P. 1998. A Com-
parison of Three Mathematical Models of
Response to Applied Nitrogen: A Case Study
Using Lettuce. Journal of Horticultural Science.
33:833-836.
Xin, J. N., Beck, H., Halsey, L., Fletcher, J. and
Zazueta, F. 1998. Using Digital Cameras and
the Internet to Identify Plant Insect and Disease
Problems. Proceedings of the 7th International
Conference on Computers in Agriculture.
ASAE, Orlando, FL.
Zazueta, F. S., Gomez, M. V., Valiente Banuet, J. I.
and Yeager, T. 1998. Modified Tensiometer for
Potted Plant Irrigation in Nurseries. Interna-
tional Water and Irrigation Review.
18(1):18-20.
Zazueta, F. S., Wilkening, A. J., Beck, H. W,
Halsey, L. A. and Hintz, T. 1998. A Central-
ized/ Distributed Model for Information
Technology Resources. Computers in
Agriculture. 7th International Conference on
Computers in Agriculture. Proceedings, ASAE.
pp. 292-299.
Zhang, Y. and Graham, W. D. 1997. Spatial charac-
terization of a heterogeneous aquifer contami-
nated by NAPL using a three-dimensional
distributed parameter extended kalman filter.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Environmental Quality Meeting, Panama City,
FL. January, 1 p.

Research Grants:
Bagnall, L. O. Operation and Optimization of a
Fixed-Film Anaerobic Reactor. FL Department
of Community Affairs. 1997-1998. $2,000.
Baird, C. D. Professorship Award Program.
UF Research Foundation, Inc. 07/02/97-
07/01/00. $5,415.


Baird, C. D. Acoustical and Electronic Detection
of Stored Product Insect. USDA. 1995-2000.
$200,000.
Baird, C. D. Operation and Optimization of a Fixed-
Film Anaerobic Reactor. FL Department of
Community Affairs. 1997-1998. $1,000.
Beck, H. W. IITA/University of Florida Prototype
Cassava Information Resource. IITA. 1994-
1998. $24,000.
Beck, H., Martsolf, W, D. and Peart, R. et al.
Development of a Decision Making System
for Florida Citrus. Florida Citrus Research
Advisory Council. 1997-1999. $70,000.
Beck, H. W. Southern Tree. Miscellaneous Donors.
1997-1999. $1,382
Beck, H. W. and Poucher, D. W. An Integrated Pest
Management Information System Based on
Object-Oriented Database Technology. USDA/
CSREES. 1997-1999. $166,028.
Beeson, R. C., Haman, D. Z., Haydu, J. J., Know,
G. W., Smajstrla, A. G. and Yeager, T. H.
Improving Irrigation Management in Con-
tainer-Grown Landscape Ornamentals. South-
west Florida Water Management District.
1996-2000. $77,170.
Bucklin, R. A. and Bray, D. R. Environmental
Modifications for Reducing Heat Stress on
Florida Dairy Farms. Florida Milk Checkoff
Funds. 1997-1998. $2,000.
Bucklin, R. A. and Bray, D. R. Development of
a Method for Determining Rumen pH and
Rumen Temperature for Early Detection of
Rumen Health and its Dynamics During
Heat Stress. Florida Milk Checkoff Funds.
1997-1998. $6,500.
Bucklin, R. A. and Bray, D. R. Methods for
Alleviating the Stresses of Concrete Floors in
Confinement Dairy Systems. Florida Milk
Checkoff Funds. 1998-1999. $6,822.
Bucklin, R. A. and Bray, D. R. Variable Speed
Vacuum Pump Control in Florida. Florida Milk
Checkoff Funds. 1998-1999. $10,000.
Bucklin, R. A. Member of University of Florida
Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Particle
Science and Technology. National Science
Foundation. 1997-1998. $72,000.


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Campbell, K. L., Capece, J. C. and Mullahey, J. J.
Agro-Ecosystem Indicators of Sustainability as
Affected by Cattle Density in Ranch Manage-
ment Systems. USDA-CSREES (Competitive
14%OH), USDA-CSREES (Competitive Forest).
12/01/97-11/30/00. $249,476.
Campbell, K. L., Graetz, D. A. and Capece, J. C.
Decision Support System for Beef Cattle
Production. South Florida Water Management
District. 1995-1997. $156,875.
Campbell, K. L. National Needs Fellowship in
Water Science. USDA, Cooperative State
Research Service. 1993-1998. $125,000.
Campbell, K. L. Agro-Hydrology Research Studies
in the C-111 Basin. USDA. 1997-2003. $15,000.
Capece, J. C. and Campbell, K. L. Flow Measure-
ment System for the MAERC Cattle Stocking
Rate and Water Quality Study. Archbold
Biological Station. 1997-1998. $38,400.
Capece, J. C. and Campbell, K. L. Peer Review
of the Big Cypress Basin Watershed Plan.
South Florida Water Management District.
1997-1998. $5,000.
Capece, J. C., Fanning, M. D., Campbell, K. L.,
Graetz, D. A. and Portier. K. M. Optimization
of Best Management Practices for Beef Cattle
Ranching in the Lake Okeechobee Basin -
Phase 1. Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (EPA Sec. 319). 1998-2000.
$150,000.
Chynoweth, D. P. Co-Composting of Organic Waste
Blends. Environmental Protection Agency.
08/21/98-08/30/99. $49,997.
Chynoweth, D. P. Anaerobic Digestion Technology
for Waste Treatment and Energy Production.
Inst. International Education. 1997-1998.
$1,250.
Graham, W. D. Integration of Spatio-Temporal
Variability for Field-Scale Predictions of
Groundwater Contamination. US Department
of Agriculture Cooperative State Research
Service. 08/93-08/97. $145,350.
Graham, W. D. National Needs Fellowships in
Water Science. US Department of Agriculture
Cooperative State Research Service. 09/93-
08/98. $108,000.


Graham, W. D. Evaluation of the Impacts of
Alternative Citrus Production Practices on
Groundwater Quality. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 07/01/93-
2/31/00. $185,000.
Graham, W. D. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of
Horizontal Wells at Recycling Nutrients under
Ferneries. Florida Department of Environmen-
tal Protection. 09/94-03/97. $30,075.
Graham, W. D. Impacts of Spatiovariability of
Source Morphology on Field-Scale Predictions
of Subsurface Contaminant Transport.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
03/95-02/98. $628,974.
Graham, W. D. Lab and Field Evaluation of Single
Phase Microemulsion (SPME) for Enhanced
In-situ Remediation of Contaminant Source
Areas. Advanced Applied Technology Demon-
stration Facility, Rice University Energy and
Environmental Systems Institute. 09/95-08/97.
$418,260.
Graham, W. D. Spatial and Temporal Distribution
of Groundwater Nitrate in Relation to Land
Use. FL Department of Agricultural &
Consumer Services. 1997-1999. $117,600.
Graham, W. D. Innovative Tracer Techniques for
DNAPL Source Delineation and In-Situ Flush-
ing for Enhanced Source Removal. US Air
Force Armstrong Laboratory. 1997-2000.
$854,000.
Graham, W. D., Campbell, K. L., Mossa, J., Motz,
L. H., Rao, P. S. C. and Wise, W. R. Hydrologic
Sciences Task Force on Water Management
Issues Affecting the C-111 Basin, Dade County,
FL. UF/IFAS Dean for Research. 1996-1997.
$62,400.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Beeson, R. C. and
Knox, G. W. New Technologies for Sprinkler
Irrigation in Ornamental Container Production.
Horticultural Research Institute. 11/18/97-
11/18/98. $20,000.
Haman, D. Z., Stricker, H. and Reck, B. Managing
Runoff Water Quality from Clay Settling Areas
Used for Intensive Agriculture Production. FL
Institute of Phosphate Research. 1996-1998.
$260,000.
Haman, D. Z., Keager, B. and Smajstrla, A. G.
Improving Irrigation Management in
Container-Grown Landscape Ornamentals.
Southwest Florida Water Management District.
1996-1999. $64,618.


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Hansen, J. W. and Jones, J. W. Agricultural Sector
Climate Impact Assessment: University of
Florida Research Activities Within the South-
east Regional Earth Science Applications
Center. University of Alabama Huntsville.
1998-1999. $65,000.
Jones, J. W. Regional Application of Enso-Based
Climate Forecasts to Agriculture in the
Americas. (Florida Consortium UF/UM/FSU).
NOAA. 01/98-12/99. $280,000.
Jones, J. W. Regional Assessment of the Effects of
ENSO-Related Climate Variability on the
Agricultural Sector of Argentina and Uruguay:
Implications for Adoption of Climate Forecasts.
NSF. $52,599.
Jones, J. W. Integrated Crop Management Informa-
tion System (ICMI). USDA Foreign Agricultural
Service. 10/97-06/00. $148,298.
Jones, J. W. and Boote, K. J. Transferring Soybean
Production Technology Using Decision Support
Systems. United Soybean Board. 10/01/96-
12/31/98. $991,000.
Jones, J. W. Comparative Assessment of Agricul-
tural Uses of INSO-Based Climate Forecasts in
Argentina, Mexico and Costa Rica. Inter-Am
Inst for Coop on Ag. 10/97-09/99. $117,000.
Jones, J. W. Using Climate Forecasts to Improve
Tomato Production in Florida and Puerto
Rico. USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricultural
Research). 09/15/98-09/30/99. $120,000.
Jones, J. W. and Boote, K. J. Simulation of Peanut
Cropping Systems to Improve Production
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource
Management. USAID, Peanut CRSP. 10/96-
10/99. $100,000.
Jones, J. W. Integrating Genetics and Precision
Farming Information into Decision Support
Systems. United Soybean Board. 10/98-10/00.
$760,000.
Jones, J. W. Agricultural Sector Climate Impact
Assessment. NASA. 10/98-12/99. $105,000.
Jones, P. H. IFAS As Co-PI: Building Product Test
Facility. Certainteed Corporation. 08/02/96-
12/31/98. $83,761.
Jones, P. H. and Miller, C. R. Public Information
Project Coordination for Daytona Beach Shores
Emergency Preparedness. City of Daytona
Beach Shores. 06/27/97-03/31/98. $26,000.


Jones, P. H., Porter, W. A. and Wilkie, A. C..
Energy Efficient Air Conditioning for a Stan-
dard Commercial Steel Building Requiring
100% Fresh Air. Florida Department of Com-
munity Affairs. 12/05/95-06/30/99. $30,000.
Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Reedy Creek Energy
Services. Reedy Creek Improvement District.
07/01/97-06/30/98. $35,000.
Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Demonstration and
Performance Monitoring of a Residential Solar
Air Conditioning and Heating System Using
Commercial Technologies. Florida Department
of Community Affairs. 08/06/97-06/30/99.
$140,000.
Jones, P. H. and Cook, G. D. Reduction of Energy
Costs at the United States Postal Service
Facilities in Florida. Florida Department of
Community Affairs. 11/05/97-11/30/98.
$50,000.
Jones, P. H. and West, M. K. Reduction of HVAC
Operating Costs and Optimization of Ventila-
tion Flow at the Alachua County Corrections
Center. Alachua County Board of County
Commissioners. 01/10/96-09/30/97. $9,198.
Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Energy and Water
Efficiency Project for Selected Rural Water/
Wastewater Treatment Plants. Florida
Department of Community Affairs. 02/04/97-
12/31/99. $20,000.
Jones, P. H. and Miller, C. Florida Energy Effi-
ciency Education Program, Phase II. Florida
Department of Community Affairs. 01/03/96-
12/31/99. $250,000.
Lehtola, C. J. Subcontract from University of
Kentucky (Center for Agricultural Disease
Control and Prevention). University of
Kentucky. 06/01/98 09/27/98. $5,000.
Lehtola, C. J. Farm Safety. Extension Office.
1997-1998. $18,000.
Martsolf, J. D. and Peart, R. M. Development of a
Decision Making System for Florida Citrus.
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services. 07/01/98-06/30/99. $35,000.
Nordstedt, R. A. Middle Suwannee River Hydro-
logic Unit Area Project. USDA Extension
Service. 10/01/93-03/31/98. $65,000.
Nordstedt, R. A. Demonstration of Constructed
Wetlands and Overland Flow for Nutrient
Removal at Maple Lane Dairy Farm. EPA.
1997-1998. $68,811.


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Nordstedt, R. A. Demonstration of Constructed
Wetlands and Overland Flow for Nutrient
Removal at Maple Lane Dairy Farm. Maple
Lane Cattle Company, Inc. 1997-1998. $5,255.
Overman, A. R. Southeast Farm Research. City of
Tallahassee. 06/01/98-05/30/99. $30,000.
Price, D. R. Gatorade Allocation to Support
Research Program. UF Division of Sponsored
Research. 1993-1999. $60,000.
Shaw, L. N. Biol and Cultural Control of Weeds
and Soil Borne Plant Pathogen. USDA/ARS.
1997-1998. $5,045.
Shih, S. F. Training Program on Applications of
Remote Sensing and Geographic Information
System. Miscellaneous Donors. 05/16/97-
05/15/00. $12,615.


Shih, S. F. Using Remote Sensing Techniques to
Assess Stress Conditions in Wetland and
Upland Vegetation in the Southeastern
Costal Region. National Aeronautic & Space
Administration. 08/01/97-07/31/99. $43,846.
Xin, J. N. Citrus Microirrigation Decision Support
System. Smith Lever Water Quality Water.
1997-1998. $4,500.
Zazueta, F. S., Miller, G. L. and Smajstrla, A. G.
Deficit Irrigation of Turfgrass. West Coast
Regional Water Supply Authority. 1996-1998.
$59,990.


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53







Agronomy


304 Newell Hall/PO Box 110500
Gainesville, FL 32611-0500
Telephone: (352) 392-1811
Fax: (352) 392-1840

1,2,3 JERRY M. BENNETT Chair & Prof., Crop
Physiology
1,2 KENNETH J. BOOTE Prof., Crop Physiology
1 KENNETH L. BUHR Asst. Prof., Plant
Breeding
2,3 CARROL G. CHAMBLISS Assoc. Prof.,
Forage Crop Mgt.
1,2 ALISON M. FOX Asst. Prof., Weed Ecology
2,3 EDWIN C. FRENCH III Assoc. Prof., Crop
Sys. & Forage Mgt.
1,2 RAYMOND N. GALLAHER Prof., Multiple
Cropping Sys.
1,2 MARIA GALLO-MEAGHER Asst. Prof.,
Molecular Genetics & Breeding
1,2 WILLIAM T. HALLER Prof., Aquatic Plant
Mgt.
1,2 CLIFTON K. HIEBSCH Assoc. Prof.,
Sustainable Agriculture
2,3 KENNETH A. LANGELAND Assoc. Prof.,
Aquatic Plant Mgt.
2 FERDINAND LEGRAND Assoc. Prof.,
Biomass Conversion
1,2 PAUL L. PFAHLER Prof., Genetics &
Breeding
2 GORDON M. PRINE Prof., Crop Ecology
1,2 KENNETH H. QUESENBERRY Prof.,
Genetics & Breeding
1,2 DONN G. SHILLING Prof., Weed Science
1,2 REX L. SMITH Prof., Molecular Genetics &
Breeding
1,2 LYNN E. SOLLENBERGER Prof., Forage
Crop Mgt.
2,3 RANDALL K. STOCKER Dir. and Prof.,
Plant Ecology
2,3 ELMO B. WHITTY Prof., Field Crop Mgt.
1,2 MERRILL WILCOX Prof., Herbicide
Biochem.
1,2 DAVID S. WOFFORD Prof., Genetics &
Breeding
1,2 E. T. YORK JR. Distinguished Serv. Prof.,
Plant Breeding


UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:


AGR03180



AGR03183


Evaluation of Forage Germplasm
Under Varied Management
C. G. Chambliss L. E. Sollenberger
Small Grain Breeding and Genetics
P. L. Pfahler R. L. Smith


AGR03184 Pollen Biology and Genetic
Improvement in Higher Plants
P. L. Pfahler


AGR03256


Design and Testing of a Prototype Food
Peeling Device
F. le Grand


AGR03269 Environmentally Friendly Growth
Regulants for More Efficient Crop
Production
M. Wilcox
AGR03291 Plant Genetic Resource Conservation
and Utilization
G. M. Prine
AGR03294 Forage Legume Viruses: Identification
and Genetic Resistance for Improved
Productivity
K. H. Quesenberry D. S. Wofford
AGR03310 Genetic Improvement of Forage
Legume Species
D. S. Wofford K. H. Quesenberry
AGR03313 Ecology, Physiology and Management
of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)
D. G. Shilling
AGR03371 Rice Responses to Global Climate
Change: Drought Stress, Water
Management and Carbon Dioxide
J. T. Baker K. J. Boote
L. H. Allen N. B. Pickering
AGR03374 Genetic Improvement of Forage Grass
Species


D. S. Wofford
K. H. Quesenberry


G. M. Prine


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


I Resident Instruction








AGR03427 Recyclable Organic Solids in
Conservation Tillage Multiple
Cropping Systems
R. N. Gallaher
AGR03446 Productivity and Profitability of Dairy
Systems Based on Grazed Tropical
Forages
L. E. Sollenberger
AGR03450 Utilization of Dairy Manure Effluent in
a Rhizoma Based Cropping System for
Nutrient Recovery and Water Quality
Enhancement
E. C. French G. M. Prine
AGR03469 Acclimation of Photosynthesis and
Respiration in Rice to Elevated Carbon
Dioxide
K. J. Boote L. H. Allen
AGR03533 Breeding and Genetic Engineering for
Forage Yield, Quality and Persistence
R. L. Smith D. S. Wofford
AGR03589 Management of Invasive, Non-
Indigenous Plants in Florida
A. M. Fox W. T. Haller
R. K. Stocker K. A. Langeland
AGR03594 Formation, Sprouting and Longevity of
Hydrilla Tubers


W. T. Haller
K. A. Langeland
R. K. Stocker


A. M. Fox
D. G. Shilling


AGR03596 Animal Manure and Waste Utilization,
Treatment, and Nuisance Avoidance
for a Sustainable Agriculture
E. C. French
AGR03621 Drought Tolerance of N2 Fixation in
Relationship to Yield, Genetic
Diversity, and Germplasm
Development
J. M. Bennett
AGR03661 Production Research to Increase
Soybean Yields
K. J. Boote
AGR03667 Molecular Improvement of Peanut and
Sugarcane
M. Gallo-Meagher


AGR03677 Testing Field Crop Cultivars
E. B. Whitty
AGR03681 Crop Performance in Cropping Systems
with Multiple Cultivars, Species, and/
or Durations
C. K. Hiebsch
AGR03684 Best Management Practices for
Nitrogen Fertilization on High Quality
Forage Grass
E. C. French
AGRO3690 Genetic Improvement of Peanut
(Arachis hypogaea L.)
E. B. Whitty
AGR03692 Biology, Ecology, and Management of
Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Lygodiu,
Microphyllium, and Sapium Sebiferum
A. M. Fox W. T. Haller
AGR03706 Reproductive Biology and
Gametophytic Selection in Higher
Plants
P. L. Pfahler
AGRO3707 Genetic Improvement of Small Grains
P. L. Pfahler
AGR03713 Plant Genetic Resources Conservation
and Utilization
K. H. Quesenberry G. M. Prine
AGR03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and
Subtropical Agricultural Research
(T-STAR)
L. E. Sollenberger

Publications:

Allen, Jr, L. H., Sinclair, T. R. and Bennett, J. M.
Evapotranspiration of Vegetation of Florida:
Perpetuated Misconceptions Versus Mechanis-
tic Processes. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop
Science Society of Florida.
Allen, Jr., L. H. Mechanisms and Rates of 0,
Transfer To and Through roots Via Aeren-
chyma. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop
Science Society of Florida.
Allen, Jr., L. H., Bisbal, E. C. and Boote, K. J. 1998.
Nonstructural Carbohydrates of Soybean Plants
Grown in Subambient and Superambient
Levels of CO,. Photosynthesis Research. 56:143-
155.







