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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 2004 University of Florida research...
 2004 Research administration
 2004 Research administration title...
 Agricultural and Biological...
 Agricultural Education and...
 Agronomy
 Animal Science
 Entomology and Nematology
 Environmental Horticulture
 Family, Youth and Community...
 Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
 Food and Resource Economics
 Food Science and Human Nutriti...
 School of Forest Resources and...
 University of Florida Herbarium,...
 Horticultural Sciences
 Microbiology and Cell Sciences
 Plant Pathology
 Soil and Water Science
 Statistics
 College of Veterinary Medicine
 Wildlife Ecology and Conservat...
 2004 University of Florida research...
 2004 Director's financial...
 Citrus REC - Lake Alfred
 Everglades REC - Belle Glade
 FL Medical Entomology Lab - Vero...
 Ft. Lauderdale REC - Ft. Laude...
 Gulf Coast REC - Bradenton,...
 Indian River REC - Ft. Pierce
 Mid-Florida REC - Apopka
 North Florida REC - Quincy, Marianna,...
 Range Cattle REC - Ona
 Southwest Florida REC - Immoka...
 Subtropical Agricultural Research...
 Tropical REC - Homestead
 West Florida REC - Jay, Milton


FLAG IFAS PALMM



Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008296/00013
 Material Information
Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
Alternate title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 2004
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1987; title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20304921
lccn - sn 92011064
System ID: UF00008296:00013
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 5
    2004 University of Florida research foundation professors
        Page 7
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    2004 Research administration
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    2004 Research administration title page
        Page 17
    Agricultural and Biological Engineering
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural Education and Communication
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agronomy
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Animal Science
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Entomology and Nematology
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Environmental Horticulture
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Family, Youth and Community Sciences
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Food and Resource Economics
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Food Science and Human Nutrition
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    School of Forest Resources and Conservation
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    University of Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Horticultural Sciences
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Microbiology and Cell Sciences
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Plant Pathology
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Soil and Water Science
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Statistics
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    College of Veterinary Medicine
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    2004 University of Florida research and education centers title page
        Page 159
    2004 Director's financial report
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    Citrus REC - Lake Alfred
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Everglades REC - Belle Glade
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    FL Medical Entomology Lab - Vero Beach
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Ft. Lauderdale REC - Ft. Lauderdale
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Gulf Coast REC - Bradenton, Dover
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Indian River REC - Ft. Pierce
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Mid-Florida REC - Apopka
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    North Florida REC - Quincy, Marianna, Live Oak
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Range Cattle REC - Ona
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Southwest Florida REC - Immokalee
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 223
    Subtropical Agricultural Research Station - Brooksville
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Tropical REC - Homestead
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    West Florida REC - Jay, Milton
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
Full Text









UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







#UNIVERSITY OF

IFAS TABLE OF CONTENTS
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Report by the Dean for Research ................................................. 5

Research Foundation Professors .................................................. 7

Research A dm inistration ............................................................ N 13
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs FAMU
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Center for Natural Resources

CAM PUS RESEARCH PROGRAMS ................................................. N 17

Agricultural & Biological Engineering
Agricultural Education & Communication
Agronomy
Animal Sciences
Entomology & Nematology
Environmental Horticulture
Family, Youth & Community Sciences
Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences
Food & Resource Economics
Food Science & Human Nutrition
Forest Resources & Conservation, School of
Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History
Horticultural Sciences
Microbiology & Cell Science
Plant P ,i.. "
Soil & Water Science
Statistics
Veterinary Medicine, College of
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTERS ........................................... N 159

Citrus REC Lake Alfred
Everglades REC Belle Glade
Florida Medical Entomology Lab Vero Beach
Ft. Lauderdale REC Ft. Lauderdale
Gulf Coast REC Bradenton, Dover
Indian River REC Ft. Pierce
Mid-Florida REC Apopka
North Florida REC Quincy, Marianna, Live Oak
Range Cattle REC Ona
Southwest Florida REC Immokalee
Subtropical Agricultural Research Station Brooksville
Tropical REC Homestead
West Florida REC Jay, Milton

DIRECTOR'S FINANCIAL REPORT ....................... ................... 9 239


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 3


















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2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 5


# UNIVERSITY OF

IFAS 2004 REPORT BY THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









































2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 7


OFRIA 2004 University of Florida

idaAg EximStat Research Foundation Professors








JACKIE BURNS & JAMES JONES


JACQUELINE K. BURNS
Professor of Horticulture
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

With Florida's unpredict-
able climate and sometimes
treacherous weather, citrus-
growers are constantly look-
ing for better, more efficient
ways to harvest crops.
Jackie Burns often comes
to their rescue.
Burns, an IFAS professor
of horticulture, tries to make
mechanical citrus harvesting
more efficient by studying
harvest and post-harvest
physiology.
'p 1 .I. Burns devel-
ops and studies the use of
abscission agents or compounds that help loosen mature fruit
from trees.
"Spraying trees with an abscission agent a few days before
harvest loosens mature fruit and makes harvesting faster and
easier," Burns says.
Burns and her research team are currently working on three
promising abscission agents that must meet the requirements of
being non-toxic, selective, cost-effective and environmentally
safe.
The selectivity of the abscission agent is especially important
on trees that have young, developing fruit and mature fruit at
the same time.
"Removing too much of the developing fruit with a mechani-
cal harvester decreases the next season's yield," Burns says.
"Loosening only mature fruit will allow machines to gently
harvest trees, preserving next year's crop."'
Abscission agents will also allow machines to harvest faster
because mature fruit will be loose, and consequently less ma-
chine time is needed for each tree.

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D. in horticulture, Penn State University, 1986
Affiliated with UF since: 1987
HOME PAGE: www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu/burns


JIM JONES
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
College of Engineering

Any crop grower knows
that climate can make
or break a season's yield.
Climate variability creates
a lot of uncertainty in crop
production, not to mention
economic risks to producers.
James Jones, a profes-
sor in the Department of
Agricultural and Biologi-
cal Engineering, develops
computer models that seek
to understand the interaction
between climate crops, soil
and management.
"We use the models to
help identify management practices that reduce those risks and
optimize management for specific soils and anticipated climate
conditions,";' Jones says.
In the longer term, Jones says global climate change could
have major consequences for agricultural production.
"Models that Jim and his colleagues have developed are
widely used by researchers in more than 50 countries, and are
recognized as the pioneering effort of their kind in cropping
systems research," says Wendy Graham, chair of the Department
of Agricultural and Biological Engineering.
Jones and his team have developed models for soybean, pea-
nuts, dry beans, tomatoes and cotton.
"We use these same biophysical models to study how farming
might need to change under new climate conditions'," Jones says.
Jones also has developed a research program in West Africa
that could potentially increase soil carbon content, and increase
productivity on degraded soils in that part of the world.

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D. in Biological and agricultural engineering, North
Carolina State University, 1975
AFFILIATED WITH UF SINCE: 1977
EMAIL: jwjones@mail.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 9








JONATHAN DAY& LYNN SOLLENBERGER


JONATHAN DAY
DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY
IFAS

Florida is the only state
in the U.S. that reports
consistent annual outbreaks
of mosquito-borne encepha-
litis viruses. The more than
12,000 United States cases of
West Nile in 2002-03 show
how threatening the virus
can be.
Jonathan Day's research is
the basis for the Florida mos-
e quito disease surveillance
program which tracks en-
cephalitis viruses in Florida,
and gives citizens advanced
warnings of outbreaks.
"I've always been interested in ecology and natural history;'
says Day, a medical entomologist and ecologist. "When it came
time to select a Ph.D. program, I chose medical entomology
dealing with mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease."
Day's research includes tracking vector populations, predict-
ing endemic and epidemic disease transmission, and creating
human and domestic animal transmission risk maps.
He says predicting mosquito-borne epidemics is very much
like detective work.
"It is really intriguing to see the environmental conditions
that are conducive to an epidemic line-up in early spring, and
then make a prediction to the residents of Florida'," Day says.
"We can then sit back and hope we were correct."

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D. in medical entomology from the University of
Massachusetts at Amherst, 1981.
AFFILIATED WITH UF SINCE: 1982
HOME PAGE: entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/day.htm


LYNN SOLLENBERGER
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE


In the world of environ-
mental habitats, grasslands
play an important role as
wetlands, groundwater re-
charge areas, wildlife habitats
and sources of nutrients for
animals.
Lynn Sollenberger, a
professor of agronomy in the
Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences, researches
ways to develop and test
strategies for managing and
preserving these grasslands,
so they can continue to carry
out their vital functions.
"Dr. Sollenberger leads a very productive research program
that focuses on sustainability and the environmental impact
of forage-livestock systems,";' says Jerry Bennett, chair of the
agronomy department.
Sollenberger says that efficient use of nutrients is a key to his
studies in grassland management.
"If applied in excess, nutrients can have a negative impact on
the environment and ground water quality,";' he says.
Sollenberger and his team conduct work on natural grass-
lands and farmers' fields, in many cases in the Suwannee River
watershed. Their studies have helped to educate farmers on the
best sequence of crops and the most appropriate fertilization
strategies for growing nutritious or commercially valuable crops,
while sustaining the environment.

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D. in agronomy from the University of Florida,1985
AFFILIATED WITH UF SINCE: 1985


10 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PK NAIR & RANDY PLOETZ


RAMACHANDRAN PK NAIR
School of Forest Resources and Conservation


When P.K. Nair arrived
in Gainesville in 1987, he
noticed that UF lacked a
program in his specialty of
.h,.,, agroforestry. Nair, a pioneer
. and professor of agroforestry,
quickly solved the problem
by putting together an inter-
disciplinary program within
the School of Resources and
Conservation.
Agroforestry is a relatively
new approach to land man-
agement that addresses prob-
lems caused by traditional
agriculture and forestry
production systems. Agroforestry practices in North America
include windbreaks, riparian forest buffers, alley cropping, silvo-
pasture and forest farming in sustainable agricultural systems.
"Our work has had *..! i. ilII impact in enhancing the pro-
ductivity and sustainability of smallholder farming systems in
the tropics," Nair says.
Nair's research also impacts developing countries in Africa,
Asia and Latin America, where he helps farmers overcome land
management obstacles like poor soil fertility, low productive
capacity of soils and high cost of fertilizers.
"Because of his work, developing countries no longer need
make the difficult choice between growing food or growing fi-
ber," says Ann Camp, chair of the Society of American Foresters
Science and Technology Board. "With agroforestry, both can be
accomplished on the same piece of i-..i i '
Nair says many of the systems he tackles contain only one
cultivated species in a field at a time, like corn fields, soybean
fields, pine tree stands
"We are making basic household needs such as food, fodder
for animals, and fuelwood available by growing them on the
same unit of land at the same time in an integrated manner,;'
Nair says.

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D.s in Agronomy from Pantnagar Agricultural University,
India; 1971, and Tropical Agriculture, Goettingen University,
Germany; 1978.
AFFILIATED WITH UF SINCE: 1987
HOME PAGE: www.sfrc.ufl.edu/Faculty/Web Pages/PKRNair/
PKRNair


RANDY PLOETZ
Tropical Research and Education Center


Bananas, avocados and
mangos grow prevalently
in South Florida, are also
vulnerable to a number of
agricultural diseases.
SRandy Ploetz is an author-
ity on diseases that affect
r" i -. tropical and subtropical fruit
t a d crops, and his goal is to man-
*f age them in an effective and
environmentally-benign way.
"South Florida is the only
region in the continental
United States where many of
these crops are grown, and
there is limited informa-
tion for many of the prevalent tropical diseases and pathogens;'
Ploetz says.
Ploetz's research includes the development of root rot-resis-
tant avocado rootstocks, an explanation for mango decline, and
fundamental insight into Panama disease which affects banana
plants.
"Panama disease has been described as one of the six most
destructive plant diseases in history,";' Ploetz says. "It caused
estimated losses of several billion dollars in the 20l century, and
is the most important production constraint in South Florida."
Ploetz's research will help develop disease-resistant genotypes
of banana and has already been used widely when deploying
new cultivars.

ACADEMIC STATS:
Ph.D. in Plant P ai... University of Florida, 1984
AFFILIATED WITH UF SINCE: 1986
HOME PAGE: trec.ifas.ufl.edu/Personnel/rploetz


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 1













UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


2004 Research Administration


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 13








RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

J. BERNARD MACHEN, President & Prof.
MICHAEL V. MARTIN, Vice President for Agr. & Nat. Resources & Prof.
RICHARD L. JONES, Interim Vice President for Agr. & Nat. Resources & Prof.


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
OFFICE OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH AND DIRECTOR
1022 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110200
Gainesville, FL 32611-0200
Telephone: (352) 392-1784
FAX: (352) 392-4965

RICHARD L. JONES, Dean for Research and Director, FAES, Professor
WAYNE S. SMITH, Interim Dean for Research and Director, FAES
WILLIAM F BROWN, Assistant Dean and Interim Director, IFAS Sponsored Programs
MARY L. DURYEA, Assistant Dean, Professor
JUDY E KITE, Coord., Admin. Services
THOMAS D. STADSKLEV, Manager, FL Foundation Seed Producers, Inc.
BERRY J. TREAT, Germplasm Property Manager
LINDA J. LILLEY, Coord., Research Programs



UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS RESEARCH PROJECTS:


AUTHOR
Jones, R.L., Brown, W.F.
Jones, R.L., Brown, W.F.
Jones, R.L., Brown, W.F.

Neilson, J.T.
Jones, R.L., Brown, W.F.

Jones, R.L., Brown, W.F.

Jones, R.L., Browning, H.W.
Jones, R.L., Browning, H.W.
Jones, R.L.
Jones, R.L.
Jones, R.L.
Jones, R.L.
Flinchum, D.M., Clark, M.W., Hogue, P.J.,
Larson, D.S.
Neilson, J.T.
Jones, R.L.


TITLE
Administration of Mclntire-Stennis Funds and Projects
Regional Research Coordination, Southern Region
Tropical, SubtropicalAgricultural Research (P.L. 89-106)-Caribbean Florida, New Projects
Umbrella Grant
Tropical & Subtropical Agricultural Research-CARIBBEAN-Management Grant
Tropical, SubtropicalAgricultural Research (P.L. 89-106)-Caribbean-Florida, New Projects
Umbrella Grant
Tropical, SubtropicalAgricultural Research (P.L. 89-106)-Caribbean Florida, 2nd and 3rd year
Renewal Projects Umbrella Grant
Management of the Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus
Management of the Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus
TSTAR-Caribbean, Florida, Umbrella Grant, I.
TSTAR-Caribbean, Florida, Umbrella Grant, II.
TSTAR-Caribbean, Florida, Umbrella Grant, III.
TSTAR-Caribbean, Florida, Umbrella Grant, IV.
Wetland Enhancement Decision-Making Tools and Training for Landowners and Technical
Service Providers
Tropical Subtropical Agricultural Research (TSTAR)-Caribbean Management Grant
TSTAR-Caribbean, Florida, Continuing Projects, Umbrella Grant


14 | 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


PROJECT NO.
REA-00008
REA-03783
REA-04080

REA-04079
REA-04080

REA-04081

REA-04106
REA-04130
REA-04132
REA-04133
REA-04134
REA-04135
REA-04142

REA-04148
REA-04149








RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION


RESEARCH GRANTS

FACULTY TITLE SOURCE OF FUNDS AMOUNT


Duryea, M L.
Jones, R.L.
Jones, R.L.
Jones, R.L.
Neilson, J.T.

Neilson, J.T.


Turfgrass Research
Support of Various Breeding Programs.
Acquisition of Research Support Service s
Southern Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors
Tropical and SubtropicalAgricultural Research-Caribbean Manage-
ment Grant
Tropical Subtropical Agricultural Research Gant.


FL Turf-Grass Association.
FL Foundation Seed Producers
U.S .Dept.. of Agriculture.
North Carolina State University.
U.S. Dept.. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


CENTER FOR COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS FAMU
215 Perry Paige Building
Tallahassee, FL 32307
Telephone: (352) 599-3546
FAX: (352) 561-2151
LAWRENCE CARTER Asst. Dean & Assoc. Prof., 1890 FAMU Programs

CENTER FOR AQUATIC AND INVASIVE PLANTS
7922 NW 71 Street / PO Box 10610
Gainesville, FL 32606-0610
Telephone: (352) 392-9613
FAX: (352) 392-3462
William T. HALLER, Interim Dir. & Prof.

CENTER FOR NATURAL RESOURCE PROGRAMS
1051 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110230
Gainesville, FL 32611-0230
Telephone: (352) 392-7622
RANDALL K. STOCKER Dir. & Prof.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 1 5


$277,569
$100,000
$37,438
$181,151
$175,183

$210,268














UNIVERSITY OF
LORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


2004 Campus Research Programs


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 17


















Agricultural and Biological Engineering (ABE) links the engi-
neering sciences to the life sciences to produce food, feed, fiber
and other products from renewable bio-resources. It also aims to
enhance the productivity of agricultural and biological systems
while protecting the environment and conserving and replenishing
our natural resources. Florida's agricultural industry is one of the
largest and most diverse in the nation, and requires a broad, inter-
disciplinary research approach if it is to continue to prosper as the
population swells and natural resources become more limited. Over
30 faculty members, located both on the UF campus in Gainesville
and at several UF-IFAS Research and Education Centers throughout
Florida, participate as members of interdisciplinary teams working
with state, national and international agricultural, water manage-
ment and environmental protection agencies, as well as the UF-IFAS
Space Agricultural and Biotechnology Research and Education
(SABRE) Center located at NASA's Kennedy Space Center and the
NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Cen-
ter (ESCST) located at UF in Gainesville.
The department's research program includes the following four
main areas.
Bioprocess and Food Engineering includes post-harvest engi-
neering for seafood, fruits and vegetables; process microbiology;
heat and mass transfer in biological systems; thermal processing
of food, packaging technology, space biotechnology and recycling
systems. Current research includes a study on the International
Space Station of the effects of light and gravity on plant form. The
model plant Arabidopsis will be used to study how plants grow
towards or away from light in various gravitational accelerations and
the roles of the photoreceptors in both the gravity and light induced
responses. These fundamental studies will help in the development
of procedures for growing plants on the moon or mars where gravity
is reduced. Plants will play a vital role in human space exploration
for food supplies, atmospheric purification, waste treatment, and
psychological benefits.
Information Systems research is directed towards electronic
communication technology, with special emphasis on safety and
energy; mathematical modeling over a broad range of plant and
animal systems; knowledge-based decision support systems, weather
information, climate change analysis and remote sensing. Current


research includes integration of dynamic crop models with hydrol-
ogy models for analyzing and optimizing the management practices
relative to crop production and water quality associated with nutri-
ent leaching. Research is also being conducted to link crop models
with climate forecasts to better understand climate-related risks to
production and how to reduce economic risk to producers.
Agricultural Production Engineering includes machine systems
analysis and design, robotics, aquacultural production systems,
safety, design and analysis of agricultural structures and their envi-
ronment, systems automation and management. Research projects
are focusing on using machine vision, image processing and pattern
classification technologies to develop an automatic system for early
detection of diseases in citrus groves, and the development of a
robotic system for harvesting citrus including the potential develop-
ment of new tree architectures and grove management practices for
optimizing the robotic workspace. Progress continues on develop-
ment of the Robotic Greenhouse Sprayer, which can autonomously
navigate through a greenhouse applying chemicals at uniform
application rates, to address producer concerns over worker safety,
environmental impacts, and economic cost associated with manual
application of pesticides and fungicides.
Land and Water Resources Engineering encompasses design
and analysis of irrigation and drainage systems, developing method-
ologies to predict and reduce non-point pollution from agricultural
watersheds, analysis and modeling of surface and groundwater
hydrology, as well as water reuse and waste management. Current
research includes the use of sensor-based control of irrigation to
increase the efficiency of residential and commercial irrigation,
resulting in a decrease in total water usage in Florida. Irrigation cur-
rently accounts for 50% to 70% of an average household's total water
usage. The sensor-based system would deliver enough water to meet
landscape needs, but prevent irrigation from occurring if adequate
moisture is detected in the soil.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 19


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING
pIFAS 1 Frazier Rogers Hall, PO Box 110570 1 Gainesville, FL 32611-0570
1oi A S 352-392-1864 I http://agen.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


PHOSPHORUS SENSING IN THE LAKE OKEECHOBEE
DRAINAGE BASIN
BY DR. WONSUK "DANIEL" LEE

SIGNIFICANCE: Lake Okeechobee is a large, multifunctional lake
located at the center of the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-
Everglades aquatic ecosystem. The lake provides regional flood
protection, water supply for agricultural, urban and natural areas,
and is a critical habitat for fish, birds and other wildlife, includ-
ing the federally endangered Everglades Snail Kite. The 1997
Lake Okeechobee Surface Water Improvement and Management
(SWIM) Plan found that excessive phosphorus loading is one of
the most serious problems facing the lake. Frequent algal blooms,
detrimental changes in biological communities, and impaired
use of the water resources are among the documented adverse
effects of excessive phosphorus loading. Concentrations of total
phosphorus in the lake water are more than two-fold higher than
the goal of 40 parts per billion (ppb), which is the concentration
identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection
(FDEP) to prevent an imbalance to the lake flora and fauna.
Lake Okeechobee is listed under section 303(d) of the Clean
Water Act as a Florida impaired water body limited primarily
by phosphorus, and is the first water body in Florida for which a
TMDL is being established. Recently, the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection (FDEP) began rulemaking to set the
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) at 140 metric tons/year of
phosphorus into the lake in order to achieve the 40 ppb goal for
in-lake P concentrations. However, over the last 5 years annual P
loads from the lake watershed have averaged 584 metric tons, well
above the recommended TMDL. Runoff from dairies and cow-calf
operations is considered to be the primary source of external
phosphorus loading to the Lake Okeechobee.
RATIONALE: Currently phosphorus concentrations in soil and
vegetation samples obtained from throughout the watershed are
measured using standard laboratory analysis procedures, which
are very time consuming, costly and labor intensive. We propose
to develop a novel technique for cost-effective P detection in soils
and vegetation using reflectance spectroscopy. If successful, this
technique will greatly decrease the time and labor requirement for
monitoring P-levels in terrestrial ecosystems and will provide real-
time sensing ability for identifying problem areas ("hot-spots").
Impact: The proposed P-sensing system will facilitate the inex-
pensive and timely identification of "hot-spots" throughout the
Lake Okeechobee drainage basin. The identification of "hot-spots"
could then be used to better assess the effectiveness of best man-
agement practices or remediation alternatives for reducing P loads
to the Lake Okeechobee. In order to apply the results in a large
scale area, hyperspectral images (Figure 1) were obtained using
a Queen Air Twin engine aircraft modified for sensor operation
with a hyperspectral imaging system (AISA+, Specim, Spectral
Imaging Ltd.) in conjunction with a GPS/INS unit and data
acquisition system for representative sites in the Lake Okeechobee
drainage basin. Image radiance measurement was converted to
reflectance by measuring and correlating the water and lime rock
hyperspectral ground reflectance data to image data. Spectral
angle mapper classification and spectral feature fitting was used
for P analysis in images. Spectral libraries from both ground and


image data were prepared and used for spectral analysis.
The sensing system in conjunction with a Differential Global
Positioning System (DGPS) can be used to produce P concen-
tration map of target area in the Lake Okeechobee drainage
basin (Figure 2). The proposed P sensing system measures the
reflectance of soil sample, determines the location with a DGPS
receiver, and looks for the soil signature in database related to that
location, and finally calculates P concentration using the tech-
nique developed by Bogrekci and Lee in 2004.
Two spectral measurement sensor systems were specified and
designed. Using VIS-NIR spectroscopy for the determination of
P concentration is limited in terms of sensitivity and accuracy
with an RMSE of 17% to produce a commercial sensor. Therefore,
two different methods were used to measure P concentrations
using infrared properties of soil samples. These two systems are
currently being assembled and after laboratory calibration, sensors
will be recalibrated in field conditions and tested for evaluation by
selecting high and low P concentration sites.
COLLABORATORS: Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Department: Ismail Bogrekci, Tom Burks, and Jack Jordan. Me-
chanical and Aerospace Engineering Department: John Schueller.
Agronomy Department: Johannes Scholberg. Soil and Water Sci-
ence Department: Rao Mylavarapu and John White.
Figure 1. Hyperspectral image and spectral signature of vegeta-
tion (left bottom corner) in a dairy farm in the Lake Okeechobee
drainage basin.
Figure 2. Actual (left) and predicted (right) Mehlichl P concen-
tration for soil in a dairy farm in the Lake Okeechobee drainage
basin.


20 1 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY & STAFF



FACU LTY

Howard W. Beck

Ismail Borgecki


RayA. Bucklin

Thomas F. Burks

Kenneth L. Campbell

KheV. Chau

Melanie J. Corell

Michael D. Dukes

Jonathan Earle

John-Pierre Emond

Clyde Fraisse


Byron T. French

Wendy D. Graham

Dorota Z. Haman

Michael Hannan


Either Ingram


Shrikant S. Jagtap

JimmyW. Jones

Pierce H. Jones


Jonathan D. Jordan

JasmeetJudge

James D. Leary

Won Suk Lee

Carol J. Lehtola

Craig Ri. Miller

John W. Mishoe

Raphael Munoz-Carpena

Roger A. Nordstedt

Allen R. Overman

WendellA. Porter

Kathleen C. Ruppert

John K. Schueller

Glen H. Smerage

Michael T. Talbot

Arthur A. Teixeira

Allen Turner


Bruce A. Welt

Fedro Zazueta


TITLE

Prof.

Postdoc Assoc.


Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof. and Assist. Dean

Visiting Prof.

Asst. Ext. Sci.


Assoc. Prof.

Prof. and Chair

Prof.

Postdoc Assoc.


Asst. Res. Sci.


Asst. In

Dist. Prof.

Prof. and Asst. Program
Director

Asst. In

Asst. Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assistant In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Res. Sci.

Assistant Extension Scientist

Affiliate Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Lecturer


Asst. Prof.

Dir. of OIR


SPECIALTY

Information Technology

Precision Agriculture, Instrumention, Sensor
Design, Signal and Image Processing

Farm Structures and Waste Management

Robotics and Machine Systems Analysis

Water Quality, Surface Water Hydrology

Post Harvest Technology, Food Processing

Biological Eng.

Irrigation and Water Resources Management

Engineering Ag & Wastewater Mgmt.

Packaging, Food Distribution and Transport

Reducing Climate and Weather Risks in Agricul-
ture and Natural Resource Management

Power and Machinery

Water Quality, Groundwater Hydrology

Irrigation and Water Resources Management

Mautine Vision and Robotics Development for
Citrus harvesting

Reducing Climate and Weather Risks in Agricul-
ture and Natural Resource Management

Crop Modeling

Plant Modeling and Systems Analysis

Energy Extension


Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing

Energy, Environmental Control of Structures

Precision Agriculture

Safety

Energy Extension

Crop Modeling Instrumentation Systems

Hydrology

Waste Management

Water Management and Pollution Control

Energy and Electric Systems Analysis

Energy Extension

Agricultural Machines, Precision Agriculture

Biological and Ecological Systems

Grain Drying and EnergyAna[lysis

Food Engineering

Sensor Technology, Precision Agricuture,
Robotics

Packaging and Irradiation

Irrigation and Information Technology


TEACHING RESEARCH

10 30

0 100


30 70

40 60

25 75

40 60

40 60

40 60

0 0

60 40


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 21


EXTENSION

60

0


0

0

0

0

0


30 70


75 25


0 100

30 70

90 10

30 70

20 0

0 0

60 40

0 40

50 0

20 80

0 75

0 0

0 100

15 85
10 20

40 60

70 30









AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.
ABE-03793
ABE-03814
ABE-03824


ABE-03874
ABE-03973
ABE-04004





ABE-04015


ABE-04016


ABE-04036


ABE-04085




ABE-04237


AUTHOR
Jones, J.W.
Graham, W.D.
Bucklin, R.A., Jones, P.H.


Teixeira, A.A., Smerage, G.H.
Chau, K.V., Talbot, M.T.
Lee, W.S., Pierce, F.J., Schueller, J.K.,
Jordan, J.D., Burks, T.F., Whitney, J.D.,
Salyani, M., Schumann,A.W.,
Daven port, J.R., Stevens, R.G., Seavert, C.F.,
Righetti, T.L.
Nordstedt, R.A.


Munoz-Carpena, R., Campbell, K.L.,
Graham, W.D., Dukes, M.D.
Dukes, M.D., Simonne, E.H., Haman, D.Z.


Graham, W.D., Campbell, K.L., Shuk[a, S.,
Reddy, K.R., Clark, M.W., Jawitz, J.W.,
Graetz, D.A., O'Connor, G.A., Nair, V.,
Grunwald, D., Hodges, A., Chambliss, C.
Judge, J., Graham, W.D., Jones, J.W.


PUBLICATIONS



Albrigo, L., H. Beck, L. Timmer and E. Stover. 2004. Development and Testing of
a Recommendation System to Schedule Copper Sprays for Citrus Disease Control.
J. ASTM Intnl.
Albrigo, L., J. Valiente and H. Beck. 2004. A flowering Expert System for the
'Decision Information System for Citrus. Acta Horticultura.
Baum, M., M. Dukes and G. Miller. 2004. Analysis of Residential Irrigation
Distribution Uniformity. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.
Berger, K., M. Knoelke and B. Welt. 2004. Influence of Sample Structure and
Instrument Settings on Hot Tack Measurements of Thin Sealant Films. Journal of
Plastic Film & Sheeting. 20(1):55-63.
Bray, D. and R. Bucklin. 2004. Latest in Tunnel Barns for Cow Comfort. UF
Animal Science.
Correll, M. and J. Kiss. 2004. The Roles of Phytochromes in Elongation and
Gravitropism of Roots. Plant and Cell Physiology.
Correll, M., R. Edelmann, R. Hangarter, J. Mullen and J. Kiss. 2004. Ground
based Studies of Tropisms in Hardware Developed for the European Modular
Cultivation System (EMCS). Advances in Space Research. 1:234.
Dukes, M. and R. Evans. 2004. Riparian Ecosystem Management Model:
Hydrology and Sensitivity Under a Narrow Single Vegetation Riparian Buffer in
the Middle Coastal Plain. 46(6):1567-1579.
Dukes, M., R. Evans, J. Gilliam and S. Kunickis. 2004. Effect of Riparian Buffer
Width and Vegetation Type on Shallow Groundwater Quality in the Middle
Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Transactions ASAE. 45(2):327-336.
Duryea, M., J. Mishoe, F. Altpeter, E. Hoffmann and A. Wright. 2004.
Nanotechnology Task Force. IFAS Deans Office: Gainesville, FL.
Emond, J. and J. Brecht. 2004. Development of Quality Curves for Highbush
Blueberries as a Function of the Storage Temperature. Food Products Press.


lopment and Use of Crop Models for Selected Florida Crops
rmination of Indicators of Ecological Change
ems for Controlling Air Pollutant Emissions and Indoor Environments of Poultry, Swine
Dairy Facilities
movement of Thermal and Alternative Processes for Foods
and Mass Transfer in Biological Systems
training the Competitiveness of Tree Fruit Production Through Precision Agriculture





a[ Manure and Waster Utilization, Treatment and Nuisance Avoidance for a Sustainable
culture
lopment and Evaluation ofTMDL Planning and AssessmentTools and Processes


cingWater Needs and Environmental Impact ofVegetable/Turf Production Using
moved Irrigation Scheduling and Irrigation Systems
logic and Biogeochemical Processes Regulating Phosphorus Retention in the Lake
chobee Drainage Basin



wave Remote Sensing in Hydrology



Fidler, M., J. Capece and K. Campbell. 2004. Optimization of Best Management
Practices for Beef Cattle Ranching in the Lake Okeechobee Basin: 2003 Final Data
Report to Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Agricultural
and Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Garvin, M., K. Tarvin, L. Stark, G. Woolfenden, J. Fitzpatrick and J. Day. 2004.
Arboviral Infection of Two Species of Wild Jays (Aves: Corvidae): Evidence for
Population Impacts. Journal of Medical Entomology. 41:215-225.
Haman, D. 2004. CAD and Management Software for Irrigation Systems. Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Haman, D. 2004. Computer Aided Microirrigation. Round-Table Conference on
Microirrigation, ICID.
Haman, D. 2004. Efficiency and Uniformity of Microirrigation System.
Proceedings of Tomato Workshop and Field Day.
Haman, D. 2004. Injecting Chemicals into Microirrigation Systems: Using
Plasticulture Technology for the Intensive Production of Vegetable Crops. An
American Society for Horticultural Sciences Seminar: Lexington, Kentucky.
Haman, D. 2004. Irrigated Acreage -Florida. In: 1999 Irrigation Survey. Irrigation
Journal. 50(1):19.
Haman, D. 2004. Irrigation 101. American Nurseryman. 192(7):90-93.
Haman, D. 2004. Irrigation Methods and Pointers for Watermelon Production in
Florida. Proc. of the 1986 Watermelon Institute. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, Veg. Crops Department.
Haman, D. 2004. Methods and Equipment for Injecting Chemicals into
Microirrigation Systems. Proceedings of the Third Annual Microirrigation
Workshop and Mini-Trade Show.
Haman, D. 2004. Microirrigation for Grapes in Florida. Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences.
Haman, D. 2004. Proc. of International Fertigation Symposium.
Haman, D. 2004. Proper Filtration: Key to Microirrigation Performance. Irrigation
Business and Technology Voice of IA The Irrigation Association. 1997:3.


22 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Haman, D. 2004. Pumps, Displacement. In: Encyclopedia of Water Science, pp.
759-763.
Haman, D. 2004. Soil-plant-water Relationships. The Florida Irrigation Society 6th
Annual Show and Technical Conference Magazine, pp. 2.
Haman, D. and F. Zazueta. 2004. Efficiency and Uniformity of a Microirrigation
System. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine, pp. 3.
Haman, D. and G. Burgess. 2004. Theoretical Development for Measuring the
Elastic Properties of Spherical Cuticular Membranes. Transactions of the ASAE.
29(5):1470-1476.
Haman, D. and G. Hochmuth. 2004. Tensiometer Control and Fertigation of
Micro-irrigated Tomatoes. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Winter
Meeting.
Haman, D. and G. Merva. 2004. Influence of Selected Ions and Cuticular Waxes
on Elastic Properties of Tomato Cuticle. International Agrophysics. 1:289-300.
Haman, D. and L. Salgado. 2004. Microirrigation for Fruit Production in Chile.
Microirrigation for a Changing World: Conserving Resources/Preserving the
Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth International Microirrigation Congress.
ASAE.
Haman, D. and M. Joyner. 2004. Polymer Conditioners for Florida Soils. Crop
Science Society of Florida.
Haman, D. and P. Lyrene. 2004. Blueberry Response to Irrigation and Ground
Cover. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D. and P. Lyrene. 2004. Use of Tensiometers for Blueberry Irrigation
Scheduling. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D. and S. Irmak. 2004. Continuous Water Content Measurements with
Time-domain Reflectometry or Sandy Soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc.
Haman, D. and S. Irmak. 2004. Evaluation of Five Methods for Estimating Class
A Pan Evaporation in a Humid Climate. HortTechnology. 13(3):500-508.
Haman, D. and S. Irmak. 2004. Performance of the Watermark Granular Matrix
Sensor in Sandy Soils. ASAE Paper No. 00-2037. American Society of Agricultural
Engineers.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems Part 1: Measuring Operation Pressures. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 18-19.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Application Rates. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 32-36.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Uniformity of Water Application in Sprinkler Systems.
Ornamental Outlook. 6:2.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Uniformity of Water Application of Microirrigation Systems.
Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Irrigation System Selection for Container
Nurseries. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 18-21.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Stop Seeing Spots Tips for Eliminating Foliar
Deposits and Stains Caused by Irrigation Water. Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Filters Serve Key Role in Trickle
Systems. Citrus & Vegetable Magazine, pp. 4.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Florida Irrigated Acreage. In: 1992
Irrigation Survey. Irrigation Journal. 43(1):22-52.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Irrigated Acreage -Florida. In:
1997 Irrigation Survey. Irrigation Journal. 48:1.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Irrigated Acreage -Florida. In:
1998 Irrigation Survey. Irrigation Journal. 49:1.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Potential Impact of Improper
Irrigation System Design. The Florida Irrigation Society 4th Annual Trade Show
and Technical Conference Magazine.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. The Impact of Improper Irrigation
System Design. Irrigation News, the Irrigation Association. May.
Haman, D., A. Smajstrla and F. Zazueta. 2004. Water Quality Problems of
Microirrigation in Florida. Round-Table Conference on Microirrigation, ICID.
1:49-58.