Balbuena, O., Bates, D. B, Kunkle, W. E., Moore,
J. E., Sollenberger, L. E. and Hammond, A. C.
Effects of Bambermycins Fed in Corn or
Molasses Supplements to Cattle. Intake,
Digestibility, and Digesta Kinetics in Heifers.
Journal of Animal Science.
Chase, C. A., Sinclair, T. R., Shilling, D. G.,
Locascio, S. J. and Gilreath, J. P. Light Effects
on Nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) Rhizome to Shoot
Development: Implications for Control by Soil
Solarization. Weed Science.
Chiteka, Z. A., Gorbet, D. W., Shokes, F. M. and
Kucharek, T. A. Components of Resistance to
Early Leaf Spot in Peanut Genetic Variability
and Hertitability. Proceedings of the Soil and
Crop Science Society of Florida.
Freire, M.J., Gorbet, D. W. and Quesenberry, K. H.
1998. Effect of Harvest Management on
Diseases and Forage Yield of Cultivated
Peanuts. p. 110. In Agronomy Abstracts. ASA,
Madison, WI.
Fox, A. M. and Bryson, C. T. 1998. Wetland
Nightshade (Solanum tampicense): A Threat
to Wetlands in the United States. Weed
Technology. 12:410-413.
Fritschi, F. B., Boote, K. J., Sollenberger, L. E. and
Allen, Jr., L. H. Carbon Dioxide and Tempera-
ture Effects on Forage Establishment: II. Tissue
Composition and Nutritive Value. Agronomy
Journal.
Fritschi, F. B., Boote, K. J., Sollenberger, L. E. and
Allen, Jr., L. H. Carbon Dioxide and Tempera-
ture Effects on Forage Establishment: I. Photo-
synthesis and Biomass Production. Agronomy
Journal.
Gaffney, J. F., Brecke, B. J., Colvin, D. L. and
Shilling, D. G. Efficacy and Timing of Applica-
tion of Selected Herbicides for the Control of
Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Weed
Science.
Gaffney, J. F., Bewick, T. A., Hall, D. W. and
Shilling, D. G. Apical Dominance and Axillary
Bud Activity in Cogongrass (Imperata
cylindrica). Weed Science.
Gesch, R. W, Boote, K. J., Vu, J. C., Allen, Jr.,
L. H. and Bowes, G. Changes in Growth CO2
Result in Rapid Adjustments of rcbs Gene
Expression in Expanding and Mature Leaves
of Rice. Plant Physiology.


Goldman, J. J. and Wofford, D. S. Shoot Organo-
genesis at the Hypocotyl-cotyledon Junction of
White Clover. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ
Culture.
Hussain, M. W., Allen, Jr., L. H. and Bowes, G.
Up-Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase
in Rice Grown Under Elevated CO2 and
Temperature. Plant, Cell and Environment.
Jank, L. and Quesenberry, K. H. 1998. Heritability
of Morphological Characteristics in Setaria
sphacelata. p. 75. In Agronomy Abstracts.
ASA, Madison, WI.
Kouame, C. N., Quesenberry, K. H., Wofford, D. S.
and Dunn, R. A. 1998. Genetic Diversity for
Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in White
Clover and Related Species. Genet. Resour. &
Crop Evol. 45:1-8.
Langeland, K. A. and Smith, B. E. Torpedogrann -
Forage Gone Wild. Wildland Weeds.
Lopez, F.D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows I: Feeding Value. Inter.
J. Anim. Sci. 13:1-6.
Lopez, F.D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows II: Reproductive
Performance. Inter. J. Anim. Sci. 13:7-12.
Lopez, F.D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows III: Effect of Fiber on
Plasma Constituents. Inter. J. Anim. Sci.
13:13-18.
Mislevy, P., Atkinson, L. G., Sollenberger, L. E.,
Ruegsegger, G., Andrado, I. F. and Kalmbacher,
R. S. Stockpiling Herbaceous Tropical Legumes
for Dry Season Feed in Jamaica. Tropical
Grasslands.
Paik-Ro, O. G., Smith, R. L. and Knauft, D. A.
Seed-Specific, Developmentally Regualted
Genes of Peanut. Theoretical and Applied
Genetics.
Pederson, G.A., and Quesenberry, K. H. 1998.
Clovers and Other Forage Legumes. In K.R.
Barker, G.A. Pederson, and G.L. Windam (ed.)
Plant and Nematode Interactions. Agronomy.
36:399-425.
Pereira, C. G. S., Sollenberger, L. E. and Mislevy, P.
Productivity and Nutritive Value of Florakirk'
Bermudagrass as Affected by Grazing Manage-
ment. Agronomy Journal.


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Pereira, M. J., Pfahler, P. L. and Barnett, R. D.
1997. The Effect of Low Temperature and
Gibberellic Acid on the Coleoptile Length of
Dwarf Wheat. Agronomy Abst. 73.
Pereira, M.J. 1998. Genetic, Physiological and
Morphological Aspects of Dwarf Wheat. Ph.D.
dissertation. University of Florida.
Pfahler, P.L., Pereira, M. J. and Barnett, R. D. 1997.
Genetic Variation for In Vitro Sesame Pollen
Germination and Tube Growth. Theor. Appl.
Genet. 95:1218-1222.
Piper, E. L., Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. 1998.
Evaluation and Improvement of Crop Models
Using Regional Cultivar Data. Applied Engi-
neering in Agriculture. 14:435-446.
Poerba, Y. and Quesenberry, K. H. 1997. Combin-
ing Ability Analysis of Red Clover Ability to
Regenerate From Callus Tissue Culture. Crop
Sci. 37:1302-1305.
Quesenberry, K. H., and Ngo, H. L. 1998. Develop-
ment of a Non-Dormant Red Clover With High
Levels of Plant Regeneration From Callus
Tissue Culture. p. 26. In Craig Grau (ed.)
Proceedings of the 15th Trifolium Conference,
Madison, Wisconsin. 10-12 June 1998.
Scholberg, J. M., McNeal, B. L., Jones, J. W,
Boote, K. J., Stanley, C. D. and Obreza, T. A.
Growth and Canopy Characteristics of Field-
Grown Tomato. Agronomy Journal.
Sexton, P. J., Bennett, J. M. and Boote, K. J. 1997.
The Effect of Dry Pegging-Zone Soil on Pod
Formation of Florunner Peanut. Peanut Sci-
ence. 24:19-24.
Sinclair, T. R., Bennett, J. M. and Ray, J. D.
Environmental Limitations to Potential Forage
Production During the Winter Months in
Florida. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop
Science Society of Florida.
Smith, B. E. and Langeland, K. A. Influence of
Foliar Exposure, Adjuvants, and Rain-Free
Period on the Efficacy of Glyphosate for
Torpedograss Control. Journal of Aquatic
Plant Management.
Smith, B. E. and Langeland, K. A. Comparison of
Various Glyphosate Application Schedules to
Control Torpedograss. Aquatics.
Stocker, R. K. Mechanical Harvesting of Melaleuca.
Journal of Ecological Engineering.


Stocker, R. K. and Sanders, Sr., D. R. 1997. Control
of Melaleuca Seedlings and Trees by Herbi-
cides. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management.
35:55-59.
Stricker, J. A., Prine, G. M. and Riddle, T. C.
Kenaf-Production Management, Costs and
Potential Returns in Florida. Proceedings of the
Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida.
Taylor, N.L., Mundell, R. E. and Quesenberry, K. H.
1998. Collection, Distribution, and Character-
ization of American Clover Species. p. 3-4. In
Craig Grau (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th
Trifolium Conference, Madison, Wisconsin.
10-12 June 1998.
Thakore, J. N., Haller, W. T. and Shilling, D. G.
1997. Short-Day Exposure Period for Subterra-
nean Turion Formation in Dioecious Hydrilla.
Journal of Aquatic Plant Management.
35:60-63.
Valle, R. R., Allen, Jr., L. H., Jones, J. W. and
Jones, P. H. 1998. Soybean Leaf Water Poten-
tial Responses to Carbon Dioxide and Drought.
Agronomy Journal. 90:375-393.
Vu, J. C. Photosynthetic Responses of Citrus to
Environmental Changes. Handbook of Plant
and Crop Stress.
Vu, J. C., Pennanen, A. H., Baker, J. T., Allen, Jr.,
L. H., Bowes, G. and Boote, K. J. Elevated CO,
and Water Deficit Effects on Photosynthesis,
Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase-oxygenase,
Carbobydrates and Chloroplast Ultra-structure
in Rice. Physiologia Plantarum.
Vu, J. C., Gesch, R. W., Allen, Jr., L. H., Bowes, G.
and Boote, K. J. CO2 Enrichment and Soil
Water Deficit Effects on Rubisoc Small Subunit
Transcript Abundance and Rubisco Activity.
Journal of Plant Physiology.
Whitty, E. B., Wilcox, M., Hoyert, J. H. and McKee,
C. G. Some Unusually Effective Pre-Harvest
Curing Aids for Tobacco. Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida Proceedings.
Wilcox, M. and Taylor, J. B. Citrus Abscission at
Very Low Application Rates. Proceedings of
the Interamerican Society.
Willard, T. R., Shilling, D. G., Haller, W. T and
Langeland, K. A. Physico-Chemical Factors
Influencing the Control of Torpedograss
(Panicum repens L.). Journal of Aquatic Plant
Management.


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57







Research Grants:
Bennett, J. M. Drought Tolerant Nitrogen Fixation:
Germplasm Development, Mapping and Yield.
University of Arkansas. 02/15/98-02/14/99.
$74,000.
Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida Soybean
Production (Check-off Funds). Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services. 06/01/98-06/30/99. $14,520.
Bennett J. M. Research Projects in Florida
Flue-Cured Tobacco (Check-off Funds) Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services. 06/01/98-06/30/99. $24,900.
Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida Peanut
Production (Check-off Funds). Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services. 06/01/98-06/30/99. $95,783.
Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. Simulation of Peanut
Cropping Systems to Improve Production
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource
Management--Taining Request. University of
Georgia. 08/01/96-07/31/01. $69,404.
Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. Production Research
to Increase Soybean Yields. Iowa State
University. 04/01/97-03/31/98. $112,479.
Boote, K. J. Increasing Rice Yields: How to Cope
With Heat. International Rice Research
Institute. 08/01/97-12/31/99. $21,500.
Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. Simulation of Peanut
Cropping Systems to Improve Production
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource
Management. University of Georgia. 08/01/96-
07/31/01. $64,515.
Fox, A. M. and Stocker, R. K. Evaluation of the
Efforts of Herbivory on Pontederia cordata L.
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 02/18/97-
11/14/99. $25,000.
Fox, A. Assessment of Aquatic Soda Apple
(Solanum Tampicense) Eradication in Florida.
Florida Department of Environmental Protec-
tion. 01/05/98-06/01/98. $30,691.
French, E. C. and Sollenberger, L. E. Best Manage-
ment Practices for Nitrogen Fertilization on
High Quality Forage Grass in the Middle
Suwannee River Area. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 08/06/97-
08/05/00. $195,317


Gallaher, R. N. Cover Crops, Weed Management,
Cultivars, and Nitrogen Rates for Conservation
Tillage Cotton in North Florida. Cotton, Inc.
01/01/98-12/31/98. $6,500.
Gallo-Meagher, M. Molecular Breeding: Developing
Sugarcane Varieties Resistant to Sugarcane
Mosaic Virus (SCMV) Strain E Through
Genetic Engineering. Florida Sugarcane
League, Inc. 0/97-03/10/99. $50,000
Haller, W. T. Application of Fluridone for Selective
Milfoil Control. SePro Corporation. 04/01/97-
12/31/98. $8,125.
Langeland, K. A. Improved Application Techniques
for Optimum Management of Torpedograss
(Panicum Repens (L.) BEAV.) in Littoral. South
Florida Water Management District. 05/19/95-
05/18/98. $12,800.
Langeland, K. A. and Nesheim, O. N. Updating and
Installing on an Internet Web Site the Training
Manual for Aquatic Herbicide Applicators in
the Southeastern United States. USDA Exten-
sion Service. 09/01/97-08/31/99. $36,250.
Langeland, K. A. Identification and Biology of Non-
native Plants Found in Florida's Natural Areas
(Book). Southwest Florida Water Management
District. 09/03/98-12/30/98. $2,000.
Langeland, K. A. Help Protect Florida's Native
Areas from Non-Native Invasive Plants. Florida
Department of Transportation. 05/11/98-
06/15/98. $5,000.
Langeland, K. A. Exotic Plants Circular. South
Florida Water Management District. 09/03/97-
09/30/97. $4,000.
Prine, G. M. Ryegrass Variety Trials-Miscellaneous
Donor's Account. Miscellaneous Donors.
09/01/90-06/30/99. $8,120.
Quesenberry, K. H. Red Clover Core Evaluation.
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 01/31/98-
01/31/99. $5,000.
Quesenberry, K. H. Nutrient Uptake by Forages
Database. US Department of Agriculture.
9/10/9 -6/30/99. $5,000.
Ramey, V. A. WES/IFAS Cooperative Agreement -
Task 1/Nationwide Support for the Aquatic
Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS).
US Army. 10/01/94-09/30/99. $25,000.
Ramey, V. A. Video Footage of Alligators. Jim
Broaddus Productions. 03/16/98-04/15/98.
$200.


03


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Ramey, V. A. Cooperative Aquatic Plant Education
Program (Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval
System). Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. 07/01/98-06/30/99. $25,000.
Shilling, D. G. and Charudattan, R. Integrated
Management of Exotic Invasive Plants in
Southeastern Pine Forest Ecosystem-
Cogongrass as a Model System. USDA Forest
Service. 01/01/97-12/24/98. $26,000.
Smith, R. L. and Wofford, D. S. Breeding and
Genetic Engineering for Forage Yield, Quality,
and Persistence. USDA-CSREES (Tropical
Agricultural Research). 09/01/98-08/31/99.
$71,706.
Sollenberger, L. E., Staples, C. R., Graetz, D. A. and
Spreen, T. H. Productivity and Profitability of
Dairy Systems Based on Grazed Tropical
Forages. USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricultural
Research). 08/01/95-07/31/99. $34,000.
Sollenberger, L. E. Graetz, D. A., Staples, C. R. and
Spreen, T. H. Economic and Environmental
Impact of Grazing Systems for Lactating Dairy
Cows. American Farm Bureau Research
Foundation. 10/01/94-08/31/98. $29,080.
Sollenberger, L. E., Staples, C. R. and DeLorenzo,
M. A. Economic Analysis of Pasture-Based and
Confined Housing Dairy Production Systems.
USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricultural
Research). 09/15/98-09/30/99. $30,000.


Stocker, R. K. Exotic Species BMP Development.
South Florida Water Management District.
09/04/97-09/03/00. $9,100.
Stocker, R. K. and Langeland, K. A. Assessment of
Aquatic Plant Management Methodologies.
St. Johns River Water Management District.
08/12/98-12/11/99. $80,000.
Stocker, R. K. Exotic Species BMP Development.
South Florida Water Management District.
09/04/97-09/03/00. $9,100.
Stocker. R. K. Assessment of Invasive Exotic Plant
Management Methodologies. St. Johns River
Water Management District. 07/01/97-
06/30/98. $64,722.
Stocker. R. K. Ecosystem Management Research:
Lygodium microphyllum (Old World Climbing
Fern). South Florida Water Management
District. 09/04/97-09/03/00. $9,100.
Stocker, R. K. and Langeland, K. A. Ecosystem
Management Research: Best Management
Practices for Control of Paederia Foetida L.
(Skunk-Vine). Southwest Florida Water
Management District. 02/10/98-12/31/99.
$31,824.
Stocker, R. K. Improving Control Methods for
Melaleuca Quinquenervia and Schinus
Terebinthifolius. Florida Department of Envi-
ronmental Protection. 05/01/97-06/30/00.
$20,328


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Animal Science


Building 4459, Shealy Drive / PO Box 110910
Gainesville, FL 32611-0910
Telephone: (352) 392-1911
Fax: (352) 392-7652


1,2,3
1,2


F. GLEN HEMBRY Chair & Prof., Nutrition
CLARENCE B. AMMERMAN Prof., Animal
Nutrition, Minerals


1,2 DOUGLAS B. BATES Assoc. Prof., Animal
Nutrition, Ruminant
1,2 JOEL H. BRENDEMUHL Assoc. Prof.,
Animal Nutrition, Swine
1,2 MAURICIO A. ELZO Assoc. Prof., Animal
Breeding and Genetics, Beef
1,2 MICHAEL J. FIELDS Prof., Animal
Reproductive Physiology, Beef
1,2 DWAIN D. JOHNSON Prof., Meat Science
2,3 WILLIAM E. KUNKLE Prof., Extension Beef
Specialist, Ruminant Nutrition
1,2 SANDI LIEB Assoc. Prof., Animal Nutrition,
Equine
1,2 LEE R. McDOWELL Prof., Animal Nutri-
tion, Minerals & Vitamins
1,2 TIMOTHY A. OLSON Assoc. Prof., Animal
Breeding and Genetics, Beef
1,2 EDGAR A. OTT Prof., Animal Nutrition,
Equine
1,2 BRYAN A. REILING Asst. Prof., Beef
Management, Ruminant Nutrition
2,3 ROBERT S. SAND Assoc. Prof., Extension
Beef Specialist, Reproductive Physiology
1,2 DANIEL C. SHARP III Prof., Animal
Reproductive Physiology, Equine
1,2 ROSALIA R. M. C. SIMMEN Prof.,
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
1,2 ROGER L. WEST Prof., Meat Science
1,2 CALVIN E. WHITE A ssoc. Prof., Molecular
Biology
1,2 SALLY K. WILLIAMS Asst. Prof., Meat &
Poultry Science
1,2 JOEL YELICH Asst. Prof., Animal
Reproductive Physiology, Beef


UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

ANS03149 Uteroferrin Gene Expression During
Development
R. C. Simmen
ANS03178 Bioavailability of Mineral Elements for
Ruminants and Nonruminants
C. B. Ammerman L. R. McDowell
ANS03247 Improvement of Beef Cattle in Small
and Large Multibreed Populations
M. A. Elzo R. L. West
L. R. McDowell D. L. Wakeman
ANS03279 Management Stress Influence on
Behavioral, Reproductive and
Productive T"aits in Equine
S. Lieb
ANS03292 Nutritional Systems for Swine to
Increase Reproductive Efficiency
J. H. Brendemuhl
ANS03325 Computer Programs for Optional
Supplementation of Cattle Grazing
TIopical Pastures
J. E. Moore W. E. Kunkle
ANS03339 Food Additives Effect on Microbial
Contamination, Acceptability and
Storage of Meat and Poultry Products
S. K. Williams J. H. Brendemuhl
R. L. West D. D. Johnson
ANS03360 Structure and Regulation of the
Porcine Antileukoproteinase Gene
R. C. Simmen
ANS03384 Significance of Oxytocin and Oxytocin
Receptros in Bovine Pregnancy
M. J. Fields
ANS03474 Multifactorial Regulation of Porcine
IGFBP-2 Gene Expression
R. C. Simmen
ANS03552 The Use of DNA Microsatellite Markers
to Predict Bovine Calpastatin Gene
Activity
C. E. White


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or CooperatingAgency


I %ju I Resident Instruction


E


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ANS03557 Methods of Improving Meat
Tenderness Through Genetic Means
T. A. Olson R. L. West
ANS03573 Influence of Nutrition on the Skeletal
Development of Growing Horses
E. A. Ott
ANS03576 Molecular Cloning, Structure and
Expression of an Endometrial
DNA-Binding Protein
R. C. Simmen
ANS03651 Breeding to Optimize Maternal
Performance and Reproduction of Beef
Cows in the Southern Region
T. A. Olson
ANS03695 Use of Molasses Mixtures in Cow-Calf
Production Systems
W. E. Kunkle D. B. Bates
B. A. Reiling
ANS03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and
Subtropical Agricultural Research
(T-STAR)
T. A. Olson

Publications:

Anderson, L. E, Myer, R. O., Brendemuhl, J. H. and
McDowell, L. R. 1997. Effect of Injected
Vitamin A and Dietary Supplementation of
Vitamin E on Reproductive Performance and
Tocopherol Status of Gestating Gilts. Reproduc-
tion and Nutritional Development. 37:213-220.
Arechiga, C. F, Staples, C.R., McDowell, L. R. and
Hansen, P. J. 1998. Effects of Timed Insemina-
tion and Supplemental Feeding of p-carotene
on Reproductive and Milk Yield of Dairy Cows
Under Heat Stress. Journal of Dairy Science.
81:390-402.
Balbuena, O., Bates, D. B., Kunkle, W. E., Moore,
J. E., Sollenberger, L. E. and Hammond, A. C.
Effects of Bambermycins Fed in Corn or
Molasses Supplements to Cattle. Intake Digest-
ibility, and Digesta Kinetics in Heifers. Journal
of Animal Science.
Badinga, L., Song, S., Simmen, R. C. M. and
Simmen, F. A. 1998. A Distal Regulatory
Region of the Insulin-like Growth Factor
Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-2) Gene Interacts
with the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription
Factor, AP-4. Endocrine. 8:282-289.


Brocas, C., Rivera, R. M., Paula-Lopes, F. F.,
McDowell, L. R., Calhoun, M. C., Staples,
C. R., Wilkinson, N. S., Boning, A. J.,
Chenoweth, P. F. and Hansen, P. J. 1997.
Deleterious Actions of Gossypol on Bovine
Spermatozoa, Oocytes and Embryos. Biology
of Reproduction. 57:901-907.
Chan, W. K. M., Faustman, C., Velasquez-Pereira,
J., McDowell, L. R. and Batra, T. R. 1998.
Effect of a-tocopherol on Metmyoglobin
Formation and Reduction in Beef from Cattle
Fed Soybean or Cottonsed Meal Diets. Journal
of Animal Science. 76:1421-1426.
Chu, J. W. K., Sharom, F. J., Oriol, F. G.,
Betteridge, K. J., Cleaver, B. D. and Sharp,
D. C. 1997. Biochemical Changes in the Equine
Capsule Following Prostaglindin-Induced
Pregnancy Failure. Molecular Reproduction
and Development. 46:286-295.
D'Costa, V. J., Williams, S. K. and Rodrick, G. E.
Modified Polymerase Chain Reaction and
Selective Media Methods for Detection of
Helicobacter pylori in Pork Loin Chops.
Journal of Food Science.
Downs, K. M., Kunkle, W. E., Marshall, T. T.,
Reiling, B. A. and Yelich, J. V. The Effect of
Laidlomycin Propionate on Hormones,
Metabolites, and the Performance and Sexual
Development of Beef Bulls. Domestic Animal
Endocrinology.
Elzo, M. A., Manrique, C., Ossa, G. and Acosta, O.
1998. Additive and Nonadditive Genetic
Variability for Growth Traits in the Turipana
Romosinuano-Zebu Multibreed Herd. Journal
of Animal Science. 76:1539-1549.
Elzo, M. A., West, R. L., Johnson, D. D. and
Wakeman, D. L. 1998. Genetic Variation and
Prediction of Additive and Nonadditive Genetic
Effects for Six Carcass Traits in an Angus-
Brahman Multibreed Herd. Journal of Animal
Science. 76:1810-1823.
Fahrer, C. S., TenBroeck, S. H. and Ott, E. A. The
Influence of Manganese Supplementation on
the Growth and Development of Yearling
Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.
Fuchs, A. R., Drolet, P., Fortier, M. A., Balvers, M.
and Fields, M. J. 1998. Ontogeny of Oxytocin
Receptors and Oxytocin-Induced Stimulation of
Prostaglandin Synthesis in Prepubertal Heifers.
Endocrinology. 139:2755-2764.






Fuchs, A. R., Fields, M. J., Chang, S. T., Thatcher,
W. W., Willard, C. C. and Randel, R. D. 1997.
Oxytocin Antagonist [d(CH2)5,Tyr(ME)2,Thr4,
Tyr-NH29] Ornithine Vasotocin Inhibits Oxyto-
cin Induced PGF2 Release in Late Pregnant
Cows. Biology of Reproduction. 57:436-441.
Ge, W., Davis, M. E., Hines, H. C., Irvin, K. M. and
Simmen, R. C. Association of a Genetic Marker
with Blood Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1
Concentration and Growth Traits in Angus
Cattle. Journal of Animal Science.
Green, M. L., Chung, T. E., Reed, K. L., Modric, T.,
Badinga, L., Yang, J., Simmen, F. A. and
Simmen, R. C. 1998. Paracrine Inducers of
Uterine Endometrial Spermidine/Spermine
N1-Acetyltransferase (SSAT) Gene Expression
During Early Pregnancy in the Pig. Biology of
Reproduction. 59:1251-1258.
Henry, P. R., Littell, R. C. and Ammerman, C. B.
1997. Effect of High Dietary Zinc Concentra-
tion and Length of Zinc Feeding on Feed Intake
and Tissue Zinc Concentration in Sheep.
Animal Feed Science Technology. 66:237.
Hoover, T. S. and Marshall, T. T. 1998. A Compari-
son of Learning Styles and Demographic
Characteristics of Students Enrolled in Selected
Animal Science Courses. Journal of Animal
Science. 76:3169-3173.
Johnson, D. D. and McGowan, C. H. 1998. Diet/
Management Effects on Carcass Attributes and
Meat Quality of Young Goats. Small Ruminant
Research. 28:(1) 93-98.
Johnson, D. D. and Rogers, A. L. 1997. Predicting
Yield and Composition of Mature Cow
Carcasses. Journal of Animal Science.
75:1831-1836.
Lee, C. Y., Green, M. L., Simmen, R. C. M. and
Simmen, F. A. 1998. Proteolysis of Insulin-Like
Growth Factor-Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
within the Pig Uterine Lumen Associated with
Peri-Implantation Conceptus Development.
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility.
112:369-377.
Littell, R. C., Henry, P. R. and Ammerman, C. B.
1998. Statistical Analysis of Repeated Measures
Data Using SAS Procedures. Journal of Animal
Science. 76:1216.
Littell, R. C., Henry, P. R., Lewis, A. J. and
Ammerman, C. B. 1997. Estimation of Relative
Bioavailability of Nutrients Using SAS Proce-
dures. Journal of Animal Science. 75:2672.


Lopez, F. D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows I. Feeding Value.
Journal of Animal Science. 13:1-6.
Lopez, F. D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows II. Reproductive Perfor-
mance. International Journal of Animal Science
13:7-12.
Lopez, D., White, C. E., French, E. C. and
McDowell, L. R. 1998. Perennial Peanut Hay
for the Gestating Sows III. Effect of Fiber on
Plasma Constituents. International Journal of
Animal Science. 13:13-18.
Manrique, C., Elzo, M. A., Odenya, W. O.,
McDowell, L. R. and Wakeman, D. L. 1997.
Prediction of Additive and Nonadditive Genetic
Effects for Weight Triats at Weaning Using a
Multibreed Animal Evaluation Procedure.
Journal CORPOICA. 2(1):17-21.
Marshall, T. T., Hoover, T. S., Reiling, B. A. and
Downs, K. M. 1998. Experiential Learning in
the Animal Sciences: Effect of 13 Years of a
Beef Cattle Management Practicum. Journal of
Animal Science. 76:2947-2952.
Moore, J. E., Brant, M. H., Kunkle, W. E. and
Hopkins, D. I. Effects of Supplementation on
Voluntary Forage, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and
Animal Performance. Journal of Animal
Science.
Ogebe, P. O. and McDowell, L. R. 1998. Mineral
Concentrations of Forages Grazed by Small
Ruminants in the Wet Season in Benue State,
Nigeria. II. Trace Minerals and Forage Crude
Protein. Communications in Soil Science and
Plant Analysis. 29:1211-1220.
Ogebe, P. O. and McDowell, L. R. 1998. Forage
Nutrient Composition in the Wet Season in
Benue State, Nigeria. I. Macrominerals and
Forage in Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant
Analysis. 29:1199-1210.
Olson, T. A., Hammond, A. C. and Chase, Jr., C. C.
Evidence for the Existence of a Major Gene
Influencing Hair Length and Heat Tolerance in
Senepol Cattle. Journal of Animal Science.
Ott, E. A. and Johnson, E. L. Effect of Trace
Mineral Proteinates on Growth, Skeletal and
Hoof Development in Yearling Horses. Journal
of Animal Science.


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4








Ott, E. A. and Kivipelto, J. Influence of Chromium
Tripicolinate on Growth and Glucose Metabo-
lism in Yearling Horses. Journal of Animal
Science.
Peltier, M. R., Wilcox, C. J. and Sharp, D. C. 1998.
Technical Note: Application of the Box-Cox
Transformation to Animal Science Experi-
ments. Journal of Animal Science. 76:847-849.
Peltier, M. M., Peltier, M. R., Sharp, D. C. and Ott,
E. A. 1997. Effect of p-carotene Administration
on Reproductive Function of Horse and Pony
Mares. Theriogenology. 48:893-906.
Peltier, M. R., Robinson, G. and Sharp, D. C. 1998.
Effects of Melatonin Implantation in Pony
Mares. 1. Acute Effects. Theriogenology.
49:1115-1123.
Peltier, M. R., Robinson, G. and Sharp, D. C. 1998.
Effects of Melatonin Implantation in Pony
Mares. 2. Long Term Effects. Theriogenology.
49:1126-1142.
Pena, R. E. and Elzo, M. A. Genetic Characteriza-
tion of Criollo Cattle in Bolivia: Genetic
Parameters for Growth Traits. Journal of
Animal Science.
Pringle, T. D., Williams, S. K., Lamb, B. S.,
Johnson, D. D. and West, R. L. 1997. Carcass
Characteristics, the Calpain Proteinase System,
and Aged Tenderness of Angus and Brahman
Crossbred Steers. Journal of Animal Science.
75:2955-2961.
Porter, M. B., Cleaver, B. D., Peltier, M. R.,
Robinson, G. and Sharp, D. C. 1997. The Effect
of Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
and Estradiol Administration on Luteinizing
Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Concentrations in Pituitary Stalk-Sectioned
Ovariectomized Pony Mares. Domestic Animal
Endocrinology. 14:275-285.
Porter, M. B., Cleaver, B. D., Peltier, M., Robinson,
G., Thatcher, W. W. and Sharp, D. C. 1997.
Comparative Study between Pony Mares and
Ewes Evaluating Gonadotrophic Response to
Administration of Gonadotrophin-Releasing
Hormone. Journal of Reproductive Fertility.
110:219-229.


Rabiansky, P. A., McDowell, L. R., Velasquez-
Pereira, J., Wilkinson, N. S., Percival, S. S.,
Martin, F. G., Bates, D. B., Johnson, A. B.,
Batra, T. R. and Salgado-Madriz, E. Feeding
Copper Lysine and Copper Sulfate to Cattle.
Journal of Dairy Science.
Ramos, S. R. and McDowell, L. R. 1998. Fertilizer
Rates on the Yield and Quality of Grass Hays
in Southern Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture
University of Puerto Rico. 82(1-2):17-24.
Reed, K. L., Blaeser, L. L., Dantzer, V., Green, M. L.
and Simmen, R. C. 1998. Control of Secretory
Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Gene Expression
in the Porcine Periimplantation Endometrium:
A Case of Maternal-Embryo Communication.
Biology of Reproduction. 58:448-457.
Sandoval, M., Henry, P. R., Littell, R. C., Cousins,
R. J. and Ammerman, C. B. 1997. Estimation
of the Relative Bioavailability of Zinc from
Inorganic Zinc Sources for Sheep. Animal Feed
Science Technology. 66:223.
Sandoval, M., Henry, P. R., Luo, X. G., Littell,
R. C., Miles, R. D. and Ammerman, C. B.
1998. Performance and Tissue Zinc and
Metallothionein Accumulation in Chicks Fed a
High Dietary Level of Zinc. Poultry Science.
77:1354.
Sharp, D. C., Thatcher, M. J., Salute, M. E. and
Fuchs, A. R. 1997. Relationship Between
Endometrial Oxytocin Receptors and Oxytocin-
induced Prostaglandin F2a1 Release During the
Oestrous Cycle and Early Pregnancy in Pony
Mares. Journal of Reproductive Fertility.
109:137-144.
Shemesh, M., Gurevich, M., Mizrachi, D.,
Dombrovski, L., Stram, T., Fields, M. J. and
Shore, L. S. 1997. Expression of Functional
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Receptor and Its
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in Bovine Uterine
Veins; LH Induction of Cyclooxygenase and
Augmentation of Prostaglandin Production in
Bovine Uterine Veins. Endocrinology.
138:4844-4851.
Simmen, F. A., Badinga, L., Green, M. L., Kwak, I.,
Song, S. and Simmen, R. C. M. 1998. The
Porcine Insulin-Like Growth Factor System: At
the Interface of Nutrition, Growth and Repro-
duction. Journal of Nutrition. 128:315S-320S.


eu.


63







Simmen, R. C. M., Chung, T. E., Imataka, H.,
Michel, F. J., Badinga, L. and Simmen, F. A.
Transactivation Functions of the Sp-Related
Nuclear Factor, Basic Transcription Element
Binding Protein and Progesterone Receptor in
Endom-terial Epithelial Cells. Endocrinology.
Stick, D.A., Davis, M. E., Loerch, S. C. and
Simmen, R. C. M. 1998. Relationship Between
Blood Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Concentration and Postweaning Feed Effi-
ciency of Crossbred Cattle at Three Levels of
Dietary Intake. Journal of Animal Science.
58:369-377.
Soler-Valasquez, M. P., Brendemuhl, J. H.,
McDowell, L. R., Sheppard, K. A., Johnson,
D. D. and Williams, S. N. 1998. Effects of
Supplemental Vitamin E and Canola Oil on
Tissue Tocopherol and Liver Fatty Acid Profile
of Finishing Swine. Journal of Animal Science.
76:110-117.
Trout, J. P., McDowell, L. R. and Hansen, P. J.
1998. Characteristics of the Estrus Cycle and
Antioxidant Status of Lactating Holstein Cows
Exposed to Heat Stress. Journal of Animal
Science. 76:1244-1250.
Vargas, C. A., Olson, T. A., Chase Jr., C. C.,
Hammond, A. C. and Elzo, M. A. Influence of
Frame Size on Performance of Brahman Cattle
in a Subtropical Environment. Journal of
Animal Science.
Vargas, C. A., Olson, T. A., Chase, Jr., C. C.,
Chenoweth, P. J. and Elzo, M. A. Estimation
of Genetic Parameters for Scrotal Circumfer-
ence, Age at Puberty in Heifers, and Hip
Height in Brahman Cattle. Journal of Animal
Science.
Vargas, C. A., Olson, T. A., Elzo, M. A., Chase, Jr.,
C. C. and Chenoweth, P. J. Variance Compo-
nent Estimates for Scrotal Circumference, Age
At Puberty and Hip Height in Brahman Cattle.
Journal of Animal Science.
Velasquez-Pereira, J., Risco, C. A., McDowell, L.
R., Staples, C. R., Prichard, D., Chenoweth, P.
J., Martin, F. G., Williams, S. N., Rojas, L. X.
and Calhoun, M. C. Long Term Effects of
Feeding Gossypol and Vitamin E to Dairy
Calves. Journal of Dairy Science.


Velasquez-Pereira, J., Prichard, D., McDowell, L.
R., Chenoweth, P. J., Risco, C. A., Staples, C.
R., Martin, F. G., Calhoun, M. C., Rojas, L. X.
and Williams, S. N. 1998. Long Term Effects of
Feeding Gossypol and Vitamin E to Dairy
Bulls. Journal of Dairy Science. 81:2475-2484.
Velasquez-Pereira, J., McDowell, L. R., Risco,
C. A., Prichard, D. and Martin, F. G. 1998.
Effect of Gossypol and Vitamin E Fed to Beef
Heifers. Journal of Animal Science. 76:2871-
2889.
Velasquez-Pereira, J., Chenoweth, P. J., McDowell,
L. R., Risco, C. A. Staples, C. R., Prichard, D.,
Martin, F. G., Calhoun, M. C. Williams, S. N.
and Wilkinson, N. S. 1998. Reproductive
Effects of Feeding Gossypol and Vitamin E
to Bulls. Journal of Animal Science.
76:2894-2904.
Williams, S. K. and Damron, B. L. Sensory and
Objective Characteristics of Broiler Meat From
Commercial Hens Fed Rendered Whole-Hen
Meal Produced from Spent Hens. Poultry
Science.
Williams, S. K. and Rodrick, G. E. Identification
and Enumeration of the Natural Microflora on
Farm-Raised and Natural Pond Catfish Fillets
Treated with Sodium Lactate and Stored Under
Simulated Retail Conditions. Journal of Food
Science.
Williams, S. K. and Phillips, K. 1998. Sodium
Lactate Affects Sensory and Objective Charac-
teristics of Tray-Pakced Broiler Chicken Breast
Meat. Poultry Science 77:765-769.
Xie, H., Huan, L., Merritt, A. M. and Ott, E. A.
Chinese Herbal Medicine for Equine Acute
Diarrhea. The American Journal of Chinese
Medicine.
Zerby, H. N., Belk, K. E., Sofos, J. N., McDowell,
L. R., Williams, S. N. and Smith, G. C. Display
Life of Fresh Beef Containing Different Levels
of Vitamin E and Initial Microbiological
Contamination. Journal of Muscle Foods.
Zerby, H. N., Belk, K. E., Sofos, J. N., McDowell,
L. R., Williams, S. N. and Smith, G. C. Caselife
of Seven Retail Beef Products from Beef Cattle
Supplemented with Alpha-tocopheryl Acetate.
Journal of Animal Science.


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Research Grants:
Ammerman, C. B. Bioavailability of Zinc Sources
for Chicks. Heritage Environmental Services.
10/15/97 06/30/98. $9,000.
Kunkle, W. E. Comparison of the Persistent Effi-
cacy of Pour-on-Formulation of Moxidectin
and Ivermectin Against Naturally Acquired.
American Home Products Corporation.
04/13/98-11/22/98. $52,500.
Kunkle, W. E. and Courtney, C. H. Persistant
Efficacy of Doramectin Injectible Solution
Against Artificially Induced Infections of
Nematodes in Cattle. Pfizer International, Inc.
07/30/97 09/18/97. $33,860.
Ott, E. A. and McQuagge, J. A. Complete Extruded
Diets for Horses. Cargill Corporation.
07/01/97-11/30/97. $10,625.
Ott, E. A. Agreement To Transfer Thoroughbred
Mares To The Horse Research Center. Bonnie
Heath Farm. 04/07/93-06/30/98. $12,850.
Sharp, D. C. Conceptus Signals for Pregnancy
Establishment in Mares. Florida Department
of Business Regulations. 07/01/97-12/03/98.
$40,000.


Simmen, R. C. Conceptus Modulated Uterine Gene
Expression During Peri-Implantation in the
Pig. ML Green. 09/01/95-12/31/97. $4,840.
Simmen, R. C. and Simmen, F. A. Uteroferrin Gene
Expression During Development. National
Institutes of Health. 07/01/91-03/31/03.
$189,752.
Simmen, R. C. Molecular Cloning, Structure and
Expression of an Endometrial DNA-binding
Protein. 09/01/96-08/31/99. $139,065.
Williams, S. K. Antimicrobial Properties of Sodium
Tripolyphoshate in a Restructured Boneless
Cooked Ham Product. FMC Corporation.
04/01/97-03/31/98. $4,200.
Yelich, J. V. Genetic Control of Tenderness in
Brahman Cattle. National Cattlemen's Associa-
tion. 05/01/97-12/01/98. $9,500.







Dairy and Poultry Sciences


Bldg. 499, Shealy Drive / PO Box 110920
Gainesville, FL 32611-0920
Telephone: (352) 392-1981
Fax: (352) 392-5595

1,2,3 ROGER P. NATZKE Chair & Prof., Mastitis &
Milking Mgt.
1,2 KERMIT C. BACHMAN Assoc. Prof.,
Biochem., Foods
1,2,3 BOBBY L. DAMRON Prof., Poultry Nutrition
1,2 MARY BETH HALL Asst. Prof., Nutrition
1,2 PETER J. HANSEN Prof., Reproductive
Physiologist
1,2 ROBERT H. HARMS Grad. Res. Prof.,
Poultry Nutr.
1,2 HENRY H. HEAD Prof., Animal Phys. Lac.
1,2,3 FLOYD B. MATHER Assoc. Prof., Poultry
Physiol.
1,2 RICHARD D. MILES JR. Prof., Poultry
Nutrition and Mgt.
1,2 FRANK A. SIMMEN Prof., Biochemistry &
Molecular Biology


1,2,3
2,3
1,2


DON R. SLOAN Assoc. Prof., Poultry Mgt.
CHARLES R. STAPLES Prof., Forages
WILLIAM W. THATCHER Grad. Res. Prof.,
Anim. Physiol. Reproduction


St


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8

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W. W. Thatcher


C. R. Staples


DAS03433 The Effect of Feeding Monensen on
Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows
H. H. Head C. R. Staples
R. P. Natzke


DAS03440 Enhancing Fertility of Heat-stressed
Dairy Cattle
P. J. Hansen
DAS03474 Multifactorial Regulation of Porcine
IGFBP-2 Gene Expression
F. A. Simmen
DAS03572 Byproduct Feedstuffs: Rumen
Degradability of Carbohydrate and Fat
Fractions and Effects on Feed
Efficiency
M. B. Hall H. H. VanHorn
DAS03580 Progesterone-Induced Uterine
Immunoregulatory Proteins
P. J. Hansen
DAS03596 Animal Manure and Waste Utilization,
Treatment, and Nuisance Avoidance
for a Sustainable Agriculture
H. H. VanHorn
DAS03659 Metabolic Relationships in Supply of
Nutrients for Lactating Cows
M. B. Hall
DAS03668 Induction of Embryonic Gene
Activation by Heat Shock
P. J. Hansen
DAS03736 Shortening the Non-Income Producing
Dry Period of Dairy Cows with
Estrogen
K. C. Bachman
PSE03159 Factors Affecting Mineral Utilization,
Immune Response and Performance of
Poultry
R. D. Miles
PSE03410 Hatchability of Avian Eggs: Factors
Affecting Embryo Viability
H. R. Wilson
PSE03476 Feed and Water Nutrition, Spent Hen
and Mortality By-products; Additives
and Ingredients for Poultry
B. L. Damron
PSE03532 Factors Affecting the Amino Acid
Requirements of Commercial Laying
Hens and Broiler Breeder Hens
R. H. Harms D. R. Sloan
H. R. Wilson


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


%-P%- I Resident Instruction


2 HAROLD H. VAN HORN JR. Prof., Animal
Nutr.
1,2 SALLY K. WILLIAMS Asst. Prof., Products
1,2,3 HENRY R. WILSON Prof., Poultry Physiol.