Haman, D., B. Boman, G. Knox, S. Lacascio, T. Obreza, L. Parsons, F
Rhoads and T. Yeager. 2004. Status and Growth of Microirrigation in Florida.
Microirrigation for a Changing World: Conserving Resources/Preserving the
Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth International Microirrigation Congress.
ASAE.
Haman, D., C. Brooks, T. Yeager and R. Beeson, Jr. 2004. Square Funnel
Containers for Nursery Production. SNA Proceedings.
Haman, D., E. Simonne and M. Dukes. 2004. Vegetable Production Guide for
Florida. Chapter 8: Principles and Practices for Irrigation Management, pp. 31-35.
Haman, D., F. Zazueta and A. Smajstrla. 2004. Computer Aided Design of
Landscape Irrigation Systems. Applied Agriculture Research. pp. 280-284.
Haman, D., F. Zazueta and A. Smajstrla. 2004. Computer Aided Design of Turf
Irrigation Systems. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D., G. Clark, C. Stanley, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth andE. Hanlon.
2004. Water and Fertilizer Management of Microirrigated Fresh Market Tomatoes.
Transactions of the ASAE. 34(2):429-435.
Haman, D., H. Helikson and C. Baird. 2004. Photovaltaic -powered Water
Pumping for Irrigation. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Florida
Section Meeting.
Haman, D., J. Jeznach and E. Pierzgalski. 2004. Development of Microirrigation
in Poland. In: Microirrigation for a Changing World: Conserving Resources/
Preserving the Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth International
Microirrigation Congress. ASAE.
Haman, D., J. Mishoe and S. Thomson. 2004. A Knowledge-based Irrigation
Advisor Using Moisture Sensors and Crop Simulation. Proceedings of the Third
International Conference on Computers in Ag. Extension Programs.
Haman, D., K. Campbell and D. Graetz. 2004. Lysimeter Study of Microirrigation
and Fertigation of tomatoes. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Florida Proceedings.
Haman, D., K. Campbell, K. Stone and D. Graetz. 2004. Nitrogen Movement
Under Microirrigation. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Summer
Meeting.
Haman, D., L. Couto and G. Hochmuth. 2004. Nitrogen and Irrigation
Management for Squash Production in North Florida. Proc Fla. State Hort. Soc..
Haman, D., M. Palacios, A. Del-Nero, A. Pardo and N. Pavon. 2004. Banana
Production Irrigated with Treated Effluent in Canary Islands. Transactions of
ASAE. 43(2):309-314.
Haman, D., M. Register and R. Stamps. 2004. Cold Protection of Leatherleaf Fern
in Florida. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Florida Section Meeting.
Haman, D., M. Youngblood and R. Curry. 2004. Effect of Climate Change on
Irrigation Needs in the Southeast. ASAE.
Haman, D., P. Kirpich and S. Styles. 2004. Problems of Irrigation in Developing
Countries. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 1:38358.
Haman, D., P. Lyrene and R. Pritchard. 2004. Response of Young Blueberry
Plants to Irrigation in Florida. HortScience. 32(7):1194-1196.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Evapotranspiration and Crop
Coefficients for Young Blueberries in Florida. Applied Engineering in Agriculture.
13(2):209-216.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Response of Young Blueberry
Plants to Microirrigation in Florida. In: Microirrigation for a Changing World:
Conserving Resources/Preserving the Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth
International Microirrigation Congress. ASAE.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Water Use and Irrigation
Scheduling of Young Blueberries. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D., S. Irmak and R. Bastug. 2004. Determination of Crop Water Stress
Index for Irrigation Timing and Yield Estimation of Corn. Agron. J. 92:1221-1227.
Haman, D., S. Irmak and T. Yeager. 2004. Container Production Innovations.
American Nurseryman, pp. 54-56.
Haman, D., S. Irmak and T. Yeager. 2004. Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of
Multi-pot Box System. Journal of Environmental Hort. 19(1):38452.
Haman, D., S. Irmak, A. Irmak, J. Jones, T. Yeager and K. Campbell. 2004. A
New Irrigation-plant Production System for Water Conservation in Ornamental
Nurseries: Quantification and Evaluation of Irrigation, Runoff, Plant Biomass, and
Irrigation Efficiencies. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 19(6):651-655.
Haman, D., S. Thomson and J. Mishoe. 2004. Knowledge System to Adjust Soil-
water Parameters of the PNUTGRO Crop Model. ASAE.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 23








PUBLICATIONS



Haman, D., T. Yeager and S. Irmak. 2004. Multi-pot Box System for Increased
Efficiency of Irrigation in Ornamental Plant Production. Irrigation Association
Technical Conference Proceedings.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, R. Beeson Jr. and G. Knox. 2004. Multiple Pot Box for
Container Plant Production. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 16(1):60-63.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, S. Irmak and C. Larsen. 2004. Container Plant Production
in Multiple Pot Box. SNA Research Conference.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, S. Irmak, R. Beeson, Jr. and G. Knox. 2004. Multipot Box
and Funneled Containers in Container Nursery Production. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc.
Hochmuth, R., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, M. Dukes and D. Studstill. 2004.
Field Testing of Possible Nitrogen Fertilizer Best Management Practices for
Watermelon Grown on Sandy Soils.
Irmak, S., D. Haman, A. Irmak, J. Jones, K. Campbell and T. Crisman. 2004.
Measurement and Analyses of Growth and Stress Parameters of Viburnum
Odoratissimum (Ker-gawl) Grown in a Multi-pot Box System. HortScience.
39(6):1445-1455.
Irmak, S., M. Dukes and J. Jacobs. 2004. Using Modified Bellani Plate
Evapotranspiration Gages to Estimate Short Canopy Reference Evapotranspiration.
Jackson, Jr., J. and C. Fraisse. 2004. Weather and Climate in Florida. University of
Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Lehtola, C., C. Brown and J. Nelson. 2004. NASD: The National Agricultural
Safety Database An Important Tool for Safety Programming. Journal of
Extension.













GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


Mendoza, T., B. Welt, W. Otwell, H. Kristinsson and M. Balaban. 2004. Kinetic
Parameter Estimation of Time -temperature Integrators Intended for Use with
Packaged Fresh Seafood. Journal of Food Science. 69(3):FMS90-FMS96.
Munoz-Carpena, R., M. Dukes, L. Miller, Y. Li and W. Klassen. 2004. Design
and Field Evaluation of a New Interface for Soil Moisture-based Irrigation Control.
2004 ASAE Annual International Meeting, Ottawa, Canada.
Naab, J., P. Singh, K. Boote, J. Jones and K. Marfo. 2004. Using the CROPGRO-
Peanut Model to Quantify Yield Gaps of Peanut in the Guinean Savanna Zone of
Ghana. Agronomy Journal. 96:1231-1242.
Pedersen, P., K. Boote, J. Jones and J. Lauer. 2004. Modifying the CROPGRO-
Soybean Model to Improve Predictions for the Upper Midwest. Agronomy Journal.
96:556-564.
Sau, F., K. Boote, W. Bostick, J. Jones and M. Minguez. 2004. Testing and
Improving Evapotranspiration and Soil Water Balance of the DSSAT Crop Models.
Agronomy Journal. 96:1243-1257.
Simonne, E., M. Dukes and D. Haman. 2004. Principles and Practices for
Irrigation Management. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. pp. 33-39.
Sims, R. and K. Campbell. 2004. Performance Evaluation of the Field Hydrologic
and Nutrient Transport Model (FHANTM 2.0) on Beef Pastures at Buck Island
Ranch, Florida: Final Model Report to Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department,
University of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Towler, M., Y. Kim, M. Correll, B. Wyslouzil and P. Weathers. 2004. Design,
Development, and Applications of Mist Bioreactors. Plant Tissue Culture
Engineering.


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Beck, H.W. Cooperative Agreement Implementation Plan for the Environmtlsys-
tems Commercial Space Tech Center (Es Cstc): Amendment i

Beck, H.W. Creation of a National Train ing Program for First Detectors in Agri-
cultural Homeland Security: Curriculum Cataloging

Bucklin, R.A. Plant and Environmental Interactions in a Mars Greenhouse

Burks, T.F. The Automated Citrus Harvester Program

Campbell, K.L. Pasture Water Management for Reduced Phosphorus Loading in the
Lake Okeechobee Watershed

Chynoweth, D.P. NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center
atthe UF


Dukes, M.D.

Emond, J.

Emond, J.


NASA


North Carolina State Univ.


NASA

Dept of Citrus

Dept of Agricu[ & Consumer Ser.


NASA


Evaluation ofSoil Moisture Based On-demand Irrigation Controllers Water Management Districts


Optimization of RFID in the Produce Supply Chain

RFID in Produce


Graham, W.D. Demonstration of Water Quality Best Management Practices For
Beef Cattle Ranchinz in the Lake Okeechobee Basin


Haman, D.Z.


Haman, D.Z.


Demonstration of Ebb and Flow Water Application System for Out-
door Containerized Plant Production in Florida (DACS Match)


Tanimura &Antle

Fresh Express

Dept. of Environmental Protection


Dept. of Environmental Protection


Demonstration of Multipot Boxes for Container Nursery Production Dept. of Environmental Protection


24 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


56,100


61,434


24,000

100,000

104,612


220,862

30,870

30,870

1,348,233


38,000


50,485









AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Jagtap, S.S.


Jagtap, S.S.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jones, J.W.


Jordan, J.D.


Judge, J.


Judge, J.


Lee, W.S.


Lee, W.S.

Lehtola, L.J.


Price, D.

Royce, F.S.


Teixeira, A.A.

Teixeira, A.A.

Welt, B.A.


Decision Support System for Agricultural Applications of Climate
Forecast in West Africa

Strengthening Agricultural Rsearch Capacityto Generate Technolo-
gies in Nigeria's Dry Belt

Spatial Data &Scaling Methods F/assessment of Agricultural Im-
pacts of Climate: Managing Multiple Sources of Uncertainty

Measuring and Assessing Soil Carbon Sequestration byAgricultural
Systems in Developing Countries

Agricultural Application of Climate Information System for Agricul-
ture and Water Resource Management in the SE USA

Risk Reduction for Specialty Crops in the Southeastern USA


Decision Support System for ReducingAgricultural Risks Caused by
Climate Variability

Measuring and Assessing Soil Carbon Sequestration byAgricultural
Systems in Developing Countries

Agricultural Application of Climate Information System for Agricul-
ture and Water Resource Management in the Southeastern USA

Tools for Assessing Integrated Crop-Livestock Farm Householdeco-
nomic Risks

Integrated Crop Management Information System under Current
and Future Climate Conditions

Decision Support System for ReducingAgricut[tural Risks Caused by
Climate Variability

Improving Economic Efficiency and Reducing Environmental Impact
in the US Sugarcane Industry Thr a Systems-Based Approach

Integration and Verification of Water Quality and Crop Yieldmodels
for BMP Planning

Baseline Mapping via Remote Sensing for Monitoring the Biocontrol
ofSchinus Terebinthifolius Raddi in Florida

Linking Changes in Dynamic Vegetation to Passive Microwave
Remote Sensing

Improved Estimation of Evapotranspiration and Recharge Through
Assimil[iation of Microwave Observations

Development of a Reflectance Spectroscopic P-sensor for Terrestrial
and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Lake Okeechobee...

CitrusYield MappingSystem Using Machine Vision

Expansion & Maintenance of NationalAgriculturalSafety Database
(NASD)

IPA for Donald R. Price with National Science Foundation

Economic, Social and Enviromenta[Sustainability of Cuban Agricul-
tural Cooperativies

Processing of Sugar Beet Tailings

IPPD/Therman Sandwich Wrap and Optimum Work Flow

In-case Filling of Flower Vases


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 25


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


Intl. Start Secretariat


National Center for Atmospheric Res.


Univ. of Hawaii


Univ. of Miami


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Florida State University


Univ. of Hawaii


Univ. of Miami


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Florida State University


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. of Environmental Protection


NASA


NASA


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

East Carolina University


National Science Foundation

Social Science Research Counc[


Am Crystal Sugar

Firehouse Restaurant

Saint Rose Miami


125,141


10,270


90,576

219,434


224,995


499,969


354,476

290,053


225,000


15,000


16,240


620,000


100,000


405,527

24,879


24,000


83,772


399,300


35,000

37,367


177,398
2,900


12,300

15,000

300

















The vision of the Department of Agricultural Education and
Communication is to lead in developing and strengthening educa-
tors, communicators, and leaders to meet society's challenges in ag-
riculture and natural resources. The mission of the department is to
serve society through the land-grant mission of teaching, research,
and extension in agriculture and natural resources by enhancing
leadership in communities and organizations, education in formal
and nonformal settings, and communication of ideas and issues. The
four programmatic dimensions of the department include educa-
tion, communication, leadership, and extension within an agricul-
ture and natural resources context.
Primary constituent groups include school-based agriscience
teachers, extension educators who conduct educational programs
through the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, professional
agricultural communicators, and specialists in agribusiness, com-
munity, and governmental agencies who serve in leadership, educa-
tion, and/or communication/public relations capacities. The applied
nature of research in the department suggests a strong connection
between faculty-led research projects and practice in these profes-
sional arenas.
Current research projects may be grouped into the areas of
critical and creative thinking, media relations, distance education


strategies and technologies, teaching and learning strategies and
methods, youth leadership development, educator preparation and
professional development, leadership and change, and program
evaluation. Research priorities reflect state, regional, and national
needs and emerge from periodic discussions with key stakeholder
groups. The following studies illustrate the types of projects cur-
rently under investigation as a part of our complementary to those
supported by the Florida Experiment Station: Grassroots Leadership
in the Florida Farm Bureau, Media Relations Knowledge and Skills
of Agricultural Scientists, Motivation and Attrition in Distance
Education Courses, Content Analysis of Biotechnology Coverage
in the News Media, Effects of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods in
Laboratory Settings, The Influence on Family and Community on
Student Achievement, Evaluation of a Food Science Curriculum
Based Upon Good Agricultural Practices, Community Viability and
Leadership, the Role of Extension in the Adoption of Technologies
by Beef Producers, Leadership and Life Skill Development of Col-
lege of Agriculture Students, and Challenges in Teaching Agriculture
in Urban Settings.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 27


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION
IFn AS 305 Rolfs Hall, PO Box 110540 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0540
od Ai EitS o 352-392-0502 | http://ace.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


THE INFLUENCE OF LEARNING STYLE ON COGNITIVE
PROCESS SKILL DEVELOPMENT
BY JIM DYER

SIGNIFICANCE: Helping students to become successful learners
is a goal of virtually every educator. Whereas many people view
academic success through achievement scores, those who hire
college graduates tend to take a more fundamental approach to
success and view it as the ability of students to think critically and
solve problems in a multitude of situations.
In almost every list of teaching objectives it is possible to find
statements affirming the intention of teachers to develop in their
students the ability to gather and process information efficiently
and accurately. However, teaching faculty share a common goal:
To develop in students those complex mental operations (cogni-
tive abilities) that promote success in the classroom and in their
personal lives. The capacity to inquire, analyze, think critically,
and solve problems is central to our concept of a successful educa-
tion. However, in spite of our repeated affirmation of the impor-
tance of teaching students to learn by thinking for themselves, the
processes involved in addressing individual differences in students
are some of the least emphasized activities in classroom instruc-
tion. As a result, students often enroll in classes and major in
subject areas where they are likely to experience little success.
Students are much different today than they were before a
majority of today's faculty began their teaching careers. While not
surprising, both educators and the general public sometimes take
this phenomenon for granted. Whereas educating the masses was
once a straightforward understanding that those who know, teach,
and those who do not know, learn; the process of teaching and
learning seems to have evolved into a more complicated process.
Faculty and students learn differently. Entering college fresh-
men tend to exhibit learning styles that are concrete, active
patterns. Faculty, on the other hand, tend to reflect a preferred
learning pattern in the abstract, reflective realm. This divergence
in learning styles becomes more complex when other factors such
as critical thinking and problem solving skills are introduced to
the mix. Unfortunately, research that recognizes and addresses
the learning differences and needs of individual students is still in
its adolescent stage. As such, there is much that we do not know
about how students perceive and process information and then
use that information to think through the solution of a problem.
Expert-novice research leads us to believe that thinking patterns
can be changed; however, that change may only be a reflection
that those who did not develop problem solving skills failed to
become experts. If we are to be successful in increasing the ability
of all students to think critically and solve problems, a broader
understanding of how to connect with students of all learning
styles must be attained.
RATIONALE: Whereas faculty members are generally abstract
reflective learners who favor teaching in a style that is thoughtful,
introspective, scholarly, and promotes learning for its inherent val-
ue, students often need structure in their learning processes. Some
learning styles are more dependent upon this teacher-intervention
than others. It is postulated that these students are most effective
at learning when active learning processes are in place that cause
students to critically think and solve problems.


Cognitive or learning style is defined as the way each person
perceives, sorts, absorbs, processes, and retains information.
Critical thinking has been defined as true higher order think-
ing that allows a person to ask appropriate questions in order to
gauge a reflective, responsible, and reasonable response to a given
situation. As such, students are neither born with the ability to
think critically, nor do they acquire it naturally as they go through
life. Rather, it is a process whereby the skill of thinking is one
that must be taught. Cognitive process skills are those specific
and macro thinking skills that are involved in the perception and
processing of information through higher order thinking and
problem solving skills. They include such processes as analyz-
ing, decision making, critical thinking, problem solving, and
evaluation. However, not all students (nor instructors) perceive
and process information in the same way. This complicates the
instructional process and forces instructors to use a myriad of
teaching strategies, methods, and techniques to develop these
skills in students. The question remains, however, as to which (if
any) of these strategies, methods, and/or techniques assist the
learner in developing problem solving skills. Likewise, the influ-
ence of individual learning styles upon this process is not known.
The purpose of this research is to identify those variables that
influence cognitive process skill (CPS) development. Secondary
purposes include determining the role of cognitive (learning)
styles in CPS development and identifying educational strategies
that enhance CPS development across educational areas of interest
and learning styles.
IMPACT: The major impact of this project lies in enhancing the
ability of students to think critically and solve problems. In doing
so, learners should be able to better utilize instruction, thereby
maximizing learning for all students and providing the agricul-
tural industry with better-prepared personnel.
'. d!. il ,II. an evaluation instrument is being developed in
this project whereby instructors may evaluate their courses and
instructional strategies to determine the level of problem solv-
ing/critical thinking being taught in a course. Administrators and
faculty alike will be able to identify courses that are producing
desired changes in cognitive process skills.


Jim Dyer


28 1 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


Another impact to colleges should be the improved identifica-
tion and retention of students who are likely to be successful in
attaining a degree. Each year colleges of agriculture and natural
resources nationwide spend millions of dollars educating students
who later change their minds about a career in agriculture and
drop out of educational programs, often negating the invest-
ment that the college and university has made in those students.


TITLE


Edward W. Osborne

Larry R. Arrington

Cheri Broduer

Hannah S. Carter

Jimmy G. Cheek

James E. Dyer

Marta M. Hartmann

Tracy A. Irani

Glenn D. Israel

MarkJ. Kistler

Howard W. Ladewig

Brian E. Myers

Lacy Park

NickT. Place

RickW. Rudd

RickyW. TeIg

Bryan Terry

Pete Vergot

Shannon Washburn


If students' proclivity toward using cognitive process skills is
mismatched with the CPS level required by their respective area of
study, remedial courses may be prescribed or the student may be
counseled to consider another major where they are more likely to
experience success at an early point in their academic career.
COLLABORATORS: None (individual project)


SPECIALTY


Chair and Prof.

Dean

Infor. Coord./Pub. Serv.

Lecturer

Dean

Asst. Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Coord/Acad Support Service

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Coord./Statistical Research

Assoc. Prof. and Dist. Ext. Dir.

Asst. Prof.


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


Teaching Methods/Agriscience Instruction

Extension

Extension

Leadership

Academic Programs

Teach ing/Learn in g Strategies

Multicultural Education

Consumer Perceptions/Communications
Technology
Evaluation Methods

Extension Education

Adoption/Diffusion ofAgricultural Technology

Education Strategies

Academic Programs

Extension Education/Professional Development

Leaders hip/Critical Thinking

Media Relations/Distance Education

Extension

Extension

Educational Strategies/Youth Development


65 5 30


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 29


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY









AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


RESEARCH PROJECTS


TITLE
Factors Influencing Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology: Developing a Model to
Predict Consumer Acceptance of GMO Foods
The Influence of Social Capital on Education and Technology Transfer Outcomes
The Influence of Learning Styles in Cognitive Process Skill Development
The Influence of Family, School and Community Social Capital on Early Childhood Educational
Outcomes of Rura[Youth
Reduction of Error in Rural and Agricultural Surveys


PUBLICATIONS



Beaulieu, L. and G. Israel. 2004. Its More than Just Schools: How Families and
Communities Promote Student Achievement. The Role of Education: Promoting
the Economic and Social Vitality of Rural America. pp. 44-55.
Colvin, J., S. Fraze, J. Smith and M. Kistler. 2004. Perceptions of Secondary
Principals in Texas Concerning Leadership Skills Attained Through Membership
and Participation in the FFA Program. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education
Research. 54(1):244-255.
Grantham, S. and T. Irani. 2004. Watching Your Language: Translating Science
Based Research for Public Consumption. Journal of Applied Communications.
88(1):43-51.
Gregg, A. and T. Irani. 2004. Use of Information Technology by County Extension
Agents of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Journal of Extension.
Irani, T. and R. Telg. 2004. Personality Type and its Relationship to Distance
Education Students' Course Perceptions and Performance. Quarterly Review of
Distance Education. 4(4):445-455.
Israel, G. 2004. Enhancing the Rural Souths Quality of Life: Leveraging
Development Through Educational Institutions. Southern Rural Sociology. 20(1).
Israel, G. and L. Beaulieu. 2004. Investing in Communities: Social Capital's Role
in Keeping Youth in School. Journal of the Community Development Society.
34(2):35-57.
Israel, G. and L. Beaulieu. 2004. Laying the Foundation for Employment: The
Role of Social Capital in Educational Achievement. The Review of Regional
Studies. 34(3).
Kistler, M. and G. Briers. 2004. Change in Knowledge and Practices as a Result
of Adults' Participation in the Texas A&M Ranch to Rail Program. Journal of
Southern Agricultural Education Research. 53(1):227-238.
Larsen, W. and R. Mills. 2004. Just another test. Test of Journal Trade.
Lundy, L. and T. Irani. 2004. Framing Biotechnology: A Comparison of U.S. and
British Newspapers. Journal of Applied Communications. 8(2):41-49.
Lundy, L., T. Irani, R. Turner, S. Percival and B. Mcpherson. 2004. GNC
University: A Case Study in Partnering Business and Education Through Distance
Learning. Journal of Applied Communications. 88(2):51-60.
Myers, B. 2004. Incorporating Science, Math, and Reading into the Agriculture
Classroom: The Role of the Laboratory. The Agricultural Education Magazine.
Myers, B. 2004. Where Have All the Ag Teachers Gone? The Agricultural
Education Magazine. 72(5).
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. A Comparison of the Attitudes and Perceptions
of University Faculty and Administrators Toward Advising Undergraduate
and Graduate Students and Student Organizations. American Association for
Agricultural Education Annual Meeting.


Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Advising Components, Roles, and Perceived Level
of Competence of University Faculty. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education
Research. 53(1):258-271.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Advising Components, Roles, and Perceived Level of
Competence of University Faculty. Southern Region American Association for
Agricultural Education Annual Meeting.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Agriculture Teacher Education Programs: A Synthesis
of the Literature. Journal of Agricultural Education. 45(3):44-52.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Effects of Investigative Laboratory Instruction
on Student Content Knowledge and Science Process Skill Achievement Across
Learning Styles. Southern Region American Association for Agricultural
Education Annual Meeting.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Making Science Applicable: The Need for a Modern
Agricultural Education Curriculum. The Agricultural Education Magazine.
74(5):24-25.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. Perceptions, Value, and Preparation of University
Faculty and Administrators Toward Advising Undergraduate and Graduate
Students and Student Organizations. American Association for Agricultural
Education Annual Meeting.
Myers, B. and J. Dyer. 2004. The Influence of Student Learning Style on Critical
Thinking Skills. Southern Region American Association for Agricultural
Education Annual Meeting.
Myers, B. andL. Jones. 2004. Successful Field Trips: A Three-step Approach. The
Agricultural Education Magazine. 76(4):26-27.
Myers, B. and T. Roberts. 2004. Conducting a Professional Development
Workshop Using Experiential Learning. NACTA Journal. 48(2):27-32.
Myers, B., J. Dyer and L. Breja. 2004. Recruitment Strategies and Activities Used
by Agriculture Teachers. American Association for Agricultural Education Annual
Meeting. 44(4):94-105.
Myers, B., J. Dyer and L. Breja. 2004. Solutions to Recruitment Issues of
High School Agricultural Education Programs. Southern Region American
Association for Agricultural Education Annual Meeting.
Myers, B., J. Dyer and S. Washburn. 2004. Problems Facing Beginning
Agriculture Teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education.
Myers, B., S. Washburn and J. Dyer. 2004. Assessing Agriculture Teachers'
Capacity for Teaching Science Integrated Process Skills. Journal of Southern
Agricultural Education Research.
Osborne, E. 2004. A Model for the Study of Reading in School-based Agricultural
Education. American Association for Agricultural Education Annual Meeting.
Osborne, E. 2004. Process and Product Variables for the Study of Reading in
Secondary Agriscience. American Association for Agricultural Education Annual
Meeting.
Osborne, E., S. Washburn and J. Dyer. 2004. Space Odyssey: 2004 Space
Agriculture in the Classroom 7th Grade Curriculum.


30 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


PROJECT NO.
AEC-03879


AEC-03957
AEC-04048
AEC-04082


AEC-04193


AUTHOR
Irani, T.A.


Israel, G.D.
Dyer, J.E.
Israel G.D.


Israel, G.D.








PUBLICATIONS



Ricketts-Grage, K., N. Place and J. Ricketts. 2004. Exploring Cooperation
between Secondary Agricultural Educators and Livestock Extension Agents: A
Case Study. Journal of Extension.
Roberts, G., T. Irani, L. Lundy and R. Telg. 2004. Practices in Student Evaluation
of Distance Education Courses among Land Grant Institutions. Journal of
Agricultural Education. 45(3):1-10.
Roberts, G., T. Irani, L. Lundy and R. Telg. 2004. The Development of an
Instrument to Evaluate Distance Education Courses Using Student Attitudes. The
American Journal of Distance Education. 45(3):1-10.









GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY

Isreal, G.D.


TITLE


Smith, J., M. Kistler, K. Williams, W. Edmiston and M. Baker. 2004.
Relationships between Selected Demographic Characteristics and the Quality of
Life of Adolescents in a Rural West Texas Community. Journal of Agricultural
Education. 45(4):71-81.
Terry, B. and G. Israel. 2004. Agent Performance and Customer Satisfaction.
Journal of Extension. 42(6).
Warner, W. and S. Washburn. 2004. Building Community and Administrative
Support Through Professionalism. The Agricultural Education Magazine.
76(5):38511


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


The Influence of Family, School and Community Social Capitalon U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture
Early Childhood Educational Outcomes of RuralYouth


103,000


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 31


















The mission of the Agronomy Department is to discover, develop,
evaluate and disseminate knowledge and information necessary to
support the agronomic-related industries of the State and nation,
and to promote and enhance the production and utilization of
agronomic commodities and the management of pest plant species
for the benefit of society.
The Agronomy Department's research mission is accomplished
through state-wide programs conducted by faculty members located
on the Gainesville campus throughout a network of UF/IFAS Re-
search and Education Centers across the State. Research programs of
the Department are programmatically organized into the following
four areas:
GENETICS PROGRAM AREA: The strength of the Genetics Program
Area has been in traditional, applied breeding programs to develop
improved cultivars of forages, legumes, sugarcane and small grains.
Forage and field crop scientists in the Department have released
crop cultivars since 1988. Molecular biology programs are now mak-
ing .i.. ii ., contributions to the more traditional forage, peanut,
and sugarcane breeding programs.
MANAGEMENT AND NUTRITION PROGRAM AREA: National and
international strengths in this program include forage evaluation,
management, and utilization; diversified row crop and forage man-
agement; conservation tillage, multiple-cropping systems; utiliza-
tion of urban and agricultural wastes as nutrient sources for crop
production; and alternative crop plants. Emphasis has recently been
placed on environmental impacts of forage production practices.
Management recommendations have been developed that facilitate
increased efficiency of nutrient cycling in grazed pastures and use of


dairy wastes for production of forage crops while minimizing envi-
ronmental impacts. For field crops, an important strength has been
the presence of a highly diversified crop management team that
possesses expertise in cultivation practices of numerous crop plants
including peanut, cotton, tobacco, corn, small grains, soybean,
sugarcane and rice.
WEED SCIENCE PROGRAM AREA: Weed scientists in the Depart-
ment have developed, evaluated and implemented weed manage-
ment strategies for terrestrial and aquatic weeds in temperate,
subtropical and tropical environments. Current strengths include
biology, molecular genetics, and physiology of weed species; aquatic
and invasive plant research and management; weed management
strategies for southeastern cropping systems; weed/crop interference
mechanisms; computer decision modeling; wetland mitigation; and
pasture, rangeland and noncrop weed management systems.
PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY PROGRAM AREA: Traditional
strengths have been documenting and understanding the physiology
of crops at the leaf, whole plant and crop canopy levels, particularly
in response to global climate change factors and other environ-
mental factors, and development of computer simulations of crop
growth, development, and yield. '~'i 1 ii contributions include
documenting crop responses to rising carbon dioxide and climate
change factors and development of crop simulation growth models
for grain legumes that incorporate physiological mechanisms and
allow assessment of hypothetical responses to climate change, crop
management and genetic improvement.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 33


# UNIVERSITY OF
^FLORIDA AGRONOMY

IFAS 304 Newell Hall, PO Box 110500 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0500
Florida culturalExper Stati 352-392-1811 I http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








AGRONOMY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


PEANUT GENOMICS
BY MARIA GALLO-MEAGHER

SIGNIFICANCE: Cultivated peanut, also known as groundnut
(Arachis hypogaea L.), is grown on 25.5 million hectares between
latitudes 40 N and 40 S with a total global production of 35 mil-
lion tons. It is both a major food crop and one of the top oilseed
crops produced in the world. Peanut offers numerous human
health benefits. Peanut seed is high in oil (40%-55%), but it con-
tains mostly unsaturated fat, which has been shown to lower LDL-
cholesterol levels in the blood. Additionally, genetic mutants have
been discovered that contain a very high proportion of desirable
mono-unsaturated fatty acids. All of these "high oleic" varieties
which were developed by the University of Florida have about 80%
oleic (18:1) fatty acid content with approximately 2%-4% linoleic
and 4%-6% palmitic (16:0) fatty acids in the oil of the seed. These
seed, and products produced from them, have greatly improved
shelf-life in addition to their health benefits, as compared to other
peanut varieties with "normal" oil chemistry. Peanut also contains
resveratrol which leads to improved cardiovascular health, as well
as fiber that reduces the risk of certain types of cancer, and con-
trols blood sugar levels. In addition, peanut also is a good source
of folic acid which helps prevent neural tube defects; and contains
nearly half of the 13 essential vitamins and 35 percent of the es-
sential minerals. Because of its high nutritional value, the peanut
is being widely investigated as a key food source for astronauts
during extended space missions.
However, peanut can also be allergenic to a subset of the
population. Over 600,000 American children have a peanut
allergy and the number affected appears to be growing. Peanut
allergic individuals may experience symptoms ranging from mild
urticaria, facial swelling, and abdominal cramps to hypertension
with anaphylactic shock. While children outgrow other allergies,
an allergy to peanuts is considered life-long in most cases.
RATIONALE: Genomics is the study of the total hereditary mate-
rial (the genome or complete DNA sequence) of an organism
(structural genomics), the transcription of genes into RNA (tran-
scriptomics), the translation of RNA into proteins (proteomics),
and the synthesis of metabolic compounds (metabolomics).
Furthermore, to fully understand the function of genes, compara-
tive genomics involves comparing the genomes of two or more
organisms for the purpose of identifying conserved functional
sequences.
Genomics accelerates the discovery of improved traits such as
higher yield, disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses


such as drought, and value-added traits such as increased nutri-
tional value. Genomics provides essential tools to fully understand
the molecular and metabolic basis of the synthesis of crucial
compounds, to manipulate their content in various organs, and to
better manipulate interactions between the plant's genetic makeup
and its environment. It also facilitates the introduction of these
traits into new crop varieties.
Unlike other major crops, few basic tools utilized in genom-
ics are available for peanut. To date, peanut represents, at the
molecular level, an under-explored section of the large and diverse
legume family. As an early and essential component of a peanut
genomics toolkit, cDNA libraries and expressed sequence tag
(EST) resources that sample gene expression during peanut repro-
ductive development from major organs including flowers, pegs,
and seed, are in development. The data gathered will be instru-
mental in peanut gene discovery and utilization.
IMPACT: Peanut has been designated by the US Legume Ge-
nome Initiative as one of four focal legumes (along with soybean,
common bean, and alfalfa) for which more molecular tools and
basic knowledge are needed in order to benefit the legume and
plant scientific communities. Peanut genomics will enhance links
with the current genomics efforts underway in the model legume
Medicago trunculata, as well as Arabidopsis and other botanical
models. Therefore, new information about the peanut genome
will '.oIl, .,11 contribute to and advance our understanding
of the function, structure, and evolution of legume genomes. The
practical outcome will be advancement in peanut improvement
including future peanut varieties that keep farmers competitive
with higher yields and more desirable protein and oil content, and
reduced allergenicity.
COLLABORATORS: William G. Farmerie, UF/ICBR, Robert J.
Ferl, UF/IFAS, Daniel W Gorbet, UF/IFAS, Andrew Patterson,
University of Georgia, Barry Tillman, UF/IFAS.


Dr. Maria Gallo-Meagher


34 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









AGRONOMY


FACULTY & STAFF


TITLE


Jerry M. Bennett
Fredy Altpeter

Kenneth J. Boote

Carrol G. Chambliss

Jason A. Ferrell

Frederick M. Fishel

Alison M. Fox

Raymond N. Gallaher

Maria Gallo-Meagher

William T. Haller

Joe C. Joyce

Kenneth A. Langeland

Kevin Kenworthy

Gregory E. MacDonald

Kenneth H. Quesenberry

Johannes M. Scholberg

Aziz Shiralipoor

Thomas A. Sinclair

Lynn E. Sollenberger

Randall K. Stocker

Lori Unruh-Snyder

Elmo B. Whitty

David Wofford

E.T. York, Jr.


Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Exec. VP/Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Scientist

Visiting Prof.

Prof.

Dir. and Prof.

Lecturer

Prof.

Prof.

Distinguished Service Prof.


Crop Physiology

Molecular Genetics and Breeding

Crop Physiology

Forage Crop Management

Weed Science

Weed Science

Weed Ecology

Multiple Cropping Systems

Molecular Genetics and Breeding

Aquatic Plant Management

Aquatic Plant Management

Aquatic Plant Management

Genetics and Breeding

Weed Science

Genetics and Breeding

Crop Ecology and Management

Crop Physiology

Crop Physiology

Forage Crop Management

Weed Ecology

Crop Management

Field Crop Management

Genetics and Breeding

Plant Breeding


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION | 35


FACULTY


SPECIALTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


5 15

30 70

30 70

30 70

30 70

0 100

10 55

40 60

0 50

100 0

0 40

65 35









AGRONOMY


RESEARCH PROJECTS
PROJECT NO. AUTHOR
AGR-03621 Bennett, J.M.