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

DAS03290 Nutritional and Reproductive
Management for Improved
Reproduction of Dairy Cows
C. R. Staples W. W. Thatcher
DAS03363 Strategies to Optimize Reproduction in
Heat Stressed Dairy Cattle








Publications:


Adams, A. L., Staples, C. R., Van Horn, H. H.,
Ambrose, D., Kassa, T., Thatcher, W. W.,
Wilcox, C. J. and Risco, C. A. 1998. Effects
of Whole Cottonseed and Low Dose bST on
Milk Production and Reproduction of Early
Postpartum Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci.
81(Suppl. 1):306.
Ambrose, J. D., Pires, M. F. A., Moreira, F., Diaz,
T., Binelli, M. and Thatcher, W. W. The Influ-
ence of Deslorelin (a GnRH-agonist) Implant
on Plasma Progesterone, First Wave Dominant
Follicle and Pregnancy in Dairy Cattle.
Theriogenology.
Arechiga, C. F. and Hansen, P. J. Response of
Preimplantation Murine Embryos to Heat
Shock as Modified by Developmental Stage and
Glutathione Status. In Vitro Cellular and
Devleopmental Biology.
Arechiga, C. F., Staples, C. R., McDowell, L. R. and
Hansen, P. J. 1998. Effects of Timed Insemina-
tion and Supplemental b-Carotene on Repro-
duction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cows Under
Heat Stress. J. Dairy Sci. 81:390 402.
Arechiga, C. F., Vazquez-Flores, S., Ortiz, O.,
Herandez-Ceron, J., Porras, A., McDowell,
L. R. and Hansen, P. J. 1998. Effect of Injection
of B-carotene or Vitamen E and Selenium on
Fertility of Lactating Dairy Cows.
Theriogenology 50:65-76.
Ariza-Nieto, P., Ster, M. D., Bach, A. and Hall,
M. B. 1998. Effect of Substituting Neutral
Detergent Soluble Fiber for Non-Structural
Carbohydrates on Fermentation by Ruminal
Microorganisms in Continuous Culture.
J. Dairy Sci. (Suppl. 1):81:290 (abstr.).
Bachman, K. C. Milk Production of Dairy Cows
After Short Dry Periods Initiated with Estro-
gen. Journal of Dairy Science.
Badinga, L., Song, S., Simmen, R. C. and Simmen,
F. A. A Distal Regularoty Region of the Insulin-
Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-
2) Gene Interacts With the Basic Helix-Loop-
Helix Transcription Factor, AP-4. Endocrine.
Beck, C. R., Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. 1998.
Is the Cyctine Content of the Diet of Concern
for Broilers from 0 to 21 Days of Age?. Journal
of Applied Poultry Research. 7:1-6.


Bressman, R. B., Miles, R. D. and Wilson, H. R.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Vanadium
in Commercial Egg-Type Laying Hens. Poultry
Science.
Burke, J. M., Hampton, J. M., Staples, C. R. and
Thatcher, W. W. 1998. Body Condition Influ-
ences Maintenance of a Persistent First Wave
Dominant Follicle in Dairy Cattle.
Theriogenology. 49:751 760.
Burke, J. M., Staples, C. R., Risco, C. A., de la Sota,
R. L. and Thatcher, W. W. 1997. Effect of
Ruminant Grade Menhaden Fish Meal on
Reproductive and Productive Performance
of Lactating Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci.
80:3386 3398.
Butcher, G. D. and Miles, R. D. Mycoplasma
Gallisepticum: A Continuing Problem in
Commerical Layers. Industria Avicola.
Butcher, G. D., Shapiro, D. P. and Miles, R. D.
Infectious Bronchitis Virus Classical and
Varient Strains. Industria Avicola.
Coelho, S., Ambrose, J. D., Binelli, M., Burke, J.,
Staples, C. R., Thatcher, M. J. and Thatcher,
W. W. 1997. Menhaden Fish Meal Attenuates
Estradiol- and Oxytocin-Induced Uterine
Secretion of PGF2a in Lactating Dairy Cattle.
Theriogenology. 47:143.
Damron, B. L. Sodium Chloride Concentration in
Drinking Water and Eggshell Quality. Poultry
Science.
Damron, B. L., Quant, M. D. and Christmas, R. B.
Rendered Layer Mortality as an Ingredient in
Layer Diets. Poultry Science.
Damron, B. L. 1998. Toxicity of Weed Seeds
Common to the Southeastern United States:
A Review. J. Applied Poultry Res. 7:104-110.
De la Sota, R. L., Burke, J. M., Risco, C. A.,
Moreira, F., DeLorenzo, M. A. and Thatcher,
W. W. 1998. Evaluation of Timed Insemination
During Summer Heat Stress in Lacatating
Dairy Cows. Theriogenology. 49:761-770.
De Moraes, A. A., Paula-Lopes, F. F., Chegini, N.
and Hansen, P. J.. Localization of Granulocyte-
Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and
Transforming Growth Factor-B1 in the Bovine
Reproductive Tract. Journal of Reproductive
Immunology.


67


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4b.







Diaz, T., Drost, M., Schmidt, E. J., Ambrose, J. D.,
Fredriksson, W. E. and Thatcher, W. W. Effects
of FSH-P on Follicular Dynamics and Ovarian
Response to a Superovulatory Treatment
Following Aspiration of a First Wave Persistent
Dominant Follicle. Journal of Dairy Science.
Diaz, T., Schmitt, E. J., de la Sota, R. L., Thatcher,
M. J. and Thatcher, W. W. 1998. Human
Chorionic Gonadotropin-Induced Alterations
in Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the
Estrous Cycle of Heifers. Journal of Animal
Science. 76:1929-1936.
Fike, J. H., Staples, C. R., Sollenberger, L. E. and
Graetz, D. A. 1997. Intensive Rotational
Grazing Systems for Dairying in a Subtropical
Environment: Animal, Plant, and Soil Re-
sponses. Proc. 18th Internat. Grassland Con-
gress, Section 29, pp. 93-94.
Fontaneli, R.S., Sollenberger, L. E. and Staples,
C. R. 1998. Forage Distribution and Nutritive
Value of Intensively Managed Pearl Millet and
Sorghum-Sudangrass. Agron. Abst. P. 106-107.
Garcia-Bojalil, C. M., Staples, C. R., Risco, C. A.,
Savio, J. D. and Thatcher, W. W. 1998. Protein
Degradability and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain
Fatty Acids in the Diets of Lactating Dairy
Cows: Productive Responses. J. Dairy Sci.
81:1374- 1384.
Garcia-Bojalil, C. M., Staples, C. R., Risco, C. A.,
Savio, J. D. and Thatcher, W. W. 1998. Protein
Degradability and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain
Fatty Acids in the Diets of Lactating Dairy
Cows: Reproductive Responses. J. Dairy Sci.
81:1385 1395.
Hall, M. B. and Hoover, W. H. 1997. A New
Approach to Partitioning Neutral Detergent-
Soluble Carbohydrates. J. Dairy Sci. 80 (Suppl.
1):213 (abstr)..
Hall, M. B., Hoover, W. H., Jennings, J. P. and
Miller, T. A Method for Partitioning Neutral
Detergent-Soluble Carbohydrates. Journal of
the Science of Food and Agriculture.
Hall, M. B., Jennings, J. P., Lewis, B. A. and
Robertson, J. B. 1998. Comparison of Starch
Methods for Analysis of Feedstuffs. J. Dairy
Sci. (Suppl. 1) 81:316.
Hall, M. B., Lewis, B. A., Van Soest, P. J. and
Chase, L. E. 1997. A Simple Method for
Estimation of Neutral Detergent-Soluble Fiber.
J. Sci Food Agric. 74:441-449.


Hall, M. B., Pell, A. N. and Chase, L. E. 1998.
Characteristics of Neutral Detergent-Soluble
Fiber Fermentation by Mixed Ruminal Mi-
crobes. Animal Feed Sci. Technol. 70:23-29.
Hall, M. B., Van Horn, H. H. and Wilcox, C. J.
1997. Ration and Production Factors Related to
Feed Efficiency and Nitrogen Excretion. J.
Dairy Sci. 80 (Suppl. 1):162.
Hansen, P. J. Regulation of Uterine Immune
Function by Progesterone Lessons From the
Sheep. Journal of Reproductive Immunology.
Hansen, P. J. and Arechiga, C. F. New Strategies for
Managing Reproduction in the Heat-Stressed
Dairy Cow. Journal of Animal Science.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. Severe Restriction
of Energy for Broiler Breeders During Eight
Weeks Before Termination. Poultry Science
Abstract.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. 1998. Layer
Performance When Returned to a Practical Diet
After Receiving an Amino Acid-Deficient Diet.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research 7:1-5.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. A Comparison
of the Energy Used by Four Strains of
Commerical Laying Hens to Produce One
Gram of Egg Content. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. 1998. Adding
Methionine and Lysine To Broiler Breeder Diets
to Lower Feed Costs. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research. 7:1-17.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. Energy: Methion-
ine Ration Is Important in Formulating Feed
for Commercial Layers. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research.
Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. Tryptophan
Requirement of the Commercial Laying Hen.
Journal of Poultry Science.
Harms, R. H., Butcher, G. D. and Sloan, D. R.
Changes in the Laying Cycle as a Result of a
Phosphorus Deficiency. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research.
Harms, R. H., Wilson, H. R. and Russell, G. B.
Induced Early Sexual Maturity and Post-Peak
Body Weight Control in Broiler Breeder Hens
Through Nutrient Management. Journal of
Poultry Science.


COD





coz







Harms, R. H., Neuman, S. L., Motl, M. A. and
Russell, G. B. Evaluation of a Potential Cystine
Response by the Turkey Poult. Poultry Science.
Hogsette, J. A. and Wilson, H. R. Effects on
Commerical Broiler Chicks of Constant
Exposure to Ultraviolet Light From Insect
Traps. Poultry Science.
Kuchinski, K. K. and Harms, R. H. Effect of
Increased Dietary Calcium for Broiler Breeder
Hens on Wire and Litter. Poultry Science
Abstract.
Kuchinski, K. K., Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B.
Re-Evaluation of the Sodium of the Commercial
Laying Hen. Poultry Science Abstract.
Kuchinski, K. K., Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B.
1998. Increased Dietary Calcium for Broiler
Breeder Hens on Wire and Litter. Journal of
Applied Poultry Research. 7:1-4.
Kuchinski, K. K., Harms, R. H., Wilson, H. R. and
Russell, G. B. Re-Evaluation of the Sodium
Requirement of the Commercial Laying Hen.
Poultry Science.
Lee, C. Y., Green, M. L., Simmen, R. C. and
Simmen, F. A. Proteolysis of Insulin-Like
Growth Factor-Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
within the Pig Uterine Lumen Associated with
Periimplantaion Conceptus Developement.
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility.
Liu, W, Peltier, M. R. and Hansen, P. J. Binding of
Ovine Uterine Serpin to Lymphocytes. Ameri-
can Journal of Reproductive Immunology.
Macoon, B., Sollenberger, L. E., Staples, C. R.,
Hanada, M. and Fike, J. H. 1997. Forage and
Animal Responses in Pasture-Based Systems for
Lactating Dairy Cows. Agron. Abst. p.140.
Macoon, B., Sollenberger, L. E., Staples, C. R.,
Moore, J. E. and Fike, J. H. 1998. Grazing
Management, Season, and Coat Color Effects
on Grazing Behavior and Performance of
Lactating Dairy Cows. Agron. Abst. P. 148.
Mattos, R., Orlandi, C., Staples, C. R. and Thatcher,
W. W. 1998. Effect of a Deslorelin Implant on
Follicular Dynamics and Progesterone Profiles
of Postpartum Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci.
81(Suppl. 1):224.
Miles, R. D. and Butcher, G. D. Cation-anion
Balance in Laying Hen Diets: When to Expect a
Positive Response in Eggshell quality. Industria
Avicola.


Miles, R. D. and Butcher, G. D. Feed Intake Depres-
sion at the Onset of Disease or Following
Vaccination. Industria Avicola.
Miles, R. D. and Butcher, G. D. Should In Vitro
Solubility of Commercial Phosphorus Sources
be Relied Upon as Indicators of In Vivo
Phosphorus Bioavailability. Industria Avicola.
Miles, R. D., Butcher, G. D. and Jacob, J. Necrotic
Enteritis in Commercial Poultry. Industria
Avicola.
Modric, T. and Simmen, F. A. Non-Radioactive In
Situ Hybridization of Porcine Embryos A
Method to Detect and Localize the Expression
of Early Development Genes. Veterinary
Medicine-Czech.
Moore, J. E., Hall, M. B., Kunkle, W. E., Rochinotti,
D. and Cochran, R. C. 1997. Assessment of
the 1996 Beef Cattle NRC. J. Anim. Sci.
75(Suppl. 1).
Myer, R. O. and Hall, M. B. 1997. Uses and
Limitations of Non-Traditional Feedstuffs for
Livestock Diets. J. Anim. Sci. 75(Suppl.1):8.
Neuman, S. L., Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B.
Evaluation of Energy Restriciton on 65 Week
Old Broiler Breeder Hens. Poultry Science
Abstract.
Neuman, S. L., Harms, R. H. and Russell, G. B. An
Innovative Change In Energy Restriction For
Broiler Breeder Hens. Journal of Applied
Poultry Research.
Paula-Lopes, F. F., de Moraes, A. A. and Hansen,
P. J. Presence of Interleukin-1B in the Bovine.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research.
Paula-Lopes, F. F., de Moraes, A. A., Edwards, J. L.,
Justice, J. E. and Hansen, P. J. Regulation of
Preimplantation Development of Bovine
Enbryos by Interleukin-1B. Endocrinology.
Peltier, M. R., Grant, T. R. and Hansen, P. J.
Biological Activity of the Ovine Uterine Serpin
Does not Require an Intact C-Terminal Region
Containing the Putative Reactive Center Loop.
Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Powers, W. J., Van Horn, H. H., Wilkie, A. C.,
Wilcox, C. J. and Nordstedt, R. A. Effects of
Anaerobic Digestion and Additives to Effluent
or Cattle Feed on Odor and Odorant Concentra-
tions. Journal of Animal Science.


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69







Rajamahendran, R., Ambrose, J. D., Schmitt, E. J.,
Thatcher, M. J. and Thatcher, W. W. Effects of
Buserelin Injection and Deslorelin (GnRH
agonist) Implants on Plasma Progesterone, LH,
Accessory CL Information, Follicle, and Corpus
Luteum Dyamics in Holstein Cows.
Theriogenology.
Roman, R. M. and Wilcox, C. J. Bivariate Animal
Model Estimates of Genetic Correlations for
Production, Reproduction, and Somatic Cells.
Journal of Dairy Science.
Roman, R. M., Wilcox, C. J. and Martin, F. G.
Single Herd Estimates of Repeatability and
Heritability of Productive and Reproductive
Traits in Jerseys Using an Animal Model.
Brazilian Journal of Genetics.
Roman, R. M., Wilcox, C. J. and Littell, R. C.
Genetic Trends in Milk Yield and Correlation
Changes in Productive and Reproductive
Performance in Jerseys. Journal of Dairy
Science.
Russell, G. B. and Harms, R. H. Tryptophan
Requirement of the Commercial Laying Hen.
Poultry Science Abstract.
Simmen, R. C., Chung, T. E., Imataka, H., Michel,
F. J., Badinga, L. and Simmen, F. A.
Transactivation Functions of the Sp-Related
Nuclear Factor, Basic Transcription Element
Binding Protein and Progesterone Receptor in
Endomterial Epithelial Cells. Endocrinology.
Sloan, D. R., Eberst, D. P. and Harms, R. H. Effect
of Energy Restriction on Production Parameter
in Mature SCWL Hens. Poultry Science
Abstract.
Sloan, D. R., Harms, R. H., Eberst, D. P. and
Russell, G. B. The Effect of Protein Level and
Cystine Addition on Production in Post Molt
Hens. Poultry Science Abstract.
Staples, C. R., Burke, J. M. and Thatcher, W. W.
1998. Influence of Supplemental Fats on
Reproductive Tissues and Performance of
Lactating Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:856 871.
Van Horn, H. H. and Hall, M. B. 1998. Effects of
Feeding Rumen Protected Methionine and
Modest Reduction in Dietary Protein in a
Florida dairy. J. Dairy Sci. 81 (Suppl. 1):109.


Velasquez-Pereira, J., Prichard, D., McDowell, L.
R., Chenoweth, P. J., Risco, C. A., Staples, C.
R., Martin, F. G., Calhoun, M. C., Rojas, L. X.,
Williams, S. N. and Wilkinson, N. S. 1998.
Long-term Effects of Gossypol and Vitamin E
in the Diets of Dairy Bulls. J. Dairy Sci.
81:2475 2484.
Welch, S. A., Sollenberger, L. E., Ruiz, T. M.,
Staples, C. R., Quesenberry, K. H. and Nair,
P. K. 1997. An Assessment of Pasture-Based
Dairies in Puerto Rico. Agron. Abst. p. 140.
Williams, S.K. and Damron, B. L. Sensory and
Fatty Acid Profile of Eggs from Commercial
Hens Fed Rendered Hen Meal. Poultry Science.
Williams, S.K. and Damron, B. L. 1998. Sensory
and Objective Characteristics of Broiler Meat
From Commercial Broilers Fed Rendered Spent
Hen Meal. Poultry Science. 77:1441-1445.


Research Grants:

Bray, D. R. Ovimmune Mastitis Study. Ovimmune,
Inc. 12/10/97-09/15/98. $3,500.
Bray, D. R., Bucklin, R. A., Hall, M. B., Staples,
C. R. and Shearer, J. K. Development of a
Method for Determining Rumen pH and
Rumen Temperature for Early Detection of
Acidosis or Rumen Health and its Dynamics
During Heat Stress. Milk Check-Off Project.
1997. $6,500.
Brown, W. F., Hall, M. B. and Moore, J. E. Assess-
ing forage feeding value for improved livestock
production in the tropics. Special Research
Grants/Caribbean Basin Advisory Group.
1997-2000. $90,983.
Damron, B. L. Does Olestra Affect Performance or
Pigmentation in Broilers and Laying Hens?
Fats and Proteins Research Foundation, Inc.
07/01/98-04/30/00. $19,712.
DeLorenzo, M. A. Integrated Simulation and
Economic Models to Teach Dairy Herd Health
Management. Cornell University. 02/15/98-
09/17/98. $143.
Hall, M. B. Evaluating Variation in Dried Citrus
Pulp Composition. Milk Check-Off Project.
1997. $6,450.
Hall, M. B. Donation of Calcium Propionate,
Sodium Propionate, and Organic Acid Feed
Preservative. Kemin, Inc. 1997. $375.


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Hall, M. B. Donation of Protein Feed Source.
Consolidated Nutrition, Inc. 1998. $600.
Hall, M. B. Effects of Non-Structural Carbohydrate,
Propionate, or Fat Feeding During Heat Stress.
Milk Check-Off Project. 1998. $9,860.
Hall, M. B. Effects of Non-Structural Carbohydrates
on Fiber Digestion. Milk Check-Off Project.
1998. $1,410.
Hall, M. B., Staples, C. R., Kunkle, W. E. and
Moore, J. E. Determining How Cottonseed
Hulls Work in Dairy Rations. Milk Check-Off
Project. 1997. $15,075.
Hansen, P. J. Enhancing Fertility in Heat-Stressed
Dairy Cattle. USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricul-
tural Research). 08/01/95-07/31/98. $26,700.
Harms, R. H. Potential Benefit of Betaine in Laying
Hen Feed. DuCoa. 01/06/98-03/01/98. $8,000.
Head, H. H. and Hall, M. B. Management of the
Transition Dairy Cow to Increase Feed Intake,
Improve Milk Yields and to Decrease Health
Problems. Milk Check-Off Project. 1997.
$14,200.
Miles, R. D., Butcher, G. D., O'Keefe, S. F. and
Wilson, H. R. Characterizing the Effects of
Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Diet of Breeders on
Chick Quality, Intestinal Tract Development
and Performance. U.S. Poultry & Egg
Association. 09/11/97-09/10/99. $35,190.


Miles, R. D. Comparison of Growth Response in
Broilers Fed Growth Promoting Levels of
Copper From Three Commercial Feedgrade
Copper Sources for Three Weeks. Old Bridge
Chemicals, Inc. 09/18/97-12/31/97. $5,000.
Miles, R. D. Characterization of the Effects of
Biogenic Amines on Poultry Performance and
Chick Quality. U.S. Poultry & Egg Association.
09/09/97-09/08/99. $37,900.
Miles, R. D. The Influence of Hemicell on Dietary
Energy utilization by Broiler Chicks. ChemGen
Corporation. 07/01/97-12/31/97. $5,000.
Natzke, R. P. Professorship Award Program. UF
Research Foundation, Inc. 07/02/97-07/01/00.
$5,415.
Natzke, R. P. Florida Poultry Federation. Florida
Poultry Federation, Inc. 10/15/96-10/14/99.
$11,275.
Simmen, F. A. Ovarian Growth Factors. Milton S.
Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.
12/01/97-11/30/98. $25,679.
Sloan, D. Xanac Testing in Broilers. R-Kane
Products, Inc. 08/18/97-08/17/98. $15,000.
Staples, C. R. and Sollenberger, L. E. Influence of
BST (Posilac) Housing, and Feed in Summer.
Monsanto Co. 09/29/97-09/02/00. $10,000.


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Entomology and Nematology


Building 970, Surge Area Drive/PO Box 110620
Gainesville, FL 32611-0620
Telephone: (352) 392-1901, Ext. 110
FAX: (352) 392-0190

1,2,3 JOHN L. CAPINERA Chair & Prof.
1,2 JON C. ALLEN Prof., Population Dynamics
& Systems Anal.
1,2 CARL S. BARFIELD Prof., Pest. Mgt.
1,2 DRION G. BOUCIAS Prof., Insect Pathology
1,2 JERRY F. BUTLER Prof., Vet. Entomology
2,3 JAMES P. CUDA Asst. Prof., Biological
Control
1,2 DONALD W. DICKSON Prof., Nematology
2,3 ROBERT A. DUNN Prof., Ext. Nematology
2,3 THOMAS R. FASULO Assoc. In.,
Computerized Data
1,2 JOHN L. FOLTZ Assoc. Prof., Forestry
1,2 J. HOWARD FRANK Prof., Biological
Control
2 VIRENDRA K. GUPTA Prof., Systematics
1,2 DONALD W. HALL Prof., Med. Entomology
2 HARLAN G. HALL Assoc. Prof., Honey Bee
Genetics
2 MARJORIE A. HOY Eminent Scholar,
Biocontrol
2,3 FREDDIE A. JOHNSON Prof., Extension
2, RICHARD L. JONES Dean for Research &
Prof.
2,3 PHILIP G. KOEHLER Prof., Extension,
Urban Entomology
1,2 PAULINE O. LAWRENCE Prof., Insect
Biochemistry
1,2 JAMES E. LLOYD Prof., Systematics
2 JAMES E. MARUNIAK Assoc. Prof., Genetic
Eng.
1,2 HEATHER J. McAUSLANE Assoc. Prof., Pest
Resistance of Crop Plants
1,2 ROBERT T. McSORLEY Prof., Nematology
1,2 JAMES L. NATION Prof., Physiology
2,3 MALCOLM T. SANFORD Prof., Apiculture
2,3 DONALD E. SHORT Prof., Extension
1,2 FRANK SLANSKY, JR. Prof., Nutritional
Ecology
1,2 GROVER C. SMART, JR. Prof., Nematology


1,2 JERRY L. STIMAC Prof. Population
Ecologist
1,2 JOHN R. STRAYER Distinguished Service
Prof., Economics and Entomology
1,2 THOMAS J. WALKER Prof., Ecology
1,2 SIMON S. YU Prof., Insect Toxicology
1,3 JOHN T. ZENGER Asst. Prof., Distance
Learning, Systematics, & Youth Extension

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

ENY03148 Household Pest Management
P. G. Koehler R. S. Patterson
T. R. Fasulo
ENY03194 Chemical Ecology of Titrophic
Interactions
H. J. McAuslane
ENY03228 Physiological and Biochemical Effects
of Irradiation Upon the Carribean Fruit
Fly
J. L. Nation
ENY03259 Biological Control of Scapteriscus Mole
Crickets and its Economics
J. H. Frank T. J. Walker
ENY03304 Ecology and Management of Plant-
Parasitic Nematodes
R. McSorley
ENY03343 Enhancing Analysis of DNA to Study
African and European Honeybee
Interactions
H. G. Hall
ENY03353 Entomopathogenic Nematodes as
Biological Control Agents of the
Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha
suspense
G. C. Smart
ENY03369 Identification, Behavioral Ecology,
Genetics and Management of African
Honey Bees
H. G. Hall
ENY03386 Dynamics and Management of
Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Turfgrass
R. A. Dunn


72 I Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


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I Resident Instruction


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency








ENY03402 Integrated Pest Management as an
Alternative for Control of Soilborne
Pests of Vegetable Crops
R. McSorley
ENY03412 Large Scale Regional Crop Patterns in
Relation to Pest Dynamics
J. C. Allen
ENY03419 Toxicology of Agriculturally Important
Insect Pests of Florida
S. J. Yu
ENY03442 North American Katydids and Crickets
(Orthoptera: Terrigonidae and
Gryllidae)
T. J. Walker
ENY03443 Resistance of Cucurbita Species to
Sweet Potato Whitefly and Silverleaf
H. J. McAuslane S. E. Webb
ENY03479 Natural Products for Biological Control
of Plant Pests
D. G. Boucias
ENY03483 Identifying Pesticides Compatible with
Parasites of the Citrus-Leafminer
M. A. Hoy
ENY03490 Biological Control of Selected
Arthropod Pests and Weeds


J. H. Frank
D. H. Habeck
D. W. Hall


J. L. Capinera
M. A. Hoy


ENY03493 Development and Integration of
Entomopathogens into Pest
Management Systems
D. G. Boucias J. E. Maruniak
G. C. Smart J. E. Lloyd
ENY03507 Interactions Between a Parasitic Wasp
and its Insect Host: A Molecular Study
of Wasp Virus, Parasite Protein and
Host Hemo
P. 0. Lawrence
ENY03546 Microbial Control of Ants and Other
Urban Insect Pests


J. L. Stimac


R. M. Pereira


ENY03577 Field Test of a Transgenic Arthropod
M. A. Hoy


ENY03592 Integrated Management of Arthropod
Pests of Livestock and Poultry
J. F. Butler
ENY03613 Biology and Management of
Nematodes Affecting Agronomic Crops
D. W. Dickson R. A. Dunn
ENY03642 African and European Honey Bee
Introgression Followed with PCR-RFLP
Markers
H. G. Hall
ENY03649 Biological Control of Hydrilla
verticillata, Solanum spp., and
Sesbania punicea
J. P. Cuda
ENY03654 Inter-field Movement of Silverleaf
Whitefly in an Area-wide Crop System
J. C. Allen
ENY03689 Agro-Ecosystem Indicators of
Sustainability as Affected by Cattle
Density in Ranch Management
systems
R. McSorley
ENY03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and
Subtropical Agricultural Research
(T-STAR)
H. J. McAuslane S. E. Webb
R. B. Carle
ENY03723 Conservation and Laboratory Rearing
of Butterflies


J. L. Nation


T. C. Emmel


ENY03738 Biological Control and Spatial
Dynamics of the Silverleaf Whitefly
J. C. Allen

Publications:
Anderson, J., Maruniak, J. E., Preston, J. F. and
Dickson, D. W. Phylogenetic Analysis of
Pasteuria Penetrans by 16s rna Gene Cloning
and Sequencing. Journal of Nematology.
Ashburner, M., Hoy, M. A. and Peloguin, J. 1998.
Prospects for the Genetic Transformation
of Arthropods. Insect Molecular Biology.
7:201-213.
Bennett, C. A. and Buckingham, G. R. Biological
Control of Hydrilla and Eurasian Watermilfoil:
Insect Quarantine Research. Proceedings of
13th Annual Meeting of Exotic Pest Plant
Council.


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Brito, J. A., Preston, J. F., Dickson, D. W.,
Gibin-Davis, R. M. and Rice, J. D. Biochemical
Events in the Development of Pasteuria
Penetrans. Journal of Nematology.
Broza, M., Nation, J. L., Milne, K. and Harrison, J.
Cuticular Hydrocarbons as a Tool Supporting
Recognition of Gryllotalpa tali and Gryllotalpa
marismortui (Orthopera: Gryllotalpidae) as
Distinct Species in Israel. Systematic
Entomology.
Burkett, D. A. and Butler, J. F. Field Evaluation of
Colored Light-Emitting Diodes as Attractants
for Woodland Mosquitoes and Other Diptera in
North Central Florida. Journal of Medical
Entomology.
Burkett, D. A., Butler, J. F. and Kline, D. L. 1998.
Field Evaluation of Colored Light Emitting
Diodes as Attractants for Woodland Mosquitoes
and Other Diptera in North Central Florida.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control
Association. 14:186-195.
Byrd, J. H. and Butler, J. F. 1998. Effects of
Temperature on Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis
(Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Development.
Journal of Medical Entomology. 35:694-698.
Capinera, J. L. and Scherer, C. Grasshoppers of
Florida. Handbook.
Boucias, D. G., Farmerie, W. G., and Pendland,
J. C. Cloning and Sequencing the cDNA of the
Insecticidal Toxin, Hirsutella A. GENE.
Cardoza, Y. J., McAuslane, H. J. and Webb, S. E.
Mechanisms of Resistance to Whitefly-Induced
Squash Silverleaf Disorder in Zuchini,
Cucurbita pepo 1. Plant Resistance. Journal
of Economic Entomology.
Chen, S. Y., Charnecki, J., Preston, J. F., Dickson,
D. W. and Rice, J. D. 1997. Antibodies from
Chicken Eggs as Probes for Antigens from
Pasteuria penetrans Endospores. Journal of
Nematology. 29:268-275.
Chen, Z. X. and Dickson, D. W. 1997. Minimal
Growth Temperature of Pasteuria penetrans.
Supplement to the Journal of Nematology.
29:635-639.
Chen, Z. X. and Dickson, D. W. Cytology and
Sporogensis of Pasteuria Penetrans. Journal of
Nematology.
Chen, Z. X. and Dickson, D. W. A Review on
Pasteuria penetrans. Journal of Nematology.


Chen, Z. X. and Dickson, D. W. Bionematicidal
Effects of Pasteuria Penetrans Against
Meloidogyne Arenaria on Peanuts. Biological
Control.
Connor, J. M., McSorley, R., Stansly, P. A. and
Pitts. D. J. Delivery of Steinernema Riobravis
Through a Drip Irrigation System.
Nematropica.
Crow, W. T., Weingartner, D. P. and Dickson, D. W.
Pathogenicity of Belonolaimus Longicaudatus
on Potato. Journal of Nematology.
Cuda, J. P. and Zeller, M. C. Ochyromera ligustri
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an Immigrant
Natural Enemy of Chinese Privet, Ligustrum
sinense (Oleaceae) in Florida. 13th Annual
Conference of the Florida Exotic Pest Plant
Council.
Cuda, J. P. and Zeller, M. C. First Record of
Ochyromera ligustri (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae) from Chinese Privet in Florida.
Florida Entomologist.
Cuda, J. P., Parker, P. E., Goodson, R. A. and
Gillmore, J. L. Evaluation of Ditylenchus
phyllobius (Tylenchida: Anguinidae) as a
Potential Biological Control Agent for Solanum
viarum and Solanum tampicense (Solanaceae).
Nematropica.
Edwards, O. R. and Hoy, M. A. 1998. Biology of
Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Leafminer
Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera:
Gracillariidae). Annals of the Entomology
Society of America. 91:654-660.
Frank, J. H. Bromeliad-Eating Weevils. Selbyana.
Frank, J. H. 1998. How Risky is Biological Control?
Comment. Ecology. 79:1829-1834.
Frank, J. H. and Parkman, J. P. Integrated Pest
Management of Pest Mole Crickets in the
Southern USA. Integrated Pest Management
Reveiws.
Gahlhoff, J. E., Miller, D. M. and Koehler, P. G.
Secondary Kill of Adult Male German
Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) via
Cannibalism of Nymphs Fed Toxic Baits.
Journal of Economic Entomology.
Hall, H. G. PCR Amplification of a Locus With
RFLP Alleles Specific to African Honey Bees.
Biochemical Genetics.


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Hall, J. P. Six New Species in the "Foliorum Group"
of Theope (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae).
Lambillionea.
Hall, J. P. A Review of the Genus Sarota (Lepi-
doptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera.
Hall, J. P. and Willmott, K. R. Three New Species
of Riodinini from the Cloud Forests of Ecuador
(Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical
Lepidoptera.
Hall, J. P. and Willmott, K. R. Nine New Species
and One New Subspecies of Euselasia from
Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical
Lepidoptera.
Hall, J. P. and Willmott, K. R. 1998. Four New
Riodinid Species from Eastern Ecuador
(Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Lambillionea.
XCVI:325-334.
Han, Hye-Rim, Dickson, D. W. and Weingartner,
D. P. Morphometric and Biological Character-
ization of Belonolaimus Longicaudatus.
Journal of Nematology.
Hewlett, T. E., Schuerger, A. C. and Dickson, D. W.
Development of a Soil Suppressive to
Meloidogyne Arenaria with Pasteuria
Penetrans. Journal of Nematology.
Hinkle, N. C., Koehler, P. G. and Patterson, R. S.
Host Grooming Efficiency for Regulation of Cat
Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Populations.
Journal of Medical Entomology.
Hoy, M. A. Myths, Models, and Mitigation of
Resistance to Pesticides. Proceedings of the
Royal Society of London, Series B.
Jeyaprakash, A., Lopez, G. and Hoy, M. A. 1998.
Extrachromosomal Plasmid DNA Transmission
and Amplification in Metaseiulus occidentalis
(Acari: Phytoseiidae) Transformants Generated
by Maternal Microinjection. Annals of the
Entomological Society of America. 91:730-736.
Johanowicz, D. L. and Hoy, M. A. The Manipula-
tion of Arthropod Reproduction by Wolbachia
Endosymbionts. Florida Entomologists.
Kern, Jr., W. H., Richman, D., Koehler, P. G. and
Brenner, R. J. Outdoor Survival and Develop-
ment of Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in
Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology.
Lloyd, J. E. On Research and Entomological
Education II: A Conditional Mating Strategy
and Resource-sustained LEK (?) In a Classroom


Firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Photinus).
Florida Entomologist.
Mahmood, F. Laboratory Bioassay to Compare
Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Anoph-
eles albimanus to Bacillus thuringeinsis (H-14)
as Affected by Their Feeding Rates. American
Mosquito Control Association.
Mahmood. F. Life Table Attributes of Anopheles
Albimanus (Wiedemann) Under Controlled
Laboratory Conditions. Journal of Vector
Ecology.
McAuslane, H. J. and Alborn, H. T. Systemic
Induction of Allelochemicals in Glanded and
Glandless Isogenic Cotton by Spodoptera
exigua Feeding. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
McAuslane, H. J., Alborn, H. T. and Stenhagen, G.
1997. Systemic Induction of Terpenoid Alde-
hydes in Cotton Pigment Glands by Feeding of
Larval Spodoptera exigua. Journal of Chemical
Ecology. 23:2861-2879.
McSorley, R. Alternative Practices for Managing
Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. American Journal
of Alternative Agriculture.
McSorley, R. and Frederick, J. J. Nematode Popula-
tion Fluctuations Following Decomposition of
Specific Organic Amendments. Journal of
Nematology.
McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R. N. 1997. Effect of
Compost and Maize Cultivars on Plant-
Parasitic Nematodes. Journal of Nematology.
29:731-736.
McSorley, R., Porazinska, D. L. and Duncan, L. W.
Nematode Communities Can Be Used as
Indicators of Sustainable Agricultural Manage-
ment Practices. Journal of Nematology.
Medal, J. C., Pitelli, R. A., Santana, A., Gandolfo,
D. Gravena, R. and Habeck, D. H. Plant Host
Specificity of Metriona Elatior Klug (Co-
leoptera: Chrysomelidae), A Potential Biologi-
cal Control Agent of Tropical Soda Apple,
Solanum Viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) in the
United States. BioControl.
Moraes, R. R., Funderburk, J. E. and Maruniak,
J. E. Comparison of Two DNA Extraction
Methods for Detection of the Anticarsia
gemmatalis Nucleopolyhedrovirus in Soil.
Journal of Applied Environmental
Microbiology.


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Nguyen, K. B. and Smart, G. C., Jr. Morphology of
Life Stages of Three Heterorhabditis Species.
Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida
Proceedings.
Pendland, J. C. and Boucias, D. G. Characterization
of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Aell Wall
Epitopes of the Insect Pathogenic Fungus
Nonuraea Rileyi: Differential Binding to Fungal
Surfaces and Cross-Reactivity With Host
Hemocytes and Basement Membrane Compo-
nents. European Journal of Cell Biology.
Porazinska, D. L., Duncan, L. W, McSorley, R. and
Graham, J. H. Nematode Communities as
Indicators of Status and Processes of a Soil
Ecosystem Influenced by Agricultural Manage-
ment Practices. Applied Soil Ecology.
Porazinska, D. L., Duncan, L. W. and McSorley, R.
Nematode Community Dynamics in Conven-
tional vs. Reduced-Input Agricultural Systems
in a Mature Florida Citrus Orchard. Journal of
Nematology.
Porazinska, D. L., McSorley, R., Duncan, L. W.,
Gallaher, R. N., Wheaton, T. A. and Parsons,
L. R. Relationship Between Soil Chemical
Status, Soil Nematode Community, and
Sustainability Indices. Nematropics.
Preston, J. P., Dickson, D. W., Maruniak, J. E. and
Anderson, Jennifer M. Phylogenetic Anaylsis
of Pasteuria Penetrans, a Parasitic Bacterium
of Root-Knot Nematodes, by 16S rRNA Gene
Cloning and Sequencing. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology.
Richman, D., Koehler, P. G. and Brenner, R.
Development and Survival of Cat Flea, Cteno-
cephalides Felis Felis Bouche (Siphonaptera:
Pulicidae), Larvae Fed Protein Diets. Journal
of Medical Entomology.
Richman, D., Koehler, P. G. and Brenner, R. Effect
of Temperature and the Synergist PBO on
Imidacloprid Toxicity to Cat Fleas (Sipho-
naptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology.
Riegel, C., Dickson, D. W, Nguyen, K. B. and
Smart Jr., G. C. Management of Root-Knot
Nematodes with Entomopathogenic
Nematodes. Journal of Nematology.
Riegel, C., Dickson, D. W., Ou, L. T. and Peterson,
L. G. Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in
Soil Enhanced for Degrading 1,3-Dichloropro-
pene. Journal of Nematology.


Ritzinger, C. H. and McSorley, R. Effect of Fresh
and Dry Organic Amendments on Meloidogyne
arenaria in Greenhouse Experiments.
Nematropica.
Ritzinger, C. H. and McSorley, R. Effect of Castor
and Velvetbean Organic Amendments on
Meloidogyne Arenaria in Greenhouse Experi-
ments. Supplement to Journal of Nematology.
Ritzinger, C. H., McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R. N.
Effect of Meloidogyne Arenaria and Mulch
Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.
Supplement to Journal of Nematology.
Shi, Xianzong and Lawrence, P. O. An Embryonic
Cell Line from the Caribbean Fruit Fly,
Anastrepha suspense (Diptera:Tephritidae).
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology.
Sourakov, A. Notes on the Genus Calisto, with
Descriptions of the Immature Stages (Part 2)
(Lepidopter: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical
Lepidoptera.
Sourakov. A. "Social" Oviposition Behavior and
Life History of Aglais Cashmirensis from Nepal
(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal for
Holarctic Lepidoptera.
Sourakov, A. and Emmel, T. C. 1997. Mating
Habits in the Genus Acraea, with a Possible
Explanation for Monosexual Populations
(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Acraeinae) in
Contributions to Studies of West African
Butterflies. Journal of Tropical Lepidoptera.
8:33-35.
Sourakov, A. and Emmel, T. C. 1997. Notes on Life
Histories of Oboronia liberiana and Obotonia
ornata (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Contribu-
tions to Studies of West African Butterflies.
Journal for Tropical Lepidoptera. 8:29-31.
Squitier, J. M., Deyrup, M. and Capinera, J. L.
A New Species of Melanoplus (Orthoptera:
Acrididae) from an Isolated Upland in Peninsu-
lar Florida. Florida Entomologist.
Suazo, A. and Hall, H. G. A Modification of the
AFLP Protocol Applied to Honey Bee (Apis
mellifera L.) DNA. Biotechniques.
Valles, S. M., Sanchez-Arroyo, H., Brenner, R. J.,
and Koehler, P. G. Temperature Effects on I-
Cyhalotrin Toxicity in Insecticide-Susceptible
and Resistant German Cockroaches
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Florida
Entomologist.