AGR-03726 Chambliss, C.G., So[[llenberger, L.E.
AGR-03854 Quesenberry, K.


AGR-03905 MacDonald, G.E., Tredaway, J.A.
AGR-03983 Gallaher, R.N.
AGR-04013 Scholberg, J.M., Burr, K.L., Ferguson, J.J.,
McSorley, R.
AGR-04035 Scholberg, J.M.
AGR-04039 Sollenberger, L.E., Graetz, D.A.
Chambliss, C.G., Scholber, J.M.
AGR-04065 Gallaher, R.N., McSorley, R., Wang, K.H.,
McGovern, R.J., Kokalis-Burelle, N.
AGR-04070 Fox, A.M., Stocker, R.K., Langeland, K.A.


AGR-04076 Altpeter, F.


AGR-04083 Wofford, D.S., Quesenberry, K.H.
AGR-4092 Scholberg, J.M., Beck, H.W., Boote, K.J.,
Obreza, T.A., Dukes, M.D., Hutchinson, C.M.
AGR-04133-Q Quesenberry, K.H., Williams, M.J.
AGR-04133-A Altpeter, F., Valencia, E., Blount, A.R.


AGR-04152 Haller, W.T.
AGR-04155 Whitty, E.B.
AGR-04159 Quesenberry, K.H., Prine, G.M.
AGR-04165 MacDonald, G.E.


PUBLICATIONS



Allen, L., K. Heimburg, R. Bill, J. Bartholic and K. Boote. 2004. Remotely
Sensed Temperatures and Evapotranspiration of Heterogenous Grass and Citrus
Tree-canopy Surfaces. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 63:38372.
Altpeter, F. and A. Hopkins. 2004. Molecular Breeding of Forage and Turf.
Altpeter, F. and J. Popelka. 2004. Generation of Transgenic Rye (Secale cereale
L.) Plants with Single and Defined T-DNA Inserts, Following Agrobacterium-
mediated Gene Transfer. Transgenic Crops of the World. pp. 79-88.
Altpeter, F, J. Popelka and H. Wieser. 2004. Stable Expression of 1Dx5 and
1Dyl0 High-Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Transgenic Rye,
Drastically Increases the Polymeric Glutelin Fraction in Rye Flour. Plant Molecular
Biology 54:783-792.
Altpeter, F, Y. Fang, J. Xu and X. Ma. 2004. Comparison ofTransgene Expression
Stability after Agrobacterium-mediated or Biolistic Gene Transfer into Perennial
Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Molecular Breeding of Forage and Turf pp. 255-
260.
Auld, D., S. Pinkerton, E. Boroda, K. Lombard, C. Murphy, K. Kenworthy,
W. Becker, R. Rolfe and V. Ghetie. 2004. Registration of TTU-LRC Castor
Germplasm with Reduced Levels of Ricin and Rcal20. Crop Science. 43:746-747.


TITLE
Drought Tolerance of N2 Fixation in Relationship to Yield, Genetic Diversity, and Germplasm
Development
Evaluation of Forage Germ plasm and Forage Management Practices
Selection and Adaptation of Grass and Legume Species for Forage Production in the Southern
Coastal Plain and Peninsular Florida
Manipulation ofVegetative Reproduction as a Means of PerennialWeed Management
Conservation Tillage Multiple Cropping Management Strategies for Greater Sustainability
Integrative Use of Perennial Peanut for Cost-Effective Weed Control in Organic
Citrus.
Improved Use of Crop Nutrient Interception Capacity for Groundwater Protection
Verification of Interim BMP's for Nitrogen Fertilization of Hayfields
within the Suwannee River Water Management District
Effects of Management Practices on Pests, Pathogens, and Beneficials in Soil Ecosystems


Assessment of the Growth, Dispersal, and Impacts of Invasive, Non-native Plants in Florida's
Natural Areas
Dissection of Trait Components and Molecular Improvement of Grasses through Genetic
Engineering
Genetic Improvement of Forage Grass and Legume Species
Improved Resource management for Profitableand Environmentally Sound Integrated
Cropping Systems
Genetic Diversity and Domestication of Forage Legumes for the Subtropics and Tropics
Molecular Improvement of Physiological Traits Defining Environmental Adaptation of Tropical
Forage Grass Production
Evaluation of New Herbicides for Aquatic and Wetland Weed Control
Peanut Breeding and Genetics
Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization
Development of Sustainable Peanut Production Technologies forAmerindian Villages in the
Rupununi Region of Guyana


Duryea, M., J. Mishoe, F. Altpeter, E. Hoffmann and A. Wright. 2004.
Nanotechnology Task Force. IFAS Deans Office: Gainesville, FL.
Ferrell, J. and W. Vencill. 2004. Impact of Adjuvant and Nozzle Type on Cotton
Injury from Post-directed Applications of Flumioxazin. Cotton Science. 7:242-247.
Ferrell, J. and W. Vencill. 2004. Recovery of Flumioxazin in Soil and Water Using
Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry AOAC International. 87:56-59.
Ferrell, J. and W. Witt. 2004. Comparison of Glyphosate with Other Herbicides
for Weed Control in Corn (Zea Mays): Efficacy and Economics. Weed Tehcnology
16:701-706.
Ferrell, J., H. Earl and W. Vencill. 2004. Duration of Yellow Nutsede
Competitiveness After Treatment with Various Herbicides. Weed Science. 52:24-
27.
Ferrell, J., H. Earl and W. Vencill. 2004. The Effect of Selected Herbicides on
C02 Assimilation, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Stomatal Conductance of
Johnsongrass (Sorghum Halepense). Weed Science. 51:28-31.
Ferrell, J., H. Earl, W. Vencill, M. Van Iersel and M. Czarnota. 2004. Effects
of Three Herbicides on Whole Plant Carbon Fixation and Water Use by Yellow
Nutsedge. Weed Science. 52:213-216.
Ferrell, J., T. Murphy and W. Vencill. 2004. Effects of Postemergence Herbicides
on Centipedegrass Seed Production. Weed Technology. 17:871-875.


36 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Ferrell, J., T. Murphy and W. Vencill. 2004. Tolerance of Winter-installed Tall
Fescue and Hybrid Bermudagrass Sod to Herbicides. Weed Technology. 17:521-
525.
Ferrell, J., T. Murphy, L. Burpee and W. Vencill. 2004. Effect of Brown Patch
Control on Preemergence Herbicide Efficacy in Tall Fescue. Weed Technology.
17:747-750.
Ferrell, J., W. Vencill and T. Grey. 2004. Flumioxazin Soil Persistence and
Mineralization in Laboratory Experiments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:4719-4721.
Ferrell, J., W. Vencill and W. Witt. 2004. Sulfentrazone Absorption by Plant Roots
Increases as Soil or Solution pH Decreases. Weed Science. 51:826-830.
Fox, A. 2004. Escape-exotic Species Compendium of Activities to Protect the
Ecosystem and Zebra Mussel Mania Curriculum Guide. Applied Environmental
Education and Communication. 3(1):58-61.
Fox, A. and D. Gordon. 2004. Criteria for Listing Invasive Plants. Weed
Technology. 18:1309-1313.
Gorbet, D., H. Wood, M. Gomillion andE. Whitty. 2004. Florida Peanut Variety
Trials.
Gwata, E., D. Wofford and K. Boote. 2004. Genetics of Promiscuous Nodulation
in Soybean: Nodule Dry Weight and Leaf Color Score. Journal of Heredity. 95:154-
157.
Gwata, E., D. Wofford, K. Boote and H. Mushoriwa. 2004. Determination
of Effective Nodulation in Early Juvenile Soybean Plants for Genetic and
Biotechnology Studies. African J. of Biotechnol. 2(11):417-420.
Hanna, W. and L. Sollenberger. 2004. Tropical and Subtropical Grasses. Forages:
The Science of Grassland Agriculture.
Hanna, W., C. Chaparro, B. Mathews, J. Burns, L. Sollenberger and J.
Carpenter. 2004. Perennial Pennisetums. Warm-Season (C4) Grasses, pp. 503-535.
Hernandez G.A., L. Sollenberger, D. McDonald, G. Ruegsegger, R. Kalmbacher
and P. Mislevy. 2004. Nitrogen Fertilization and Stocking Rate Affect Stargrass
Pasture and Cattle Performance. Crop Science. 44:1348-1354.
Johnson, P., K. Kenworthy, D. Auld and T. Riordan. 2004. Distribution of
Buffalograss Polyploid Variation in the Southern Great Plains. Crop Science.
41:909-913.
Kenworthy, K., D. Auld and C. McKenney. 2004. Systematic Collection of
Buffalograss from the Lower Great Plains and Evaluation for Phenotypic and
Physiological Parameters. American Society of Agronomy National Meetings.
Kenworthy, K., D. Auld, C. McKenney and B. Lauterbach. 2004. The Effect
of Longitude and Latitude on Dormancy of Native Accessions of Buffalograss.
American Society of Agronomy National Meetings.
Kenworthy, K., D. Auld, D. Wester, R. Durham and C. McKenney. 2004.
Evaluation of Buffalograss Germplasm for Induction of Fall Dormancy and Spring
Green-up. Journal of Turfgrass Management. 3:23-42.
Koschnick, T., W. Haller and A. Fox. 2004. Turf and Ornamental Plant Tolerances
to Endothall in Irrigation Water II. Turf species. HortTechnology.
Langeland, K. 2004. What You Said: Survey Results from Restricted Use Pesticide
Applicators Concerning Continuing Education Needs and Preferences. Aquatics.
26(4):14-21.
Langeland, K. and J. Hutchinson. 2004. Notes from the Lygodium Research
Review. Wildland Weeds. pp. 38511.
Langeland, K., T. Fucigna, A. Ferriter, D. Leslie, J. Burney, R. Penfield and
D. Gordon. 2004. Old World Climbing Fern: An Increasing Problem in Central
Florida. Florida Cattleman and Livestock Journal. 74:74-80.
MacDonald, G. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Biology, Ecology and
Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 23(5):367-380.
MacDonald, G. and M. Barron. 2004. Cogongrass Management Utilizing
Integrated Revegetation Strategies Annual Report.
MacDonald, G., R. Kemerait, E. Williams, S. Brown, G. Harris, R. Gilbert,
J. LaGra and C. Lye. 2004. Establishment of Peanut Research Field Trials in
Communities in the Rupununi. Final Report Crop Year 2003.
Main, C., J. Ducar, E. Whitty and G. MacDonald. 2004. Weed Management in
Southeastern Peanut with Diclosulam and Flumioxazin. Weed Technology.
Maurer, M., D. Auld, C. Murphy, C. McKenney, P. Johnson and K. Kenworthy.
2004. Evaluation of Twenty-six Buffalograss Cultivars and Accessions for Use
as Turfgrass on the High Plains of West Texas. Texas Journal of Agriculture and
Natural Resources. 14:24-36.


Moore, K., K. Boote and M. Sanderson. 2004. Physiology and Developmental
Morphology. Warm Season C4 Grasses. American Society of Agronomy: Madison,
WI. pp. 179-216.
Moser, L., B. Burson and L. Sollenberger. 2004. Warm-season C4 Grasses.
American Society of Agronomy: Madison, WI.
Naab, J., P. Singh, K. Boote, J. Jones and K. Marfo. 2004. Using the CROPGRO-
peanut Model to Quantify Yield Gaps of Peanut in the Guinean Savanna Zone of
Ghana. Agronomy Journal. 96:1231-1242.
Newman, Y. and L. Sollenberger. 2004. Grazing Management and N Fertilization
Effects on Competition between Vaseygrass and Limpograss. Crop Science.
Pedersen, P., K. Boote, J. Jones and J. Lauer. 2004. Modifying the CROPGRO-
soybean Model to Improve Predictions for the Upper Midwest. Agronomy Journal.
96:556-564.
Prasad, P., K. Boote, J. Vu and L. Allen. 2004. The Carbohydrate Metabolism
Enzymes Sucrose-P Synthase and ADG-pyrophosphorylase in Phaseolus Bean
Leaves are Up-regulated at Elevated Growth Carbon Dioxide and Temperature.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 166:1565-1573.
Quesenberry, K. 2004. Evaluation of Cultivars and New Germplasm of Rhizoma
Perennial Peanut. Proceeding of the 2004 North Florida Perennial Peanut Field
Day. pp. 1-2.
Quesenberry, K., L. Sollenberger and Y. Newman. 2004. Limpograss. Warm
season (C4) Grasses, pp. 809-832.
Real, D., M. Rizza, K. Quesenberry and M. Echenique. 2004. Reproductive and
Molecular Evidence for Allogamy in Lotononis Bainesii Baker. Crop Science.
44:394-400.
Reis, R., Y. Newman, L. Sollenberger, A. Hernandez Garay and L. Premazzi.
2004. Cool-season Management Affects Subsequent Performance of Tifton 85
Bermudagrass. Proceedings of the 2004 Forage and Grassland Conference, pp.
308-312.
Rizza, M., D. Real, K. Quesenberry and E. Albertini. 2004. Plant Reproductive
System Determination Under Field Conditions Based on Ccodominant Markers.
Journal of Genetic and Breeding. 58:47-54.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall and D. Shilling. 2004. Influence of Method of
Phosphorous Application on Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and
Common Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) Interference in Lettuce. Weed Science.
52(5):797-801.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall, D. Shilling and J. Gilreath. 2004. Phosphorus
Absorption in Lettuce, Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and Common
Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) Mixtures. Weed Science. 52(3):389-394.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall, J. Gilreath and D. Shilling. 2004. Mechanisms of
Interference of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and Common Purslane
(Portulaca oleraceae) on Lettuce as Influenced by Phosphorus Fertility. Weed
Science. 52:78-82.
Sau, F, K. Boote, W. Bostick, J. Jones and M. Minguez. 2004. Testing and
Improving Evapotranspiration and Soil Water Balance of the DSSAT Crop Models.
Agronomy Journal. 96:1243-1257.
Sollenberger, L. 2004. Plant-herbivore Interactions. Forages: The Science of
Grassland Agriculture.
Sollenberger, L. and Y. Newman. 2004. Grazing Management. Forages: The
Science of Grassland Agriculture.
Sollenberger, L., R. Reis, L. Nussio, C. Chambliss and W. Kunkle. 2004. Forage
Conservation. Warm-season (C4) Grasses, pp. 355-387.
Spiares, J., K. Kenworthy and R. Rhykerd. 2004. Emergence and Height of Plants
Seeded in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural
Resources. 14:37-46.
Spiares, J., K. Kenworthy and R. Rhykerd. 2004. Root and Shoot Biomass of
Plants Seeded in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil. Texas Journal of Agriculture and
Natural Resources. 14:117-124.
Teuton, T., B. Brecke, J. Unruh, G. MacDonald, G. Miller and J. Ducar.
2004. Factors Affecting Seed Germination Tropical Signalgrass (Urochloa
subquadripara). Weed Science. 52:376-381.
Teuton, T., C. Main, G. MacDonald, J. Ducar and B. Brecke. 2004. Green Peanut
Tolerance to Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides. Weed Technology.
18:719-722.
Unruh Snyder, L. and G. Fick. 2004. Correcting Measurements of Pasture Forage
Mass by Vacuuming the Stubble. 94:860-863.
Wang, K., R. McGovern, R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Cowpea Cover
Crop and Solarization for Managing Root-knot and Other Plant-parasitic
Nematodes in Herb and Vegetable Crops. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 63:99-
104.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 37








PUBLICATIONS



Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Effect of Crotalaria Juncea
Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne Incognita. Journal of
Nematology. 36:290-296.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Host Status and Amendment
Effects of Cowpea on Meloidogyne Incognita in Vegetable Cropping Systems.
Nematropica. 33(2):215-224.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Relationship of Soil Management
History and Nutrient Status to Nematode Community Structure. Nematropica.
34:83-95.


Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Relationships of Nematode
Communities and Soil Nutrients in Cultivated Soils. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida
Proceedings. 63:105-113.
Wang, K., R. McSorley, A. Marshall and R. Gallaher. 2004. Nematode
Community Changes Associated with Decomposition of Crotalaria Juncea
Amendment in Litterbags. Applied Soil Ecology. 27:31-45.
Zhang, L., M. Yang, X. Wang, B. Larkins, M. Gallo-Meagher and R. Wu. 2004.
A Model for Estimating Joint Maternal-offspring Effects on Seed Development in
Autogamous Plants. Genomics. 19:262-269.
Zhao, W., J. Zhu, M. Gallo-Meagher and R. Wu. 2004. A Unified Statistical Model
for Functional Mapping of Environment-dependent Genetic Expression and
Genotype by Environment Interactions for Ontogenetic Development. Genetics.
168:1751-1762.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Altpeter, F. Molecular Improvement of Physiological Traits Defining Environ-
mental Adaption of Tropical Forage Grass Production

Altpeter, F. Development and Comparison of Alternative Strategies to Control
Disperas[ ofTransgenic Bahiagrass into Natural

Altpeter, F. Characterizing the Ryegrass DroughtStress Regulon (Industry
Match to CPBR)

Altpeter, F. Characterizing the Ryegrass Drought Stress Regulon

Altpeter, F. Molecular Improvement of an Environmentally Friendly Turfgrass

Bennett, J.M. Drought Tolerance of Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Plant Introduc-
tions and Breeding Lines in Florida

Bennett, J.M. Drought Tolerant of Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Plant Introduc-
tions and Breeding Lines in Florida: Amendment #5

Bennett, J.M. Research Support for Sarah Cathey Graduate Assistantship

Bennett, J.M. Drought Stress Tolerance in Florida

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Peanut Production

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Soybean Production

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Tabacco Production Tobacco Check-off
Funds

Bennett, J.M. Modeling of Soybean Yields

Boote, K.J. Simulation of Peanut Cropping Systems to Improve Production
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource Management

Boote, K.J. Testing and Improving a Perennial Forage Model for Predicting For-
age Production, N Uptake, N Leaching and ...

Gallaher, R.N. Management of Viral and Fungal Diseases and Insect Pests of
Peanut AffectingYield, Quality and Net Returns Under...

Gallo-Meagher, M. Molecular Improvement for Insect Resistance in Turf and Forage
Grasses

Haller, W.T. Evaluation of New Herbicides for Hydrilla Contrl

Haller, W.T. UF Cooperative Aquatic Plant Education Program

Haller, W.T. Assessment of Aquatic & Invasive Plant Management Methodolo-
gies (2005)

Kenworthy, K.E. Ryegrass Variety Trials

Langeland, K.A. Technology Transfer Component of the Areawide Program for
Melaleuca Quinquenervia

Langeland, K.A. Cumberland Island Non-Native Plant Survey

Langeland, K.A. Improving Herbicide Effectiveness for Lygodium Microphyllum
Control

Langeland, K.A. Treatment Effectiveness for Lygodium on A.R.M. Loxahatchee
NationalWildlife Refuge

Langeland, K.A. Evaluation of Target and Non-target Effects of Herbicide Application

MacDonald, G.E. Development ofSustainable Peanut Production Technologies for
Amerindian Villages in the Rupununi Region of Guyana


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Vialactia Biosciences


Consort. for Plant Biotech Res.

Consort. for Plant Biotech Res.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Jones Ecological Research Ctr.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Inst. for Technology Dev.

Univ. of Georgia


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of Georgia


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Water Management Districts


Miscellaneous Donors

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of the Interior

Dept. of Environmental Protect.


U.S. Dept. of the Interior


Water Management Districts

Univ. of Georgia


38 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


95,118


350,000


20,000


141,000

52,022

99,280


14,960


18,680

57,340
116,000

5,467
11,500


15,000

300,000


96,934


2,000


100,000


21,051

25,000

40,000


4,450
220,406


32,370
24,352


100,000


25,000

144,395









AGRONOMY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY

MacDonald, G.E.


MacDonald, G.E.


Netherland, M.D.


Prine, G.M.
Quesen berry, K.H.
Ramey, V.A.


Ramey, V.A.


Ramey, V.A.


Scholberg, J.M.


Scholberg, J.M.


Scholberg, J.M.


Scholberg, J.M.


Scholberg, J.M.


Scholberg, J.M.


Shiralipour, A.


Sollenberger, L.E.


Sollenberger, L.E.


Stocker, R.K.
Stocker, R.K.
Stocker, R.K.


TITLE

Native Plant Restoration Following Cogongrass Control on Re-
claimed Mining Areas
Soil Moisture and Herbicide Uptake and Translocation Study for
Torpedograss (Panicum Repens) Rfp# C-13416
Evaluation of a Potential New Aquatic Herbicide (Sp-1019) for
Control of Fluridone-Tolerant Hydrilla
Ryegrass Variety Trials-Miscellanous Donors
Genetic Diversity and Domestication of Forage Legumes
Production and Printing of Invasive Plant ID Fold Out Cards Task
Assignment Under Master Agreement S1849
Maintenance & Expansion of the APIRS Online Database, the Flup-
land Invasive Plants Library/FL Aquatic Plants (2004-05)
Maintenance and Expansion of Dep/IFAS Aquatic Plant Manage-
ment Web Site and Development of Education..04-05
Integrative Use of Perennial Peanut for Cost Effective Weed Control
in Organic Citrus
ASystem Approach for Improved Integration of Green Manure in
Commercial Vegetable Production Systems
Implementation and Evaluation of a Web-Based Nutrient Manage-
ment Plan Support (Numaps) System for Florida Crops
Crop Phytoremediation of Phosphorus-enriched Soils in the Lake
Okeechobee Region
Improved Use of Crop Nutrient Interception Capacity for Groundwa-
ter Protection
Develop Irrigation Systems/practices for Reducing Nitrogen Leach-
ing for Vegetable Crops
Year 2-Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Training and Other
Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Related Activies

Management to Minimize Nutrient Loss and Enhance Recycling in
Grazed Grass[ands
Determinants of Nutrient Pools and Fluxes in Grazed Grass-
Lands
The Nature Conservancy's NaturalAreas Training Academy
Aquatic Plant Management Graduate Assistantship
Impacts of Invasive Non-Native Agricultural Plants in the US Virgin
Islands NaturalAreas


SOURCE OF FUNDS

Fl. Inst. of Phosphate Research


Water Management Districts


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Miscellaneous Donors
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of Georgia


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Fl. Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.
Aquatic Ecosys. & Restorn. Found.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


39 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AMOUNT


25,725


40,000


30,000


18,049
100,000

36,483


50,000


40,000


162,601


171,800


299,889


419,580


14,700


166,619


60,000


30,000


99,428


25,000
20,000

55,517

















The primary mission of the statewide Animal Sciences program
is to assist the livestock industries of Florida to achieve efficient
production by contributing to the solution of livestock production
problems through research, resident instruction and extension pro-
grams. This mission is accomplished through the cooperative efforts
of the faculties of the Department of Animal Sciences, the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center (Ona), the North Florida Re-
search and Education Center (Marianna), the Subtropical Agricul-
tural Research Station, USDA-ARS (Brooksville) and the sixty-seven
county extension facilities. One integral part of the accomplishment
of this mission is the cooperation and support of people in the live-
stock industries. In addition, personnel from a number of campus
departments cooperate with Animal Sciences faculty members in
program support. The Department of Animal Sciences balanced
research program ranges from basic research in molecular biology
and cloning to applied livestock production research conducted
at cooperator farms. Some research areas of major focus include,
improving bovine embryo survival, improving the efficiency of
dairy and beef production, improving the skeletal development
of the horse through improved nutrition, improving reproductive
efficiency of the horse, developing systems for utilizing by-products


and waste materials in animal production and developing new or
improved meat and poultry products. These major focus areas are
addressed through research in reproductive physiology, nutrition,
animal breeding and genetics, molecular biology, meat and poultry
products and livestock management systems. The Department of
Animal Sciences maintains several research and teaching farms
in the Gainesville area where the animal resources to support the
programs are housed. These include a swine teaching and research
farm and facilities that house sheep, horses and some cattle for short
term research projects on the University of Florida Campus. The
department has four off-campus farms in the Gainesville area. An
1100 acre dairy farm with 600 cows plus replacement heifers pro-
vides resources for the dairy research program. Beef cattle research
facilities include 1200 and 1600 acre beef farms designed to support
individual animal as well as large group research. The Horse Re-
search Center near Ocala is the site that supports the majority of the
equine research conducted by the department. Research conducted
at privately owned horse, dairy and beef farms with cooperating
farm owners is vital to the department's total research effort and is
an extension of the department's research resources.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 41


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA ANIMAL SCIENCE
IFAS Building 499, Shealy Drive I Gainesville, FL 32611
FloidaAgcultural Exp me 352-392-19811 http://animal.ufl.edu

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ANIMAL SCIENCE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


THE POTENTIAL USE OF THE SLICK HAIR GENE TO HEAT
STRESS AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF DAIRY CATTLE IN
WARM CLIMATES

SIGNIFICANCE: Heat stress is responsible for large declines in
pregnancy rates and lowered milk production of dairy cattle dur-
ing hot months throughout much of the United States as well as in
the Caribbean region. Since the summer depression in fertility is
greater for high-producing cows than for low-producing cows, the
continual improvement in milk yield per cow that has occurred
over time and is expected to continue to increase in the future
means that problems of heat stress which are already severe, likely
will be exacerbated in the future. Despite its importance, there are
few effective strategies for reducing the effects of heat stress. The
major strategy, modifying the environment using shade, sprin-
klers, fans, etc., is capital-intensive, not particularly effective, and
is of limited use for many small and medium-sized dairies with
limited opportunity for capital investment and also is not useful
for alternative production systems such as grazing dairies. There
is thus a L. *, ., 11 111 need to develop alternative approaches for
reducing the summer decline in fertility and milk production.
RATIONALE: One alternative approach would be to produce
dairy cattle that are genetically more resistant to heat stress. This
can be done by crosses of Holsteins to Bos indicus (Brahman
or, more likely, milking zebu breeds). This approach effectively
produces heat tolerant cattle but the cost in terms of reduced milk
production and other issues makes this idea unfeasible for Florida
dairies. Another approach is through the use of a major domi-
nant gene (the Slick hair gene) that has recently been identified in
Bos taurus cattle. The effect of the Slick hair gene is to produce a
hair coat that is very short, glossy and has the tactile feeling of a
recently clipped animal. Previous studies have shown that slick-
haired Senepol beef cattle (a Bos taurus breed developed on St.
Criox, U.S. Virgin Islands) are equal in heat tolerance to Brahman
cattle and that slick-haired Senepol F1 crossbreds with temper-
ate breeds such as the Hereford or Angus show heat tolerance
very comparable to those of Brahman and Brahman crossbreds.
Observations on the hair coat types of progeny of Senepol X
Angus and Senepol X Hereford F1 dams mated to temperate breed
sires indicated that they were segregating into two categories, one
group with very short, sleek, hair coats like those of purebred
Senepol and their F crossbreds and one group whose hair coats
were not distinguishable from those of temperate breed cattle. It
was also observed that occasionally Senepol calves were also born
with hair coats like those of temperate cattle. This, coupled with
the fact that the Senepol breeders were able to quickly establish
a uniform, short sleek hair coat within their breed on the vast
majority of the animals, supported the idea that a single, major
gene was responsible for the very short, sleek (Slick) hair coats of
Senepol and other tropically adapted breeds of Bos taurus cattle
such as the Carora of Venezuela and the milking Criollo breeds
of Central and South America. The discovery of slick-haired Hol-
stein cattle in Puerto Rico that likely were upgraded from Criollo
cattle for over 30 years also supported the concept of a major gene
was responsible for this type of hair coat. In more recent years we
have observed the expected ratios of 50% slick to 50% normal-
haired progeny when animals heterozygous for the Slick hair gene
are mated to normal-haired animals.


IMPACT: We have demonstrated that a short, sleek hair coat in
cattle is associated with increased heat tolerance and that such a
hair coat can be produced by the action of a single gene, the Slick
hair gene, which is dominant in mode of inheritance. We have also
observed that Bos taurus cattle with this gene and the type of hair
that it imparts to them are able to maintain rectal temperatures
under heat stress that are approximately 0.5 C lower than those of
genetically similar cattle with normal hair. This difference in rectal
temperature is similar to that observed elsewhere between Bos
indicus and unadapted Bos taurus cattle. This superior thermo-
regulatory ability appears to be the result of the fact that the slick
coat facilitates convective and conductive heat loss and minimizes
absorption of heat by solar radiation. Since the Slick hair gene is
dominant, it is easy to incorporate it into Holstein or other breeds
of dairy cattle through an upgrading procedure (successive crosses
of the Holstein after an initial cross with a Senepol along with
selection each generation for those possessing slick hair). Once
highly upgraded (87.5% or greater) slick-haired Holstein cattle
are produced, they can be mated together to produce a percent-
age of their progeny that are homozygous for the Slick hair gene.
Previously homozygous black Simmental and Limousin cattle
have been developed using these same techniques through the
incorporation of the black gene into these, originally red, breeds.
The salient advantage of the availability of homozygous slick sires
is that such bulls can be mated to normal-haired cows and all the
progeny would be expected to be slick-haired.
An important question that remains to be answered regarding
the Slick hair gene is to determine what is the impact of the greater
heat tolerance (as measured by lowered rectal temperatures) of


Tim Olson


42 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ANIMAL SCIENCE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


slick-haired cows on fertility and milk production. We have al-
ready demonstrated that young, slick-haired 87.5% Holstein bulls
graze more during the hotter periods of the day and have lower
respiration rates while maintaining lower body temperatures. If
this same effect is expressed in lactating females, it could have
important consequences on their productivity and fertility. It is
likely that the ability to maintain lower temperatures without in-
creasing respiration rates will encourage greater feed consumption
and more productive use of this extra feed in terms of increased
milk production. Also, it has been shown that very early bovine
embryos cannot survive a uterine temperature above 41 C, a tem-
perature often measured in Florida dairy cows under heat stress.
We hope that effect of the Slick hair gene will be sufficient to lower
uterine temperatures enough to allow the survival of the embryos
and thus to increase pregnancy rates during the summer months
in Florida which can be as low as 10%.
Very limited data from a grazing dairy in Puerto Rico demon-
strated a 25% advantage in milk yield for slick-haired Holstein
cows over their normal-haired contemporaries. Apparently slick-
haired cows were willing to graze for additional hours during the
day due to their increased heat tolerance and, therefore, were able
to produce at a higher level. In a much larger study in Venezu-
ela, it has been observed that under mild heat stress (i.e., rectal
temperatures < 40 C) in a near desert environment), Holstein x
Carora crossbred cows (75% Holstein) with slick hair were able
to conceive again about 21 days sooner than did cows of the same
breed composition but with normal hair. This was in spite of the
fact that these same slick-haired cows milked about 1000 kg more
milk than did their normal-haired siblings. These data provide

FACULTY & STAFF


encouragement that beneficial effects of the Slick hair gene will be
of economic importance under the more severe heat stress charac-
teristic of much of the southern United States and the Caribbean
region.
Future Research: While we have a growing quantity of data
indicating a considerable advantage in productivity of slick-haired
animals as compared to their normal-haired contemporaries
in Puerto Rico and Venezuela, we have not yet demonstrated a
similar advantage in Florida. A study is currently underway to
compare the impact of the Slick hair gene on milk yield, fertility
and health traits in 87.5 % Holstein cows at the Dairy Research
Unit and in south Florida at the McArthur Farms Dairy. This
study will replicate one underway in several cooperating dairies in
Puerto Rico.
Also, studies are continuing in collaboration with researchers
from USDA-ARS (STARS) at Brooksville to identify the genomic
location of the Slick hair gene and/or genetic markers for the gene.
A marker would be very useful in the identification of Holstein
cattle that are homozygous for the Slick hair gene.
COLLABORATORS: We have collaborated with researchers
from the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS),
Brooksville, Florida on the study of the Slick hair gene since the
initial studies of the Senepol breed there. We also have had a
long relationship in the study of this gene and heat tolerance in
general with faculty of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez.
The TSTAR program of the USDA has been instrumental in its
support of this research here in Florida as well as the coopera-
tive studies in Puerto Rico. Funding from the IFAFS program of
USDA also was critical in several aspects of this research.


FACU LTY
Foster G. Hembry
Adegbola T. Adesogan
Kermit C. Bachman
Lokenga Badinga
David R. Bray
Joel H. Brendemuhl
William F. Brown
Albert De Vries
Alan D. Ealy
Mauricio A. Eizo
Michael J. Fields
Peter J. Hanson
MatthewJ. Herson
Terry A. Houser
Dwain D. Johnson
Edward L. Johnson
Sally E. Johnson
Timothy T. Marshall
Lee R. McDowell


TITLE
Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Extension Agent IV
Asst. Chair & Prof.
Assistant Dean and Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Prof.
Prof.
Prof.
Extension Beef Specialist
Asst. Prof.
Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Asst. Prof.


SPECIALTY
Animal Nutrition
Ruminant Nutrition
Physiology and Lactation
Reproductive Physiology
Mastitis and Milking Management
Swine Nutrition
Ruminant Nutrition, Forage Evaluation
Dairy Systems
Reproductive Physiology, Dairy
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Animal Reproductive Physiology
Reproductive Physiology
Ruminant Nutrition
Meat Science
Meat Science
Extension Equine Specialist
Muscle, Biology
Beef Cattle Management
Tropical Animal Nutrition


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION
30 40 30
40 60 0
40 60 0
40 60 0
0 0 100
80 20 0
100 (adm)
10 50 40


20 80 0


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 43









ANIMAL SCIENCE


FACULTY & STAFF


FACU LTY

Joe[A. McQuagge

Richard D. Miles, Jr.

Karen Moore

Roger P. Natzke

Timothy A. Olson

Daniel C. Sharp, III

Don R. Sloan

Charles R. Staples

Saundra H. Tenbroeck


Todd A. Thrift


James E. Umphrey

Lori K. Warren

DanielW. Webb

Sally K. Williams

JoeIV. Yelich


TITLE

Asst. In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


Asst. Prof.


Asst. In.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Equine

Poultry Nutrition and Management

Molecular Embryologist

Mastitis and Milking Management

Animal Breeding and Genetics, Beef

Reproductive Physiology, Equine

Poultry Management

Ruminant Nutrition

Extension Equine Specialist, Reproductive
Physiology

Extension Beef Specialist, Reproductive
Physiology

Youth Development and Recruitment

Animal Nutrition, Equine

Extension Dairy Management

Meat and Poultry Science, Products

Animal Reproductive Physiology, Beef


TEACHING RESEARCH

100 0

30 70

20 80

25 55

40 60

20 80

50 30

30 60

40 0


60 0


RESEARCH PROJECTS
PROJECT NO. AUTHOR
ANS-03532 Harms, R.H., Sloan, D.R., Wilson, H.R.
ANS-03695 Kunkle, W.E., Bates, D.B., Reiling, B.A.
ANS-03792 McDowell, L.R.
ANS-03818 Elzo, M.A., Johnson, D.D., Kunkle, W.E.
ANS-03821 Yelich, J.V.
ANS-03833 Williams, S.K.
ANS-03859 Head, H.H., Bachman, K.C.


ANS-03912 Hansen, P.J., Staples, C.R.
ANS-03956 Sharp, D.C.
ANS-03980 Moore, K.
ANS-04001 Hansen, P.J., de Vries, A., Staples, C.R.,
Olson, T.A., Drost, M., Thatcher, W.W.,
Willard, S.T., Whisnant, C.S., Misztal, I.,
Rutledge, J.J., Edwards, J.L., Chase, C.C.
ANS-04003-F Fields, M.J.
ANS-04058 Hall, M.B., Nair, V.D., Harris, W.G.,
Graetz, D.A.
ANS-04063 Hansen, P.J.
ANS-04080-A Adesogan, A.T., Staples, C.R., Valencia, E.,
Sollenberger, L.E.
ANS-04080-H Hall, M.B., Adesogan, A., Riquel[me, E.


ANS-04080-0 Olson, T.A., Moore, K., Pantoja, J.
ANS-04089 DeVries, A.


ANS-04111 Ott, E.A.
ANS-04144 Williams, S.K.