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Villanueava-Jimenez, J. A. and Hoy, M. A. Toxicity
of Pesticides to the Citrus Leafminer (Lepi-
doptera: Gracillariidae) and its Parasitoid
Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera:
Encyrtidae) Evaluated to Assess their Suitabil-
ity for an IPM Program in Citrus. BioControl.
Villanueva-Jimenez, J. A., Hoy, M. A. and Davies,
F. S. Potential IPM Program for the Citrus
Leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in
Nurseries Based on Compatibility of Pesticides
with the Parasitoid Ageniaspis Citricola
(Hymenoptera: Encryrtidae). Journal of
Economic Entomolog.
Walker, T. J. The Electronic Future of Scientific
Journals. American Entomologist.
Whitten, M. J. and Hoy, M. A. Genetic Improvment
and Other Genetic Considerations for Improv-
ing the Efficacy and Success Rate of Biological
Control. Book chapter published by Academic
Press on Bio-Control.
Wineriter, S. A., Buckingham, G. R. and Frank,
J. H. Biological Control of Melaleuca: Insect
Quarantine Research. Proceedings of the Joint
Symposium: 18th Annual Conference of the
Florida Native Plant Soc.
Yoder, J. A. and Hoy, M. A. Difference in Water
Relations Among the Citrus Leafminer and
Two Different Populations of Its Parasitoid
Inhabiting the Same Apparent Microhabitat.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.
Yu, S. J. Role of Insect Microsomal Mono-
oxygenases in Phytochemical Interactions.
Advances in Biopesticide Research. Vol. 1.
Yu, S. J. Induction of New Glutathione S-trans-
ferase Isozymes by Allelochemicals in the Fall
Armyworm. Pesticide Biochemistry and
Physiology.
Yu, S. J. and Nguyen, S. N. 1998. Purification and
Characterization of Carboxyiamidase from the
Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E.
Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology.
60:49-58.


Research Grants:
Allen, J. C. and Byrd, J. H. Estimation of the Post
Mortem Interval from Ent. Evidence. 04/01/97-
0930/98. $32,819.


Allen, J. C. and Brewster, C. C. Biological Control
and Spatial Dynamics of the Silverleaf
Whitefly. USDA-CSREES (Integrated Pest
Management). 08/01/98-07/31/00. $81,000.
Allen, J. C. and Brewster, C. C. Inter-Field Move-
ment of Silverleaf Whitefly in an Area-Wide
Crop System. USDA Cooperative State Research
Service. 09/15/97-09/30/99. $81,586.
Boucias, D. G. Ecological and Molecular Studies
on Nomuraea Rileyi. National Science
Foundation. 05/01/98-04/30/01. $23,690.
Boucias, D. G. Natural Products for Biological
Control of Plant Pest. USDA Agricultural
Research Service. 12/12/94-10/31/99.
$116,300.
Capinera, J. L. Management of Crop Insect Pest
With Parasitoida & Predators. USDA Agricul-
tural Research Service. 08/04/97-07/31/02.
$285,000.
Capinera, J. L. MARC Pre-Doctoral Fellowship.
National Institutes of Health. 12/31/93-
12/30/98. $17,619.
Cuda, J. P. and Stocker, R. K. Rearing & Impact
of Tip-Boring Midges on the Aquatic Weed
Hydrilla Verticillata. USDA Agricultural
Research Service. 03/31/97-02/28/99. $27,100.
Cuda, J. P. and Stocker, R. K. Evaluation of the
Leaf Beetle Leptinotarsa Defecta (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae) as a Potential Biological
Control Agent for T'opical Soda Apple,
Solanum Viarum, and Wetland Nightshade,
S. Tampicense. Florida Department of Environ-
mental Protection. 12/11/97-06/01/98.
$15,105.
Cuda, J. P. Biological Control of Brazilian Pepper-
tree (Schinus terebinthifolius). South Florida
Water Management District. 10/01/96-
09/30/99. $75,000.
Dickson, D. W. Vinyldiozolane (VDL) and it's Use
as a Precursor For Menatocidal Fungicidal and
or Herbicidal Formulations. Degussa Corp.
04/01/98-03/31/99. $9,000.
Dunn, R. A. Evaluation of DiTera for Turf Nema-
tode Management-1998. Abbott Laboratories,
Inc. 03/01/98-12/31/98. $20,000.
Dunn, R. A. Nematicidal Evaluation of Agrimek.
Novartis Crop Protection, Inc. 08/25/97-
06/30/98. $2,000.


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Fasulo, T. R. Model Certification Manual for Public
Health Pesticide Applicators. USDA Coopera-
tive State Research Service. 08/15/98-
08/31/99. $23,793.
Frank, J. H. Simultaneous Tests of Two Biological
Control Agents of Mole Crickets on Florida
Golf Courses. Florida Golf Course Superinten-
dents Association. 08/01/97-07/31/00. $2,700.
Frank, J. H. Host Range Testing in Quarantine of
Weed Biocontrol Agents. USDA Agricultural
Research Service. 08/01/97-07/31/02. $65,000.
(Supplemental)
Frank, J. H. Host Range Testing in Quarantine of
Weed Biocontrol Agents. USDA Agricultural
Research Service. 08/01/97-07/31/02. $62,000.
(Original)
Frank, J. H. and Walker, T. J. A Parasitic Fly That
Kills Mole Crickets: Its Use in States North of
Florida. US Golf Association. 03/09/98-
03/08/00. $26,680.
Frank, J. H. Biological Control of Imported Mole
Crickets and Nematology. Osceola County.
09/01/97-01/30/98. $6,000.
Habeck, D. H. Biological Control of Brazilian
Peppertree. Florida Department of Environ-
mental Protection. 06/01/95-06/30/98.
$75,000.
Hall, D. W. Characterization and Assessment of
Insect Repellents and Attractants for Personal
Protection. USDA Agricultural Research
Service. 09/30/92-09/29/97. $106.
Hall. H. G. Mapping of Vector Insertions in
Transgenic Tephritid Fruit Flies. USDA Agricul-
tural Research Service. 09/01/97-08/31/02.
$105,500.
Hall, H. G. African and European Honey Bee
Introgression Followed With PCR-RFLP Mark-
ers. USDA-CSREES (Competitive 14%OH),
USDA-CSREES (Competitive Forest). 08/01/97-
07/31/99. $90,000.
Hall, D. W. Teaching Award. National Association
of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.
10/01/97-09/30/98. $5,000.
Hoy, M. A. Classical Biological Control of Citrus
Leafminer. Florida Department of Agriculture
& Consumer Services. 06/30/97-06/30/98.
$31,886.


Hoy, M. A. Classical Biological Control of Pink
Mealybug. Florida Department of Agriculture
& Consumer Services. 07/01/98-06/30/99.
$32,000.
Hoy, M. A. Classical Biological Control of the
Brown Citrus Aphid. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 07/01/98-
06/30/99. $16,000.
Hoy, M. A. Classical Biological Control of Pink
Hibiscus Mealybug. USDA Animal & Plant
Health Inspection Service. 09/01/98-08/31/99.
$13,800.
Koehler, P. G. Evaluate Termidor Barrier
Termiticide Treatments. Rhone-Poulenc, Inc.
04/01/98-03/31/99. $10,000.
Koehler, P. G. Training Manual for Termite Biology
& Ecology. Termi-Mesh Hawaii, Inc. 04/01/98-
07/01/98. $2,500.
Koehler, P. G. Efficacy of Combat & Raid Fogger.
Johnson Wax Fund, Inc. 05/18/98-07/01/98.
$9,190.
Koehler, P. G. Evaluation of Chlorfenapyr as a
Termiticide. American Cyanamid Co.
08/01/98-12/30/98. $13,000.
Koehler, P. G. Evaluation of Chlorfenapyr on
Termites. American Cyanamid Co. 10/01/97-
06/30/98. $10,000.
Koehler, P. G. Ant Bait Studies in the Field. Clorox
Company. 04/26/97-07/01/97. $10,000.
Koehler, P. G. Using the World Wide Web to
Deliver School IPM Information. Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services. 07/01/97-06/30/98. $50,000.
Koehler, P. G. House Fly Production. S.C. Johnson
& Son, Inc. 06/02/97-08/01/98. $15,000.
Koehler, P. G. Development of Comparative Risk
Reduction Technologies for Urban Pests. USDA
Agricultural Research Service. 09/17/98-
09/30/99. $55,000.
Lawrence, P. O. Interactions Between a Parasitic
Wasp and its Insect Host: A Molecular Study
of Wasp Virus, Parasite Protein and Host
Homiest. National Science Foundation.
03/01/96-02/28/99. $100,000.
Lawrence, P. O. Interactions Between a Parasitic
Wasp and its Insect Host: An REU Supple-
ment. National Science Foundation. 03/01/96-
02/28/99. $10,000.


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Lawrence, P. O. Development and Mass Rearing
Potential of an Egg-Pupal Parasite for the
Control of Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha
Suspensa: Parasite Releases. Florida Depart-
ment of Citrus. 08/07/98-06/30/99. $25,000.
McAuslane, H. J. and Webb, S. E. Resistance of
Cucurbita Species to Sweetpotato Whitefly and
Silverleaf. USDA-CSREES (Tropical Agricultural
Research). 08/15/95-08/31/99. $34,179.
McAuslane, H. J., Webb, S. E. and Carle, R. B.
Mechanisms and Genetics of Resistance to
Squash Silverleaf Disorder in Cucurbita sp.
USDA-CSREES ('Iopical Agricultural
Research). 09/15/98-09/30/99. $30,000.


Nation, J. L. Improving the Growth, Development
& Fecundity of Artificially Reared Predators.
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 09/01/97-
08/31/02. $84,000.
Stimac, J. L. Research & Technology Investment
fund. 10/01/97-12/31/98. $66,000.


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Environmental Horticulture


1545 Fifield Hall / PO Box 110670
Gainesville, FL 32611-0670
Telephone: (352) 392-1831
Fax: (352) 392-3870

1,2,3 TERRIL A. NELL Chair & Prof.
1,2 JAMES E. BARRETT Prof., Woody Ornam.
& Flor.
2,3 ROBERT J. BLACK Assoc. Prof., Urban
Horticulture
1,2 JENNIFER BRADLEY Asst. Prof.,
People/Plant, Landscap.
1,2 WILLIAM CARPENTER Prof., Emeritus,
Plant Physiology
1,2 DAVID G. CLARK Asst. Prof., Post Harvest
Floriculture
1,2 BIJAN DEHGAN Prof., Woody Ornamentals
1,2 ALBERT E. DUDECK Prof., Turf
2 EVERETT R. EMINO Asst. Dean for
Research & Prof.
1,2 EDWARD F. GILMAN Prof., Plant
Environment
1,2 CHARLES L. GUY Prof., Plant Physiology &
Biochemistry
1,2 MICHAEL E. KANE Assoc. Prof., Tissue
Culture
1,2 DENNIS B. McCONNELL Prof., Foliage
1,2 GRADY L. MILLER Asst. Prof., Turf
1,2 THOMAS J. SHEEHAN Prof. Emeritus,
Floriculture
2,3 THOMAS YEAGER Prof., Woody Ornam.

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research


Projects:

ENH03202



ENH03251


ENH03267


ENH03600


Effects of Cultural Factors on
Production and Postharvest
T. A. Nell


ENH03602


Control of Growth and Development in
Floriculture Crops
J. E. Barrett
Freeze Damage and Protection of Fruit
and Nut Crops
C. L. Guy


ENH03609


ENH03368 Function of the Stress to Moleculara
Chaperones in Spinach
C. L. Guy
ENH03543 Establishing Trees in Urban
Landscapes
E. F. Gilman
ENH03544 Improved Nutrition and Irrigation of
Ornamental Plants
T. K. Broschat K. A. Klock
B. K. Harbaugh T. H. Yeager
ENH03558 Evaluation of Composted Materials to
be Utilized in Florida Roadside and
Median Plantings


R. J. Black
G. L. Miller


ENH03564





ENH03566




ENH03591




ENH03595


B. Dehgan


Micropropagation Protocol
Development for Production of Native
Wetland, Aquarium and Water Garden
Plants
M. E. Kane

Improve Turfgrass Culture Practices as
Related to Environmental Parameters
Affecting Plant Growth
G. L. Miller

Physiological and Molecular Analysis
of Senescence in Floriculture Crops
D. G. Clark T. A. Nell
J. E. Barrett
Asexual Propagation of Environmental
Plants


B. Dehgan


M. E. Kane


Morphological and Physiological
Response of Chimeral Plants to
Environmental Factors
D. B. McConnell
Taxonomy and Biosystematics of
Cultivated Plants
B. Dehgan
Introduction and Evaluation of
Ornamental Plants


A. E. Dudeck
B. Dehgan


J. E. Barrett
D. G. Clark


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Coooeratino Arencv


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ENH03669 Effects of Horticulture, Gardening
Experiences, and Green Spaces on
Human Populations
J. C. Bradley

Publications:
Anderson, S. F. and Dudeck, A. E. 1996-1997
Overseed Trials on Fairway and Putting Green
Bermudagrass. Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Sciences.
Anderson, S. F. and Dudeck, A. E. 1997-1998
Bermudagrass Overseed Trials. Florida State
Horticultural Society Proceedings.
Beeson, Jr., R. C. and Yeager, T. H. Does Practice
Mimic Theory? High Risers for Improved
Irrigation Efficiency. Proceedings of the South-
ern Nurserymen's Research Conference.
Bradley, J. C. and Zajicek, J. M. 1997. The Rela-
tionship Between Environmental Knowledge
and Environmental Attitudes of High School
Students. Proceedings of People-Plant
Interactions Research Conference.
Bradley, J. C., Waliczek, T. M. and Zajicek, J. M.
1997. Relationship Between Demographic
Variables and Environmental Attitudes of High
School Students. Journal of Natural Resources
and Life Sciences Education. 26(2):102-104.
Bradley, J. C. and Skelly, S. M. 1997. Children's
Gardens Implications for the Future. Proceed-
ings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
Research Conference. 110:405-407.
Brooks, C. M., Yeager, T. H. and Bradley, J. C.
1997. A Comparison Between Environmental
Horticulture Majors and Non-Majors at the
University of Florida. Proceedings of Southern
Nurseryman's Research Conference.
Brooks, C., Yeager, T. H., Beeson, Jr, R. C. and
Haman, D. Z. Square Funnel Containers for
Nursery Production. Proceedings of Southern
Research Conference.
Campbell, A. N., Waliczek, T. M., Bradley, J. C.,
Zajicek, J. M. and Townsend, C. D. 1997. The
Influence of Activity-Based Environmental
Instruction on High School Students Environ-
mental Attitudes. HortTechnology. 7(3):309.
Clark, D. G. and Childs, K. C. The Impact of
Shipping on Geranium Cuttings. Greenhouse
Product News.


Clark, D. G., Klee, H. J., Barrett, J. E. and Nell,
T. A. Horticultural Performance of Ethylene
Insensitive Petunias. Proceedings of the Euro-
pean Union TMR-Euroconference Programme
"Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant
Hormone Ethylene II'.
De Hertogh, A. A., Gallitano, L., Nell, T. A. and
Leonard, R. Forcing of Ornithogalum Dubium
as a Flowering Potted Plant. Grower Talks
Dehgan, B. 1998. Landscape Plants for Subtropical
Climates. XXX + 638 pages. University Press
of Florida.
Dervinis, C., Clar, D. G., Klee, H. J., Barrett, J. E.
and Nell, T. A. 1998. Prevention of Leaf Senes-
cence in Ptunia via Genetic Transformation
with Sag-IPT. Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Society.
Gilman, E. F. and Green, J. L. 1998. Efficient,
Collaborative, Inquiry-Driven Electronic
Information Systems. HortTechnology.
8:297-300.
Guy, C. L. and Li, Q. B. The Organization and
Evolution of the Spinach Stress 70 Molecular
chaperone Gene Family. The Plant Cell.
Guy, C., Haskell, D. H. and Li, Q. B. 1998. Associa-
tion of Proteins with the Stress 70 Molecular
Chaperones at Low Temperature: Evidence
for the Existence of Cold Labile Proteins in
Spinach. Cryobiology. 36:301-314.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Beeson, Jr., R. C.
and Knox, G. W. 1998. Multiple Pot Box for
Container Plant Production. J. Environ. Hort.
60:63.
Haman, D. and Yeager, T. H. Field Evaluation of
Container Nursery Irrigation Systems: Measur-
ing Uniformity of Water Application of
Microirrigation Systems. Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D. and Yeager, T. H. Using Filters in
Irrigation Systems. Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Beeson, Jr., R. C. and
Knox, G. W. New Production Systems for
Increased Irrigation Efficiencies in Container
Nursery Production. Conference Proceedings
"Water is Gold" Brisbane, Australia.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Irmak, S. and Larsen,
C. Container Plant Production in Multiple Box.
1998 SNA Research Conference Proceedings.


;3

^u


81






Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Irmak, S., Beeson, Jr.,
R. C. and Knox, G. W. 1998. Multipot Box and
Funnel Containers in Container Nursery
Production. Proceedings Florida State
Horticultural Society.
Higgins, W. E. The Genus Prosthechea: New Usage
for an Old Name. Orchids
Higgins, W. E. 1997. A Reconsideration of the
Genus Prosthechea (Orchidaceae). Phytologia.
82:370-383.
Kane, M. E. Plant Production for Habitat
Restoration. Restoration Genetics. pp. 33-37.
Kane, M. E. and Philman, N. L. 1997. In Vitro
Propagation and Selection of Superior Wetland
Plants for Habitat Restoration. Proceedings of
the International Plant Propagators' Society.
47:556-560.
Kane, M. E., Davis, G., McConnell, D. and
Gargiulo, J. In Vitro Propagation of
Cryptocoryne Wendtii. Aquatic Botany.
Kane, M. E., Gillis, M. R., Philman, N. L. and
Campbell, S. M. 1998. Seasonal Differences in
Ex Vitro Growth and Corm Formation Between
Two Micorpropagated Sagittaria latifolia
Ecotypes. Acta Horticulture.
Kaye, C., Neven, L., Hofig, A., Li, Q. B., Haskell, D.
and Guy, C. 1998. Characterization of a Gene
for Spinach CAP160 and Expression of Two
Spinach Cold-Acclimation Proteins in Tobacco.
Plant Physiology. 116:1367-1377.
Li, Q. B., Haskell, D. and Guy, C. Coordinate and
Non-Coordinate Expression of the Stress 70
Family and Other Molecular Chaperones at
High and Low Temperature in Spinach and
Tomato. Plant Molecular Biology.
Marshall, M. D. and Gilman, E. F. 1998. Effects of
Nursery Container Type on Root Growth and
Landscape Establishment of Acer rubrum L.
Journal of Environmental Horticulture.
16:55-59.
McConnell, D. B. and Pennisi, S. V. Internships -
Reflections of the Environmental Horticulture
Industries. Proceedings of the Southern
Nursery Association.
Miller, G. L. Potassium Fertilzation Rate Influences
P, Ca, Mg, Tissue and Soil Levels. HortScience.
Million, J. B. and Barrett, J. E. Efficacy of Growth
Retardant Drenches in Two Commercial Media.
HortSciences.


Million, J. B., Barrett, J. E., Nell, T. A. and Clark,
D. G. 1998. Influence of Media Components
on Efficacy of Paclobutrazol in Inhibiting
Growth of Broccoli and Petunia. HortScience.
33:852-856.
Nell, T. A. Fresh Flower Foods Increase Customer
Satisfaction. Floral Management.
Peninisi, S. V. and McConnell, D. B. Dracaena
Sanderana Ribbon Repsonses to Light Levels.
Foliage Digest.
Pennisi, S. V., McConnell, D. B. and Kane, M. E.
Effects of Photosynthetic Irradiance on Leaf
Morphology and Leaf Variegation of the
Percilinal Chimera Dracaena Sanderiane
hort.Sander ex Mast. 'Ribbon' (Dracaenaceae).
Mast. 'Ribbon" (Dracaenaceae). Canadian
Journal of Botany.
Schutzman, B. and Vovides, A. P. A New Zamia
(Zamiaceae, Cycadales) from Eastern Chiapas,
Mexico. Novon.
Stenberg, M. and Kane, M. E. 1998. In Vitro Seed
Germination and Greenhouse Cultivation of
Encyclia Boothiana var.Erythroniodes, An
Endangered Florida Orchid. Lindleyana.
13:101-112.
Testezlaf, R., Larsen, C. A., Yeager, T. H. and
Zazueta, F. S. Tensiometric Monitoring of
Container Substrate Moisture Status.
HortTechnology.
Testezlaf, R., Zazueta, F. S. and Yeager, T. H. 1998.
A Real-Time Irrigation Control System for
Greenhouses. Applied Eng. In Ag. 13(3).
Trenholm, L. E., Dudeck, A. E., Sartain, J. B. and
Cisar, J. L. 1998. Bermudagrass Growth, Total
Nonstructural Carbohydrate Concentration,
and Quality As Influenced by Nitrogen and
Potassium. Crop Science. 38:168-174.
Wei, Z., and Dehgan, B. 1998. Pollen Morphology
of Theoidae and its Systematic Significance. In:
Proc. Of the 1st International Symposium on
Floristic Characteristics and Diversity of East
Asian Plants (IFCD), 426-434.
Yeager, T. H. and Beeson, R. Container Plant
Irrigation Study is Underway. Ornamental
Outlook.
Yeager, T. H. Water Sample Collection Procedures
for Container Nurseries. Proceedings of
Southern Nursery Research Conference.


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Yeager, T., Bilderback, T., Fare, D., Gilliam, C.,
Niemiera, A. and Tilt, K. 1997. Best Manage-
ment Practices-Guide for Producing Container-
grown Plants. Southern Nursery Association.