TITLE
Amino Acid Requirements of Commercial Laying Hens and Broiler Breeder Hens
Use of Molasses-Based Mixtures in Cow-Calf Production Systems
Mineral and Vitamin Supplementation of Ruminants
Improvement of Beef Cattle in Multibreed Populations: Phase III
Synchronization of Estrus in Cattle of Bos Indicus Breeding
The Poultry Food System: A Farm to Table Model
Use of bST, Shortening the Dry Period, and Prepartum Feeding of AnionicSalts to Improve
Milk Production and Health of Dairy Cows
Enhancing Production and Reproductive Performance of Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Synthesis and Secretion Regulation in Horses
Improving Efficiencies of In-Vitro Embryo Production Technologies in Cattle
Improving Fertility of Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle




Effect of Oxytocin on the Uterine Oxytocine Prostanoid System in the Peri-Implantation Cow
Manure-derived Components and Their Influence on Long-term Phosphorous Stability in Soils


Apoptosis and Stress in Preimplantation Embryos
Improving Forage Quality and Livestock Productivity with Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes


Assessing Digestibility of CellWall Crude Protein in Tropically Grown Forages for Improved
Livestock Production
Evaluation and Utilization of the Slick Hair Gene in Florida and Caribbean Dairies
Management Systems to Improve the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Dairy
Enterprises
Influence of Nutrition and Management on Skeletal Development of Growing Horses
Production Systems to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of Small and Economically
Disadvantaged Livestock Family Farms


44 | 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


EXTENSION

0

0

0

20

0

0

20

10
60


40









PUBLICATIONS



Adesogan, A. and M. Salawu. 2004. Effect of Applying Formic Acid or
Lactobacillus Buchneri Inoculants with or without Homofermentative Lactic Acid
Bacteria on the Fermentation Characteristics and Aerobic Stability of Intercropped
Pea-wheat Silages and Whole Crop Wheat or Pea Silages. Journal of the Science of
Food and Agriculture. 84:983-992.
Adesogan, A., M. Salawu, S. Williams and R. Dewhurst. 2004. Reducing
Concentrate Requirements and Improving Milk and Microbial Protein Yield in
Dairy Cows by Replacing Grass Silage with Pea-wheat Intercrop Silages. Journal of
Dairy Science. 87:3398-3406.
Adesogan, A., N. Krueger, D. Dean, M. Salawu and C. Staples. 2004. Effect
of Treating Bermudagrass with an Inoculant, Molasses and a Mixture of These
Additives on Silage Fermentation and Aerobic Stability. Journal of Dairy Science.
Adesogan, A., N. Krueger, D. Dean, M. Salawu and C. Staples. 2004. The
Influence of Treatment with Dual Purpose Inoculants or Soluble Carbohydrates on
the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability of Bermudagrass. Journal of Dairy Science.
87:3407-3416.
Bachman, K. 2004. Dry Period Length: How Short is Long Enough. National
Mastitis Council.
Badinga, L., A. Lowe and C. Staples. 2004. Production and Metabolic Responses
of Periparturient Holstein Cows to Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans-
octadecenoic acids. Journal of Dairy Science. 87:158-168.
Block, J. and P. Hansen. 2004. Towards an Embryocentric World: The Current
and Potential Uses of Embryo Technologies in Dairy Production. Reproduction
Fertility and Development. 16:38366.
Bray, D. and R. Bucklin. 2004. Latest in Tunnel Barns for Cow Comfort. UF
Animal Science.
Bridges, G., G. Portillo, J. de Araujo, W. Thatcher and J. Yelich. 2004. Efficacy
of Either a Single or Split Treatment of PGF After a 14 D Melengestrol Acetate
Treatment to Synchronize estrus and Induce Luteolysis in Bos Indicus x Bos
Taurus Heifers. Theriogenology.
Buford, M., C. Calkins, D. Johnson and B. Gwartney. 2004. Cow Muscle
Profiling: A Comparison of Chemical and Physical Properties of 21 Muscles from
Beef and Dairy Cows. Beef Cattle Report, pp. 89-91.
Chapman, C., L. Chapman, L. Naughton-Treves and L. McDowell. 2004.
Predicting Folivore Abundances: Validation of a Nutritional Model. Predicting
Folivore Abundances: Validation of a Nutritional Model. 62:55-69.
de Araujo, J., G. Bridges, G. Portillo and J. Yelich. 2004. The Effect GnRH vs.
No-GnRH at the Initiation of a 7 Day CIDR Synchronization Treatment on AI
Pregnancy Rates in Postpartum Lactating Angus and Bos Indicus x Bos Taurus
Cows.
de Araujo, J., M. Ausitn, B. Austin and J. Yelich. 2004. Comparison of Two
CIDR Synchronization and AI Treatments in Postpartum Lactating. University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Dean, D., A. Adesogan and N. Krueger. 2004. The Effect of Treatment of Two
Warm Season Grass Hays with Commercial Fibrolytic Enzymes or Ammonia on
Nutritive Value. University of Florida: Gainesville, Florida.
DeVries, A. 2004. Trends in Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows: What Do
the Numbers Tell Us. Florida Reproduction Road Show.
DeVries, A. and C. Risco. 2004. Pregnancy Rates in Natural Service and
Artificially Inseminated Dairy Herds. PDHGA Southeast Regional Meeting.
DeVries, A. and C. Risco. 2004. Pregnancy Rates in Natural Service and
Artificially Inseminated dairy herds. West Florida Dairy Conference.
DeVries, A., R. Giesy, L. Ely, B. Broaddus, C. Vann and B. Butler. 2004. DBAP
2003: What We Have Learned About Your Business. Florida Dairy Business
Conference.
DeVries, A., W. Thatcher and J. van Leeuwen. 2004. Economic Importance of
Improved Reproductive Performance. Florida Reproduction Road Show.
Ealy, A., S. Wagner, A. Shiels, N. Whitley, D. Keisling, S. Johnson and G.
Barbato. 2004. Identification of Interferon-tau Isoforms Expressed by the Pre-
implantation Goat (Capra hircus) Conceptus. Domestic Animal Endocrinology.
27:39-49.
Elzo, M. 2004. KU-Kamphangsaen Dairy Herd: Preliminary Ideas for a Research-
Development Study: USA.
Elzo, M. 2004. Preliminary Ideas for the Analysis of a Dual-purpose Multibreed
Cattle Population in Mexico: University of Florida.


Elzo, M. and A. de los Reyes Borjas. 2004. Perspectives for Multibreed Genetic
Evaluation of Cattle in Brazil. Ciencia Animal Brazileira. 5:171-185.
Elzo, M., D. Johnson, J. Wasdin and J. Jones. 2004. Protocol for Beef Cattle
Multibreed Genetic Research Programs at the University of Florida (with
Summary Protocols of Other Research Areas)(VERSION 2.0): University of
Florida.
Fields, M. and M. Shemesh. 2004. Extragonadal Receptors in the Reproductive
Tract of Domestic Animals. Journal of the Community Development Society.
71:1412-1418.
Giesy, R., A. DeVries and A. Wilkie. 2004. Advantages and Disadvantages of
Using Manure Digesters to Generate Electricity on Florida Dairy Farms. Florida
Dairy Business Conference.
Giesy, R., A. DeVries and A. Wilkie. 2004. Review of the Economics of Manure
Systems that Generate Electricity on Dairy Farms. Florida Dairy Business
Conference.
Hansen, P. 2004. Frontiers in Reproductive Immunology Forum Introduction.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 1:115.
Hansen, P. 2004. Physiological and Cellular Adaptations of Zebu Cattle to Thermal
Stress. Animal Reproduction Science. 82-83:349-360.
Hersom, M. 2004. Principles of Supplementing the Grazing Beef Cow.
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida.
Hersom, M., C. Krehbiel and G. Horn. 2004. Effect of Live Weight Gain of
Steers during Winter Grazing: II. Visceral Organ Mass, Cellularity, and Oxygen
Consumption in Cattle during High-Grain Feeding. Journal of Animal Science.
82:184-197.
Hersom, M., G. Horn, C. Krehbiel and W. Phillips. 2004. Effect of Live Weight
Gain of Steers During Winter Grazing: I. Subsequent Feedlot Performance,
Carcass Characteristics and Body Composition in Beef Steers. Journal of Animal
Science. 82:262-272.
Hersom, M., R. Wettemann, C. Krehbiel, G. Horn and D. Keisler. 2004. Effect
of Live Weight Gain of Steers During Winter Grazing: III. Blood Metabolites and
Hormones during Feedlot Finishing. Journal of Animal Science. 82:2059-2068.
Houser, T., J. Sebranek, B. Thacker, T. Baas, D. Nilubol, E. Thacker and F.
Kruse. 2004. Effectiveness of Transdermal, Needle-free Injections for Reducing
Pork Carcass Defects. Meat Science. 68:329-332.
Houser, T., J. Sebranek, W. Maisonet, J. Cordray, B. Wiegand, D. Ahn and
E. Lee. 2004. The Effects of Irradiation at 1.6 kGy on Quality Characteristics of
Commercially Produced Ham and Pork Frankfurters Over Extended Storage.
Journal of Food Science.
Houser, T., J. Sebranek, W. Maisonet, J. Cordray, D. Ahn and P. Dixon. 2004.
Irradiation-induced Cured Ham Color Fading and Regeneration. Journal of Food
Sciences.
Jousan, F. and P. Hansen. 2004. Insulin-like Growth Factor- I as a Survival Factor
for the Bovine Preimplantation Embryo Exposed to Heat Shock. Biology of
Reproduction. 71:1665-1670.
Kamaruddin, M., T. Kroetsch, P. Basrur, P. Hansen and W. King. 2004.
Immunolocalization of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Bovine Spermatazoa Andrologia.
36:327-344.
Keene, B., K. Knowlton, M. McGilliard, L. Lawrence, S. Nickils-Richardson,
J. Wilson, A. Rutledge, L. McDowell and M. van Amburgh. 2004. Measures of
Bone Mineral Content in Mature Dairy Cows. Measures of Bone Mineral Content
in Mature Dairy Cows. 87:3816-3825.
Koonawootrittriron, S., M. Elzo, P. Sopanarat, C. Chaimongkol, T. Sainui, K.
Nithichai, T. Tongprapi and T. Ralukmun. 2004. D.P.O. Sire & Dam Summary
2003. Kasetsart University: Thailand.
Koonawootrittriron, S., M. Elzo, P. Sopanarat, S. Tumwasorn, T. Tongprapi, C.
Chaimongkol and K. Nithichai. 2004. A Case Study on Phenotypic and Genetic
Trends for First Lactation Productions of a Multibreed Dairy Population in
Thailand. Kasetsart University.
McDowell, L. 2004. Faculty Achievement Report, Report of Accomplishments.
Faculty Achievement Report, Report of Accomplishments.
McDowell, L. 2004. Mike Hidiroglou, 1922-2003: A Brief Biography. 82:1258.
McDowell, L. 2004. Mineral and Vitamin Supplementation for Ruminants.
Mineral and Vitamin Supplementation for Ruminants.
McDowell, L. 2004. Mineral Nutrition in Hot Climates/Heat Stress, pp. 196-214.
McDowell, L. 2004. Potential Impacts of Amendments Used to Reduce Dairy
Manure P Runoff.
McDowell, L. 2004. Re-evaluation of the Essentiality of the Vitamins, pp. 37-67.
2004. Selenium Supplementation for Ruminants.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 45








PUBLICATIONS



McDowell, L. 2004. Toxicity from Water Treatment Residuals on Mineral Status
from Grazing Ruminants.
McDowell, L., F. Fuentes and N. Wilkinson. 2004. Barium Selenate
Supplementation of a Crossbred Cattle Herd in Puerto Rico. 2:693-695.
McGlothen, J., G. Lester, P. Hansen, L. Pablo and D. Hawkins. 2004. Alterations
in Uterine Contractility in Mares with Experimentally Induced Placentitis.
Reproduction. 127:57-76.
Mink, B., C. Calkins, D. Johnson, A. Stelzleni and B. Gwartney. 2004. Properties
of Cow and Beef Muscles: Benchmarking the Differences and Similarities.
International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. 50:38356.
Myer, R., J. Brendemuhl, F. Leak and J. Hess. 2004. Evaluation of a Rendered
Poultry Mortality-soybean Meal Product as a Supplemental Source for Pig Diets.
Journal of Animal Science. 82:1071-1078.
O'Connor, C., L. Lawrence, A. St. Lawrence, K. Janicki, L. Warren and S. Hayes.
2004. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil Supplementation on Exercising Horses.
Journal of Animal Science. 82:2978-2984.
Olson, T. 2004. Forsteinntrykket av den norske storfekjottproduksjonen.
Kjottfeavl. 3:38447.
Page, J., X. Wang, L. Sordillo and S. Johnson. 2004. MEKK1 Signaling Through
P38 Leads to Transcriptional Inactivation of E47 and Repression of Skeletal
Myogenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279:30966-30972.
Peterson, T., L. McDowell, R. McMahon, N. Wilkinson, 0. Rosendo, W.
Seymour, P. Henry and J. Shearer. 2004. Balance and Serum Concentration of
Biotin in Sheep Fed Alfalfa Meal Based Diets with Increasing Level of Concentrate.
82:1165-1169.
Portillo, G., E. Hiers, C. Barthle, M. Shaw and J. Yelich. 2004. Respsone to a
Prostaglandin Injection on Either Day 6 or 7 of the Estrous Cycle in Angus and
Brahman x Angus heifers. Theriogenology.
Portillo, G., J. de Araujo, G. Bridges, M. Shaw, N. Schrick, W. Thatcher and
J. Yelich. 2004. Secretory Patterns of LH in Response to a GnRH Treatment
Administered on Day 6 of the Estrous Cyles in Angus and Brahman X Angus
Heifers. Journal of Animal Science.
Riley, D. and T. Olson. 2004. Genetic and Nongenetic Influences on Vigor at Birth
and Preweaning Mortality of Purebred and High Percentage Brahman Calves.
Journal of Animal Science. 82:1581-1588.
Riley, D. and T. Olson. 2004. Maternal and Reproductive Performance of
Brahman X Angus, Senepol X Angus, and Tuli X Angus Cows in the Subtropics.
Journal of Animal Science. 82:2764-2772.
Rivera, R., G. Dahlgren, L. deCastroePaula, R. Kennedy and P. Hansen. 2004.
Actions of Thermal Stress in Two-cell Bovine Embryos: Oxygen Metabolism,
Glutathione and ATP Content, and the Time-course of Development.
Reproduction.


Rivera, R., K. Kelley, G. Erdos and P. Hansen. 2004. Reorganization of
Microtubules and Microfilaments by Thermal Stress in Two-cell Bovine Embryos.
Reproduction. 70:1852-1862.
Rosendo, 0., C. Staples, L. McDowell, R. McMahon, F. Martin, L. Badinga, J.
Shearer, W. Seymour and N. Wilkinson. 2004. Biotin Supplementation Effects on
Peripartum Performance and Metabolites of Holstein Cows. 87:2535-2545.
Roth, Z. and P. Hansen. 2004. Involvement of Apoptosis in Disruption of Oocyte
Competence by Heat Shock in Cattle. Biology of Reproduction. 71:1898-1906.
Roth, Z. and P. Hansen. 2004. Sphingosine 1 -phosphate Protects Bovine Oocytes
from Heat Shock during Maturation. Biology of Reproduction.
Selberg, K., C. Staples, D. Luchini and L. Badinga. 2004. Dietary Trans-
octadecenoic Acids Upregulate the Liver Gene Encoding Peroxisome Proliferator-
activated Receptor Alpha in Transition Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Research.
Sollenberger, L., R. Reis, L. Nussio, C. Chambliss and W. Kunkle. 2004. Forage
Conservation. Warm-season (C4) Grasses, pp. 355-387.
Soto, P., R. Natzke and P. Hansen. 2004. Mastitis and Fertility in Cattle Possible
Involvement of Inflammation or Immune Activation in Embryonic Mortality.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 51:294-304.
Streicher, K., I. Mullarky, Y. Cao, S. Johnson and L. Sordillo. 2004. Thioredoxin
Reductase Regulates Angiogenesis by Increasing Endothelial Cell-derived Vascular
Endothelial Growth Factor. Nutrition & Cancer. 50:221-231.
Talbot, N., T. Caperna, A. Powell, W. Garrett and A. Ealy. 2004. Isolation
and Characterization of a Bovine Trophectoderm Cell Line Derived from a
Parthenogenetic Blastocyst. Molecular Reproduction and Development. 69:164-
173.
Veazey, W., K. Anusavice and K. Moore. 2004. Mammalian Cell Delivery via
Aerosol Deposition. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied
Biomaterials. pp. 334-338.
Wang, X., S. Thomson, J. Starkey, J. Page, A. Ealy and S. Johnson. 2004.
Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-1) is Up-regulated by Activated RAF
in Skeletal Myoblasts but does not Contribute to the Differentiation-defective
Phenotype. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279:2528-2534.
Warren, L. 2004. Feeding the Breeding Herd. University of Florida.
Warren, L. 2004. Managing Horse Manure by Composting. Marionpoliteia.
Warren, L. 2004. Recent Advances in Equine Nutrition. Washington State
University.
Webb, D. and A. DeVries. 2004. Trends in Reproductive Performance for
Southeast DHIA Herds. Southeast Dairy Management Conference.
White, C., F. Lopez and L. McDowell. 2004. Effects of Virginiamycin and Fat on
Utilization of Grain Sorghum Diets by Swine. 3:74-80.
Yegani, M., A. Nilipour, G. Butcher, R. Miles, Jr and B. Sanei. 2004. Biosecurity
is the Ultimate Approach to Survival. World Poultry. 20(7):30-31.
Yegani, M., H. Raoof, A. Nilipour, G. Butcher and R. Miles, Jr. 2004. Frequent
Health Hazards that Threaten Poultry Workers. World Poultry. 20(4):22-25.


46 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









ANIMAL SCIENCE


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Adesogan, A.T. Improving Forage Quality and Livestock Productivity with Exogenous
Fibrolytic Enzymes
Fields, M.J. Effects of Oxytocin on the Uterine Oxytocin Prostanoid System in
the Peri-Implantation Cow
Hall, M.B. Assessing Digestibility of Cell Wall Crude Protein in Tropically Grown
Forages for Improved Livestock Production
Hall, M.B. Services Agreement: Animal Nutrition
Hansen, P.J. Apoptosis and Stress in Preimplantation Embryos
Hansen, P.J. Embryo Transfer as a Too[ for Improving Fertility of Heat Stressed
Dairy Cattle
Johnson, D. Feeding and Aging Effects on Cow Beef


Johnson, S.E. Phosphoregulatory Events Controlling Myogenesis
Johnson, S.E. Repression of Skeletal Myogenesis
Moore, K.A. Restoration of Lost Bone Mass After Ovariectomy
O[son, T.A. Evaluation and Utilization of the Slick Hair Gene in Florida and
Caribbean Dairies
Ott, E.A. Composting Horse Manure
Sand, R.S. Production Practices to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of
Small and Economically Disadvantaged Livestock Families
Thatcher, W.W. Epidemiology of Lameness in Diary Cows
Williams, S.K. Production Systems to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of
Small and Economically Disadvantaged Family Farms
Ye[ich, J.V. Progestogen Based Estrous Synchronization Programs in Bos Indi-
cus X Bos Taurus Cattle


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Walt Disney World Company
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Bard (U.S.-IsraelAg. R&D Fund)


FL Beef Council


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Natl. Institutes of Health
Natl. Institutes of Health
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
Florida A&M University


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Florida A&M University


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 47


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


124,058


28,000


56,700


50,050
270,000
53,000


39,750


224,224
272,802

89,974
35,000


120,000

53,704


19,444
102,222


72,700


















The Department of Entomology and Nematology maintains
tripartite priorities consistent with the mandate given to full-service
land-grant universities and associated experiment stations: research,
extension, and instruction. This Department is unusual in that
about 35 of its 60 faculty are not located on the main campus; rather,
they are located at 10 Research and Education Centers distributed
through the state. This provides an exceptional opportunity to
address the diverse needs of the state and for students to work in
diverse ecological and crop production systems.
Entomology and Nematology offers an undergraduate program
leading to a B.S., and graduate programs leading to M.S. (thesis),
M.S. (nonthesis) and Ph.D. in entomology and nematology. The
Department is one of the largest entomology programs nation-wide,
and one of only a few that offer comprehensive training in Nema-
tology. Besides providing a full complement of regular and special
topics courses needed for degree candidates, the Department offers,
at the undergraduate level, service courses in basic entomology for a
wide range of disciplines. Further, departmental faculty offer courses
that are credited to the Liberal Arts and Sciences undergraduate
honors and general education requirements. The Department also
participates in a new professional degree program, the Doctor of
Plant Medicine
Entomology and Nematology faculty and staff garner over $1
million in extramural and donation support annually for pursuit of


a wide range of research, instruction, and extension activities. These
sources of funding support about 100 graduate students pursu-
ing M.S. and/or Ph.D. degrees. About 30% of all graduate students
are international. This, plus 'I:.il, i.,, collaborative international
research and education efforts, give the department a strong interna-
tional dimension in addition to its domestic mandate.
Molecular, whole organism, and population ecology studies are
included in the range of supported research within Entomology
and Nematology. The USDA, National Science Foundation, various
agrochemical industries, and the State of Florida are among the
donors sponsoring departmental research, extension, and instruc-
tion programs.
The major areas of emphasis include:
Basic Sciences (Behavioral Ecology, Toxicology,
Physiology, and Systematics).
Biological Control
Integrated Pest Management
Medical, Veterinary and Urban Entomology
Nematology
P il1.. Genetics and Biotechnology
For more information, visit the Web site at
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu
John Capinera, Chairman


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 49


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY
IAS Building 970, Surge Area Drive, PO Box 110620 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0620
daAicuturaExpetSon 352-392-1901, Ext. 110 | http://entnemdept.ufl.edu
Florida Agrcultural Experimnt Station

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


NEMATODE MANAGEMENT ON GOLF COURSES

SIGNIFICANCE: The golf industry in Florida generates an
estimated 4.4 billion in annual revenue and employs 73,000
people. Key to the success of a golf courses is an attractive and
healthy turfgrass playing surface. Plant-parasitic nematodes are
recognized by golf course superintendents in Florida as one of the
major limitations to growing healthy turfgrasses in our state. A
survey of 196 fairways and 193 putting greens on 62 golf courses
throughout Florida found potentially damaging numbers of plant-
parasitic nematodes on 87% of the courses surveyed. The most
important nematode species was sting nematode (Belonolaimus
longicaudatus), which was found at damaging numbers on 60% of
Florida golf courses. Feeding by this nematode causes reduction
of the turf root-system, greatly impairing the ability of the turf
to extract water and nutrients from the soil, and causing wilting,
declining, and dying of the turf. There also are negative environ-
mental impacts that occur as secondary results of sting nematode
damage. These include increased irrigation frequency, increased
potential for nitrogen to leech into groundwater, and increased
herbicide use.
The most commonly used nematicide, fenamiphos (Nemacur,
Bayer CropScience), will no longer be manufactured after May of
2007. This has created a critical need to develop new control strat-
egies for sting nematode, and other plant-parasitic nematodes, on
golf course turf. Our research has focused on the identification
and implementation of such strategies.
RESEARCH AND IMPACTS: The nematicidal soil fumigant 1,3-
dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been used for pre-plant control of
plant-parasitic nematodes on food and fiber crops for many years.
Because of the tolerance of bermudagrass to 1,3-D, and the rela-
tive susceptibility of sting nematode, we investigated its potential
as a post-plant nematicide for use on golf courses. The biggest
challenge was to find a way to apply 1,3-D in an acceptable man-
ner. Because it is a fumigant, 1,3-D must be delivered into the soil
profile below where the bulk of the nematode populations occur,
it then moves upward through the soil profile as a gas, killing the
nematodes upon contact. Using tractor-mounted slit-injection
equipment to inject 1,3-D 5 to 6 inches deep in the soil was found
to be an acceptable application method on golf course fairways.
However, the same application equipment was not suited for put-
ting green applications. We studied several methods for applying
1,3-D to putting greens before finding a method that worked well
and was practical. In 2004, the first commercial applications of
1,3-D to putting greens were made with the prototype unit. At


this time additional units are being manufactured. 1,3-D is now
labeled for nematode control on turfgrasses in Florida, Georgia,
North and South Carolina, and Alabama. Last year more than
20% of the golf courses in Florida were treated with 1,3-D.
While 1,3-D works well for sting nematode, it is not equally
effective against some of the other plant-parasitic nematodes af-
fecting turfgrasses. It cannot be used in some regions of Florida
based on soil type, cannot be used within 100 ft. of buildings, and
there is a 10 acre minimum for application. Therefore, we have
investigated numerous botanical products and biological controls
for their potential to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes on
turfgrasses. Mustard bran derived from oriental mustard (Brassica
juncea) releases the nematicide allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) upon
contact with water. The dry material can be added topically to
turf and the AITC can be moved into the ground during irriga-
tion. Numerous field experiments conducted over a four-year
period evaluated the effectiveness of mustard bran for manage-
ment of lance (Hoplolaimus galeatus) and sting nematodes on
turfgrasses. Multiple formulations, rates, and application methods
were evaluated on several grass species. Unformulated mustard
bran was bulky, caused phytotoxicity, and was difficult to apply.
However, improved formulations caused no phytotoxicity, were
easier to apply, and reduced population densities of both lance
and sting nematodes in soil. Visual improvement of turf often was
pronounced, especially in sites where lance nematode was the
primary nematode problem. Results of these studies indicate that
formulated mustard bran could be an acceptable alternative to
fenamiphos for certain turfgrass situations. This material is cur-
rently under review by the EPA for labeling as a biopesticide.
FUTURE: We continue our efforts to identify methods for
nematode control on turfgrasses that are effective and fit with
IPM strategies. This year we will work with new formulations of
mustard bran in an effort to improve the consistency of its results.
We also will be working with several other botanicals, as well as
nematode-parasitic microorganisms. By the time that Nemacur is
no longer manufactured we should have several new weapons in
our arsenal to manage nematode problems on golf course turf.


Billy Crow


50 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


FACULTY & STAFF


TITLE


SPECIALTY


John L. Capinera

Carl S. Barfield

Drion G. Boucias

Marc Branham

Eileen A. Buss

Paul M. Choate

William T. Crow

James P. Cuda

Donald W. Dickson

Thomas R. Fasulo

John L. Foltz

John H. Frank

Daniel E. Hahn

Harlan G. Hall

Donald W. Hall

Amanda C. Hodges

Marjorie A. Hoy

Philip G. Koehler

Pauline 0. Lawrence

Norman C. Leppla

Oscar E. Liburd

James E. Maruniak[

HeatherJ. McAuslane

Robert T. McSorley

Julio C. Medal

Faith M. Oi

MichaelA. Scharf

FrankJ. Slansky

Jerry L. Stimac

Susan E. Webb

Simon S. Yu


Chair and Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. In

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Ext. Sci.

Eminent Scholar

Prof.

Prof.

Prof. & Program Director

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Research Assoc.

Asst. Extension Scientist

Asst. Res. Sci.

Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.


Pest Management Ecology

Pest Management

Insect Pathology

Systematics

Ornamental Plants & Turf

Insect Behavior Instruction

Nematology

Biological Weed Control

Nematology

Software Development

Forest Insects

Biological Control

Insect Physiology

Honey Bee Genetics

Medical Entomology

Detection and Diagnostics

Biological Control

Urban Entomology

Physiology and Biochemistry

Biocontrol[ and Ecology

Small Fruits and Vegetables

Insect Pathology

Plant Resistance

Nematology

Biological Control

Urban Entomology -Termites

Insect Toxicology

Nutritional Ecology

Population Ecology

Virus-Vector Studies, Vegetables

Insect Toxicology


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 51


FACULTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH PROJECTS

PROJECT NO. AUTHOR
ENY-03507 Lawrence, P.O.
ENY-03703 Dickson, D.W.


ENY-03803 McAuslane, H.J.


ENY-03824 Butler, J.F.


ENY-03845 Koehler, P.G., Oi, F.M., Fasulo, T.R.,
Brenner, D., Williams, D.F., Patterson, R.S.
ENY-03867 Cuda, J.P., Medal, J.C., Pearlstine, L.G.


ENY-03924 Boucias, D.G., Adams, B., Maruniak, J.E.
ENY-03934 Frank, J.H., Cuda, J.P., Hoy, M.A.,
Leppla, N.C., Capinera, J.L., Hall, D.W
ENY-03942 Yu, S.S.
ENY-03961 Ha[[, H.G., Wu, R.


ENY-03963 Cuda, J.P., Medal, J.C.
ENY-03994 Ha[[, H.G., Wu, R.
ENY-04003 Leppla, N.C., Pantoja, A., Frank, J.H.
ENY-04008 Dickson, D.W., Ou, L., Locascio, S.,
Noling, J., Roberts, P., Bryant, H.
ENY-04011 Adams, B.J.


ENY-04012-L Liburd, O.E., Nuessly, D.J., Schuster, D.J.,
Funderburk, J.E., Stansly, P.A., Leibee, G.L.,
Webb, S.E.
ENY-04012-W Webb, S.E., Nuessly, G.S., Schuster, D.J.,
Funderburk, J.E., Stansly, P.A., Leibee, G.L.,
Liburd, O.E.
ENY-04025 McAuslane, H.J., Liburd, O.E.
ENY-04030 Butler, J.F.
ENY-04080-A Adams, B.J., Vargas, R.


ENY-04080-F Frank, J.H.
ENY-04080-L Liburd, O.E.
ENY-04096 Crow, W.T., Giblin-Davis, R.M.
Ornamental Plants
ENY-04097 Buss, E.A.,
ENY-04133-D Dickson, D.W.


ENY-04133-M McAuslane, H.J., Nuessly, G.S., Nagata, R.T.
ENY-04137 Leppla, N.C., Larson, B.C.


ENY-04190 Stimac, J.L.
ENY-04221 Hoy, M.A.
ENY-04222 Leppla, N.C. Frank, J.H., Vicente, N.E.


TITLE
Interactions Between a Parasitic Wasp and its Insect Host
Role ofAdhesin Epitopes on Attachment of Pasteuria Endospores to Phytopathogenic
Nematodes
Plant Breeding, Genetics and Cultivar Development for St. Augustine Grass and Other Turf
Species
Systems for Controlling Air Pollutant Emissions and Indoor Environments of Poultry, Swine,
and Dairy Facilities
Household Pest Management


Classical Biological Control of Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus Terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae),
in Florida
Development, Evaluation, and Safety of Entomopathogens for Control ofArthropod Pests
Biological Control ofArthropod Pests and Weeds


Toxicology of Agriculturally Important Insect Pests of Florida
Selection of Honey Bees for Suppressed Reproduction of the Parasitic Varroa Mite and
mapping of the Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL) Involved
Screening of Potential Biological Control Agents for Tropical Soda Apple
OTL Involved in Suppression of Varroa Mite Reproduction on Honey Bees
Release and Evaluate an Exotic Nematode for Mole Cricket Control in Puerto Rico
Multi-tactic Approach to pest Management for Methyl Bromide Dependent Crops in Florida


A Comparative Analysis of Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes: A Novel Approach to
Controlling Insect Pests and Plant Pathogens
Biology and Management ofArthropod Pests of Vegetables



Biology and Management ofArthropod Pests of Vegetables



Chemical Ecology and Management of Insect Pests of Blueberry, Vaccinium spp., in Florida
Sources, Dispersal and Management of Stable Flies on Grazing Beef and Dairy
Leveraging Taxonomic Expertise in Existing Research Programs for Control of Mole Crickets
(Scapteriscus spp.)
Controlling Mexican Bromeliad Weevil
Utilization of Living Mulches to Suppress Cucurbit Pests
Biology Damage Potential, and Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Turfgrasses and


Management Strategies for Arthropod Pests of Turfgrass and Ornamental Plants.
Identification, Distribution, and Biology of Meloidogyne Mayagenesis, Other Meloidgyne spp.,
in Florida Agriculture
Developing Multi-species Insect Resistance in Romaine Lettuce
Incorporating Alternative, Multi-tactic IPM into the Crop Planning Process of Florida Vegetable
Growers
Insect and Manure Management: Impact on Nuisance Factors and Food Safety
Integration of Chemical and Biological Control of Citrus Leafminers in Young Groves
Integrated Management of Pest Mole Crickets in Puerto Rico and Florida


52 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Barbara, K. andE. Buss. 2004. Integration of Insect Parasitic Nematodes
(Nematoda: Steinernematidae) with Insecticides for Control of Pest Mole Crickets
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus spp.). Journal of Economic Entomology.
Barbara, K. and E. Buss. 2004. Survival and Infectivity of Steinernema Scapterisci
(Nematoda:Steinernematidae) After Contact with Soil Drench Solutions. Florida
Entomologist. 87(3):300-305.
Barbara, K., E. Buss and J. Dunford. 2004. Nematodes for Hire: Economical
Ways and Greener Days Using Integrated Pest Management. Florida Turf Digest.
21(5):14,15,18,20.
Boucias, D. and V. Blaeske. 2004. Influence of Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta:
Trebouxiophyceae) Infection of Development and Survival of Three Noctuid
Species. Environmental Entomology. 33(1):54-61.
Buss, E. 2004. False Oleander Scale Control, 2003. Arthropod Management Tests.
Buss, E. 2004. Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Buss, E. 2004. New Host Record for Euphoria Sepulcralis E (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin. 58(3):328.
Buss, E., K. Barbara, J. Congdon and J. Turner. 2004. Timing of White Grub
Management, 2003. Arthropod Management Tests.
Buss, E., K. Barbara, J. Congdon, J. Turner and P. Ruppert. 2004. Red Imported
Fire Ant Control, 2003. Arthropod Management Tests. 29:G2.
Buss, E., P. Ruppert and L. Wood. 2004. Aphid Control with Alternative
Insecticides, 2003. Arthropod Management Tests.
Capinera, J. 2004. Vegetable Pests and Their Management. Encyclopedia of
Entomology. pp. 2434-2488.
Capinera, J., R. Scott and T. Walker. 2004. Field Guide to the Grasshoppers,
Katydids, and Crickets of the United States. CornellUniversity Press: Ithaca, New
York.
Cave, R., J. Frank, B. Larson and M. Owen. 2004. Exploration for Parasitoids of
Bromeliad Weevils in Mesoamerica. Journal of the Bromeliad Society. 53(6):243-
249, 261-265.
Chen, J., H. McAuslane, R. Carle and S. Webb. 2004. Effects of Bemisia
argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Infestation and Squash Silverleaf Disorder
on Zucchini Yield and Quality. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97:2083-2094.
Choate, P. and J. Frank. 2004. Collecting and Preserving Insects. Encyclopedia of
Entomology. 577-583.
Congdon, J. and E. Buss. 2004. Southern Chinch Bug Control, 2002. Arthropod
Management Tests.
Crow, W. 2004. Alternatives to Nemacur. The Florida Green. Summer(2004):52-54.
Crow, W. and J. Welch. 2004. Root Reductions of St. Augustine Grass
(Stenotaphrum Secundatum) and Hybrid Bermuda Grass (Cynodon Dactylon x
C. Transvaalensis) Induced by Trichodorus Obtusus and Paratrichodorus Minor.
Nematropica. 34:31-37.
Frank, D. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Comparison of Living and Synthetic Mulches in
Zucchini. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine.
Frank, J. 2004. Belonuchus Agilis, a Fourth Species of this Genus (Coleoptera:
Staphylinidae) Reported from Florida. Florida Entomologist. 87:92-92.
Frank, J. 2004. Biographies: John Abbott, Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, Ulisse
Aldrovandi, Charles Paul Alexander, Herbert George Andrewartha, Ross Harold
Arnett, Jean-Guillaume Audinet-Serville, Jean-Victor Audouin, and 142 others.
Encyclopedia of Entomology. 1:1290.
Frank, J. 2004. Book Review: Emden, H. Van, Service. M.W Pest and Vector
Control. Florida Entomologist. 87:419-420.
Frank, J. 2004. Book Review: Lenteren, J.C. Quality Control and Production of
Biological Control Agents. Florida Entomologist. 87:100-101.
Frank, J. 2004. Book Review: Patterson, G. The Mosquito Wars. A History of
Mosquito Control in Florida. Florida Entomologist. 87:417-418.
Frank, J. 2004. Common (Vernacular) Names of Insects. Encyclopedia of
Entomology. pp. 587-589.
Frank, J. 2004. Phytotelmata. Encyclopedia of Entomology. pp. 1717-1720.
Frank, J. 2004. Pronunciation of Scientific Names and Terms. Encyclopedia of
Entomology. pp. 1832-1834.
Frank, J. 2004. Scientific Names and Other Words from Latin and Greek.
Encyclopedia of Entomology. pp. 1970-1972.


Frank, J. and M. Thomas. 2004. Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).
Encyclopedia of Entomology. pp. 1922-1927.
Frank, J. and P. Stansly. 2004. Eumicrota and Phanerota (Coleoptera:
Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) Attacking Itivated Mushrooms in Florida. Florida
Entomologist. 87:237-240.
Frank, J., N. Leppla and N. Vicente. 2004. Mole Crickets to the South. Florida
Turf Digest. 21(4):20-22.
Frank, J., S. Sreenivasan, P. Benshoff, M. Deyrup, G. Edwards, S. Halbert, A.
Hamon, M. Lowman, E. Mockford, R. Scheffrahn, G. Steck, M. Thomas, T.
Walker and W. Welbourn. 2004. Invertebrate Animals Extracted from Native
Tillandsia Bromeliads in Sarasota County, Florida. Florida Entomologist.
87:176-185.
Hall, D. 2004. Entomology at the Land Grant University: Perspectives from the
Texas A&M University Department Centenary.
Hansen, E., J. Funderburk, S. Reitz, S. Ramachandran, J. Eger and H.
McAuslane. 2004. Within-plant Distribution of Frankliniella Species
(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthorcoridae) in
Field Pepper. Environmental Entomology. 32:1035-1044.
Hixson, A. and W. Crow. 2004. First Report of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on
Seashore Paspalum. Plant Disease. 88:680.
Hochmuth, G., D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S. Webb.
2004. Celery Production in Florida. Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida.
Hodges, A., C. Harmon and L. Osborne. 2004. The Grower's Role in Protecting
the U.S. from Exotic Pest Invasions. Society of American Florists.
Hodges, G. andA. Hodges. 2004. New Invasive Species of Mealybugs,
Palmicultor Lumpurensis and Chaetococcus Bambusae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea:
Pseudococcidae) on Bamboo in Florida. Florida Entomologist. 87:396-397.
Hoy, M. 2004. Acaricides or Miticides. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Amber Insects: DNA Preserved. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Augmentative Biological Control. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Behavior of Insects: Genetic Analysis by Crossing and Selection.
Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Behavior: Moledular Genetic Analyses. Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Classical Biological Control. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Fossil Record of Insects. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Four-legged Mites (Eriophyoidea or Tetrapodili). Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Genetic Modification of Drosophila by P Elements. Encyclopedia
of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Genomes of Insects. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Meiotic Drive in Insects. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Natural Enemies Important in Biological Control. Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Pesticide Resistance Management. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Sex Ratio Modification by Cytoplasmic Agents. Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Soil Mites (Acari: Oribatida and others). Encyclopedia of
Entomology.
Hoy, M. 2004. Symbionts of Insects. Encyclopedia of Entomology. pp. 2160-2168.
Hoy, M. 2004. Transgenic Arthropods for Pest Management Programs.
Encyclopedia of Entomology.
Hoy, M. and C. Jessey. 2004. Ageniaspis Citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)
Established in Bermuda. Florida Entomologist. 87:229-230.
Hutchinson, C., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Potato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. pp. 259-268.
Jeyaprakash, A. and M. Hoy. 2004. Multiple Displacement Amplification in
Combination with High-fidelity PCR Improves Detection of Bacteria from Single
Females or Eggs of Metaseiulus Occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 86:111-116.
Leppla, N. 2004. Encyclopedia of Pest Management.
Leppla, N. and B. Larson. 2004. New Tomato and Pepper Extension Resources.
Citrus & Vegetable Magazine. 68:18-20.
Leppla, N. and B. Larson. 2004. Quality Control Methods for the Production of
Natural Enemies. Encyclopedia of Pest Management.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 53










PUBLICATIONS



Leppla, N., J. Frank, N. Vicente and A. Pantoja. 2004. A Commercial Nematode
for Mole Cricket Control. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society.
Liburd, 0. 2004. A New Lure for Baiting Apple Maggot Traps. MSU CAT Alert.
15(14):1-2.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Blueberry Maggot Management. Annual Report of the Secretary
of the State Horticultural Society of Michigan, pp. 144-145.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Cold Wintry Conditions Impacted Thrips Abundance in Florida
Blueberries during 2003. Berry/Vegetable Times. 3:3.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Identification of Host Volatile Compounds for Monitoring
Blueberry Maggot Fly. Small Fruits Review. 3:307-312.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Controlling
Insecticide Resistance in Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Proceedings of
the 8th Annual Conference and Career Fair. pp. 64.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Monitoring Apple Maggot in Michigan. Gerber Integrated Pest
Management Newsletter. 9:8.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Monitoring for Blueberry Maggot Fly. MSU CAT Alert.
15(11):1-2.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Monitoring Fruit Flies in Michigan. MSU CAT Alert. 16(13):4.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Protecting High-value Fruit from Key Rhagoletis Species. USDA
CSREES National IPM Program. pp. 13.
Liburd, 0. 2004. The Effectiveness of Various Insecticides to Control Blueberry
Gall Midge. Berry/Vegetable Times. 4:38387.
Liburd, 0. 2004. Trapping for Blueberry Maggot Fly. MSU CAT Alert. 14(8):1-2.
Liburd, 0. and D. Frank. 2004. A Review of Synthetic and Living Mulches for
Control of Homopteran Pests (aphids and whiteflies) and Diseases in Vegetables.
Nematode and Insect Borne Disease and Their Management, pp. 20.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Blueberry Gall Midge: A Key Pest of Blueberries in
the Southeast. Fruit Growers News. 40:18-19.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Blueberry Insect Pests Up-date. Florida Blueberry
Growers Association, pp. 3.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Comparison of Methods for Detecting Blueberry
Gall. Florida Blueberry Growers Association, pp. 4.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Effect of Overwintering Conditions on the
Emergence of Diachasma Alloem Reared from the Puparia of Blueberry Maggot.
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods.
pp. 14-18.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Evaluating Techniques for Detecting Blueberry Gall
Midge in Southern Highbush and Rabbiteye Blueberry Plantings. Dixie Blueberry
News. 1:38355.
Liburd, 0. and E. Finn. 2004. Evaluation of Conventional and Reduced-risk
Insecticides for Control of Flower Thrips in Blueberries. Berry/Vegetable Times.
3:38354.
Liburd, 0. andE. Finn. 2004. The Status of Blueberry Gall Midge in the
Southeastern. EDIS, ENY 825. pp. 2.
Liburd, 0. and E. Sarzynski. 2004. Effect of Trap Height and Within-planting
Location on Captures of Cranberry Fruitworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in
Highbush Blueberries. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 6:199-204.
Liburd, 0. and G. Seferina. 2004. Grape Root Borer: Life Stages and IPM
Strategies in Florida. Fact Sheet SP 330. pp. 2.
Liburd, 0. and G. Seferina. 2004. Insect Pest of Grapes in the Southeastern
United States. UF/IFAS, Pest Alert, pp. 2.
Liburd, 0. and G. Thorton. 2004. Time to Monitor for Black Cherry Fruit Flies.
MSU CAT Alert. 15(9):1-2.
Liburd, 0. and K. Pettit. 2004. Tarnished Plant Bug: A Key Pest of Fruit and
Vegetable Growers. Fruit Growers News. 40:36-37.
Liburd, 0. and L. Stelinski. 2004. Apple Maggot Fly and Its Sibling Species:
Physiological and Environmental Status. MSU CAT Alert. 14(15):3-4.
Liburd, 0. and L. Stelinski. 2004. Seasonal Abundance of Cherry Fruit Flies in
Northwest Michigan. MSU CAT Alert. 14(18):5-6.
Liburd, 0., E. Finn, K. Pettit and J. Wise. 2004. Response of Blueberry Maggot
Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Imidacloprid-treated Spheres and Selected Classes of
Insecticides. Canadian Entomologist. 135:427-438.


Liburd, 0., E. Sarzynski and G. Krewer. 2004. Results of Gall Midge Control
Experiments in Bacon Co. and Recommendations for Control. Proceedings of the
Southeastern Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference, pp. 5.
Liburd, 0., G. Seferina and D. Dinkins. 2004. Suppression of Two Spotted Spider
Mites. Berry/Vegetable Times. 3:38415.
Liburd, 0., G. Seferina and S. Weihman. 2004. Insect Pests of Grapes in Florida.
EDIS, ENY 713. pp. 4.
Liburd, 0., J. Funderburk and S. Olson. 2004. Effects of Biological and Chemical
Insecticides on Marketable Yields of Tomatoes. Journal of Applied Entomology.
124:19-25.
Liburd, 0., L. Gut, L. Stelinski, M. Whalon, M. McGuire, J. Wise and R.
Prokopy. 2004. Mortality of Rhagoletis Species Encountering Pesticide -treated
Spheres (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 92:1151-1156.
Liburd, 0., R. Casagrande and S. Alm. 2004. Evaluation of Various Color
Hydromulches and Weed Fabric on Broccoli Insect Populations. Journal of
Economic Entomology. 91:256-262.
Liburd, 0., S. Alm and R. Casagrande. 2004. Effect of Trap Color, Bait, Shape,
and Orientation in Attraction of Blueberry Maggot Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Journal of Economic Entomology. 91:243-249.
Liburd, 0., S. Alm and R. Casagrande. 2004. Susceptibility of Highbush
Blueberry Cultivars to Larval Infestation (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of
Economic Entomology. 27:817-821.
Liburd, 0., S. Polavarapu, S. Alm and R. Casagrande. 2004. Effect of Trap Size,
Age and Positions on Captures of Blueberry Maggot Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Journal of Economic Entomology. 93:1452-1458.
Liburd, 0., T. Holler and A. Moses. 2004. Toxicity of Imidacloprid-treated Speres
to Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its
Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
in the Laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97:525:529.
Lobinske, R., J. Stimac and A. All. 2004. A Spatially Explicit Computer Model
for Immature Distributions of Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) in
Central Lakes. Hydrobiologia. 519:19-27.
Luc, J. and W. Crow. 2004. Nematode and Nitrogen Management. Golf Course
Management. 72(8):97-100.
Luc, J. and W. Crow. 2004. Sting Nematode: Not a Steward of the Environment.
Golf Course Management. 72(9):86-88.
Magalhaes, B. and D. Boucias. 2004. The Effects of Drying on the Survival
of Metarhizium Anisopliae var. Acridum Driver & Milner Conidiospores. J.
Orthoptera Res. 13(1):155-159.
Maynard, D., G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S. Webb.
2004. Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida. Vegetable Production
Handbook for Florida.
McAuslane, H. and H. Alborn. 2004. Factors Influencing Systemic Induction of
Terpenoid Aldehydes in Cotton Plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
McAuslane, H., J. Chen, R. Carle and J. Schmalstig. 2004. Influence of Bemisia
argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Infestation and Squash Silverleaf Disorder
on Zucchini Seedling Growth. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97:1096-1105.
McSorley, R. 2004. Agroecology. Encyclopedia of Entomology.
McSorley, R. and J. Frederick. 2004. Effect of Extraction Method on Perceived
Composition of the Soil Nematode Community. Applied Soil Ecology. 27:55-63.
McSorley, R. and L. Duncan. 2004. Population Dynamics. pp. 469-492.
Nematology Advances and Perspectives.
McSorley, R., D. Amalin and J. Pena. 2004. Development of Three Sac Spiders
Occurring on Lime Orchards at Homestead, Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
116:44-46.
Medal, J. 2004. Perspectives on Biological Control of Invasive Plants in Latin-
America. CSIRO -Entomology.
Medal, J. and H. Norambuena. 2004. Proceeding of the II Latin-American Short-
course on Biological Control of Weeds. University of Florida-IFAS.
Medal, J., D. Ohashi, D. Gandolfo, F. McKay and J. Cuda. 2004. Risk Assessment
of Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae), a Potential Biocontrol Agent of Tropical
Soda Apple, Solanum viarum (Solnanaceae) in the USA. CSIRO -Entomology.
Minno, M., J. Butler and D. Hall. 2004. Florida Butterflies and their Host Plants.
University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Mizell, III, R. and D. Boucias. 2004. Mycopathogens and their Exotoxins
Infecting the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Survey, Evaluation and Storage.
California Department of Food and Agriculture.


54 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Nigg, H., S. Simpson and J. Knapp Jr. 2004. The Caribbean Fruit-fly Free Zone
Programme in Florida, U. S. A. pp. 179-182.
Olson, S., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S.
Webb. 2004. Onion, Leek, and Chive Production in Florida. Vegetable Production
Handbook for Florida.
Olson, S., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor, S. Smith andE. Simonne. 2004. Tomato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. pp. 301-316.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cole Crop Production in
Florida. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. pp. 131-163.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cucurbit Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida. pp. 169-197.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Pepper Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. pp. 247-258.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Legume Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Handbook for Florida. pp. 207-217.
Pedra, J., M. Scharf, L. McIntyre and B. Pittendrigh. 2004. Genome wide
Transcription Profile of Field and Laboratory- selected DDT-resistant Drosophila.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 101(18):7034-7039.
Persad, A. and M. Hoy. 2004. High-fidelity PCR Assay Discriminates between
Immature Lipolexus oregmae and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera:
Aphdiidae) within Their Aphid Hosts. Florida Entomologist. 87:18-24.
Persad, A. and M. Hoy. 2004. Manipulation of Female Parasitoid Age Enhances
Laboratory Culture of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Reared
on Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Florida Entomologist. 86:429-436.
Rangasamy, M., H. McAuslane, R. Cherry and R. Nagata. 2004. Mechanism
of Resistance in St. Augustinegrass to Southern Chinch Bug (Blissus insularis).
Journal of Economic Entomology.
Rondon, S., 0. Liburd, J. Price, R. Francis and D. Cantliffe. 2004. Commercial
Availability of Predators. EDIS, UF/IFAS. pp. 6.
Sarzynski, E. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Techniques for Monitoring Cranberry
Tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush
Blueberries. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96:1821-1827.
Scharf, M., C. Ratliff and G. Bennett. 2004. Impacts of Residual Insecticide
Barriers on Perimeter-invading Ants, with Particular Reference to the Odorous
House Ant, Tapinoma Sessile Say. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97(2):601-
605.
Scharf, M., D. Wu-Scharf, B. Pittendrigh and G. Bennett. 2004. Catalytic
Activity and Expression of Two Flavin-containing Monooxygenases from D.
Melanogaster. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 57:28-39.
Siegfried, B., L. Meinke, S. Parimi, M. Scharf, T. Nowatzki, X. Zhou and L.
Chandler. 2004. Monitoring Western Corn Rootworm Susceptibility to Carbaryl
and Cucurbitacin Baits in the Areawide Management Pilot Program. Journal of
Economic Entomology. 97(5):1726-1733.
Simonne, E., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, S. Smith and T. Taylor. 2004. Eggplant Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. pp. 199-206.
Simonne, E., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, M. Lamberts, C. Vavrina, W. Stall,
T. Kucharek and S. Webb. 2004. Sweetpotato Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. pp. 293-299.
Simonne, E., G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek
and S. Webb. 2004. Okra Production in Florida. Vegetable Production Guide for
Florida. pp. 229-233.
Simonne, E., G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Sweet Corn Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. pp. 285-292.
Stelinski, L. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Attraction of Apple Maggot Flies (Diptera:
Tephritidae) to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Compounds and Food Attractants in
Michigan Apple Orchards. Great Lakes Entomologist. 35:37-45.


Stelinski, L. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Behavioral Evidence for Host Fidelity Among
Populations of the Parasitic Wasp Diachasma alloem: Parasitoids Tracking the
Sympatirc Speciation of Their Rhagoletis Fly Hosts. Naturwissenshaften. pp. 5.
Stelinski, L. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Evaluation of Various Deployment Strategies
of Imidaclopid-treated Spheres in Highbush Blueberries for Control of Rhagoletis
mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology.
94:905-910.
Stelinski, L., 0. Liburd, S. Wright, R. Prokopy, R. Behle and M. McGuire.
2004. Comparison of Neonicotinoid Insecticides for Use with Biodegradable and
Wooden Spheres for Control of Key Rhagoletis Species (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Journal of Economic Entomology. 94:1142-1150.
Tartar, A. and D. Boucias. 2004. A Pilot-scale Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis
of Beauveria bassiana Gene Expression Reveals a Tripeptydyl Peptidase that is
Differentially Expressed in Vivo. Mycopathologia. 158:201-209.
Tartar, A. and D. Boucias. 2004. Analysis of the Nuclear and Plastid Genomes
of the Non-photosynthetic, Pathogenic Green Algae Helicosporidium sp.
Microbiology Letters, pp. 233:153-157.
Thornton, G. and 0. Liburd. 2004. The Season for Cherry Fruit Flies in Northwest
Michigan. The Fruit Growers News. 38:36-38.
Wang, C., M. Scharf and G. Bennett. 2004. Behavioral and Physiological
Resistance of the German Cockroach to Gel Baits. Journal of Economic
Entomology. 97(6):2073-2078.
Wang, K., R. McGovern, R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Cowpea Cover
Crop and Solarization for Managing Root-knot and Other Plant-parasitic
Nematodes in Herb and Vegetable Crops. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc.
63:99-104.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Effect of Crotalaria Juncea
Amendment on Ssquash Infected with Meloidogyne Incognita. Journal of
Nematology. 36:290-296.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Host Status and Amendment
Effects of Cowpea on Meloidogyne Incognita in Vegetable Cropping Systems.
Nematropica. 33(2):215-224.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Relationship of Soil Management
History and Nutrient Status to Nematode Community Structure. Nematropica.
34:83-95.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R. Gallaher. 2004. Relationships of Nematode
Communities and Soil Nutrients in Cultivated Soils. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida
Proceedings. 63:105-113.
Wang, K., R. McSorley, A. Marshall and R. Gallaher. 2004. Nematode
Community Changes Associated with Decomposition of Crotalaria Juncea
Amendment in Litterbags. Applied Soil Ecology. 27:31-45.
Wattanalai, R., D. Boucias and A. Tartar. 2004. Chitinase Gene of the Dimorphic
Mycopathogen, Nomuraea rileyi. J Invertebr. Pathol. 85:54-57.
White, J. and 0. Liburd. 2004. Effects of Soil Moisture and Temperature on
Reproduction and Development of Two Spotted Spider Mites Tetranychus urticae
Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Strawberries. Journal of Economic Entomology.
Wise, J., L. Gut, R. Isaacs and 0. Liburd. 2004. New Insecticide Chemistries: How
to Effectively Measure Pest Management Performance. Proceedings Michigan State
Horticultural Society, pp. 3.
Wise, J., L. Gut, R. Isaacs, A. Schilder and 0. Liburd. 2004. Insecticide/Fungicide
Evaluation Studies. Dept. of Entomology. pp. 75.
Wise, J., 0. Liburd and L. Gut. 2004. Performance of Selective Insecticides for
Apple Maggot Control. MSU CAT Alert, Extension Bulletin. 16(14):1.
Wise, J., R. Isaacs and 0. Liburd. 2004. Control of Blueberry Maggot, 2001.
Arthropod Management Tests. 27:3.
Yu, S. 2004. Induction of Detoxification Enzymes by Triazine Herbicides in the
Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and
Physiology. 80:113-122.
Zappala, L. and M. Hoy. 2004. Reproductive Strategies and Parasitization
Behavior of Ageniaspis citricola, a Parasitoid of the Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis
citrella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 113:135-143.
Zhang, W., H. McAuslane and D. Schuster. 2004. Repellency of Ginger Oil to
Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Tomato. Journal of Economic
Entomology. 97:1310-1318.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 55









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Adams, B.J.

Boucias, D.G.


Boucias, D.G.


Boucias, D.G.


Boucias, D.G.


Buss, E.A.


Buss, E.A.


Butler, J.F.


Capinera, J.L.


Crow, W.T.


Crow, W.T.


Cuda, J.P.


Cuda, J.P.


Dickson, D.W.


Dickson, D.W.


Foltz, J.L.


Fran k, J.H.


Fran k, J.H.

Hall, H.G.


Hoy, M.A.

Hoy, M.A.


Koehler, P.G.

Koehler, P.G.


Larson, B.C.

Lawrence, RO.


Lawrence, RO.


Leppla, N.C.


Trait Deterioration in Entomopathogen Nematodes

Mechanisms for Biosynthesis, Release & Detection of Volatile
Chemicals in Plant Insect Interactions

Reu Supplement: Cell Structure and Biology of Heliosporidum A
Unique Group of Invertrebrate Pathogens

Cell Structure and Biology of Heliosporidum a Unique Group of
Invertrebrate Pathogens

Manipulation of Hirsutella as a Biological Control of Glassywinged
Sharpshooter, Homalodisca Coagulate

Evaluation of Integrated Pest Management Practices in Urban
Turfgrass

Optimizing Alternative Pest Management for Turfgrass in the
Southeast

Development of Formulation for Timed Applications to Suppressant
Repellent and Attractant for Use in Timed Applic

IPA for Dr. G. White


Alternatives to Organophosphate Pesticides on Turf


Timing of Nematicide Applications on Turf Based on Soil


Biological Control of the Invasive Strawberry Guava for Caribfly
Suppression

S[849 Task: Classical Biological Control of Brazilian Peppertree,
Schinus Terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), in Florida

Optimization of Metam Sodium Application Methods for Maxi-
mumefficacy and Minimum Volatilization Losses

Distribution, Biology & Etiology of Meloidogyne Mayaguensis a New
Root-knot Nematode Threat to Florida

Changes to Bark Beetle Populations as a Consequence of Fuel
Reduction Treatments in Florida Flatwoods Ecosystems-phase 2

Biological Control of Metamasius Callizona for the Conservation of
Bromeliad Communities in Florida State Parks

Controlling Mexican Bromelied Weevil

Improvement of DNA Delivery for Gene Transfer in Economically
Important Insect

Classical Biological Control of the Brown Citrus APHID in Florida

Integration of Chemical and Biological Control of the Citrus Leaf
Miner in Young Groves

Cellulose Inhibitors of Termites

Evaluation of New Technologies for Protection of Military Personnel
From Filth and Biting Flies

Enhancing Distance Education in Integrated Pest Management

Reu-lInteractions of an Entomopoxvirus, its ParasiticWasp &Their
Insect Host: Viral Morphogenesis and Gene Expression

A Research Supplement: An Entomopoxvirus of Diachasmimorpha
Krausii is a Possible Homolog of DIEPV

Incorporating Alternative, Multi-Tactic IPM into the Crop Planning
Process of Florida Vegetable Growers


56 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


U.S. Dept ofAgriculture

U.S. Dept ofAgriculture


National Science Foundation


National Science Foundation


State of California


Environmental Protection Agcy.


Univ. of Georgia


Intermatic


U.S. Dept. of Defense


Golf Course Supers Assn.


Golf Course Supers Assn.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Texas A&M University


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Procter & Gamble Company

U.S. Army


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

National Science Foundation


National Science Foundation


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


26,500

175,000


18,000


73,000


54,950


67,072


35,340


50,000


143,221


31,240


21,000


24,977


25,339


18,012


99,760


16,500


47,657


35,000

540,050


35,000

96,830


190,000

243,182


73,376

18,750


24,658


49,959









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Leppla, N.C.


Leppla, N.C.


Leppla, N.C.


Leppla, N.C.
Leppla, N.C.


Liburd, O.E.


Liburd, O.E.


McAuslane, H.J.
McSorley, R.T.


McSorley, R.T.
McSorley, R.T.


McSorley, R.T.


McSorley, R.T.


Rutledge, C.R.


Webb, S.E.


Handheld Acoustic System to Detect Insects in Nursery Container
Crops
Release and Evaluate an Exotic Nematode for Mole Cricket Control
in Puerto Rico
Efficacy of Sulfuryl Flouride as Methyl Bromide Alternative in
Processing Mills

Florida and Offshore Biological Control Initiatives in Miami
Integrated Management of Pest Mole Crickets in Puerto Rico and
Florida
An Integrated Approach for Reducing Pesticide Risks in Commercial
Strawberry Production
Utilization of Living and Synthetic Mulches to Suppress Cucurlibit
Pests
Developing Multi-species Insect Resistance in Romaine Lettuce
Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Field Production of Floral
and Ornamental Crops
Population Dynamics and Interactions of Soil Microorganisms
Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Field Production of Floral
and Ornamental Crops
Sustainable Agricultural Practices for Management of Plant-Para-
sitic Nematodes on Tropical Crops
Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Field Production of Floral
and Ornamental Crops
IPM for Mosquito Control: Program Development Training and
Educational Materials
Management of Insects on Potatoes with a New Insecticide USA-
03-816


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 57


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of the Interior


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture
U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Environmental Protection Agcy.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture
U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture
U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Univ. of Puerto Rico


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Dupont Company


20,000


22,550


20,000


115,000
99,992


75,834


29,697


65,299
21,950


18,000
21,950


9,000


22,500


44,625


6,000


















The Department of Environmental Horticulture is committed to
developing and communicating scientifically based research and
information on the enhancement of interior and exterior living
environments through the use of ornamental plant material and
turfgrasses. Environmental Horticulture plays a dominant role
in Florida's agricultural economy with the production, sales and
maintenance of ornamental plants (woody plants, floricultural
crops, foliage plants, bedding plants, and cut foliage) exceeding $9.9
billion per year. Turfgrass production and maintenance, an integral
part of Florida's tourism industry, adds another $7 billion to state
economy while golf courses contribute $5 billion to the economy of
Florida. Environmental Horticulture faculty, located in Gainesville
and at Research and Education Centers from Jay to Homestead, are
addressing the following research areas:
WATER MANAGEMENT AND PLANT NUTRITION Identify, develop
and disseminate environmentally and economically sound technolo-
gies that will increase production and utilization efficiencies as well
as protect or improve environmental quality. Research is providing
.** l 1 11, results leading to water conservation in nurseries, land-
scapes and on golf courses. New research will address the water and
fertilizer requirements of turfgrasses and landscape plants.
LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGY Florida, by virtue of
its size, diversity, geographic location and multiple climatic zones
provides unique opportunities for modeling a sustainable horticul-
tural industry in subtropical and tropical regions throughout the
world. The components of the success of this model are develop-
ment of appropriate propagation and production techniques and
introduction of new plants to the industry. Research to develop
micropropagation techniques has led to rapid availability of sea oats
and wetland plants for beach and landscape restoration. An ad-
ditional component, invasive plant evaluation, is being addressed for
existing plants and new plant introductions.
BIOTECHNOLOGY, PLANT BREEDING AND NEW CROP DEVELOP-
MENT We are striving to develop horticultural characteristics,
disease and host/plant resistance through classical genetics and
molecular techniques, allowing us to create marketable products for
consumers. Today, the floral biotechnology program is among the
leading programs nationally and internationally.


PLANT PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT An important source of
sound research-based information to the professional horticultural
industry, the scientific community and the consumer/student. This
program is viewed as a leader in crop production and physiology
information and will set an example for the industry in environmen-
tally safe practices.
CONSUMER HORTICULTURE-PEOPLE, PLANTS AND THE ENVI-
RONMENT Communicate environmentally sound landscape and
gardening practices to the citizens of Florida in order to sustain the
natural beauty and protect the natural resources of Florida, and to
promote quality of life for residents and tourists.
POSTHARVEST/POST PRODUCTION Address the needs of the foli-
age and floriculture market chain. Currently the best interior evalu-
ation facilities in the US are located within this department, and it
is the only program nationally addressing whole plant longevity on
a broad scale. Major emphasis is placed on research to improve the
performance of fresh cut flowers for the consumer.
LANDSCAPE AND TURFGRASS MANAGEMENT Develop and pro-
vide research based principles and practices to government agencies,
landscape professionals, golf course superintendents, sod produc-
ers and consumers that will ensure the successful establishment of
landscape plants and turfgrass without polluting the environment or
wasting resources. These projects range from the proper use of fertil-
izer in the landscape to the fate of pesticides on golf courses.
The Environmental Horticulture Program addresses the use of
ornamental plants and turfgrasses for home and commercial land-
scapes and for beautification in the home and office. Today, teach-
ing, research and extension programs blend current day recommen-
dations with the need to maintain and enhance our environment
and preserve our natural resources. Florida faces many challenges in
the future with efficient water use and prevention of runoff, produc-
tion of a broad range of plant material for distribution world-wide
and the need for highly qualified individuals to fill critical industry
jobs. The faculty and staff in Environmental Horticulture are poised
to meet these challenges with sound scientific research that is recog-
nized throughout the world.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 59


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE
IFAS 1545 Fifield Hall, PO Box 110670 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0670
oi AE t 352-392-1831I http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR CONTAINER PLANT
NURSERIES
BY THOMAS H. YEAGER

SIGNIFICANCE: Nationally, agriculture has been the subject of
public scrutiny regarding environmental issues. In central Florida,
producers of ferns cut for their green foliage and producers of
citrus fruit have been scrutinized for causing elevated nitrate
nitrogen concentrations in ground water. In Okeechobee County,
the dairy industry has been mandated to minimize phosphorus
runoff into Lake Okeechobee and ultimately the Everglades, while
the nursery industry in Broward County has been subjected
recently to potential mandates to reduce phosphorus runoff into
canals. Broward County and the South Florida Water Manage-
ment District are required by government mandates to reduce
the phosphorus concentration in canals that discharge to the
Everglades. Thus, water quality issues and in particular surface
water quality issues are rapidly coming to the forefront of public
attention and will impact nursery operations.
RATIONALE: Best Management Practices (BMPs) provide a
standardized terminology for nurseries and other agricultural
businesses, trade associations, and governmental agencies to use
when communicating about environmentally conscious produc-
tion practices. These practices must be research-based, readily
adaptable, and have minimal economic burden. Development
of these practices for the container nursery industry has been
progressing for several years thanks to support from the nursery
industry, private companies, Horticultural Research Institute, Wa-
ter Management Districts, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, USDA-ARS, UF, and various associations and endow-
ments. Research has involved a team approach with faculty from
UF's Research and Education Centers, USDA-ARS, and other
disciplines such as Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Food
and Resource Economics, and Soil and Water Science. Current
research encompasses development of fertilization application


techniques for maximizing nutrient absorption by plants and
minimizing nutrient runoff from production areas into ground
and surface waters. Fertilization and irrigation BMP recommen-
dations developed through research will be tested for commercial
adaptability in Broward County. To accomplish this, UF person-
nel will demonstrate BMPs at several commercial nursery sites.
Nursery operators will evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs at these
demonstration sites so that technology transfer and implementa-
tion of BMPs will be enhanced.
IMPACT: This past year, members of the Florida Nursery, Grow-
ers and Landscape Association as well as other plant producers
representing Broward, Dade, and Palm Beach counties were
convened along with representatives from governmental agencies,
associations, and educational institutions. The goal of these meet-
ings was to establish priority BMPs that were currently being used
or could be readily adopted to either minimize or reduce offsite
nutrient movement into the canals. This process evolved into a
draft document titled South Florida Container Nursery BMP Guide
.,!',p I i ....i i ...I -..- i. Once adopted by statutory rule,
producers implementing BMPs and keeping appropriate records
are exempt from costs associated with the clean up of ground and
surface water contaminated with phosphorus or other constitu-
ents, and these producers are presumed to be in compliance with
state water quality standards. Research conducted at UF and other
collaborating universities is pivotal in guiding the rule develop-
ment process because research-based information determines the
"best" practices that become specified by the rule.
THE FUTURE: In the future, nursery businesses will spend more
time than in the past accounting for production activities and
communicating positive environmental benefits of their manage-
ment practices. BMPs provide the nurseries a common format for
accountability and communication. Being a part of the account-
ability process during development is very important for nurser-
ies. But it is equally important for us to ensure that research-based
information forms the backbone of BMPs.


Tom Yeager


60 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


FACULTY & STAFF


TITLE


SPECIALTY


Terril[A. Nell

James E. Barrett

David G. Clark

Bijan Dehgan

Edward F. Gilman

Charles L. Guy

Lisa A. Hall

Michael E. Kane

Dennis B. McConnell

Grady L. Miller

Richard K. Schoelhorn

Laurie E. Trenholm

Tom Wichman

Thomas H. Yeager


Chair and Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Crd. Academic Programs

Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Extension Agent II

Prof.


Floriculture

Floriculture

Floriculture/Biotechnology

Taxonomy

Arboriculture/Landscaping

Biotechnology

Education/Recruitment

Tissue Culture

Foliage

Turfgrass

Floriculture

Turfgrass/Urban Horticulture

Master Gardener Program

Woody Ornamentals


PROJECTS

AUTHOR
Nell, T.A.


Grabosky, J.C., Gilman, E.F.


Trenholm, L.E., Unruh,J.B.
Dehgan, B., Guy, C.L.
Miller, G.L.
Clark, D.G.
Guy, C.L.


Emino, E.R., Schoellhorn, R.K.


TITLE
Postproduction Evaluation of Foliage Plants, Potted Flowering Plants and Fresh Cut Flowers
for Interior Use
Landscape Tree Establishment and Protection in the Development and Maintenance of
Urban Environments
Best Management Practices for Residential and Commercial Landscape Turfgrasses in Florida
Reproductive Biology and Invasive Potential of Lantana Camara Cultivars
Improve Turfgrass Management as Related to Environmental Parameters
Molecular Genetics of Floriculture Crops
Maltose as a Chloroplast Emergency Compatible Solute in Response to Acute Temperature
Shock
Cultural Systems for Specialty Cut Flowers and Other New Ornamental Crops for Florida


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 61


FACULTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


RESEARCH

PROJECT NO.
ENH-03791


ENH-03914


ENH-03922
ENH-04003
ENH-04033
ENH-04046
ENH-04054


ENH-04069








PUBLICATIONS



Baum, M., M. Dukes and G. Miller. 2004. Analysis of Residential Irrigation
Distribution Uniformity. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.
Beeson Jr., R., R. Beeson Jr., M. Arnold, T. Bilderback, B. Bolusky, S. Chandler,
H. Gramling, J. Lea-Cox, J. Harris, P. Klinger, H. Mathers, J. Ruter and T.
Yeager. 2004. Strategic Vision of Container Nursery Irrigation in the Next Ten
Years. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 22(2):113-115.
Beeson Jr., R., T. Yeager and J. Kahoun. 2004. Irrigation Volumes and Tree
Growth of Quercus Virginiana in Porous Bottom Containers and #25 Pot-in-pot.
Southern Nursery Association, pp. 537.
Chen, J., D. McConnell and R. Henny. 2004. Light Induced Coordinative
Changes in Leaf Variegation between Mother Plants and Daughter Plantlets of
Chlorophytum Comosum 'Vittatum. 659:453-459.
Clark, D., C. Dervinis, J. Barrett, H. Klee and J. Jones. 2004. Drought induced
Leaf Senescence and Horticultural Performance of Transgenic P-SAG12-IPT
Petunias. J Am Soc Hort Sci. 129:93-99.
Clevenger, D., J. Barrett, H. Klee and D. Clark. 2004. Factors Affecting Seed
Production in Transgenic Ethylene-insensitive Petunias. J Am Soc Hort Sci.
129:401-406.
Gilman, E. and R. Black. 2004. Landscape Plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts.
University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems Part 1: Measuring Operation Pressures. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 18-19.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Application Rates. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 32-36.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Uniformity of Water Application in Sprinkler Systems.
Ornamental Outlook. 6:2.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Field Evaluation of Container Nursery Irrigation
Systems: Measuring Uniformity of Water Application of Microirrigation Systems.
Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Irrigation System Selection for Container
Nurseries. Ornamental Outlook. pp. 18-21.
Haman, D. and T. Yeager. 2004. Stop Seeing Spots Tips for Eliminating Foliar
Deposits and Stains Caused by Irrigation Water. Ornamental Outlook.
Haman, D., B. Boman, G. Knox, S. Lacascio, T. Obreza, L. Parsons, F.
Rhoads and T. Yeager. 2004. Status and Growth of Microirrigation in Florida.
Microirrigation for a Changing World: Conserving Resources/Preserving the
Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth International Microirrigation Congress.
ASAE.
Haman, D., C. Brooks, T. Yeager and R. Beeson, Jr. 2004. Square Funnel
Containers for Nursery Production. SNA Proceedings.
Haman, D., S. Irmak and T. Yeager. 2004. Container Production Innovations.
American Nurseryman. October:54-56.
Haman, D., S. Irmak and T. Yeager. 2004. Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of
Multi-pot Box System. Journal of Environmental Hort. 19(1):38452.
Haman, D., S. Irmak, A. Irmak, J. Jones, T. Yeager and K. Campbell. 2004. A
New Irrigation-plant Production System for Water Conservation in Ornamental
Nurseries: Quantification and Evaluation of Irrigation, Runoff, Plant Biomass, and
Irrigation Efficiencies. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 19(6):651-655.