Research Grants:
Barrett, J. E. Evaluation of Floriculture Crops. Ball
Horticultural Company/formally Ball Seed Co.
01/07/97-12/31/97. $18,000,
Barrett, J. E. Evaluation of Media Surfactants.
Aquatrols Corp of America. 03/15/98-
03/14/00. $24,367.
Black, R. J., Kidder, G., Davis, G. L., Dehgan, B.,
Graetz, D. A. and Miller, G. L. Evaluation of
Composted Materials to be Utilized in Florida
Roadside and Median Plantings. Florida
Department of Transportation. 08/15/95-
11/30/98. $95,634.
Bradley, J. C. Improvement of Instruction.
University of Florida. 1999. $2,800.
Clark, D. G. Horticultural Performance of Ethylene
Insensitive Petunias. Fred Gloeckner Founda-
tion. 08/25/96-08/24/99. $27,000.
Clark, D. G. Genetic Transformation of Bedding
Plants. Monsanto Co. 12/16/97-12/15/00.
$302,207
Dehgan, B. Teaching Improvement Grant.
University of Florida. 1998. $3,000.
Dudeck, A. E. 1996 National St. Augustine Cultivar
Evaluation Trial. National Turf Evaluation
Program. 08/31/96-02/01/01. $2,000.
Dudeck, A. E. 1997 National Bermudagrass Test
BG-97-07. National Turf Evaluation Program.
02/01/97-02/01/02. $3,000.
Dudeck, A. E. 1996 National Zoysiagrass Cultivar
Evaluation Tial. National Turf Evaluation
Program. 08/31/96-02/01/01. $1,000.
Gilman, E. F. Southern Trees USDA-FS Project.
Miscellaneous Donors. 01/01/96-12/31/99.
$15,375.
Gilman, E. F. Mycorrhizae Innoculation of Trees.
Del American Properties. 12/01/97-11/03/99.
$11,000.
Gilman, E. F. Root Growth Under Sidewalks.
Reemay. 01/01/97-12/31/98. $2,500.


Guy, C. L. Purification and Structural Analysis of
Native Cold Stress Proteins. USDA-CSREES
(Competitive 14%OH). 09/01/98-08/31/99.
$72,270.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H. and R. C. Beeson, Jr.
New Technologies for Sprinkler Irrigation in
Ornamental Container Production. Horticul-
tural Research Institute. 1997-98. $20,000
Miller, G. L. Computer Analysis for Florida
Turfgrasses. Florida Turfgrass Research
Foundation. 09/24/97-01/01/98. $3,145.
Miller, G. L., Black, R. J. and Kidder, G. J. Training
District Maintenance Engineers on Manage-
ment of Utility Turfgrass. Florida Department
of Transportation. 08/11/97-06/15/98.
$27,573.
Nell, T. A. and Barrett, J. E. Floral Initiation, Crop
Culture and Post Production Longevity of
Poinsettias. Paul Ecke Poinsettias, Inc.
08/01/97-07/31/98. $11,250.
Nell, T. A. and Barrett, J. E. Production/
Postproduction of Floriculture Crops. Dewar
Nurseries, Inc. of Florida. 06/01/95-05/31/98.
$5,000.
Nell, T. A. Northeast Florida Yards, Neighborhoods
and Ponds Program. Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. 03/10/98-12/09/00.
$286,000.
Nell, T. A. and Barrett, J. E. Floral Initiation, Crop
Culture and Post Production Longevity of
Poinsettias. Eaglebrook. 08/01/97-07/31/98.
$11,250.
Nell, T. A. Post-Production Evaluation of Parade
Flowering Potted Roses. Danish Institute of
Plant and Soil Science. 02/20/98-02/19/99.
$42,000.
Nell, T. A. Developing Protocols for Fresh Flower
Longevity. American Floral Endowment.
02/06/98-02/05/99. $42,500.
Nell, T. A. and Leonard, M. T. A Comprehensive
Program for Increasing Postproduction Longev-
ity of Flowering Potted Plants. American Floral
Endowment. 09/02/97-09/01/98. $30,000.
Nell, T. A. Care & Handling of Fresh Cut Flowers.
The Aspen Management Group, Ltd. 07/15/97-
07/14/98. $12,000.
Yeager, T. H. Evaluation of Green-Releaf Products.
Green-Releaf Corporation. 06/15/97-06/30/98.
$5,000.


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83






Yeager, T. H. and Henley, R. W. Development of
BMPs for Reducing Nitrate Nitrogen Concentra-
tions in Ground Water beneath Commercial
Greenhouse Nurseries. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 08/06/97-
08/05/00. $35,524.


Yeager, T. H. Management of Water and Nutrients
in Florida's Nursery Industry. USDA Smith
Lever. 1998-99. $4,500.


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Family,Youth and Community Sciences


3001 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110310
Gainesville, FL 32611-0310
Telephone: (352) 392-1778
Fax: (352) 392-8196

3 NAYDA I. TORRES Chair & Prof.
2,3 GARRET S. EVANS Asst. Prof., Clinical
Psychology
1,2,3 SUZANNA D. SMITH Assoc. Prof., Human
Development
1,2,3 DANIEL F. PERKINS Asst. Prof., Human
Resource Development
2,3 MARK L. TAMPLIN Assoc. Prof., Food
Safety Spec.

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

HEC0326 Adoption of Improved Management
Practices in Selected Florida
Agricultural Industries
M. E. Swisher
HEC03488 Changes in Fisheries Regulations and
Commercial Fishing Families
S. D. Smith
HEC03568 Defining the Infective Dose and Critical
Control Points in V. Vulnificus Disease
M. L. Tamplin
HEC03719 Defining Genomic Sequences Specific
to Virulent Vibrio Vulnificus Strains to
Assess Riskus Strains to Assess Risk
M. L. Tamplin P. A. Gulig
S. Parveen
4-H03436 Social Capital Attributes of Families,
Schools, and Communities
D. F. Perkins

Publications:
Hsu, W., Wei, C. and Tamplin, M. L. Enhanced
Broth Media for Selective Growth of Vibrio
vulnificus. Applied and Environmental
Microbiology.


Research Grants:
Bolton, E. B. Entrepreneurship Education for
Florida Communities. Ewing Marion Kauffman
Foundation. 03/20/96-04/01/00. $45,000.
Cantrell, M. J. and Glauer, D. J. Curriculum
Materials Development. Florida Agriculture In
The Classroom. 08/19/97-02/18/98. $11,000.
Culen, G. R. Environmental Education Program
Assistant. Florida Foundation 4H. 05/01/98-
12/31/99. $15,862.
Cook, L. D. Training Modules for the EFNEP
Evaluation/ Reporting System. USDA
Cooperative State Research Service. 09/01/97-
08/31/98. $35,000.
Evans, G. D. Jacksonville Children's Commission
Child Care/Family Initiative: Creating Pro-
Social Environments for Child Development.
Jacksonville Children's Commission. 10/01/96-
09/30/98. $93,413.
Ferrer, M. National Network for Family Resiliency:
SIG Coordination. Iowa State University.
02/01/96-01/31/99. $63,444.
Harrison, M. N. Cooperative Extension Occupant
Protection. Florida Department of Transporta-
tion. 02/06/98-09/30/98. $64,527.
Perkins, D. F. Young Chronic Offenders. Florida
State University. 06/30/97-12/14/97. $14,194.
Perkins, D. F. and Evans, G. D. Evaluation of the
Healthy Families: Jacksonville Initiative.
Northeast FL Regional Planning Council.
10/01/97-09/30/00. $309,429.
Perkins, D. F. CSREES/USAF Family Advocacy
Program Research Project Original Plus
Amendment #1. Iowa State University.
06/01/97-06/30/99. $7,655.
Perkins, D. F. Chronic Offenders Study: Phase III.
Florida State University. 06/30/98-02/28/99.
$6,087.
Perkins, D. F. and Ferrer, M. Building Extension's
Capacity to Enhance the Lives of Florida's
Children, Youth & Families. USDA Extension
Service. 05/01/98-04/30/99. $187,000.
Perkins, D. F. Supervised Visitation Centers and
Family Law Study. Family Visitation Center,
Inc. 02/24/98-06/30/98. $8,400.


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


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I Resident Instruction







Perkins, D. F. Chronic Offenders Study: Phase II..
Florida State University. 12/15/97-06/30/98.
$11,936.
Swisher, M. E. Sustainable Agriculture State
Training Plan: University of Florida & Florida
A&M University. North Carolina State
University. 07/01/97-09/30/99. $10,000.
Smith, S. Analysis of Public Issues/Concerns
Regarding the Management of ARM
Loxahatchee and Hobe Sound National Wild-
life Refuge. Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish
Commission. 06/15/98-10/15/98. $2,499.
Tamplin, M. L. Food Safety Training. Florida
Leadership and Education Foundation, Inc.
10/17/96-03/31/99. $54,000.
Tamplin, M. L., Bartz J. A. and Farrah, S. R.
Mechanical and Antimicrobial Treatments to
Remove Pathogens from Produce. USDA-
CSREES (Special). 09/15/98-09/30/00.
$184,195.
Tamplin, M. L. Food Safety & Quality Plan of
Work. USDA Extension Service. 07/01/97-
06/30/99. $50,000.
Tamplin, M. L. Water Purification Techniques to
Remove V. Cholerae. Kimberly-Clark Corp.
01/01/95-01/01/98. $10,000.
Tamplin, M. L. Fecal Coliform Analysis Of Shellfish
Harvesting Waters. Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. 07/02/97-06/30/99.
$60,000.
Tamplin, M. L. SC Johnson Wax Research. S.C.
Johnson & Son, Inc. 12/22/97-12/31/98.
$32,250.


Tamplin, M. L. Analysis of Vibrio Vulnificus Levels
in Oyster Shellstock. Interstate Shellfish
Sanitation Conference. 04/22/97-04/22/98.
$12,600.
Tamplin, M. L. Designing Genomic Specific to
Virulent Vibrio Vulnificus Strains to Assess
Risk. USDA-CSREES (Competitive 14%OH),
USDA-CSREES (Competitive Forest). 10/01/98-
09/30/00. $57,335.
Tamplin, M. L. Subtyping of E. Coli. White County
Health Department. 05/25/98-12/31/98.
$18,000.
Tamplin, M. L. Industry Support Through the
National Food Safety Database. Food Research
Institute Foundation. 09/01/98-08/31/99.
$10,000.
Tamplin, M. L. A National Food Safety Database for
Consumers, Industry, and Educators. USDA
Cooperative State Research Service. 07/01/97-
12/31/98. $129,352.
Tamplin, M. L. and Jones, P. H. Improving Food
Industry Food Safety Skills With a National
Food Safety Database. USDA Extension Service.
07/15/98-07/31/99. $57,620.
Tamplin, M. L. Kimberly- Clark Research. Kim-
berly-Clark Corp. 01/01/98-01/01/99. $25,000.
Tamplin, M. L. University of Florida/ Department
of Business & Professional Regulation Coopera-
tive Food Safety Training. FL Dept Of Business
Regulation. 03/18/98-12/31/98. $23,000.
Torres, N. I. Family Nutrition Program. Florida
Department of Health & Rehabilitative
Services. 10/01/97-09/30/99. $2,111,069.


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Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences


7922 NW 71st Street/ PO Box 110600
Gainesville, FL 32653-3071
Telephone, (352) 392-9617
Fax: (352) 846-1088

1,2 WALLIS H. CLARK, JR. Chair & Prof.,
Aquaculture, Developmental Biology
1,2 MICHEAL S. ALLEN Asst. Prof., Freshwater
Fisheries Ecology
1,2 BRIAN W. BOWEN Asst. Prof., Molecular
Genetics & Conservation Applications
1,2 DANIEL E. CANFIELD, JR. Prof., Limnol-
ogy
1,2,3 FRANK CHAPMAN Assoc. Prof.,
Aquaculture Reproductive Physiology
1,3 CHARLES E. CICHRA Assoc. Prof., Fish
Ecology and Management
1,2 THOMAS K. FRAZER Asst. Prof., Marine
Ecology
2,3 ANDREW M. LAZUR Assoc. Prof.,
Production Aquaculture
1,2 WILLIAM J. LINDBERG Assoc. Prof.,
Marine Crustacean Biology, Estuarine
Ecology
1,2 DEBRA J. MURIE Asst. Prof., Marine
Fisheries Ecologist
1,2 EDWARD J. PHLIPS Assoc. Prof., Marine
Biomass & Microbial Physiology &
Biochemistry, Phytoplankton Ecology
1,2 CLAIRE L. SCHELSKE Eminent Scholar,
Water Resources
2,3 ROY P. YANONG Asst. Prof., Fish Medicine

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

FAS03392 The Ecology and Control of Algal and
Microbial Populations in Freshwater
and Coastal Marine Environments of
Florida.
E. J. Phlips
FAS03409 The Ecology of Marine Fishes Found in
Estuarine and Shallow Shelf
Environments
F. E. Vose W. J. Lindberg


FAS03471 Florida Lakewatch A Volunteer
Citizen's Water Quality Monitoring
Program
D. E. Canfield
FAS03480 Sediment and Nutrient Deposition in
Lake Jesup
C. L. Schelske
FAS03503 Sediment and Nutrient Deposition in
Florida Lakes


C. L. Schelske


M. Brenner


FAS03672 Processes and Mechanisms of
Population Regulation in Coastal
Marine Fishes
D. J. Murie
FAS03696 Population Dynamics and Ecology of
Freshwater Fishes
M. S. Allen

Publications:
Allen, M. S., Greene, J. C., Snow, F. R., Maceina,
M. J. and DeVries, D. R. Recruitment of
Largemouth Bass in Alabama Reservoirs:
Relations to Trophic State and Larval Shad
Occurence. North American Journal of
Fisheries Management.
Allen, M. S., Hoyer, M. V. and Canfield, Jr., D. E.
Factors Related to Black Crappie Populations in
60 Florida Lakes. North American Journal of
Fisheries Management.
Altinok, I., Galli, S. M. and Chapman, F. A. Ionic
and Osmotic Regulation Capabilities of
Juvenile Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon, Acipenser
onyrinchus de sotoi. Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology.
Bachmann, R. W, Hoyer, M. V. and Canfield, Jr.,
D. E. Internal Heterotrophy and the Switch
from Macrophytes to Algae in Lake Apopka,
Florida. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences.
Bachmann, R. W., Hoyer, M. V. and Canfield, Jr.,
D. E. Alternative Stable States and the
Restoration of Lake Apopka. Hydrobiologia.
Baldwin, J. D., Griffin, F. J and Clark, Jr., W. H.
Immunological Characterization of the
Acrosomal Filament in the Marine Shrimp
Sicyonia ingentis.


87


I Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


COD
QS


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


I Resident Instruction






Bardi, R. W., Chapman, F. A and Barrows, F. T.
Feeding Trials with Hatchery-Produced Gulf of
Mexico Sturgeon Larvae. The Progressive
Fish-Culturist.
Brenner, M., Schelske, C. L and Keenan, L. W
Historical Rates of Sediment Accumulation and
Nutrient Burial in Marshes of the Upper St.
Johns River Basin, Florida USA. Wetlands.
Brenner, M., Whitmore, T. J., Curtis, J. H., Hodell,
D. A. and Schelske, C. L. Carbon Isotopes of
Sedimented Organic Matter as an Indicator of
Historic Lake Trophic State. Journal of
Paleolimnology.
Brenner, M., Whitmore, T. J., Lasi, M., Cable, J. E.
and Cable, P. H. Influence of Aquatic Macro-
phytes on Water-Column Nutrient Concentra-
tions: A Paleolimnological Perspective. Journal
of Paleolimnology.
Brown, C. D., Canfield, Jr., D. E., Bachmann, R. W.
and Hoyer, M. V. Evaluation of Surface Sam-
pling for Estimates of Cholrophyll, Total
Phosporus, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations
in Shallow Florida Lakes. Lake and Reservoir
Management.
Chapman, A. D. and Schelske, C. L. 1997. Recent
Appearance of Cylindrospermopsis
(Cyanobacteria) in Five Hypereutrophic
Florida Lakes. Journal of Phycology.
33:191-195.
Chapman, F. A., Hartless, C. S. and Carr, S. H.
Population Size Estimates of Sturgeon in the
Swwannee River, Florida USA. Gulf of Mexico
Science.
Chapman, F. A., Colle, D. C., Rottmann, R. W. and
Shireman, J. V. Controlled Spawning of the
Neon Tetra Paracheirodon Innesi. The
Progressive Fish Culturist.
Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M. and Hodell, D. A.
Climate Change in the Lake Valencia Basin,
Venezuela, 12,600 yr BP to Present. The
Holocene.
Higuera-Gundy, A., Brenner, M., Hodell, D. A. and
Binford, M. W. Vegetation Response to Climate
Variation in Haiti: Late Pleistocene to Present.
Quaternary Research.
Hodell, D. A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J. H., Stoner, J.
S., Xueliang, S., Yuan, W. and Whitmore, T. J.
Possible Correlation of Lake Sediment Records
from Southwest China with the Greenland


Summit Ice Core (GRIP) during the Past 45
kyrs. Geology.
Kenney, W. F. and Schelske, C. L. Polyphosphate
and Bioavailable Phosphorus Accumulation in
the Organic Sediments of Lake Apopka, FL,
USA. Ecological Applications.
Mataraza, L. K., Horsburgh, C. A and Hoyer, M. V.
Macrophyte Abundance in Relation to Lake
Trophic State. Limnology and Oceanography.
Mataraza, L. K., Munson, A. B., Terrell, J. B. and
Canfield, Jr., D. E. Changes in Submersed
Macrophytes in Relation to Tidal Storm Surges.
Journal of Aquatic Plant Management.
Myers, P. and Schelske, C. L. An Inexpensive,
Optical (Infrared) Detector to Measure Water
Depth in Lakes with Flocculent Sediments.
Journal of Paleolimnology.
Posey, M. H., Alphin, T. D., Banner, S., Vose, F. and
Lindberg, W. Temproal Variability, Diversity
and Guild Structure of a Benthic Community in
the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of
Marine Sciences.
Schelske, C. L., Coveney, M. F., Aldridge, F. J.,
Kenney, W. F. and Cable, J. E. Wind or Nutri-
ents: Historic Development of a Hypereutrophic
Lake. Archi fur Hydrobiologie


Research Grants:
Allen, M. S. Effects of Habitat Restoration on
Largemouth Bass Recruitment and Production
to the Sport Fishery. Florida Game & Fresh
Water Fish Commission. 04/14/98-06/30/99.
$33,495.
Allen, M. S. Abundance and Size Structure of Age-0
Black Crappie in Lake Tarpon. Pinellas County,
Fla. 08/18/98-12/15/98. $5,000.
Allen, M. S. Assessment of Fish Assemblages in
Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in
Hillsborough County, Florida. Southwest
Florida Water Management District. 08/04/98-
02/26/99. $11,875.
Allen, M. S. Important Micro Habitats for Shoal
Bass in the Chipola River. Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission. 11/19/98-
11/18/99. $17,989.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. Foraging Hawksbills in
the Bahamas. United States Department of
Interior. 07/08/98-12/31/98. $5,000.


88


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Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Population Genetic
Structure of Marine Turtles, Erethmochelys
Imbricata and Caretta Caretta in the Southeast
U.S. United States Department of Interior.
05/21/97-06/01/98. $8,629.
Bowen, B. W. Genetic Identity of Hawksbill Turtles
at Buck Island, Virgin Islands. United States
Department of Interior. 09/01/97-08/30/98.
$3,000.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Foraging Ground
Turtles in North Carolina. United States
Department of Commerce. 07/15/98-12/31/98.
$25,000.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Origin of Stranded
Loggerheads, Caretta in the Southeastern U.S.
United States Department of Commerce.
06/01/98-12/31/99. $8,952.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Nesting Cohort
Affiliation of Stranded Caretta Recovered in
Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural
Resources. 10/24/97-11/30/98. $9,600.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Analyze Blood
Samples From Marine Turtles in Florida Bay,
Fla. Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. 05/01/97-09/30/97. $10,000.
Bowen, B. W. and Bass, A. L. Determine Origin of
Marine Turtles in Rehabilitation Facilities in
Florida United States Department of Interior.
06/09/97-10/31/97. $1,500.
Bowen, B. W. and Clark, A. Conservation Genetics
of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus Horridus.
United States Department of Interior.
06/30/97-12/01/98. $18,600.
Brenner, M. Climate Variability and Ecologic
Change in Meso America During the Late
Holocene: Implications for Maya Cultural
Evoluation. National Science Foundation.
07/01/97-06/30/00. $118,062.
Brenner, M. Radiocarbon Dating a Sediment Core
From Lake Panasoffkee (Sumter County,
Florida). Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish
Commission. 05/15/98-08/31/98. $3,503.
Brenner, M. and Whitmore, T. J. Paleolimnological
Reconstruction of Water Quality for Lakes
Dosson, Halfmoon, and Round, Hillsborough
County, Florida for the Northwest Hillsborough
Lake Augmentation Supplemental Study.
Southwest Florida Water Management District.
09/25/97-01/31/99. $117,450.