Haman, D., T. Yeager and S. Irmak. 2004. Multi-pot Box System for Increased
Efficiency of Irrigation in Ornamental Plant Production. Irrigation Association
Technical Conference Proceedings.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, R. Beeson Jr and G. Knox. 2004. Multiple Pot Box for
Container Plant Production. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 16(1):60-63.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, S. Irmak and C. Larsen. 2004. Container Plant Production
in Multiple Pot Box. SNA Research Conference.
Haman, D., T. Yeager, S. Irmak, R. Beeson, Jr and G. Knox. 2004. Multipot Box
and Funneled Containers in Container Nursery Production. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc.
Kelly, R., R. Schoellhorn, Z. Deng and B. Harbaugh. 2004. University of Florida's
Best. GPN Greenhouse Product News. 14(5).
Klee, H. and D. Clark. 2004. Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Flowers.
Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction, Action. Kluwer Academic
Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 369-390.
McCarty, B., C. Wells, G. Miller and G. Landry Jr. 2004. Plant Growth and
Development. Best Golf Course Management Practices. Prentice Hall: Upper
Saddle River, NJ. pp. 59-94.
McCarty, B., J. Weinbrecht, J. Toler and G. Miller. 2004. St. Augustinegrass
Response to Plant Growth Retardants. 44:1323-1329.
McConnell, D. and J. Chen. 2004. The Right Light Levels for Foliage.
13(12):20-21.
Miller, G. 2004. Analysis of Soccer Field Surface Hardness. 661:287-294.
Miller, G. and B. McCarty. 2004. Best Golf Course Management Practices.
Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Miller, L., T. Yeager and C. Larsen. 2004. Monitoring Phosphorus and Nitrate
Nitrogen in Above Ground Porous Container. SNA Research Conference.
Norcini, J., B. Dehgan, S. Kabat, J. Aldrich and F. Martin. 2004. Wildflower
Ecotype Research in Florida. 4th Annual Native Seed Quality Conference.
Shibuya, K., K. Barry, J. Ciardi, H. Loucas, B. Underwood, S. Nourizadeh,
J. Ecker, H. Klee and D. Clark. 2004. The Central Role of PhEIN2 in Ethylene
Responses Throughout Plant Development in Petunia. Plant Physiol. 136:2900-
2912.
Simkin, A., B. Underwood, M. Auldridge, H. Loucas, K. Shibuya, E. Schmelz,
D. Clark and H. Klee. 2004. Circadian Regulation of the PhCCD1 Carotenoid
Dioxygenase Controls Emission of Beta-ionone, a Fragrance Volatile of Petunia
Flowers. Plant Physiol. 136:3504-3514.
Snowden, K., A. Simkin, B. Janssen, K. Templeton, H. Loucas, D. Clark and H.
Klee. 2004. The Dadl/PhCCD8 Gene Affects Branch Production and has a Role in
Leaf Senescence, Root Growth and Flower Development. The Plant Cell.
Stiles, C., G. Miller and R. McGovern. 2004. The Doctor of Plant Medicine Takes
Root in UF IFAS. Florida Turf Digest. 21(5):22-24.
Teuton, T., B. Brecke, J. Unruh, G. MacDonald, G. Miller and J. Ducar.
2004. Factors Affecting Seed Germination Tropical Signalgrass (Urochloa
subquadripara). Weed Science. 52:376-381.
Thetford, M., B. Ballard, J. Raymer, J. Gibson and R. Schoellhorn. 2004.
The Milton Gardens: A History and Future of Teaching, Research and Display.
Southern Nursery Association Research Conference. 49:422-425.
Trenholm, L. and J. Unruh. 2004. Florida Lawn Handbook. University Press of
Florida: Gainesville.


62 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Cantliffe, D.J.


Clark, D.G.

Clark, D.G.


Dehgan, B.


Gilfman, E.F.

Guy, C.L.

Guy, C.L.


Kane, M.E.


Kelly-Begazo, C.A.

Kelly-Begazo, C.A.


Knox, G.W.


Larson, B.C.

Larson, B.C.

Larson, B.C.


Miller, G.L.


Nell, T.A.


Nell, T.A.


Nell, T.A.

Trenholm, L.E.


Trenholm, L.E.

Yeager, T.H.


Yeager, T.H.

Yeager, T.H.


Yeager, T.H.


Yeager, T.H.

Yeager, T.H.


Enhanced Product Quality and Productivity of Vegetables Through
Sustainable Prot

Gene Function Analysis in Transgenic Petunias

Floriculture Genomics Basic Tools for Crop Improvement Through
Biotechnology

Reproductive Biology & Invasive Potential of Lantana Camera
Cultivars

Developing Weed-based Tree Selector Software for Florida

Royalty Returns

Maltose as a Chloroplast Emergency Compatible Solute in Response
to Acute Temperature Shock

Application of Micropropagation Technology for Storage & Produc-
tion of FL Native Wildflower Ecotypes Used for Seed...

Western Panhandle FloridaYards and Neighborhoods Program

Continued Expansion & Sustainability of the FLYards & Neighbor-
hoods (Builder Developer Pilot Project)

Continued Expansion & Sustainability of the FLYards and Neighbor-
hoods Program to ProtectWater Quality From Nonpoint

Western Panhandle FloridaYards and Neighborhoods Program

Lake Okeechobee Region FYN Expansion and Enhancement Project

Continued Expansion & Substainability of the FLYards & Neighbor-
hoods Progto Protect Water Quality From Stormwarter Runoff

On-Site Testing of Grasses for Overseeing of Bermudagrass Fair-
ways 2004-2005

Florial Initiation, Crop Culture & Psotproduction Longevity of
Poinsettias

Cleanliness and Care: Providing Practical Solutions to Increase
Fresh Flower Longevity

Flowering Plant Longevity

Best Management Practices for Florida's Green Industries: Educa-
tional Program

Warm Season Turfgrass and Rates and Irrigation

Determination of Runoff Quality and Quanitity of Container-Grown
Plant Production

Reclaimed Water for Irrigation of Container Grow Plants

Wick Irrigation System for Small Foliage Plants


BMP Development and Education for Southeast Florida Nursery
Operators

Evaluation of Controlled Released Fertilizers

Development of E-learning Resource for Water and Nutrient Man-
agement and Conservation, for Nursery and Greenhouse Ind.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Gloeckner Fdtn., Fred C.

Am. Floral Endowment


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept of Agricu[ & Consumer Ser

UF Research Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


FL WildFLower Advisory Council


Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Dept of Environmental Protect


Natl. Turfgrass Federation


Paul Ecke Poinsettias Inc.


Am FLoral Endowment


Am FLoral Endowment

Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Water Management Districts

Natl. Foliage Foundation


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Haifa Nutritech

Univ. of Maryland


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 63


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


37,563


10,000

26,000


19,300


19,200

131

125,000


10,130


89,119

138,654


412,265


85,049
52,920

130,848


16,000


112,500


39,000


19,500

114,867


700,000

43,875


89,000
10,000


23,625


8,500
36,000


















The mission of the Department of Family, Youth and Community
Sciences is to enhance lifelong learning and the personal, social, eco-
nomic, and environmental well-being of diverse individuals, fami-
lies, and communities through state-of-the-art extension, research,
and teaching programs.

The Mission includes the following key elements:
To apply research-based information through innovative out-
reach programs.
To extend the frontiers of knowledge through research and
other scholarly endeavors.
To build student competencies for successful careers in human
and community development.
To enhance the professional development of individuals through
continuing professional education.

A major strength of the department is the diversity of disciplines
that operate in collaborative and complementary ways to address
issues of importance to individuals, families, and communities. This
diversity allows human development to be considered from a broad
perspective, giving consideration to the key contextual setting in
which people are embedded. These contextual factors include fami-
lies, neighborhoods, schools, communities, and extra-community
linkages. These elements form the conceptual foundation for the
research, teaching, and outreach activities of the unit.
Some faculty focus their research on youth development issues
such as crime and violence prevention in public schools. This


research has led to the development of a safe school survey and
school climate survey model for Florida schools, an analysis of
school crime and violence data quality systems, longitudinal stud-
ies on trends of youth crime and violence, and research on youth
risk prevention program effectiveness. Other youth development
research has focused on investigating partnerships that adults
and youth form, for the purpose of addressing the goals of a local
organization, community, or government entity. Florida youth and
adults expand and learn leadership skills through partnerships that
promote community volunteerism, more 1p1t i.I i engagement
in civic governance. The research examines the knowledge, attitudes
and skills of youth and adults regarding willingness to be involved
in partnerships and how they apply leadership skills in partnerships
for community governance. Other faculty focus their research in the
area of food safety and quality in order to provide consumers with
credible, science-based research information on emerging technolo-
gies, storage, i. Ili ii, ,.lli,. of food in relation to food safety and
quality. This research contributes to a safer food supply and better
handling by consumers, thereby enhancing the quality of life for
individuals, families, and communities.
The research programs prepare graduate and undergraduate stu-
dents for fulfilling careers in human services, community develop-
ment, and family and youth professions through the broad-based
social science degree. The scope of the Department of Family, Youth
and Community Sciences reflects an integrated approach to under-
standing the linkages between individuals, families, and communi-
ties, and the environments in which they function.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 65


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES
IFAS 3001 McCarty Hall, PO Box 110310 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0310
lod Ai Staon 352-392-1778 I http://fycs.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


SCHOOL CRIME AND VIOLENCE AND PREVENTION PROGRAM
EVALUATION RESEARCH
The Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences en-
gages actively in research that is designed to study the impacts of
various community systems on the development of youth. These
projects emphasize the examination of the interaction of children,
youth, peers, and families with these major systems, including
schools, neighborhoods, communities, and law enforcement,
courts and referral agencies. Projects also explore the impact of
specific programs on youth with a focus on identifying whether
or not these programs are effective and have an impact. This effort
has the goal of improving our understanding of the characteristics
of environments, children, families, and programs that optimize
the healthy development of the nation's youth.
Dr. Rose Barnett has recently completed several studies that
have examined the effectiveness of prevention programs to reduce
youth crime and violence in schools and communities in the
major urban area of Palm Beach County, the fourteenth largest
school district in the United States and the location of a major
school shooting in the United States. A longitudinal research-
based evaluation study was recently completed on the first eight
years of the Palm Beach County Youth Court, a program estab-
lished by the Palm Beach County School District School Police
Department for juvenile first offenders. The goal of this program is
to keep youth from having a criminal record and from potentially
becoming repeat offenders. The evaluation study examined the
effectiveness of the court processing, the changing trends in pat-
terns of youth crime and violence, and locations of these crimes.
It explored the use of sanctions for these offenses and the impact
of ., o 11 i,. 1111 people on the youth participating in the study. The
Palm Beach County Youth Court program provides four benefits
to their local community: accountability, timeliness, cost savings,
and community cohesion. Research being conducted this year on
the effectiveness on the youth court will continue to explore the
relationships between the key participants as well as examine risk
and protective factors related to these changing trends.
Another project led by Dr. Barnett examined the effects of
Aggressors, Victims and Bystanders, a program developed by Dr.
Ron Slaby (Harvard University) and implemented in Palm Beach
County middle schools by the School Police Department. This is a
conflict resolution program curriculum that is designed to provide
bystanders which includes most individuals within a school


community with the combination of problem-solving skills and
supported help-seeking strategies they need to take positive steps
to prevent violence. This study examined the effectiveness of this
program in order to determine its full impact in terms of reducing
youth crime and violence, as well as building positive steps and
skills to increase youth preparedness in conflict situations.
It was determined that the program did have impact, particu-
larly in the areas of improving how students handle conflict and
violence in the school environment in the following specific areas:
how choices and actions can prevent conflicts from escalating into
fights; how attitudes and beliefs regarding conflict and violence
and habits of thought affect the way they deal with conflict; ways
to stay calm and think clearly during heated conflict; ways to ad-
dress and incorporate different points of view and define problems
in ways that relieve conduct; and how language can be an impor-
tant tool in alleviating conflict and preventing fights.


Dr. Rose Barnett


66 1 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


FACULTY & STAFF



FACU LTY

Nayda I. Torres

RosemaryV. Barnett

Eboni Baugh

Linda B. Bobroff

Elizabeth B. Bolton

Mark Brennan

Gerald R. Culen


Kate Fogarty

Lisa A. Guion

Mary N. Harrison

Joy C. Jordan

Marilyn K. Lesmeister

Heidi J. Liss

Marilyn N. Norman

Amarat H. Simonne

Suzanna D. Smith

Michael S. Spranger

Marilyn E. Swisher


Josephine Turner

Glenda L. Warren

Carolyn S. Wilken


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Lecturer

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof. and Acting
Program Director

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Provisional Asst. Scientist

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof. and Asst. Dean

Asst. Program Director &
Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Family and Consumer Economics

Youth Development and Public Policy


Foods and Nutrition

Community Development

Community Development

Youth Development


Youth Development

Program Planning and Evaluation

Consumer Education

Youth Development

4-H Volunteer Development

Rural Behavior/Violence Prevention

Youth Development

Food Safety and Quality

Human Development


Sustainable Agriculture


Family and Consumer Economics

Nutrition-EFNEP

Family Life


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 67


RESEARCH

0

35


EXTENSION

100

0

0

95

85

50
100


TEACHING

0

65

100

5

15

50

0


40

30

0

0

0




0

80


0 60

0 70

0 100

0 100

35 65









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.
FYC-03782
FYC-03923


FYC-03960
FYC-04080


AUTHOR
Evans, G.D.
Barnett, R.V.


Simonne,A.H.
Simonne, A.H., Marshall, M. R.


PUBLICATIONS



Beaulieu, L. and G. Israel. 2004. Its More Than Just Schools: How Families and
Communities Promote Student Achievement. The Role of Education: Promoting
the Economic and Social Vitality of Rural America. Southern Rural Development
Center: Mississippi State, MS. pp. 44-55.
Beaulieu, L., R. Gibbs and G. Israel. 2004. The Role of Education: Promoting
the Economic and Social Vitality of Rural America. Southern Rural Development
Center: Mississippi State, MS.
Bobroff, L. 2004. Dietary Guidelines. Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z. MacMillan
Reference USA: Detroit. pp. 153-154.
Bobroff, L. 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes. Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z.
MacMillan Reference USA: Detroit.
Bobroff, L. 2004 Food Guide Pyramid. Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z.
Macmillan Reference USA: Detroit. pp. 225-228.
Bobroff, L. 2004. Nutrition and Diet. Optimal Aging Manual Your Guide from
Experts in Medicine, Law, and Finance. Optimal Aging LLC: Sarasota, Florida. pp.
636-648.
Bobroff, L. 2004. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutrition and Well-Being A
to Z. MacMillan Reference USA: Detroit.
Bobroff, L. 2004. The Pathway: Follow the Road to Health and Happiness. Journal
of Nutrition Education and Behavior. pp. 36.
Brennan, M. 2004. Global Challenges of Parks and Protective Area Management.
International Symposium on Society and Resource Management.
Brennan, M. and A. Luloff. 2004. Concern about Air Quality and Awareness
of Ground level Ozone in the Delaware Valley: Summary of the 2004 Telephone
Survey Results. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC):
Philadelphia, PA.


TITLE
Early Childhood Interventions forViolence Prevention in Florida
Evaluation Research in the Area of Youth Development and Youth Crime and Violence
in Public Schools
Enhancing Food Safety and Quality Though Technologies and Consumer Research
Consumer Preference and Phytonutrient Contents of Specialty Tomatoes and Tropical
Fruits in the Caribbean Region


Brennan, M., A. Luloff and J. Finley. 2004. "Building Sustainable Communities in
Forested Regions.' Society and Natural Resources.
Brennan, M., A. Luloffand J. Finley. 2004. Hunter Movements: A Comparison
of Hunter Behaviors and Opinions During Two Pennsylvania Hunting Seasons.
The Pennsylvania State University, Human Dimensions Unit: University Park,
Pennsylvania.
Giuion, L., A. Simonne and J. Easton. 2004. Youth Perspectives on Food Safety.
42(1):8.
Israel, G. and L. Beaulieu. 2004. Investing in Communities: Social Capital's Role
in Keeping Youth in School. Journal of the Community Development Society.
34(2):35-57.
Israel, G. and L. Beaulieu. 2004. Laying the Foundation for Employment: The
Role of Social Capital in Educational Achievement. The Review of Regional
Studies. 34(3).
Luloff, A., J. Bridger and M. Brennan. 2004. "Building Sustainable Communities"
Biodiversity: Addressing a Global Issue Locally. The Environmental Law Institute:
University Park, PA.
Luloff, A., J. Bridger and M. Brennan. 2004. The Economic Impact of Tourism
in Adams County: The Influence of Gettysburg National Military Park and the
Eisenhower National Historic Site. Global Challenges of Parks and Protective Area
Management. International Symposium on Society and Resource Management.
Simonne, A., A. Nille, K. Evans and M. Marshall Jr. 2004. Ethnic Food Safety
Trends in the United States Based on CDC Foodborne Illness Data. 24(8):590-604.
Simonne, A., E. Simonne, D. Studstill, S. Stapleton, W. Davis, R. Hochmuth
and M. Taylor. 2004. Assessing the Eating Quality of Muskmelon Varieties Using
Sensory Evaluation. 116:360-363.


68 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Evaluation of an Extension-based Diabetes Education Program in
Various Geographic Regions of Florida

4-H Youth Development Program

Florida after School Enrichment Project

Understanding Lead-based Paint Regulations

Keeping Children Safe-children's Environmental Health Program

Youth Curriculum Development

4-H Camp Ocala Support

4-H Camping Program Cherry Lake

4-H Camp Business Manager Support

4-H Cloverleaf Camping Program

4-H Timpoochee Camping Program

4-H Youth Development Program

Consumer Preference and Phytonutrient Contents of Speciality
Tomatoes and Tropical Fruits in the Caribbean Region

Sustainable Agriculture Training Plan 2003-04

State Train ing Plan 2004-2005

Cyfar Conference Facilities and Registration Coordination

Cooperative Support Agreement

Family Nutrition Program


Dept. of Health


Fl. 4-H Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Univ of Georgia

Univ of Georgia

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

Fl. 4-H Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of Georgia

Univ. of Georgia

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. of Children & Families


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 69


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Bobroff, L.B.


Culen, G.R.

Ferrer, M.

Harrison, M.N.

Harrison, M.N.

Jordan, J.C.

Norman, M.N.

Norman, M.N.

Norman, M.N.

Norman, M.N.

Norman, M.N.

Norman, M.N.

Simonne, A.


Swisher, M.E.

Swisher, M.E.

Torres, N.I.

Torres, N.I.

Torres, N.I.


40,655


23,000

122,000

34,289
9,000

7,500
16,857

55,418

33,551

55,865

10,801

19,860

32,454


10,000

10,000

120,879

40,000

2,113,404


















The mission of the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
(FAS) has two major components: (1) To achieve greater under-
standing of the physical, chemical, and biological features of aquatic
systems through research, education, and public outreach, and
(2) To foster the informed management and husbandry of aquatic
resources.
The Department is organized into four programmatic areas that
encompass the strengths of our Department and how our capabili-
ties best meet current and future challenges facing Florida.

The four programmatic areas are:
Aquaculture
Aquatic animal health
Conservation and management of aquatic environments
Sustainable fisheries

The goals of the four programs are strongly interconnected by
shared concerns and opportunities, such as the integrity and sus-
tainability of water resources.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of agriculture in
Florida, the United States, and the world. Its importance is marked,
primarily, because aquatic organisms (e.g., fish) are diverse and
among the most efficient animals known to convert food into
protein for human consumption. World fisheries landings have
leveled-offat approximately 100 million tons. Most of the stocks are
considered fully exploited or overexploited. Aquaculture will be one
of the major means to make up for limited fisheries stocks during
this century and beyond.


Aquatic animal health is a truly interdisciplinary program well
established at the University of Florida that involves faculty, staff and
students from the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,
The College of Veterinary Medicine, and The Whitney Laboratory.
This program focuses on, 1) disease diagnosis & health manage-
ment, 2) assessment of the effects of toxic algal blooms & environ-
ment contaminants, and 3) an intensive educational program in
aquatic animal health through the Graduate School and Extension
Programs.
Conservation and management of aquatic environments is a re-
sponse to the serious challenges facing Florida due to the explosive
growth of human development. This program focuses on 1) achiev-
ing an objective and comprehensive understanding of the struc-
ture and function of ecosystems, 2) providing critical information
needed for the development of management approaches that ensure
the integrity and sustainability of critical natural resources and 3)
generating the human resources needed to meet the management
challenges of the future through education and extension programs.
Sustainable fisheries serve Florida's recreational and commercial
fisheries, which together represent an economic value unmatched
by fisheries of any other state in the nation. The program focuses
on 1) the effects of habitat quality on fish population abundance, 2)
population modeling and stock assessment, 3) essential fish habitat
& ecological forecasting, and 4) public outreach for sustainable
fisheries.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 71


# UNIVERSITY OF
.FLORIDA FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES

IFAS 7922 NW 71st Street, PO Box 110600 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0600
Florida culturalExper t ti 352-392-9617 I http://fishweb.ifas.ufl.edu

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


BIVALVE ECOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Bivalves are probably most familiar as pretty shells found
on beaches or on plates in seafood restaurants. Many might be
surprised to learn, however, that bivalves play important roles in
the economy and ecology of Florida. For example, clam farming is
an important agribusiness in the state. The culture of hard clams
(Mercenaria mercenaria), a relatively new agricultural industry
in Florida, represents the fastest growing segment of the state's
aquaculture industry; between 1989 and 1999 revenue from farm-
raised hard clams increased fifteen-fold. Today, approximately
400 active shellfish growers farm over 1800 acres of sovereign
submerged state lands off nine coastal counties, producing a crop
worth $18.2 million with an economic impact of about $55 mil-
lion (2001). While the hard clam aquaculture industry of Florida
is a dramatic success story, each year clam farmers face the risk of
catastrophic crop loss associated with climatic, environmental and
biological factors. In addition, the high-density nature of many
aquaculture technologies presents new and unique challenges
for the industry. To maintain its impressive growth and to meet
increasing national and global demand for aquaculture products,
the Florida hard clam industry must increase survival, growth,
and yield while consistently producing a high quality crop.
Florida also faces the challenge of potential economic and
ecological impacts resulting from the introduction of invasive spe-
cies. The number of new invasions by marine organisms has more
than quadrupled in the last 100 years. While the study of marine
invasions in the United States has typically focused on Pacific
states and the Northeast, the recent invasion of Tampa Bay by the
green mussel, Perna viridis, reveals that the Gulf of Mexico is also
vulnerable to biological invasions. Bivalves have many qualities
that make them successful invaders and the impacts of bivalve in-
vaders range from apparently innocuous to clearly harmful, both
ecologically and economically.
Shirley Baker's research program in Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences (FAS) focuses on the physiology and ecology of marine,
estuarine and freshwater invertebrates. Her current program
specializes in cultured, invasive and native bivalve populations.
One of Dr. Baker's long-term research goals is to enhance the
sustainable development of open-water clam farming. She is also
interested in the consequences of biological invasions and anthro-
pogenic disturbances on the ecology and physiology of inverte-
brates. Her methods bridge and integrate several levels of research;
from comparative physiology and biochemistry at the level of the
organism, to remote sensing at the level of the ecosystem.
The CLAMMRS project (Clam Lease Assessment, Management
and Modeling using Remote Sensing), on which Dr. Baker is lead
PI, is one such study that spans several disciplines. This project
is addressing the needs of the hard clam aquaculture industry
through a series of interrelated research and extension activities.
In association with the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Aquaculture, water quality and
weather monitoring stations have been installed at ten clam aqua-
culture lease areas around the state. In addition to creating a water
quality data base to document events associated with crop loss, the
CLAMMRS team, including Dr. Ed Phlips (FAS), Dr. Clay Mon-
tague (Environmental Engineering Sciences), Dr. Debra Murie


(FAS), Leslie Sturmer (Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Program),
Dr. Derk Bergquist (former FAS postdoctoral associate) and FAS
graduate students Carla Beals, Erin Bledsoe, and Jon Fajans, is also
determining the impact of food resource availability and quality
on clam productivity, filling gaps in knowledge of Florida clam
physiology and response to stressors, and developing a computer
simulation model of Florida clam production. A better under-
standing of clams, their environment, and the human dimensions
of clam farming will increase production, farm efficiency and
profitability and thereby enhance the sustainable development of
open-water clam farming in Florida.
Recently, the need for a hardier clam strain has become evident
as clam culturists in south Florida report below average survivals
or total losses during the hot summers. While strain development
through basic breeding is a long and costly process, a quicker
method to capitalize on genetics is through triploid induction. Dr.
Baker and colleagues Drs. John Scarpa (Harbor Branch Oceano-
graphic Institute), Chuck Adams (Food and Resource Economics),
and Leslie Sturmer are examining the hypothesis that triploid
clams will exhibit reduced gamete production and increased body
mass that will contribute to higher survival during the summer
stressors of heat, reduced dissolved oxygen, and reduced food
availability found in the subtropical waters of Florida. Graduate
student, Elise Hoover, is comparing the responses of diploid and
triploid clams subjected to laboratory stress challenges. Dr. Baker
is also determining the physiological mechanism by which trip-
loidy may improve field survival. This project provides informa-
tion concerning the commercial value of triploid hard clams for
increased stress resistance in Florida.
In addition to her focus on hard clams, Dr. Baker also main-
tains an emphasis on invasive bivalve species and the green
mussel, Perna viridis, in particular. The green mussel, native to the
Persian Gulf and the Philippines, has been introduced through-
out the Indo-Pacific, appeared in the Caribbean in 1989 and, by
1999, had invaded Florida. Dr. Baker and her FAS colleagues Drs.
Patrick Baker and Ed Phlips and graduate student Jon Fajans, have
tracked the spread of this mussel since that time. P viridis initially


Shirley Baker


72 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


spread south from its point of origin in Tampa Bay with prevail-
ing currents and in 2002 it invaded northeast Florida. Prior inva-
sion patterns and laboratory tolerance trials conducted in Baker's
lab suggest that cold temperatures will limit northward range
expansion to the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern United
States. Their studies also indicate that R. viridis out-competes the
native and ecologically important eastern oyster, Crassostrea vir-
ginica. This project provides resource and industry managers with
predictions concerning the spread and severity of green mussel
invasions, as well as environmental impacts upon ecosystems. It
also identifies areas of concern and future research needs regard-
ing this and similar species.


PRIMARY COLLABORATORS: Drs. Patrick Baker, Tom Frazer,
Debra Murie, and Ed Phlips (FAS), Dr. Chuck Adams (Food and
Resource Economics), Drs. Derk Bergquist and David Julian (De-
partment of Zoology), Kal Knickerbocker and Sherman Wilhelm
(Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services), Dr.
Clay Montague (Department of Environmental Engineering Sci-
ences), Dr. John Scarpa (Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute),
Leslie Sturmer (Shellfish Aquaculture Extension Program), Dr.
Anita Wright (Department of Food Science and Human Nutri-
tion), and many FAS graduate students and biologists. Funding
has been provided by USDA, EPA, and Florida Sea Grant.


FACULTY & STAFF


FACU LTY
Karl E. Havens
MichealS. Allen
Roger Bachman
Patrick K. Baker
Shirley M. Baker
Daniel E. Canfield,Jr.
FrankA. Chapman
Charles E. Cichra
Ruth Francis-Floyd
Thomas K. Frazer
Charles A. Jacoby

William J. Lindberg
Debra J. Murie
Denise Petty
Edward J. Phlips
William Seaman, Jr.
Leslie Sturmer


Robert Swett
CraigA. Watson
Roy P. Yanong


TITLE
Chair & Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Research Prof.
Research Asst. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Prof.
Joint Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Asst. Prof. Vet. Med.
Prof.
Prof.
Multi-CountyAqualculture
Extension Faculty
Asst. Prof.
Coord. Res. Prog.
Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY
Plankton Ecology Limnology
Freshwater Fisheries Ecology
Limnology
Invertebrate zoology & malacology
Ecological Physiology
Limnology
Fisheries and Reprod. Biology
Fish Ecology and Management
Fish Health Management
Marine Ecology
Coastal Estuarine Ecology, Water Quality,
Habitat Quality
Marine Fisheries Ecology
Fisheries Ecologist
Aquatic Animal Health
Algal Physiology and Ecology
Marine fisheries
Aquaculture

Waterway Management, Coastal Planning
Tropical Aquaculture
Fish Medicine


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 173









FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.
FAS-03902


FAS-03953


FAS-03955


FAS-03978



FAS-04007




FAS-04042
FAS-04045





FAS-04123
FAS-04205


AUTHOR
Baker, S. M., Phlips, E.J., Montague, C.,
Sturmer, L.N., Wilhelm, R.S.
Allen, M.S., Canfield, J.E., Cichra, C.E.,
Phlips, E.J., Frazer, T.K.
Watson, C.A., Lindberg, W.J., Yanong, R.P.,
Lane, M., Canfield, D.E. Baldwin, J.D.
Jacoby, C.A., Lindberg, W.J., Baker, S.M.,
Baker, P.K., Chapman, F.A., Frazer, T.K.,
Murie, D.J., Parkyn, D.C., Phlips, E.J.
Chapman, F.A., Baker, S.M., Baker, P.K.,
Bowen, B.R., Cichra, C.E., Francis-Floyd, R.T.,
Murie, D.J., Parkyn, D.C., Phlips, E.J.,
Watson, C.A.,Yanong, R.P.


TITLE
CLAMMRS: Clam Lease Assessment, Monitoring, and Modeling using Remote
Sensing.
Fisheries, Aquatic Ecology and Limnology of Florida's Freshwater Ecosystems


TropicalAquaculture, Florida


Management and Ecology of Florida's Coastal Marine Ecosystems



The Science ofAquaculture: The Biology, Husbandry, and Utilization of Aquatic Organisms


Lindberg, W.J., Watson, C.A., Yanong, R.P. Tropical Aquaculture Research, Florida, 2002


Lindberg, W.J., Baker, S.M., Philips, E.J.,
Sturmer, L.N., Degner, R.L., Otwell W.S.,
Wright, A.C., Rodrick, G.E., Baker, P.K.,
Francis-Floyd, R.T., Yanong, R.P.,
Adams, C.M.
Watson, C.A., Lindberg, W.J.
Watson, C.A., Hill, J.E.


PUBLICATIONS



Baker, P. 2004. The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and
Preservation. Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia, PA.
Baker, S. and D. Padilla. 2004. New Frontiers in Functional Morphology of
Mollusks: A Tribute to Drs. Vera Fretter and Ruth Turner. 18:121-128.
Baker, S., P. Baker, D. Heuberger and L. Sturmer. 2004. Short term Effects of
Rapid Salinity Reduction on Seed Clams. Journal of Shellfish Research.
Bergquist, D., S. Baker and D. Julian. 2004. Toxic Sulfide Concentrations in the
Sediments and Water Column of the Suwannee River Estuary and its Influence on
Hard Clam Survival. Florida Sea Grant College Program.
Greenawalt, J., T. Frazer, S. Keller and C. Jacoby. 2004. Abundance and Sizes of
Bay Scallops in Heterogeneous Habitats Along the Gulf Coast of Florida. Gulf of
Mexico Science. (1):74-84.
Hale, J., T. Frazer, D. Tomasko and M. Hall. 2004. Changes in the Distribution
of Seagrass Species Along Floridas Central Gulf Coast Iverson and Bittaker
Revisited. Estuaries. 27(1):36-43.
Hartman, K., R. Yanong, R. Francis-Floyd, A. Riggs and D. Petty. 2004. Spring
Viremia of Carp (SVC) and Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) Emerging Diseases of Koi:
Workshop Summary and FAQs. Pondkeeper: The Trade Resource for Aquatic
Plant Nurseries, Ornamental Fish Hatcheries, Landscape Installers, & Retailers.
pp. 40-43.
Hauxwell, J., C. Osenberg and T. Frazer. 2004 Conflicting Management Goals:
Manatees and Invasive Competitors Inhibit Restoration of a Native Macrophyte.
Ecological Applications. 14(2):571-586.
Hauxwell, J., T. Frazer and C. Osenberg. 2004. Grazing by Manatees Excludes
Both New and Established Wild Celery Transplants: Implications for Restoration
in Kings Bay, FL, USA. Jounal of Aquatic Plant Management. 42:49-53.
Havens, K. 2004. Is There a Common Language Regarding the Trophic State of
Lakes? LakeLine. 24:33-36.
Havens, K. and G. Nurnberg. 2004. The Phosphorus-chlorophyll Relationship
in Lakes: Potential Influences of Color and Mixing Regime. Lake and Reservoir
Management. 20:188-196.


culture, Florida Research Project





'ical Aquaculture Florida, 2003
'ical Aquaculture Florida, 2004



Havens, K., B. Sharfstein, M. Brady, T. East, M. Harwell, R. Maki and A.
Rodusky. 2004. Recovery of Submerged Plants from High Water Stress in a Large
Subtropical Lake in Florida, USA. Aquatic Botany. 78:67-82.
Hoyer, M., S. Notestein, T. Frazer and D. Canfield Jr. 2004. Bird Density and
Species Rchness on Five Florida Coastal Rivers, with Comparisons to Florida
Freshwater Lakes. Hydrobiologia.
Hoyer, M., T. Frazer, S. Notestein and D. Canfield Jr. 2004. Vegetative
Characteristics of Three Low-lying Florida Coastal Rivers in Relation to Flow,
Light, Salinity and Nutrients. Hydrobiologia. 528:31-43.
Kirkendale, L., T. Lee, P. Baker and D. O'Foighil. 2004. Oysters of the Conch
Republic (Florida Keys): A Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Parahyotissa Mcgintyi,
Teskyostrea Weberi, and Ostrea Equestris. Malacologia. 46:309-326.
Mallison, C. and C. Cichra. 2004. Accuracy of Angler-reported Harvest in Roving
Creel Surveys. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 24:880-889.
Moline, M., H. Claustre, T. Frazer, 0. Schofield and M. Vernet. 2004. Alteration
of the Food Web along the Antarctic Peninsula in Response to a Regional
Warming Trend. Global Change Biology. pp. 38360.
Yanong, R. 2004. Common Fungal Diseases in Fish. Proceedings, North American
Veterinary Conference.
Yanong, R. 2004. From Dog-paddling to Swimming with the Fishes: Post-DVM
Educational Opportunities in Fish Medicine. Proceedings, Expanding Private
Practitioner Opportunities in Fish Medicine, Special Session: 35th Annual
Conference, International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. pp. 62-69.
Yanong, R. and D. Petty. 2004. Attack of the Killer Eyelids! The Weird World
of Ciliates. Buntbarsche Bulletin: Journal of the American Cichlid Association.
221:38361.
Yanong, R., E. Curtis, R. Simmons, V. Bhattaram, M. Gopalakrishnan, N.
Ketabi, N. Nagaraj and H. Derendorf. 2004. Pharmacokinetic Studies of
Florfenicol in Koi (Cyprinus carpio) and Three-spot Gourami (Trichogaster
trichopterus) after Oral and Intramuscular. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health.
Yanong, R., R. Russo, E. Curtis, R. Francis-Floyd, R. Klinger, I. Berzins, K.
Kelley and S. Poynton. 2004. Cr i I- ...I-. I ... i., i. ... Juvenile Discus
(Symphysodon aequifasciata): Four Case Reports, Pathology, and Treatment Trials.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 224(10):1644-1650.


74 | 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Allen, M.S.


Important Microhabitats for Spotted Sunfish in the Anclote Manatee
RI


Allen, M.S. Hatching Duration, Growth and Survival of Age Largemouth Bass
Along a Lattitudinal Gradient of Florida Lakes

Baker, P.K. GeneticAnalysis of Hard Clam (Mercenaria Mercenaria) Perfor-
mance in Commercial Culture

Baker, P.K. An Invertebrate Survey for Desoto National Memorial

Baker, S.M. Diversification for Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry Through Investi-
gation of Blood Ark,anadara Ovalis,& Ponderous Ark...

Baker, S.M. Clammers (Clam Lease Assessment, Management, and Modeling
Using Remote Sensing): Alligator Harbor Aquaculture Use Area

Baker, S.M. Improving Stress Resistance of Cultured Hard Clams: Tripolid
Production

Canfield Jr., D.E. Evaluation of Lake Tohopikaliga Habitat Enhancement Project

Canfield Jr., D.E. Florida Lakewatch

Canfield Jr., D.E. Restoration of the Economic Vitality of Lake Griffin's Largemouth
Bass Fishery: a Research/Demonstration Project

Canfield Jr., D.E. Florida Lakewatch: Lake County

Canfield Jr., D.E. Lake User Survey

Canfield Jr., D.E. Lake Vegetation and Light Penetration

Cichra, C. Natural Resource Values Assessments: Investigation of the Effects
of Water Level Fluctuation on Centrarchid ....

Dunsmore, L.E. Application of Landscape Ecology Principles to the Design and
Management of Marine Protected Areas in Coral Reef Ecosy

Frazer, T.K. Project Coast

Frazer, T.K. Kings Bay Vegetation Evaluation and Monitoring Program

Lindberg, W.J. Tropical Aquaculture Florida 2003

Lindberg,W.J. Habitat Selection and the Performance of Gag Grouper Across a
Range of Hard Bottom Habitat in the Nestern Gulf of Mexico

Murie, D.J. Age and Growth ofYellow Full[[head and Two Introduced Catfishes
from South Florida

Philips, E.J. Coastal Eutrophication and the Productivity of Clams and Oysters

Philips, E.J. Implementation of Eadin: Expert Assistance and Distance Indentifi-
cation Network

Philips, E.J. Integration of Clams into Wastewater Treatment:a Dairy Model

Philips, E.J. GtmnerrWater Quality Monitoring

Philips, E.J. Silver Springs Retrospective Ecosystem Study: Phase li

Stocker, R.K. Tropical Aquaculture Florida, 2004

Watson, C.A. Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory Support 2004

Watson, C.A. Aquatic Product Review and Label Development

Yanong, R.P. Use of 17-alpha Methytestosterone (Mt) for Expression of Male
Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Ornamental Fish


Water Management Districts


Fl. Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of the Interior

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Harbor Branch Ocean Inst.


Fl. Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.

Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Lake County


Lake County

Water Management Districts

Water Management Districts

Fl. Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.


Am. Assn. for Advance of Science


Water Management Districts

Water Management Districts

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Commerce


U.S. Dept. of the Interior


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Water Management Districts

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Ser.

Hartz Mountain Corp

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 75


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


80,000


54,850


142,897


23,814

81,052


50,683


19,000


370,940

450,000
68,907


109,000

60,000

40,000

54,600


39,000


465,000
50,000

222,892

95,218


29,945


435,000
70,000


50,937

35,645

33,500

198,727
121,260

50,000

73,058

















The general goal of Food and Resource Economics research is to
provide knowledge needed to guide decisions in the production,
marketing, distribution, and consumption of food, fiber, and marine
products and the development and more efficient use of natural, hu-
man and capital resources.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE: Florida ranks as a major agricultural
state and often leads the nation in the production of a wide variety
of agricultural commodities. Before reaching the consumer, each
product moves through a unique marketing channel often involving
grading, processing, packaging, transporting, international trade,
wholesaling and retailing. The provision of inputs and services to
the agricultural sector also involves -.iii ii, i economic activ-
ity. Agricultural businesses must cope with increased regulatory
pressure, shifting consumer preferences regarding food safety and
environmental protection as well as dealing with emerging oppor-
tunities through biotechnology. Agribusiness, farm management
and production economics, marketing, international trade and
competition, and consumer economics are among the subject matter
sub-areas contributing.
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT: Florida's population
growth and associated pressures on land, water, and natural systems


pose difficult policy choices for public officials. Environmental and
resource problems and policies affect agriculture and Florida's rural
communities. The need for research increases as the competition
between agricultural and nonagricultural users of land and water in-
tensifies. These conflicting issues are clearly part of the management
challenge in commercial agriculture. Natural resource and environ-
mental economics, including marine economics, are the primary
subject matter sub-areas contributing.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: Economic development generally
refers to targeted programs designed to enable people to raise
overall per capital incomes or to improve circumstances for specific
disadvantaged populations. The emphasis of the program thrust
is the enhancement of people's capacity to acquire and manage re-
sources effectively. Economic transitions underway in rural Florida
result in pockets of economic disadvantage. Public and private
managers must cope with the costs of economic change and must be
able to influence both the pattern and pace of growth. Insights are
sometimes obtained from problem-solving work in other counties
that may be applicable in Florida. Rural economic development, in-
ternational development, economic impact analysis, and agricultural
labor subject matter sub-areas contribute.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 77


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS
IFAS 1167 McCarty Hall, PO Box 110240 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0240
FloridaAgriculturalExperi ti 352-392-1826 I http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


ETHICAL ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENTS POLICY ANALYSIS
REGARDING FOOD SAFETY AND AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

In the late twentieth century, systematic thinking about values
and norms associated with the food system farming, resource
management, food processing, distribution, trade, and consump-
tion -has come to be referred to as 1,1f. nidiil ethics. Agricultur-
al ethics incorporates elements of disciplinary philosophical ethi-
cal analysis with concerns about particular "issue areas" that arise
in connection with the food system. Agricultural ethics has grown
from the work of a handful of philosophically trained individuals
in U.S. land-grant institutions to a large, worldwide collection of
academics, scholars, farmers, policymakers, and activists, thinking
and writing about these issues.
Over the past several years there has been considerable public
discussion and policy analysis of issues such as changes in farm
structure, treatment of agricultural animals, food safety; the
environmental impacts of particular farming/resource manage-
ment practices, international trade concerns, food security, and
of course food and agricultural biotechnology. Ethics or ethical
analysis is one of a number of disciplinary tools that can be used
to enhance discussion of policy issues relating to food, agricul-
ture, and the environment. Indeed, all of the agricultural sciences
have had something to contribute. The work of this researcher,
however, has focused primarily on ethics regarding policy. Two
examples of this research are summarized here: 1) Food Safety,
and 2) Agricultural Biotechnology.
Food safety is an ethical issue in part because, in the modern
food production-transportation-processing-wholesaling-retailing
chain, foods can be exposed to chemicals or microbial pathogens,
or simply can be mishandled. Consumers on their own may not
be able to tell whether the foods they purchase and eat will put
them at risk for sickness or disease or even allergic reactions.
Under what is known as a "rights approach" to ethical analysis
- the primary ethical responsibility people have is to respect
each others' rights food safety takes on particular -',K."i, -."ac
because the rights approach demands that people not be placed
at risk against their will. The complexity and lack of transparency
of the food production system implies that government agencies
such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration, and public health departments have an
important role in protecting rights. One way they do this is by
attempting to ensure that food is safe. One problem is that deter-
mining "safety" is not so simple: "safe" implies a value judgment
that potential hazards have been adequately analyzed and that any
remaining risks are "acceptable." Some people question whether
those responsible for ensuring safety really operate under a "pro-
tect rights" regime, or whether an alternative ethical approach,
the so-called "utilitarian" (greatest social net value) approach is
employed. Under a utilitarian regime, judgments about "relative
safety" can sometimes inadvertently place certain individuals at
risk (e.g., those with unique allergies).
In light of occasional food scares and lapses in the regulatory
system, questions have to be raised about the appropriateness and
thoroughness of many scientific risk analyses and assessments of
safety. In general, calls for stricter evaluations of certain chemicals
and genetically engineered foods, more inspections of process-


ing plants and grocery stores, and thorough product labeling
all reflect the ethical demand that consumers be protected from
exposure to (real and perceived) risks associated with foods, i.e.,
have their rights protected. Even the increasing demand for so-
called "Country of Origin" labels may have some basis in peoples'
concerns about whether foods imported from nations with less
stringent environmental regulations are safe to eat.
Labels for food products containing material from genetically
modified (GM) crops have also been the subject of consumer
scrutiny and some policy discussion. Interestingly, the develop-
ment of recombinant DNA techniques for transforming agricul-
tural plants and animals, as well as for food processing and animal
drugs, has been the focus of controversy for more than 20 years.
The debate reached one peak within the United States in connec-
tion with the approval process for bovine somatotropin within
the dairy industry, only to resurface again in connection with
European and Japanese consumer rejection of transgenic maize
and soy. The highly visible political controversy over biotechnol-
ogy has made the debate a prominent place for the consider-
ation of virtually every ethical concern associated with food and
agriculture. Indeed, agricultural biotechnology is debated in terms
of food safety and consumer consent, the broader environmental
effects of its use in crop and livestock production, its impact on
the structure of agriculture, and its potential to address problems
of hunger on a global basis, and, of course, its place in the global
market.
Each of these issues might be raised with respect to many
technologies that affect production practices in the food system.
It is accurate to say that many of the real issues have little to do
with the use of transgenic technology. Yet such a statement also
is misleading by virtue of the way that biotechnology has come
to symbolize the broad pattern of technological change within
the food system for the broader public. The controversy over bio-
ti. .,,1. -- iii.. is ethically .**1o'dI.i ,i because it signals a current
of dissatisfaction within a subset of the public regarding general
social and technological trends in the food system, and because it
illustrates the frustration that segment of the population feels over
its inability to influence policy. Here, biotechnology also connects
with the general issue of consumer trust in science.


eff Burkhardt


78 | 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


Beyond these issues of power over the food system and con-
sumer confidence in the judgment of experts and powerful actors,
there are issues that are unique to the use of biotechnology. One
concerns the quasi-religious question of whether these technolo-
gies are so intrusive with respect to life processes that they amount
to a form of disrespect for humanity's proper relationship to
nature, a form of "playing God." Here, agricultural biotechnology
is viewed as but one component of a revolution in t. ..1..-- il ii in-
cludes the possibilities of human cloning and genetic engineering.
An outgrowth of this concern can take the form of whether people
have the right to base dietary choices on the basis of religious and
quasi-religious beliefs. If a person believes that so-called biotech
foods are impure on religious or philosophical rather than scien-
tific grounds, is it ethical for the food industry to place that person
in a position in which it becomes impossible to make dietary
choices on the basis of these beliefs?
The debate over agricultural biotechnology also has occurred
at the same time that U.S. research agencies such as the National
Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation have
urged greater attention to research ethics. Within many domains
of science, research ethics has focused primarily on human sub-
jects and informed consent, and secondarily on the use of animals
as research subjects. The first concern has not much affected agri-
cultural researchers, whereas the second has been experienced in
terms of the growing importance of Institutional Animal Care and
Use Committees (IACUCs) in the review of agricultural research.
Even more recently, discussion of the role of ethics in policy
regarding agricultural biotechnology research and development
was a major part of the work of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture's
"Advisory Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology"(ACAB), on
which Dr. Burkhardt served from 1999-2001.
Research ethics also is coming to be seen in terms of the
broader steering and control over the research agenda and the


proper role of self-interested actors (such as corporations) in
supporting public-sector scientific research. In agricultural re-
search, these ethical issues concern the appropriate way that food
consumers, citizens, and other food system outsiders should have
their values reflected in the development of agricultural produc-
tion practices, especially as these are affected by new technology.
One view holds that markets provide adequate opportunity for
citizens to "vote with their pocketbooks," whereas another holds
that the power of actors such as farm organizations, input suppli-
ers, food companies, and government regulatory agencies limits
the extent to which market choices truly can reflect the values of
the broader public. The issues also can be articulated in terms of
the public's confidence and trust of these actors. If self-seeking
economic actors can conspire in ways that limit which foods are
available and at what price, why should the public accept the claim
that biotechnology (or, indeed, any technology) serves the public's
interest in a safe, secure, and environmentally sound food system?
Responses to specific ethical problems, such as the public's trust
in agricultural science or the broader environmental place of ag-
riculture, may require .!, iiil, 1111 organizational responses. These
responses may include opportunities for broader public participa-
tion in policy decisions, or more effective outreach programs to
elicit a wide range of citizens' perspectives. The specificity of the
problem in question will determine the nature of response that is
most appropriate. Ethics alone will not indicate what is needed.
The emphasis here is on the need for agricultural institutions to
develop a base of expertise in signaling the nature and importance
of ethical concerns, with the expectation that this will lead to
more effective decision making in the future. This, indeed, is the
focus of the recently released Issue Paper from the Council on Ag-
ricultural Science and Technology (CAST), "Agricultural Ethics,"
for which this Dr. Burkhardt served as Task Force Chair and Lead
Author. See http://www.cast-science.org/cast/src/cast top.htm


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 79









FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


FACULTY & STAFF


TITLE


SPECIALTY


Thomas H. Spreen

Charles M. Adams

Richard P. Beilock

RobertJ. Burkhardt

Roy R. Carriker


Henry M. Cothran

Carlton G. Davis

Robert L. Degner

Evan Drummond

Robert D. Emerson

Gary F. Fairchild

Alan W. Hodges

Lisa A. House

Clyde F. Kiker

Richard L. Kilmer

Sherry L. Larkin


DonnaJ. Lee

Bur[ F. Long

Charles B. Moss


David Mulkey

Michae[T. Olexa

Mikae[Sandberg

Andrew Schmitz

James L. Seale, Jr.


James A. Sterns

Timothy G. Taylor

Peter J. Van Blokland

John J. Van Sickle

Ronald W. Ward

Richard N. Weldon

Alien F. Wysocki


Chairman and Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.


Assoc. In

Distinguished Service Prof.

Prof. and Program Director

Assoc. Director & Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. In.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.


Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.


Prof.

Prof.

Lecturer

Eminent Scholar

Prof.


Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


Quantitative Methods, Citrus Economics

Marine Economics

Marketing Transportation

Philosophy and Ethics in Agriculture

Natural Resource and Environmental
Economics

Budget Analysis, Community Development

International Economics

Market Research Center

Senior Assoc. Dir. Of Honors Program

Econometrics, Agricultural Labor

Marketing & Trade

Horticultural Economic, Impact Analysis

Agribusiness Management

Natural Resources/Environ mental Economics

Agrcultural Marketing

Natural Resource and Environmental
Economics

Natural Resource Economics

Natural Resource Economics Public Policy

Agribusiness Finance and Quantitative
Methods

Regional Economics

Agricultural Law

Agricultural Economics

Marketing and Trade

International Agricultural[ Trade, Finance and
Policy

Agribusiness Mnagement

International Economics and Agribusiness

Agribusiness Finance

Agricultural Marketing & Trade

Agricultural Marketing

Agribusiness Finance

Food Distribution and Marketing


80 1 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION









FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.
FRE-03701


FRE-03825


FRE-03863
FRE-03890
FRE-04005
FRE-04080


FRE-04090


FRE-04118


FRE-04145


FRE-04146
FRE-04147
FRE-04163
FRE-04167
FRE-04178


FRE-04191


FRE-04192
FRE-04246


AUTHOR
Beilock, R.P.


Hodges, A.W.


Larkin, S.L.
Burkhardt, R.J.
House, L.A., Degner, R.L.
VanSickle, J.J., Evans, E.A., Knapp, J.L.,
Alamo-Gonzalez, C.
Davis, C.G.,


Hodges, A.W., Mulkey, W.D.


VanSickle, J.J.


Spreen, T.H., Muraro, R.P., Roka, F.M.
Taylor, T.G., Fairchild, G.F.
Moss, C.B., Schmitz, A.
Sterns, J.A.
Weldon, R.N.


SealeJr.,J.L.


Larkin, S.
Emerson, R.D., Iwai, N., Roka, F.M.,
Vansickle, J.J.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 81


TITLE
Agricultural and Food Product Logistics: Implications for Florida and the U.S. in a
World Market
Technical and Economical Efficiencies of Producing, Marketing, and Managing
Environ mental Plants
The Efficiency ofAlternative Natural Resource and Environmental Policies and Practices
Agriculture and Natural Resource Ethics
Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Florida Agricultural Products
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT): Economic and Trade Impacts of Regulations to Control
Invasive Pests
Caribbean Basin Countries Agricultural Sector Adjustment Challenges Under Emerging
Trade Liberalizations and Integration Regimes
Economic, Environmental and Fiscal Impact Analysis of Agriculture, Natural Resources
and Amenity-based Services in Florida.
Economics of Managing Invasive Species in Tropical and Sub-tropical Areas of the US
Caribbean Basin
Economic Analysis of the Florida Citrus Industry Competing in a Global Market
Trade and Economic Growth in the Caribbean
Impact Analysis and Decision Strategies for Agricultural Research
The Marketing of Differentiated Agricultural and Food Products
Improving Risk Management Tools to Enhance the Competitiveness of Florida Crop and
Livestock Producers
Impacts of Trade and Domestic Policies on the Competitiveness and Performance of
Southern Agriculture
Marketing, Trade, and Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources
Assessing Agricultural Labor Risk for Specialty Crops









PUBLICATIONS



Adams, C., A. Hodges, L. Sturmer and D. Mulkey. 2004. The Economic Impact
of the Florida Cultured Hard Clam Industry. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. pp.
85-100.
Adams, D., R. Kilmer, C. Moss and A. Schmitz. 2004. Valuing Catastrophic
Losses for Perennial Agricultural Crops: Citrus as a Model. Proceedings of the
Florida State Horticultural Society.
Blank, S., K. Erickson, C. Moss and R. Nehring. 2004. Agricultural Profits and
Farm Households. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 86(5):1299-307.
Broek, L., J. Haydu, E. Neves and A. Hodges. 2004. Production, Marketing and
Distribution of Cut Flowers in the United States and Brazil. pp. 38371.
Duval, J., J. Price, G. Hochmuth, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S. Olson, T. Taylor,
S. Smith and E. Simonne. 2004. Strawberry Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
Erickson, K., C. Moss andA. Mishra. 2004. Rates of Return in the Farm and
Non-Farm Sectors: How Do They Compare? Journal of Agricultural and Applied
Economics. 36(3):789-95.
Feleke, S., R. Kilmer and C. Gladwin. 2004. Determinants of Food Security in
Southern Ethiopia at the Household Level. Agricultural Economics.
Green, A., A. Hermansen-Baez, A. Hodges, W. Smith, D. Rockwood and J.
Stricker. 2004. Multidisciplinary Academic Demonstration of a Biomass Alliance
with Natural Gas. In: Proc. International Conference on Engineering Education,
Hodges, A. and J. Haydu. 2004. An Internet-based System for Financial
Benchmark Analysis of Wholesale Nursery Operations. 49:71-74.
Hutchinson, C., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Potato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 259-268.
Kilmer, R. 2004. The Southern Agricultural Economics Association's Declining
Membership. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 36(2):265-275.
Larkin, S. and C. Adams. 2004. The Marine Life Fishery in Florida, 1990-1998.
Marine Fisheries Review. 65(1):38717.
Larkin, S. and G. Sylvia. 2004. Generating Enhanced Fishery Rents by
Internalizing Product Quality Characteristics. Environmental and Resource
Economics. 28(1):101-122.
Larkin, S., R. Roberts, B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, M. Marra and S.
Martin. 2004. Factors Affecting Observed Environmental Benefits from Precision
Farming in the Southeastern United States. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL.
Larkin, S., W. Keithly, C. Adams and R. Kazmierczak Jr. 2004. Buyback
Programs for Capacity Reduction in the U.S. Atlantic Shark Fishery. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 36(2):317-332.
Lowe, G., C. Davis and R. Kilmer. 2004. United States Trade Flows for Selected
Categories of Speciality Crops. International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center:
Gainesville, Florida.
Mishra, A., C. Moss and K. Erickson. 2004. Valuing Farmland with Multiple
Quasi-Fixed Inputs. Applied Economics. 36(15):1655-69.
Moss, C. and A. Schmitz. 2004. Delineating the Relevant U.S. Sweetener Markets.
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 2(1):Article 1.
Moss, C., T. Schmitz and A. Schmitz. 2004. The Brave New World: Imperfect
Information, Segregation Costs, and Genetically Modified Organisms.
Agrarwirtschaft. 53(8):303-8.
Napasintuwong, 0. and R. Emerson. 2004. Labor Substitutability in
Labor Intensive Agriculture and Technological Change in the Presence of
Foreign Labor. AgEcon Search: http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf view.
pl?paperid 14330&ftype=.pdf.


Olson, S., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor, S. Smith andE. Simonne. 2004. Tomato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 301-316.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cole Crop Production in
Florida. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp.131-163.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cucurbit Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation:
Lenexa, KS. pp. 169-197.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Pepper Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 247-258
Olson, S., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Legume Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 207-217.
Polopolus, L., M. Olexa, F. Roka and C. Fountain. 2004. Field Sanitation and
Drinking Water Regulations. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine.
Prasertsri, P. and R. Kilmer. 2004. Scheduling and Routing Milk from Farm to
Processors by a Cooperative. Journal of Agribusiness. 22(2):93-106.
Rahmani, M., A. Hodges and C. Kiker. 2004. Compost Users Attitudes toward
Compost Application in Florida. Compost Science and Utilization, pp. 55-60.
Roberts, R., B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, S. Larkin, M. Marra and S.
Martin. 2004. Economics of Precision Farming 2003 Summary Report. University
of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Roberts, R., B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, S. Larkin, M. Marra and
S. Martin. 2004. Factors Influencing Southeastern Cotton Farmers to Adopt
Precision Soil Sampling Technology Sooner than Later. University of Florida:
Gainesville, FL.
Roberts, R., B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, S. Larkin, M. Marra and
S. Martin. 2004. Precision Farming Technology Adoption, Perceptions of
Environmental Benefits, and Whole-Farm Costs for Southeastern Cotton Farmers.
University of Florida: Gainesville, FL.
Roberts, R., B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, W. Goodman, S. Larkin, M.
Marra, S. Martin and W. Shurley. 2004. Adoption of Site-Specific Information
and Variable Rate Technologies in Cotton Precision Farming. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 36(1):143-158.
Schmitz, T., C. Moss and A. Schmitz. 2004. Reduced Demand Due to StarLink
Corn: A Structural Change Model. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial
Organization. 2(2).
Simonne, E., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, S. Smith and T. Taylor. 2004. Eggplant Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 109-116.
Simonne, E., G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Sweet Corn Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 285-292.
Stainback, G., J. Alavalapati, R. Shrestha, S. Larkin and G. Wong. 2004.
Improving Environmental Quality in South Florida Through Silvopasture: An
Economic Approach. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
36(2):481-489.
Testuri, C., R. Kilmer, T. Spreen and X. Zhang. 2004. Class I Price Differentials
for the Southeastern United States: Methodology and Empirical Results. Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin. pp. 401.
Zhang, J., J. Alavalapati, R. Shrestha and A. Hodges. 2004. Economic Impacts
of Closing National Forests for Commercial Timber Production in Florida and
Liberty County. Journal of Forest Economics.


82 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Assessing the Fair Market Value of Commercial Shark Vessels in the
Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Regions

Sustainability and Land Use in the Caribbean Region

Market Enhancement for Small Diameter Timber in Florida

Assessing Agricultural Labor Risk for Specialty Crops

Cross-border Curricular Programs in International Environmental
and Agribusiness Management

Measures of Consumer Acceptance of and Willingness to Pay for
Genetically Modified Foods in the U.S. and the E.U.

Analysis of Goat Meat Consumption in Florida

Economic Effects of Habs on Coastal Communities and Shellfish
Culture in Florida

Santa Rosa Beach Mouse Use of a Hurricane Fragmented Landscape

Partnership and Outreach Case Studies

Update Water Quality and Water Quantity Related Publicationsin
English and Spanish

Estimating Import & Export Demand for Specialty Crops

Structural Changes in Food Demand in Develooping Countries & Its
Implications for U.S. Trade and Global Security

Marketing Florida Citrus Products-doc Contract# 04-14

Florida Agricultural Competiveness and Trade

Economics of Managing Invasive Species in Tropical Areas of the
United States of America


Gulf&S. Atlantic Fish Dev. Fd.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. of Agricul. & Consumer Ser.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Univ. of Maine


Mississippi State University


Fort Valley State University

Environmental Protection Agcy.


U.S. Dept. of the Interior

U.S. Dept. of the Interior

Dept. of Agricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Citrus

Dept. of Agricul. & Consumer Ser.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 83


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Adams, C.M.


Cumming, G.S.

Degner, R.L.

Emerson, R.D.

Fairchild, G.F.


House, L.A.


House, L.A.

Larkin, S.L.


Miller, D.L.

Monroe, M.C.

Olexa, M.T.


Seale Jr., J.L.

Seale Jr., J.L.


Spreen, T.H.

Vansickle, J.J.

Vansickle, J.J.


30,413


100,000

31,185

730,319

50,450


71,667


13,875

91,959


22,000

24,705

17,126


52,500
40,000


27,500

1,000,000

290,901

















The Food Science and Human Nutrition department is dedicated
to quality research, teaching, extension, and service programs in the
broad and diverse areas of food science, human nutrition, and di-
etetics. We have faculty both on campus and at the Citrus Research
and Education Center, and several faculty members participate in
the Center for Nutritional Sciences, an interdisciplinary program
encouraging comprehensive training and research in the science
of nutrition. Members of the faculty also participate in programs
in other departments in IFAS and across the University of Florida,
other universities, and government agencies. Members of the faculty
are well recognized nationally and internationally, as evidenced by
the recent election of a faculty member to the National Academy
of Sciences. The faculty has also been very successful in generating
grants from federal, state, and industry sources, and grant expendi-
tures last year totaled over $2 million.
The department's research programs can be divided into two
broad categories: food science and human nutrition. Research in
the area of food science addresses problems and opportunities
important to the food industry in Florida and throughout the world.
Research projects involve many of the commodities important in
Florida, including seafood and aquaculture products, citrus, fresh


fruits and vegetables, and dairy products. Research areas include
food safety and microbiology issues, food processing and new
method development, quality and sensory aspects of foods, and
composition and chemistry of foods. Research in the area of human
nutrition addresses basic and applied aspects of human nutrition
in efforts to improve the health and wellness of Floridians and the
world population, and includes studies on gene regulation, immu-
nity, and women's health. Research areas include the function and
biochemistry of micronutrients, the role of water-soluble vitamins in
the health of various populations, the effects of phytochemicals and
nutrient supplements on health, and the development of education
programs for improved nutrition and health.
The department publishes in many national and international
journals, including several popular publications. Research programs
in the department offer many opportunities for the training of grad-
uate and undergraduate students, and faculty with appointments in
the Cooperative Extension Service effectively share research findings
with clientele in Florida and around the world. For more informa-
tion on the Food Science and Human Nutrition department, please
contact Charles Sims or visit our Web site: FSHN.IFAS.UFL.EDU


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 85


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION
-IFAS 359 Food Science Building I Gainesville, FL 32611-0970
oi iA t 352-392-1997 I http://www.fshn.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN INGREDIENTS FROM FISH
PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS
BY DR. HORDUR G. KRISTINSSON

The global demand for aquatic foods is rapidly growing and
never before has the world seen as much wild and cultured fish
harvested. It is estimated that the world harvest now exceeds 130
million metric tons and that seafood contributes more than 15
percent of all animal protein consumed globally by humans. The
problem is that an unnecessarily large amount of fish species and
byproducts from seafood processing are not used for human con-
sumption. For example, typically 60 percent to 70 percent of the
weight of a fish is unutilized after primary processing. By-catch in
fisheries is also a major problem. For example, it is no uncommon
to see 5 lbs of by-catch for each 1 lbs of shrimp harvested. Much of
these underutilized materials are very difficult or uneconomical to
process into products for human consumption and are therefore
typically used as animal feed or converted into fertilizer. A sizable
part of this material ends up with no use at all, and is simply dis-
carded. At the same time this is taking place many common fish
stocks are declining and it is predicted that the demand for high
quality protein from aquatic foods will exceed the supply in the
near future. Even though aquaculture is believed to supply more
fish than traditional fisheries in the future, it is highly unlikely that
the demand for quality protein will be met. To address this grow-
ing problem new methods have to be developed to be able to eco-
nomically utilize the vast amount of underutilized species of the
oceans and the processing by-products from conventional species.
Researchers have for many decades been working on this problem
but most developments have been met with many challenges, with
most attempts failing due to economics or poor quality of the final
products. This global problem has direct consequences to Florida,
since it is one of the major fisheries, processing and seafood im-
port states in the US along with having seafood consumption well
above the US average.
To address the above problem we have along with our col-
laborators developed a novel process where proteins of excellent
functionality and stability can be economically and efficiently ex-
tracted from underutilized fish species and byproducts. This pro-
cess is based on homogenizing the fish raw material in water and
selectively solubilizing the muscle proteins at either a specific very
low or high pH where viscosity is below a certain critical level. The
soluble proteins are then separated from unwanted components
in the raw material (e.g., membrane lipids, fat, connective tissue,
bones, scales, skin etc.) by high speed centrifugation. The proteins
are then collected through filters and recovered by isoelectric
precipitation, yielding an almost lipid free protein isolate. We have
investigated many different warm-water species of commercial
importance to Florida and the Caribbean basin along with a range
of cold water species of commercially importance to the US. Our
work can be roughly divided into four categories: (1) Investigating
ways to obtain optimal extraction of functional fish proteins, (2)
Investigating and improving the stability of the extracted proteins,
(3) Investigating the functionality of the extracted proteins and
researching the molecular properties behind different function-
alities, and (4) Modifying/improving the functionality of the
extracted proteins by altering protein structure.


Detailed optimization work on a variety of species has shown us
that each species requires a special set of conditions to optimally
extract and recover functional proteins, and we are investigating
the mechanisms behind this. Using this new process we are able
to reach close to 90 percent protein recovery for certain species
from our starting raw material, which is well above that of other
processes that have been developed. More importantly, we have
found that the extracted proteins have exceptional stability and
functionality when compared with other conventional processes
used to recover proteins. Color, microbial and oxidative stability
is outstanding for the proteins extracted using high pH, which
is important if they are to find use as food or food ingredients.
Proteins extracted at low pH are however susceptible to lipid
oxidation and we are working on ways to effectively retard the
oxidation. The extracted proteins are also found to have superior
functional properties compared to fish proteins extracted by other
means, and thus can be used effectively as functional ingredients
in several seafood based systems. The extracted proteins have
**i..~ .iii1 ,-better gel-forming abilities compared to proteins
extracted by conventional means. We have found that the high
pH extraction process positively modifies the structure of the
proteins which explains their improved functionality. One of the
most **i i i iii recent discoveries we have made with the isolated
proteins is that they have exceptionally good water-binding prop-
erties and can be incorporated into seafood muscle based systems
to effectively prevent water-loss and improve quality. The control
of water in muscle food products is of enormous importance to
the fish industry, and is primarily done with the aid of phosphates
and salt. These pure extracted fish proteins are able to economi-
cally substitute phosphates, giving the processor not only seafood
products with exceptional water binding and quality but also a
better label and at the same time gives the processors the capabil-
ity to utilize their byproducts. By systematically manipulating the
conditions the proteins are extracted at, we have been able to not
only influence what proteins are extracted but also induce differ-
ent structural alterations in the muscle proteins. This has


Hordur Kristinsson


86 I 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


enabled us to modify and even further improve the functional-
ity of the extracted proteins. We have also recently started to use
enzyme technology to hydrolyze the extracted proteins to make
fish protein hydrolysates of variable peptide makeup, depending
on the enzyme used and reaction conditions. We have found that
some of these peptides have high bioactivity and may find use as
bioactive functional ingredient in nutraceutical food applications
or as ingredients to stabilize foods against lipid oxidation.
This work is expected to lead to better utilization of seafood
byproducts and increase the availability of quality protein from
aquatic resources. This research is also expected lead to the com-
mercial development of fish proteins as economical and competi-
tive ingredients for a variety of seafood product applications.
Currently this protein extraction technology is being tested on a
commercial scale and is expected to improve the bottom line of
seafood processors and make them more competitive on not only


a local but global scale. This process is therefore expected to have a
*.. I 1,1 ,1 economic as well as environmental contribution to US
fisheries.
GRADUATE STUDENTS: (conducting research on fish protein
utilization and functionality) Bergros Ingadottir, Matthew
Davenport, Holly Petty, Ann Theodore, Stefan Crynen, Margret
Geirsdottir (University of Iceland), Dr. Yong Liang (post-doc)
COLLABORATORS: Dr. Herbert 0. Hultin, Department of Food
Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. Dr. Tyre
Lanier, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State Univer-
sity, Raleigh, NC. Dr. Ingrid Undeland, Department of Chemistry
and Bioscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,
Sweden. Dr. Sjofn Sigurgisladottir, Dr. Ragnar Thorsteinsson,
Margret Geirsdottir, Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories/University of
Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
FUNDING: USDA-NRI program, USDA-TSTAR Program


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY


TITLE


Charles A. Sims
Douglas L. Archer
Lynn B. Bailey
Murat 0. Balaban
Raymond K. Blanchard
Peggy L. Borum
Ross D. Brown,Jr.
Ann K. Casella
RobertJ. Cousins

Thomas W. Dean
Jesse F. Gregory, III
Gail P. Kauwell
Hordur G. Kristinsson
Mitchell D. Knutson
Robin J. Langkamp-Hen ken
Maurice R. Marshall, Jr.
Pamela S. McMahon
Charles W. Meister
MarkA. Mossler
Olaf N. Nesheim
Walter S. Otwell
Susan S. Percival
Gail C. Rampersaud
Gary E. Rodrick
Ronald H. Schmidt
Keith R. Schneider


SPECIALTY


Prof. and Chair
Prof.
Prof.
Prof.
Asst. In
Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Lecturer
Eminent Scholar & Acting
Program Director
Asst. Extension Scientist


Assoc. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Prof.
Lecturer
Scientist
Asst. In
Prof.
Prof.
Prof.
Asst. In
Prof.
Prof.
Asst. Prof.


Food Quality
Food Safety
Human Nutrition
Food Engineering and Process
Nutritional Biochemistry
Human Nutrition
Biochemistry
Dietetics Education, Nutrition Screening
Nutritional Biochemistry

Pesticide Information
Food Chemistry
Nutrition and Dietetics
Seafood Chemistry
Nutrional Biochemistry
Nutrition and Dietetics
Seafood Chemistry/Biochemistry
Dietetics and Nutrition
Pesticide Research
Pesticide Information
Pesticide Information
Seafood Technology
Nutrition and Immunity
Nutrition Research and Education
Food Microbiology
Dairy Technology
Food Safety


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION

60 30 10
20 40 40
50 50 0


30 70 0
70 0 0
20 80 0

0 0 100
30 70 0
70 30 0
50 50 0


0 100 0
0 0 100
0 0 100


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION | 87









FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


FACULTY & STAFF


TITLE


SPECIALTY


Harry S. Sitren
Stephen T. Talcott
R. Elaine Turner
Susan W. Williams
Anita C. Wright


Prof.
Asst. Prof.
Assoc. Prof.
Assoc. In.
Asst. Prof.