Brenner, M. and Schelske, C. L. The Study of
Historic Ecology of Lakes in the Upper St.
Johns River Basin. St. Johns River Water
Management District. 05/29/98-06/30/99.
$20,000.
Brenner, M. and Whitmore, T. J. Sediment Map-
ping of Lakes, Halfmoon, and Round,
Hillsborough County. United States Depart-
ment of Interior. 02/02/98-09/30/98. $10,500.
Canfield, D. E. Florida Lakewatch. 7/1/98 to
6/30/99. Department of Environmental
Protection. $ 310,000.
Canfield, D. E. Florida Lakewatch. Seminole
County. 08/14/97-09/27/98. $640,000.
Canfield, D. E. and Hoyer, M. V. Limnological
Evaluation of Newins Lake. Florida Game &
Fresh Water Fish Commission. 06/18/97-
12/05/97. $10,000.
Canfield, D. E. and Hoyer, M. Lake Tsala Apopka
Enhancement Plan. Citrus Co Board of County
Commissions. 01/06/98-12/31/99. $50,000.
Canfield, D. E. Lake Monitoring Program
Hillsborough County Board County Commis-
sioners. 11/19/97-11/19/98. $93,760.
Clark, W. H. Genetic Improvement of Ornamental
Strains of Swordtails: Initial Evaluation of
Velvet and Marigold Swordtails. Florida
Tropical Fish Farm Association. 05/01/97-
04/30/99. $16,480.
Clark, W. H. and Clugston, J. P. Locating and
Characterizing the Upstream Nursery Habitat
of Young-Of-The-Year Threatened Gulf Stur-
geon in the Suwannee River Ecosystem.
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission.
06/07/96-06/30/00. $16,381.
Clark, W. H. Sturgeon Research Workshop. United
States Department of Commerce. 03/04/98-
06/30/98. $5,000.
Cichra, C. E. An Assessment to Determine the
Biological Response to Best Management
Practices in the Tri-Country Agricultural
Watersheds. St. Johns River Water Manage-
ment District. 01/08/97-01/08/99. $35,000.
Francis-Floyd, R. Determination of Ethiologic
Agents Contributing to Disease of Freshwater
Game Fish in Florida. Florida Game & Fresh
Water Fish Commission. 10/17/95-06/30/98.
$5,000.


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Francis-Floyd, R. T. Atlantic Surgeonfish as a
Model for Description of Normal Anatomy,
Histology and Natural Diet of Herbivorous
Ornamental Reef Fish. United States Depart-
ment of Commerce. 02/01/98-01/01/00.
$26,352.
Frazer, T. K. Regional Patterns of Habitat Use by
Juvenile Blue Crabs: Assessing the Relative
Alternate Habitat Types in Florida and North
Carolina. United States Department of
Commerce. 02/01/98-01/31/00. $51,848.
Frazer, T. K. and Canfield, D. E. Nutrient Assimila-
tion Capacity of Five Gulf Coast Rivers. South-
west Florida Water Management District.
02/09/98-12/31/00. $274,724.
Lindberg, W. J. and Vose, F. E. Effects of Habitat
and Fishing Mortality on the Movements,
Growth and Relative Weights of Juvenile-to-
Adult Gag (Mycteroperca Microlepis). United
States Department of Commerce. 07/01/95-
06/30/98. $100,000.
Murie, D. J. Age, Growth, and Sexual Maturity of
White Grunt in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. 12/01/97-11/30/98. $37,304.
Murie, D. J. Mortality of White Grunt in the
Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. 12/01/97-11/30/98.
$28,606.
Phlips, E. J. Biological Monitoring of the Lower
St. John's River. St. Johns River Water Manage-
ment District. 12/11/96-10/31/98. $138,888.
Phlips, E. J. Indian River Lagoon Hydrodynamics &
Water Quality Model. St. Johns River Water
Management District. 08/14/97-09/30/99.
$20,790.
Phlips, E. J. Nutrient Limitation of Phytoplankton
Production in the Suwannee River and Estuary.
Suwannee River Water Management District.
03/05/98-08/04/99. $26,015.


Phlips, E. J. Nitrogen Limitation of Lyngbya
Growth in the Rainbow River. Southwest
Florida Water Management District. 03/25/98-
03/01/99. $33,750.
Phlips, E. J. The Investigation of Abundance and
Composition of Phytoplankton in Lake Wash-
ington. St. Johns River Water Management
District. 06/29/98-08/31/99. $3,000.
Schelske, C. L. A Study of the Relationship
Between Plankton Primary Productivity, Algal
Nutrient Limitation and Water Quality in the
Lower St Johns River. St. Johns River Water
Management District. 05/23/94-03/19/99.
$55,445.
Schelske, C. L. The Sediment and Nutrient Deposi-
tion in Lake Griffin. St. Johns River Water
Management District. 09/20/93-12/30/98.
$51,870.
Schelske, C. L. Recruitment Failure of Yellow Perch
in SE Lake Michigan: Evaluation of the Starva-
tion and Predation Hypotheses. University of
Michigan. 03/01/98-02/28/00. $14,880.
Schelske, C. L. The Study of Light and Nutrient
Limitation on Phytoplankton in Lake
Washington. St. Johns River Water Manage-
ment District. 05/29/98-12/31/99. $7,000.
Seaman, W. Program Development PD-98-2. United
States Department of Commerce. 04/01/98-
08/31/99. $9,000.
Seaman, W. and Clarke, M. L. Florida Bay Out-
reach and Community Education Program.
United States Department of Commerce.
05/01/97-03/31/99. $180,000.
Whitmore, T. J. Paleolimnological Reconstruction
of Water Quality in Lake Persimmon, High-
lands County. Highlands County Board of
County Commissioners. 08/26/98-09/30/99.
$25,000.


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Food and Resource Economics


1167 McCarty Hall/PO Box 110240
Gainesville, FL 32611-0240
Telephone: (352) 392-1826
Fax: (352) 846-0988

1,2,3 JOHN R. GORDON Chair and Prof., Rural
Economic Development, Agri. Public Policy
1,2 CHRIS O. ANDREW Prof., Research
Methods Management International Trade
Policy, Farming Systems
1,2 RICHARD P. BEILOCK Prof., Marketing
Transportation
1,2,3 ROBERT J. BURKHARDT Prof., Philosophy
Agriculture
1,2 PAT J. BYRNE Assoc. Prof., Agribusiness
Marketing
1,2 DOROTHY A. COMER Assoc. Prof., Natural
Resource Economics
1,2 CARLTON G. DAVIS Distinguished Service
Prof., International Economics
2,3 ROBERT L. DEGNER Prof. and Director,
Market Research Center
1,2,3 J. KAMAL DOW Prof., International Trade
1,2 ROBERT D. EMERSON Prof., Production
Economics Econometrics, Labor
1,2 GARY FAIRCHILD Prof., Marketing
1,2 CHRISTINA H. GLADWIN Prof., Small Farm
Management
1,2 PETER E. HILDEBRAND Prof., International
Development Farming Systems/Small Farms
1,2 CLYDE F. KIKER Prof., Natural Resources/
Environmental Economics
1,2 RICHARD L. KILMER Prof., Agri. Marketing
1,2 JOSEPH W. MILON Prof., Environmental
and Natural Resource Economics
1,2 CHARLES B. MOSS Prof., Agri. and
Agribusiness Finance
1,2,3 W. DAVID MULKEY Prof., Regional
Economics Community Development
1,2 JOHN E. REYNOLDS Prof., Natural
Resources
1,2,3 ANDREW SCHMITZ Eminent Scholar,
Marketing Trade
1,2 JAMES L. SEALE, JR. Prof., International
Agriculture Trade, Finance and Policy


1,2 THOMAS H. SPREEN Prof., Quantitative
Methods
1,2 TIMOTHY G. TAYLOR Prof., Production
Economics and Econometrics
2,3 KENNETH R. TEFERTILLER Prof., Agri.
Competitiveness
1,2,3 JOHN J. VANSICKLE Prof., Agri. Marketing
1,2 RONALD W. WARD Prof., Marketing and
Industrial Organization
1,2 RICHARD N. WELDON Assoc. Prof.,
Agribusiness Finance

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research
Projects:

FRE03255 Estimating Florida Per Capita Fish and
Shellfish Consumption
R. L. Degner C. M. Adams
FRE03259 Biological Control of Scapteriscus Mole
Crickets and its Economics


R. N. Weldon


B. Long


FRE03293 Economic Issues Affecting the U.S.
Fruit and Vegetable System
T. G. Taylor G. F. Fairchild
L. Polopolus J. J. VanSickle
R. L. Kilmer P. J. Byrne
FRE03296 An Evaluation of International Markets
for Southern Commodities
J. L. Seale G. F. Fairchild
K. R. Tefertiller R. W. Ward
J. Y. Lee M. G. Brown
FRE03325 Computer Programs for Optional
Supplementation of Cattle Grazing
Tropical Pastures
T. H. Spreen
FRE03366 Development of Whole-Farm Models to
Evaluation Sustainable Agricultural
Systems
J. E. Reynolds
FRE03405 Agriculture, Trade, and the
Environment in the Caribbean Basin:
Sustainable Development Imperatives
C. G. Davis M. R. Langham


2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency


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FRE03406 Historical Perspective and Potential
Economic Impact of Trade Liberaliza-
tion with LAC Countries on Florida
Agriculture
J. K. Dow
FRE03411 Integrated Methods for Assessing
Economic Properties of Ecological
Systems
C. F. Kiker
FRE03418 Florida Agricultural Labor Markets
R. D. Emerson L. C. Polopolus
FRE03435 Impacts of Hemispheric Integration
and Growth on the U.S. Horticultural
Sub-Sector
T. G. Taylor G. F. Fairchild
FRE03488 Changes in Fisheries Regulations and
Commercial Fishing Families
C. M. Adams
FRE03497 Agricultural Change in the Gulf of
Mexico: The Case of Citrus and
Sugarcane in Florida and Veracruz
C. O. Andrew T. H. Spreen
FRE03514 A Bioeconomic Model of the North
Atlantic Swordfish Fishery
D. J. Lee C. M. Adams
FRE03520 Enterprise Budgets for Selected Florida
Vegetables
T. G. Taylor S. A. Smith
FRE03527 Hemispheric Integration and its
Implications for Caribbean Basin
Agriculture
J. K. Dow W. A. Messina
FRE03561 Estimates of Impact of Government
Environmental Regulations on Farmers
of Selected Florida Agricultural
Commodities
K. R. Tefertiller
FRE03571 Dynamic Economic Analysis of the
Florida Citrus Industry


T. H. Spreen


C. B. Moss


FRE03583 Impact Analysis and Decision
Strategies for Agricultural Research
C. B. Moss M. R. Langham
FRE03584 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and
Food System Performance
R .L. Kilmer


FRE03597 Factors Effecting the Cost of Capital in
Rural Communities: Changing
Competition and Regulations
C. B. Moss T. G. Taylor
FRE03599 The Effect of Farmland Boom/Bust
Cycles on the Rural Economy
A. Schmitz C. B. Moss
W. D. Mulkey
FRE03660 Food Demand, Nutrition and
Consumer Behavior
J. Y. Lee M. G. Brown
J. L. Seale
FRE03712 Economic Valuation of Florida's
Environmental and Natural Resources
J. W. Milon
FRE03740 Hemispheric Integration and Its
Implications For Caribbean-Basin
Agriculture
J. K. Dow W. A. Messina
FRE03752 Impacts of Trade Agreements and
Economic Policies on Southern
Agriculture


J. L. Seale
G. F. Fairchild
T. G. Taylor
R. R. Ward


M. G. Brown
J. Y. Lee
K. R. Tefertiller


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Publications:
Brown, M. G. and Lee, Jonq-Ying. Incorporating
Generic and Brand Advertising Effects in the
Rotterdam Demand System. International
Journal of Advertising.
Byrne, P. Analysis of Quick-Serve, and Up-Scale
Food Away from Home Expenditures. Interna-
tional Food and Agribusiness Management
Review.
Chapman, F. A., Fitz-Coy, S. A., Thunberg, E. M.
and Adams, C. M. United States of America
Trade in Ornamental Fish. Journal of the
World Aquaculture Society.
Degner, R. L. and Moss, S. D. Effects of Reland-
scaping on the Perceived Market Value of
Single Family Residential Property. Proceedings
of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
Degner, R. L. and Moss, S. D. Market Development
Alternatives for Selected Tropical Fruits Grown
in South Florida. Proceedings of the Florida
State Horticultural Society.


92








Greene, G., Moss, C. B. and Spreen, T. H. The
Demand for Recreational Fishing in Tampa
Bay, Florida: A Random Utility Approach.
Marine Resource Economics.
Haydu, J. J., Hodges, A. W., van Blokland, P. J.
and Cisar, J. L. Economic and Environmental
Adaptations in Florida's Golf Course Industry.
International Turfgrass Society Research
Journal.
Hodges, A. W., Haydu, J. J. and van Blokland, P. J.
Employment and Value Added in Florida's
Turfgrass Industry. International lTrfgrass
Society Research Journal.
Hoover, T. S., Kilmer, R. L. and Connor, L. J.
Perceptions and Opinions of International
Graduate Students Enrolled in the College of
Agriculture Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences at the University of Florida. National
Association of Colleges and Teachers of
Agriculture Journal
Kiker, C. F. and Putz, F. E. Ecological Certification
of Forest Products: Economic Challenges.
Ecological Economics.
Kilmer, R. L. The Impact of Freer Markets and
Trade on Agricultural Food Marketing Policy
and Government Institutions: Discussion.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
Kilmer, R. L., Hoover, T. S. and Connor, L. J.
University of Florida College of Agriculture
Graduate Student Opinion Survey. National
Association of Colleges and Teachers of
Agriculture Journal.
Milon, J. W., Kiker, C. F. and Lee, D. J. Ecosystem
Management and the Florida Everglades: The
Role of Social Scientists. Journal of Agriculture
and Applied Economics.
Ramirez, O. A., Moss, C. B. and Boggess, W. G. A
Stochastic Optimal Control Formulation of the
Consumption Debt Decision. Agricultural
Finance Review.
Reynolds, J. E. New Opportunities for Using
Farmland Values in the Analysis of Economic
Issues: Discussion. American Journal of
Agricultural Economics.
Spreen, T. H. and Muraro, R. P. Costs Associated
with Producing and Marketing Bulk FCOJ
from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Citrus and Vegetable
Magazine.


Spreen, T. H. and Muraro, R. P. The Interrelation-
ships and Competition in the World Orange
Juice Market. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine.
Thurow, Amy Purvis and Holt, John. Induced
Policy Innovation: Environmental Compliance
Requirements for Dairies in Texas and Florida.
Journal of Agricultural Applied Economics.
van Blokland, P. J., Haydu, J. J. and Hodges, A. W.
Measuring the Economic Contribution of
Florida's Tlrfgrass Industry Using a Value
Added Methodology. Journal of International
Turfgrass Research.
VanSickle, John J. Citrus Section: Marketing and
Management Strategies. Citrus and Vegetable
Magazine
Vogiatzis, M., Carter, D. R., Moss, C. B. and
Arvantis, L. G. Ecosystem Management or
Infeasible Guidelines? Implications of Adja-
cency Restrictions for Wildlife Habitat and
Timber Production. Canadian Journal of Forest
Research.
Williams, K. E., Cisar, J. L., Snyder, G. H. and
Haydu, J. J. Turf Response to N Release from
New Coated Urea Fertilizers. Journal of
International Turfgrass Research.


Research Grants:
Adams, C. M. and Mulkey, D. An Assessment of
the Economic Importance of the San Carlos
Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee
County Economy. West Coast Inland Naviga-
tion District. 01/21/98-09/20/98. $9,585.
Beilock, R. P. Logistics, Marketing, and Trade in
the Caucasus. Nathan Associates, Inc.
01/26/98-01/25/99. $69,000.
Carriker, R. R. Florida Natural Resources Leader-
ship Institute. North Carolina State University.
06/01/97-05/31/99. $22,500.
Cato, J. C. Project PD-93-2: Program Development
Immediate Response Grant. United States
Department of Commerce. 08/25/93-08/31/98.
$6,000.
Cato, J. C. Seafood Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point (HACCP) Education and Training
Program. United States Department of
Commerce. 08/01/97-07/31/99. $99,978.
Cato, J. C. Florida Sea Grant College Management.
United States Department of Commerce.
04/01/93-08/31/98. $47,362.


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Cato, J. C. Project M/PM-12: Florida Sea Grant
Administration. United States Department of
Commerce. 02/01/97-01/31/99. $158,000.
Dow, J. K. and Messina, W. A. Hemispheric
Integration and its Implications for Caribbean
Basin Agriculture. USDA-CSREES (Tropical
Agricultural Research). 07/01/96-06/30/98.
$31,500.
Emerson, R. D. and Tangka, F. Cross-Bred Cows
and Food Security in Ethiopia. The Rockefeller
Foundation. 08/01/98-10/31/99. $24,706.
Gladwin, C. H. Gender and Soil Fertility. University
of Hawaii. 02/11/97-09/30/01. $258,384.
Gordon, J. R. and Lin, C. T. Determinants of Safe
Food Handling Behavior and Consumer
Responses to Information. USDA Economic
Research Service. 03/19/97-09/30/97. $10,000.
Hartmann, P. A. and Crane, J. A. Cultivar and
Rootstock Introduction & Evaluation and
Improved Nursery Practices for the Develop-
ment of the Egyptian Export Mango Industry.
Ronco Consulting Corp. 04/16/96-04/15/99.
$149,994.
Hartmann, P. A. and Brecht, J. K. Controlled
Atmospheres to Improve the Quality and
Reduce Losses of Mango in Order to Open New
International Markets. Ronco Consulting Corp.
04/16/96-04/15/99. $142,364.
Hartmann, P. A. Modernization of the Agriculture
Sector-Government of Ecuador Agriculture
Technology Transfer (TTA). Govt. of Ecuador's
Program of Agriculture Sector. 07/24/98-
07/23/03. $1,204,775.
Hartmann, P. A. A level Neutral Approach to
Sustainable Development Assistance for
Nicaragua. American Council on Education.
08/13/98-07/28/01. $99,996. Kiker, C. F. and
Casey, C. F. Models of Interstate Water Alloca-
tions in Theory and in Practice: The ACT-ACF
Agreements as Applied Case Studies. Univer-
sity of Alabama. 09/01/97-12/31/98. $13,000.
Kilmer, R. Food Marketing Policy. USDA Agricul-
tural Marketing Service. 09/30/96-09/30/98.
$6,500.
Lee, D. J., Milon, J. W, Adams, C. and Degner,
R. L. Structure and Competitiveness of
Florida's Tropical Ornamental Marine Life
Industry. Florida Department of Commerce.
02/01/98-01/31/00. $44,970.


Milon, J. W. Biological and Economic Modeling
and Assessment of Limited Entry in Multi-
Species Fisheries in South Florida. United
States Department of Commerce. 02/01/98-
01/31/99. $55,463.
Milon, J. W. Florida Legislative and Administrative
Environmental Policy Analysis. Mississippi
State University. 10/01/97-09/30/98. $4,000.
Milon, J. W. IFAS as Co-PI: The Operations and
Economics of the Charter and Party Boat Fleets
of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico and South
Atlantic Coasts. United States Department of
Commerce. 01/01/98-12/31/98. $20,659.
Moss, C. B. Irrigation Projections in Georgia's
ACT/ ACF Basin: 1995-2020. Northwest Florida
Water Management District. 09/01/98-
09/30/98. $4,988.
Mulkey, W. D. Impact Modeling: Ft. Lauderdale
Boat Show. Thomas J. Murray & Associates.
05/01/98-06/30/98. $2,500.
Spreen, T. H. Marketing of Florida Citrus Products.
Florida Department of Citrus. 07/01/98-
06/30/99. $44,910.
Spreen, T. H. and Kilmer, R. L. Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences National Needs Graduate
Fellowship Grants Program. USDA Cooperative
State Research Service. 02/01/98-01/31/03.
$108,000.
Seale, J. L. Structural Changes in Food Demand in
Developing Countries and Its Implications for
Trade and Food Security. USDA Economic
Research Service. 09/22/97-09/30/99. $64,000.
Van Blokland, P. J. Borrower Training Agreement.
USDA Farm Service. 02/19/97-02/18/00
$25,250.
VanSickle, J. J. and Spreen, T. H. An Evaluation of
the Economic Viability of Alternative to Methyl
Bromide for Soil Fumigation: An Analysis of
the North American Fresh Vegetable Market.
USDA Economic Research Service. 09/03/97-
12/31/98. $60,000.
Ward, R. W. National Watermelon Promotion
Board Commodity Promotion Evaluation.
National Watermelon Promotion Board.
07/14/98-12/31/99. $32,000.


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