Nutritional Biochemistry
Fruit and Vegetable Biochemistry
Nutritional Science
Pesticide Information
Food Microbiology


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR
FOS-02287 Cousins, R.J.
FOS-03764 Sims, C.A.
FOS-03806 Percival, S.S.
FOS-03840 McMahon, R.J.
FOS-03846 Talcott, S.T.
FOS-03910 Talcott, S.T.
FOS-03921 Wright, A.C.
FOS-03972 Sitren, H.S.
FOS-03995 Gregory, J F., Bailey, L.B., Stacpoole, P.W.
FOS-04003-M Marshall, M.R., Balaban, M.O.,
Simonne, A.H., Talcott, S.T., Mach, A.S.
FOS-04003-T Talcott, S.T., Percival, S.S.
FOS-04021 Archer, D.L., Schneider, K.R., Goodrich, R.M.,
Parish, M.E., Sargent, S.A., Brecht, J.F.,
Bartz, J.A.
FOS-04041 Otwell, W.S., Rodrick, G.E., Schneider, K.R.,
Balaban, M.O., Wright, A.C.,
Kristinsson, H.G., Mahan, W.T., Adams, C.M.
FOS-04055 Langkamp-Henken, B.
FOS-04067 Balaban, M.O., Teixeira, A.A.
FOS-04068 Kristinsson, H.G., Balaban, M.O.,
Otwell, W.S., Marshall, M.R.
FOS-04080-B Balaban, M.O., Marchall, M.R.
FOS-04080-K Kristinsson, H.G.


FOS-04080-P Percival, S.S., Talcott, S.T.
FOS-04088 Percival, S.S., Talcott, S.T.
FOS-04098 Kauwell, G.P., Bailey, L.B.
FOS-04113 Otwell, W.S., Rodrick, G.E., Schneider, K.R.,
Balaban, M.O., Wright, A.C.,
Kristinsson, H.G., Mahan, W.T., Adams, C.M.
FOS-04120 Marshall, M.R., Thompson, N.P.,
Meister, C.W., Yoh, J.W., Fernando, S.Y.
FOS-04143 Kristinsson, H.G.


FOS-04182 Marshall M.R., Meister, C.W.,Yoh, J.W.,
Fernando, S.Y.
FOS-04195 Otwell, W.S., Rodrick, G.E., Schneider, K.R.,
Balaban, M.O., Wright, A.C., Kristinsson, H.G.


TITLE
Zinc Metabolism and Function in Animal Systems
Strawberry Cultivar Development
Immunomodulation by Dietary Factors
Biotin Metabolism in a Rat Model of Sepsis
Postharvest Quality and Safety in Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits
Phytochemical and Quality Assessment of Fresh and Processed Fruits and Vegetables
Phase Variation and Expression of Capsular Polysaccharide in VibrioVulnificus
Conditionally Essential Nutrients in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
Genetic Effects on Folate-Dependent One-Carbon Metabolism
High Hydrostatic Pressure to Improve Quality and Safety of Seafood from Tropical/
Subtropical Regions
Adding Value to Tropical Fruit: Techniques to Increase Bioactive Phytochemicals
Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables



Advancing the Capacity of PHT for Processing Safe Oysters in Florida



Nutrition, Immune Function, and Clinical Outcome
High Pressure Dependence of Compressibility, Density, and Viscosity of Model Food Systems
Assessing the Use of Carbon Monoxide and Filtered Smoke on the Safety and Quality of
Seafood Products
High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Processing of Tropical and Subtropical FruitJuices
Production of High-value Functional Protein Isolates from Underutilized Tropical and
Subtropical Fish Species and Byproducts
Enhancing Bioactive Phytochemicals in Fresh and Processed Guava (Psidium Guajava)
Health Benefits of Red Muscadine Wine
Optimizing Health with Folate and Related Nutrients Throughout the Lifespan
Oyster Post Harvest Treatments (PHT) for Processing in Florida



Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor Uses


Tailoring the Physical and Functional Properties of Muscle Proteins by Different Acid
and Alkali Unfolding and Refolding Strategies
Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor Use


Implementing Post Harvest Treatments in Commerce of Florida Oysters


88 | 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION









PUBLICATIONS



Antoine, F., C. Wei, W. Otwell, C. Sims, R. Littell, A. Hogle and M. Marshall
Jr. 2004. Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena
hippurus) During Chilled Storage. 67(10):2255-2262.
Bailey, L. 2004. Folate and Vitamin B12 Recommended Intakes and Status in the
United States. Nutrition Reviews. 62:S14-S21.
Basset, G., E. Quinlivan, S. Ravanel, F. Rebeille, B. Nichols, K. Shinozaki,
M. Seki, L. Adams-Phillips, J. Giovannoni, J. Gregory III and A. Hanson.
2004. Folate Synthesis in Plants: The p-Aminobenzoate Branch is Nitiated by a
Bifunctional PabA-PabB Protein that is Targeted to Plastids. Annual Review of
Nutrition. 101:1496-1501.
Basset, G., S. Ravanel, E. Quinlivan, R. White, J. Giovannoni, F. Rebeille, B.
Nichols, K. Shinozaki, M. Seki, J. Gregory III and A. Hanson. 2004. Folate
Synthesis in Plants: The Last Step of the P-Aminobenzoate Branch is Catalyzed by
a Plastidial Aminodeoxychorismate Lyase. Plant J. 40:453-461.
Brecht, J., M. Saltveit, S. Talcott, K. Schneider and K. Felkey. 2004. Fresh cut
Vegetables and Fruits. 30:185-251.
Chung, H., J. Hong, M. Kim, M. Marshall Jr, Y. Jeong and S. Han. 2004.
Detection of Irradiated Ostrich Meat by DNA Comet Assay and Radiation-
induced Hydrocarbons. 69(5):399-403.
Clark, J., L. Howard and S. Talcott. 2004. Antioxidant Activity of Blackberry
Genotypes. 585:475-479.
Davis, S., E. Quinlivan, K. Shelnutt, D. Maneval, H. Ghandour, A. Capdevila,
B. Coats, C. Wagner, J. Selhub, L. Bailey, J. Shuster and J. Gregory III. 2004.
Effects of the MTHFR 677C-T Polymorphism and Dietary Folate Restriction on
Plasma One Carbon Metabolites and Red Blood Cell Folate Concentrations and
Distribution in Women. Journal of Nutrition.
Davis, S., E. Quinlivan, K. Shelnutt, H. Ghandour, A. Capdevila, B. Coats, C.
Wagner, B. Shane, J. Selhub, L. Bailey and J. Gregory III. 2004. Homocysteine
Synthesis is Elevated but Total Remethylation is Unchanged by the Methylenetetra
hydrofolate Reductase 677C->T Polymorphism and by Dietary Folate Restriction
in Young Women. Journal of Nutrition.
Del Pozo-Insfran, D., C. Hernandez-Brenes and S. Talcott. 2004. Phytochemical
Composition and Pigment Stability of Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).
52:1539-1545.
Duryea, M., J. Mishoe, F. Altpeter, E. Hoffmann and A. Wright. 2004.
Nanotechnology Task Force. IFAS Deans Office: Gainesville, FL.
Fanning, A., B. Langkamp-Henken and R. Henken. 2004. Dietary Arginine
Supplementation does not Increase Body Weight or Leg Muscle Protein
Concentration. Journal of Undergraduate Research.
Gregory III, J. 2004. Vitamins. Fennema's Food Chemistry, 4th Ed.
Gregory III, J., E. Quinlivan and S. Davis. 2004. Integrating the Issues of Folate
Bioavailability, Intake and Metabolism in the Era of Fortification. Trends in Food
Science and Technology.
Gregory, III, J. 2004. Fennemas Food Chemistry, 4th Ed.
Gregory, III, J. 2004. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Ed. (M. Shils
ed.).
Howard, L., S. Talcott, C. Hernandez-Brenes and B. Villalon. 2004. Changes in
Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum
sp.) as influenced by Maturity. 48:1713-1720.
Hudgens, J., B. Langkamp-Henken and R. Henken. 2004. The Mini Nutritional
Assessment as an Assessment Tool for Elders in Long-term Care. Nutrition in
Clinical Practice. 19:463-470.
Hudgens, J., B. Langkamp-Henken, J. Stechmiller, K. Herrlinger-Garcia, C.
Nieves Jr. and R. Henken. 2004. Immune Function is Impaired with a Mini
Nutritional Assessment Score Indicative of Malnutrition in Nursing Home Elders
with Pressure Ulcers. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 28:416-422.
Hultin, H., H. Kristinsson and T. Lanier. 2004. Process for Recovery of
Functional Proteins by pH Shifts. Surimi and Surimi Seafood. 80- 100. Marcel
Dekker.
Kauwell, G. 2004. Issues and Choices in Clinical Nutrition. Lippincott, Williams &
Wilkens: New York, NY
Kauwell, G. 2004. Nutrition, Genetics and Genomic Health Care. Issues and
Choices in Clinical Nutrition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkens: New York, NY.


Kelleher, S., Y. Feng, H. Kristinsson, H. Hultin and D. McClements. 2004.
Functional Fish Protein Isolates Prepared Using Low Ionic Strength, Acid
Solubilization/Precipitation. More -Efficient Utilization of Fish and Fisheries
Products. Elsevier Science, pp. 407-414.
Klaus, S., A. Wegkamp, W. Sybesma, J. Hugenholtz, J. Gregory III and A.
Hanson. 2004. A Nudix Enzyme Removes Pyrophosphate from Dihydroneopterin
Triphosphate in the Folate Synthesis Pathway of Bacteria and Plants. J Biol Chem.
Kristinsson, H. 2004. Improvements of Water Uptake and Retention in Muscle
Products by Manipulation ofpH and Ionic Strength. Feed Info News Service
Scientific Reviews. 1:38358.
Kristinsson, H. 2004. Lipids in Seafood. Seafood Biochemistry and Seafood
Processing. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 1-12.
Kristinsson, H. 2004. The Production, Properties and Utilization of Fish Protein
Hydrolysates. Food Biotechnology. Marcel Dekker. pp. 1-22
Kristinsson, H. and H. Hultin. 2004. Changes in Trout Hemoglobin
Conformations and Solubility after Exposure to Acid and Alkali pH. J. Agric. Food
Chem. 52:3633-3643.
Kristinsson, H. and H. Hultin. 2004. The Effect of Acid and Alkali Unfolding and
Subsequent Refolding on the Pro-oxidative Activity of Trout Hemoglobin. Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52:5482-5490.
Langkamp-Henken, B. and R. Henken. 2004. Invited Book Review: Nutrition
and Immune Function Series: Frontiers in Nutritional Science, No. 1 PC Calder, CJ
Field, HS Gill (eds.). Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 19:311.
Langkamp-Henken, B., B. Bender, E. Gardner, K. Herrlinger-Garcia, M. Kelley,
D. Murasko, J. Schaller, D. Thomas, S. Wood and R. Henken. 2004. Nutritional
Formula Enhanced Immune Function and Reduced Days of Upper Respiratory
Tract Infection Symptoms in Seniors. Journal of the American Geriatric Society.
52:38423.
Lee III, G., B. Langkamp-Henken and R. Henken. 2004. Arginine
Supplementation and Lung Neutrophil Accumulation Following
Lipopolysaccharide Treatment. Journal of Undergraduate Research.
Lee, J. and S. Talcott. 2004. Fruit Maturity and Juice Extraction Influences Ellagic
Acid Derivatives and Other Antioxidant Polyphenolics in Muscadine Grapes.
52:361-366.
Liuzzi, J. and R. Cousins. 2004. Mammalian Zinc Transporters. Annual Review of
Nutrition. 24:151-172.
Liuzzi, J., J. Bobo, L. Lichten and R. Cousins. 2004. Responsive Transporter
Genes Within the Murine Intestinal-pancreatic Axis form a Basis of Zinc
Homeostasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 101:14355-
14360.
Lundy, L., T. Irani, R. Turner, S. Percival and B. Mcpherson. 2004. GNC
University: A Case Study in Partnering Business and Education Through Distance
Learning. Journal of Applied Communications. 88(2):51-60.
Mackey, A., R. McMahon, J. Townsend and J. Gregory III. 2004. Uptake,
Hydrolysis, and Metabolism of Pyridoxine-5'-D -Glucoside in Caco-2 Cells.
Journal of Nutrition. 134:842-846.
Mackey, A., S. Davis and J. Gregory III. 2004. Vitamin B-6. Modern Nutrition in
Health and Disease, 9th Ed. (M. Shils ed.).
Mendoza, T., B. Welt, W. Otwell, H. Kristinsson and M. Balaban. 2004. Kinetic
Parameter Estimation of Time -temperature Integrators Intended for Use with
Packaged Fresh Seafood. Journal of Food Science. 69(3):FMS90-FMS96.
Momol, T., M. Balaban, F. Korel, A. Odabasi, E. Momol, G. Folkes and J. Jones.
2004. Discrimination of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Using an Electronic Nose. Plant
Health Progress.
Oliveira, A., S. O'Keefe, M. Balaban, C. Sims and K. Portier. 2004. Influence
of Commercial Diets on Quality Aspects of Cultured Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon
(Ancipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). Journal of Food Science. 69(7):S278-S284.
Peterson, T., L. McDowell, R. McMahon, N. Wilkinson, 0. Rosendo, W.
Seymour, P. Henry and J. Shearer. 2004. Balance and Serum Concentration of
Biotin in Sheep Fed Alfalfa Meal Based Diets with Increasing Level of Concentrate.
82:1165-1169.
Quinlivan, E. and J. Gregory III. 2004. Folic Acid and the Prevention of Neural-
tube Defects. New England Journal of Medicine. 350:2209-2211.
Quinlivan, E., S. Davis, K. Shelnutt, H. Ghandour, G. Henderson, B. Shane, J.
Selhub, L. Bailey and J. Gregory III. 2004. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
677 C->T Polymorphism and Folate Status Affect One-carbon Incorporation into
Human DNA Deoxynucleosides. Journal of Nutrition.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 89








PUBLICATIONS



Riad, G., J. Brecht and S. Talcott. 2004. Browning of Fresh-cut Sweet Corn
Kernels after Cooking is Prevented by Controlled Atmosphere Storage.
628:387-394.
Rosendo, 0., C. Staples, L. McDowell, R. McMahon, F Martin, L. Badinga, J.
Shearer, W. Seymour and N. Wilkinson. 2004. Biotin Supplementation Effects on
Peripartum Performance and Metabolites of Holstein Cows. 87:2535-2545.
Scheer, J., A. Mackey and J. Gregory III. 2004. Activity of Hepatic Cytosolic and
Mitochondrial Forms of Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase and Hepatic Glycine
Concentration Parallel Vitamin B-6 Intake in Rats. Journal of Nutrition.
135:233-238.
Schulbach, K., R. Rouseff and C. Sims. 2004. Changes in Volatile Sulfur
Compounds in Strawberry Puree During Heating. Journal of Food Science. 69(4):
FCT268-FCT272.
Schulbach, K., R. Rouseff and C. Sims. 2004. Relating Descriptive Sensory
Analysis to Gas Chromatography/ Olfactometry Ratings of Fresh Strawberries
Using Partial Least Squares Regression. Journal of Food Science. 69(7):S273-S277.
Shelnutt, K., G. Kauwell, D. Maneval, J. Gregory III, D. Theriaque, A. Browdy
and L. Bailey. 2004. Folate Status Response to Controlled Folate Intake Is Affected
by the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677CT Polymorphism in Young
Women. Journal of Nutrition. 133:4107-4111.
Shelnutt, K., G. Kauwell, J. Gregory III, D. Maneval, E. Quinlivan, D.
Theriaque, G. Henderson and L. Bailey. 2004. Methylenetetrahydrofolate
reductase 677 C->T Polymorphism Affects DNA Methylation in Response to
Controlled Folate Intake in Young Women. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.
15:554-560.
Shelnutt, K., G. Kauwell, J. Gregory III, D. Maneval, E. Quinlivan, D.
Theriaque, G. Henderson and L. Bailey. 2004. Methylenetetrahydrofolate
Reductase 677C->T Polymorphism Affects DNA Methylation in Response to
Controlled Folate Intake in Young Women. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.
15:554-560.



GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


Simonne, A., A. Nille, K. Evans and M. Marshall Jr. 2004. Ethnic Food Safety
Trends in the United States Based on CDC Foodborne Illness Data. 24(8):590-604.
Talcott, S., L. Howard and C. Hernandez-Brenes. 2004. Antioxidant Changes and
Sensory Properties of Carrot Puree Processed with and without Periderm Tissue.
48:1315-1321.
Turner, R. 2004. Beverages and Obesity: Is there a Connection?. International
Society of Beverage Technologists.
Undeland, I., H. Kristinsson and H. Hultin. 2004. Hemoglobin-mediated
Oxidation of Washed Minced Cod Muscle Phospholipids: Effect of pH and
Hemoglobin Source. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52:4444-4451.
Vaughn, J., L. Bailey, K. Shelnutt, K. von-Castel Dunwoody, D. Maneval,
S. Davis, E. Quinlivan, J. Gregory III, D. Theriaque and G. Kauwell. 2004.
Methionine Synthase Reductase 66A->G Polymorphism is Associated with
Increased Plasma Homocysteine Concentration when Combined with the
Homozygous Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677C->T Variant. Journal of
Nutrition. 134:2985-2990.
Wright, A., L. Sturmer and W. Otwell. 2004. Temperature Acclimation
(tempering) of Hard Clams does not Promote Growth of Vibrio vulnificus. Journal
of Shellfish Research.
Wright, A., P. Finglas, J. Dainty, C. Wolfe, D. Hart, D. Wright and J. Gregory
III. 2004. Differential Kinetic Behavior and Distribution for Pteroylglutamic
Acid and Reduced Folates: A Revised Hypothesis of the Primary Site of
Pteroylglutamate Metabolism in Humans. Journal of Nutrition.
Yoruk, R., S. Yoruk, M. Balaban and M. Marshall Jr. 2004. Machine Vison
Analysis of Antibrowning Protency for Oxalic Acid: A Comparative Investigation
on Banana and Apple. 69(6):281-289.


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Balaban, M.O. High Pressure Dependence of Compressibility, Density, and Viscos-
ity of Model Food Systems

Balaban, M.O. High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Processing of Tropical and Subtropi-
cal Fruit Juices


Carnitine Studies

Improving Nutritional Status ofYoung People with HIV/Aids (Buddy
Books)


Gregory III,J.F. Genetic Effects on Folate-dependent One-carbon Metabolism


Hill's Pet Products

Optimizing Health with Citrus Nutrients Throughout the Life Span
Collaborative Position with the Florida Dept of Citrus


Kristinsson, H.G. Assessing the Use of Carbon Monoxide and Filtered Smoke on the
Safety and Quality of Seafood Products


Kristinsson, H.G.


Kristinsson, H.G.


Tailoring the Physical & Functional Properties of Mescle Proteins by
DifferentAcid &Alkai Unfolding & Refolding...

Production of High-value Functional Protein Isolates from Underuti-
lized Tropical


Kristinsson, H.G. Acid &Alkali Unfolding and Refolding Strategies to Improve the
Foaming Properties of EggWhite Proteins


MarshallJr., M.R.


MarshallJr., M.R.

MarshallJr., M.R.


Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor
Uses

Biopesticide Research

IR-4 Applied Research USDA


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Miscellaneous Donors

Dept. of Legal Affairs


National Institutes of Health

Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc.

Dept. of Citrus


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Am. Egg Board


U S Dept ofAgriculture


Rutgers State University

Rutgers State University


90 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Borum, P.L.

Borum, P.L.


Henken, R.J.

Kauwell, G.P.


119,688


46,779


1,100

40,000


217,181

10,260

86,450


422,874


110,000


35,314


15,900


2,951,124


133,200

24,000








FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Marshall Jr., M.R.

Marshall Jr., M.R.

Marshall Jr., M.R.


Mossler, M.A.


Mossler, M.A.

Neheim, O.N.

Neheim, O.N.

Neheim, O.N.


Otwe[l, W.S.


Otwe[l, W.S.


Otwe[l, W.S.

Otwe[l, W.S.


Otwe[l, W.S.


Otwe[l, W.S.


Percival, S.S.

Percival, S.S.


Schneide, K.R.


Sims, C.A.
Talcott, S.T.

Talcott, S.T.


Talcott, S.T.

Talcott, S.T.


Wright, A.C.


Wright, A.C.


Wright, A.C.


IR-4 Applied Research Industry

Food & Environmental Safety

A NationalAgricultural Program: Clearance of Chemicals & Biologics
for Minor or Special Uses/Pesticides

Integrated Pest Management Center Network, Crop Profiles, and
Special Projects for Florida Proposal
Integrated Pest Management Center Network Puerto Rico

Southern Region Pest Management Center

Examination Services for Restricted Use Applicators

Preparation, Coordination and Implementation of Pesticide Applica-
tor Training and Examinations for Florida

Advancing the Capacity of Post Harvest Treatments (Pht) for Pro-
cessing Safe Oysters in Florida

Impact of Temperature Acclimation on Vibrio Vu[nificus Content for
Florida Farm-raised Clams DuringSummer Harvest
Oyster Post Harvest Treatments (Pht) for Processing in Florida

ConductingShipboard Studies Focused on the Conditions of Har-
vested and Handling...Scombrotoxin Formation

Product Characterization to Advance the Use of Post-harvest Treat-
ments for Raw Oysters

Implementing Post Harvest Treatments in Commerce of Florida
Oysters

Health Benefits of Red Wine

Characterization of a Fruit & Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Human
Immune Function

Fresh Produce Food SafetyTraining Program and Curriculum
Development

Sensory Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables
Health Benefits of Red Muscadine Wine

AddingValue to Tropical Fruit: Techniques to Increase Bioactive
Phytochemicals

Functional Properties of Improved Natural Pigments

Polyphenolic Recovery System to Develop Functional Food
Ingredients

Phase Variation and Expression of Capsular Polysaccharide in Vibro
Vulnificus
Improved Methods for Molecular Detection ofVibrio Vulnificus
R/[r-q-26a

Regulation of Capsular Polysaccharide and Virulence in Vibrio
Vulnificus R/14-q-27


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 91


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Rutgers State University

Rutgers State University

Rutgers State University


North Carolina State Univ.


North Carolina State Univ.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Food and Drug Administration


Interstate Shellfish San i. Conf.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricu[. & Consumer Ser.

National Safety Associates


North Carolina State Univ.


Syngenta
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricu[. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


47,723

57,600

153,500


32,255


4,821

1,270,880

50,000

24,000


374,145


17,000


417,923
90,000


75,000


373,310


10,000

76,590


45,649


25,000

134,827

35,900


15,000

12,000


260,000


128,700


49,958

















SITUATION: Forests cover one-third of the world's land area and
provide a range of goods and services including timber and non-
timber products, clean water, wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration,
microclimate amelioration, recreation and biodiversity. Demand
for these goods and services is increasing; yet, the area of forests to
meet these needs is decreasing. For example, in Florida the forested
area per capital has dropped from four acres per person in 1960 to
one acre per person today. Each year, 40,000 acres of forested land
are being lost in Florida, mostly to urbanization. In some locations,
urban sprawl is causing fragmentation of forests, reducing their
ecological value. Further, timberland ownership patterns and land-
owner objectives are changing rapidly in response to changes in tax,
legal and economic issues.
With all of the challenges facing the world's forests, it is impera-
tive that we embrace and foster all types of forests to provide, in
total, the complete range of ecological, economic and social goods
and services. For example: (1) Native forests and protected ar-
eas conserve inherent species' richness and genetic diversity; (2)
Second-growth working forests provide jobs, homes and products;
(3) High-yield plantation forests help meet demand for timber and
paper products; and (4) Urban forests and those on the wildland-
urban-interface ameliorate microclimate and provide recreational,


aesthetic and psychological benefits; and (5) Agroforests, which
combine trees and agriculture, provide multiple benefits to the land-
owner and can mitigate environmental impacts.
RESEARCH RESPONSE: The School conducts research that gener-
ates new knowledge to meet society's needs for sustainable manage-
ment and conservation of forests and related resources at the state,
regional, national and international levels. Four focus areas are:
(1) Forest systems biology from the molecular to landscape scales;
(2) Human dimensions broadly defined to include social sciences,
economics, recreation (photograph), management, utilization and
policy related to forest resources; (3) Agroforestry and tropical
forestry spanning diverse settings such as silvopastures in Florida,
home gardens in Africa and working forests in the Amazon; and
(4) Urban forestry and the wildland-urban interface with programs
aiming to enhance existing urban forests and mitigate the effects of
urban sprawl into rural forests.
Our goal in all of these research areas is to address complex, real-
world problems affecting the world's forest resources. Due to the
complexity, most research projects are multidisciplinary efforts in-
volving collaborative efforts of School scientists with those of other
universities, private companies and research organizations.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 93


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION
IrAS 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, PO Box 114410 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0410
od AiExtS 352-846-0850 | http://www.sfrc.ifas.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


CSTAF, CENTER FOR SUBTROPICAL AGROFORESTRY: UNDER-
STANDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF
INTEGRATED LAND-USE SYSTEMS.

SIGNIFICANCE: Agroecosystems, especially small-scale produc-
tion systems in the southeastern United States, are challenged
as never before with natural resource management problems.
According to USDA Census of Agriculture (2002), 88 percent of
farms in Florida are considered small farms (annual sales less than
$250,000), 84 percent of which are individually or family owned;
but they constitute 56 percent of total agricultural income in the
state. Similarly, out of the 6.6 million hectares (16.3 million acres)
of forestlands in Florida, 52 percent are non-industrial private
lands. Clearly, small farms and timber operations are **..1 -1, ,I i
drivers of the state's economy. These small-scale operations are
under increasing pressures if not threats caused by various
changes. The increasing impact of a rapidly urbanizing landscape
on the wildland-urban interface creates .**i-ii iii changes in
ecosystem characteristics such as increased fire danger, changes in
water drainage patterns leading to soil erosion and flooding, and
fragmentation of wildlife habitat. Agricultural non-point source
pollution is a significant cause of stream and lake contamina-
tion and prevents attainment of water quality goals in the Clean
Water Act. The problem of phosphorus (P) loss from soil is a
major concern in fertilized agricultural and forestry enterprises,
particularly in coarse-textured, poorly drained soils of the south-
east, where drainage water ultimately mixes with surface water.
The potential for P loss from fertilized pastures resulting in water
quality degradation is a particularly serious issue. Faced with these
consequences of rapid land-use changes, the small-farm com-
munity of the Southeast is under pressure to adopt land manage-
ment practices that are economically and ecologically sustainable.
Integrated systems such as agroforestry that provide economic
advantages of diversified production as well as ecological benefits
of mixed systems seem appropriate in this scenario.
RATIONALE: Today there is a growing body of knowledge on
agroforestry and an increasing awareness about its potential as a
land management approach throughout the world. Agroforestry
research in the School of Forest Resources and Conservation
got a boost with the establishment of the Center for Subtropical
Agroforestry (CSTAF) in 2001 from a four-year $3.92 million
USDA/CSREES/IFAFS grant (http://cstaf.ifas.ufl.edu). The Center
is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional entity for undertaking
research, extension, and education in agroforestry.
IMPACT: A comprehensive CSTAF "white paper" has established
the scope and role of agroforestry in the region (http://cstaf.ifas.
ufl.edu/whitepaper.htm). Silvopasture the integration of trees
with forage and livestock is the most prevalent form of agrofor-
estry in the region. Available information suggests that silvopas-
ture is an ecologically sustainable and environmentally desirable
approach to mitigating the problem of nutrient pollution resulting
from beef-cattle pastures. For example, silvopasture can minimize
nutrient losses from the soil (because of enhanced nutrient uptake
by tree and crop roots from varying soil depths compared with
more localized and shallow rooting depths of a monoculture),
and thus enhance water quality. Also, in locations where the water
table is high and the likelihood of losing nutrients via surface and


subsurface drainage is greater, the lowering of the water table by
trees could result in less nutrient loss via surface and subsurface
drainage. Research is still under way and more evidence is needed
to fully support these hypotheses.
Carbon sequestration and wildlife habitat improvement are two
other major ecosystem services of agroforestry systems. These
benefits are public goods. Ranchers and other landowners have
very little motivation to consider these services in their produc-
tion decisions, unless these services are internalized through
compensation policies. Internalizing the externalities implies that
ranchers would pay for the negative social costs of phosphorus
runoff and would receive payments for the positive social benefits
of carbon sequestration. In doing so, silvopasture could become
financially competitive and environmentally sustainable relative
to traditional cattle ranching. Currently we do not have adequate
information on this important issue from different ecoregions.
Other CSTAF results include development of the Southeastern
Agroforestry Decision Support System, a web-based tool that will
assist in planning and tree/shrub selection, with data for 12 Flori-
da counties; quantification of tree-crop interactions in alley crop-
ping systems of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and pecan, with cotton
as the understory species; estimation of tree survival, wood yields,
commercial value of 13 year-old south-Florida slash pine, cattle
and goat production, and forage yield in a silvopastoral system in
Central Florida; and possible use of agroforestry techniques such
as organic and conventional till alley-cropping for improving the
economic viability of organic farming.
These and other aspects of agroforestry research, development,
and education worldwide were highlighted and the awareness
about them enhanced during the 1st World Congress of Agrofor-
estry organized by UF/IFAS in June-July 2004 in Orlando, Florida
(http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/wca/). A declaration adopted by
more than 500 delegates from 82 countries who participated in the
congress underscored the role of agroforestry in land manage-
ment and environmental sustainability and called for "increased
investments to support research, technology development, and
extension to improve the integration of agroforestry with broader
natural resource and watershed management efforts."


P. K. Nair


94 | 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


COLLABORATORS: CSTAF is a multi-institutional, multidisci-
plinary center for undertaking research, education, and exten-
sion in agroforestry. Its activities include research, extension, and
education projects that are carried out in collaboration with 40


researchers from UF/IFAS (Gainesville, Ona, and Milton), Florida
A&M University, Auburn University, University of Georgia, and
the University of the Virgin Islands.


FACULTY & STAFF



FACU LTY

Timothy L. White

Janaki R. Alavalapati

Loukas G. Arvanitis

Michael E. Bannister

Grenville Barnes

George M. Blakeslee, Jr.

Douglas R. Carter

Wendell P. Cropper, Jr.

John M. Davis

Bon A. Dewitt

Mary L. Duryea


David W. Gibosn

DudleyA. Huber

EricJ. Jokela

Karen A. Kainer

Matias Kirst

Alan J. Long

Timothy A. Martin

Martha C. Monroe

Ramachandran P.K. Nair

Gary F. Peter

Donald L. Rockwood

Robert A. Schmidt

Scot E. Smith

Wayne H. Smith

Gregory Starr, Jr.

Christina L. Staudhammer

Taylor V. Stein

Sarah W. Workman

Daniel J. Zarin


TITLE

Direct or and Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof. Emeritus

Research Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof. and Assoc. Director

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Dean and Prof.


Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Distinguished Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof. Emeritus

Assoc. Prof.

Prof. Emeritus

Res. Asst. Scientist

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Vis. Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Quantitive Forest Genetics

Natural Resource Policy/Administration

Biometrics

Agroforestry

Land Tenure/Cadastral[ Property Systems

Forest Health

Economics/Management

Biological Process Modeling

Forest Biotechnology

Photogrammetry/Digital Mapping

Reforestation and Urban Forestry


Geomatics

Forest Genetics

Silviculture

Tropical Forestry

Quantitative Genetics

Forest Operations and Environ. Regulations

Tree Physiology

Natural Resources Education

Agroforestry

Plant Genomics

Forest Tree Improvement

Forest Pathology

Remote Sensing/GIS

Forest Soils & Ecology/Biomass

Ecophysiology

Biometrics

Ecotourism/Recreation

Agroforestry

Tropical Forestry


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 95


TEACHING

20

40

0

0

100

80

50

30

20

100

0


100

0

40

30

30

60

30

30

40

20

30

0

100

0

0

30

60

0

30


RESEARCH

60

60

0

100

0

0

50

70

80

0

100
(adm)

0

100

60

70

70

0

70

20

60

80

70

0

0

0

100

70

40

25

70


EXTENSION

20

0

0

0

0

20

0

0

0

0

0


0

0

0

0

0

40

0

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR TITLE
FOR-00008 White, T.L., Admin
FOR-03781 Stein, T.V. Under
FOR-03789 Alavalapati, J.R. Analy
FOR-03812 Nair, R.P. Devel
FOR-03900 Nair, R.P.,Alavalapati,J.R., Long,A.J., Estab
Bannister, M.E., Workman, S.W.
FOR-03944 Zarin, D.J. Ecolo
FOR-03974 Smith, W.H., Duryea, M.L., Long, A.J. Wildla
FOR-04080 Bannister, M.E., Workman, S.W., Tree-c
Palada, M.C., Ellis, E.A. Surve
FOR-04093 Davis, J.M. Molec
FOR-04095 White, T.L., Jokela, E.J., Martin, T.A., Forest
Cropper, W.P.
FOR-04107 Rockwood, D. A Coo
Florid
FOR-04116 Davis, J.M., White, T.L., Martin, T.A. Allele
FOR-04121 Carter, D.R., Alavalapati, J.R. Socio
Regio
FOR-04168 Rockwood, D.L., Carter, D.R., Peter, G.F. Fast G
FOR-04172 Huber, D.A. Quant
FOR-04177 Kainer, K.A. Ecolo




PUBLICATIONS



Adegbidi, H.G., N.B. Comerford, E.J. Jokela and N.E Barros. 2004. Root
Development of Young Fast Growing Loblolly Pine in Spodosols of the Lower
Coastal Plain. Soil Science Society America Journal. 68:596-604.
Alavalapati, J.R.R. and D.R. Carter (eds.). 2004. Competitiveness of Southern
Forest Products Markets in a Global Economy: Trends and Predictions.
Proceedings of the Southern Forest Economics Workshop, March 14-16, 2004, St.
Augustine, Florida. 303 pp.
Alavalapati, J.R.R. and E. Mercer. 2004. Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods
and Applications, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 314 pp.
Alavalapati, J.R.R. and D.J. Zarin. 2004. Tropical Working Forests for What
and for Whom? Pages 279-289 In: D.J. Zarin, J.R.R. Alavalapati, EE. Putz and
M. Schmink (eds.). Working Forests in the Neotropics: Conservation through
Sustainable Management? Columbia University Press: New York.
Alavalapati, J.R.R., E. Mercer and J. Montambault. 2004. Agroforestry Systems
and Valuation Methodologies: An Overview. Pages 31-38 In: J.R.R. Alavalapati and
E. Mercer (eds.). Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods and Applications. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Alavalapati, J.R.R., R.K. Shrestha, A. Stainback and J.R. Matta. 2004.
Agroforestry Development: An Environmental Economic Perspective. Pages 299-
310 In: P.K.R. Nair, M.R. Rao and L.E. Buck (eds.). New Vistas in Agroforestry.
A Compendium for the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Albertin, A. and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. Farmers' Perspectives on the Role of Shade
Trees in Coffee Production Systems: An Assessment from the Nicoya Peninsula,
Costa Rica. Human Ecology. 32:443-463.
Allen, S., S. Jose, P.K.R. Nair, B. Brecke, P. Nkedi-Kizza and C. Ramsey. 2004.
Safety Net Role of Tree Roots: Evidence from a Pecan (Carya illinoensis K. Koch)-
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Alley Cropping System in the Southern United
States. Forest Ecology and Management. 192:395-407.


nistration of Mclntire-Stennis Funds and Projects
standing the Benefits of Nature-based Tourism and Recreation in Florida
sis of Forest and Natural Resource Policy Issues
opment and Evaluation of Integrated Agroforestry Systems
fishing a Center for Subtropical Agroforestry


gy and Management of Tropical Forests
nd Urban Interface: Risk Mitigation and Technology Transfer
rop Diversity and Enterprise Development Through Agroforestry: A Participatory
y and GIS-based Analysis in the Virgin Islands
ular Biology of Forest Trees
Productivity, Health and Sustainability


perative Multicultural Scholars Program in Natural Resources and Forestry between
a A&M University and the University of Florida
Discovery for Genes Controlling Economic Traits in Loblolly Pine
-economic Impacts of Forest Land Ownership and Management Patterns at the
nal[ Level
rowing Forest Tree Management Systems for Florida and Similar Areas
itative Genetics and Tree Improvement of Southern Pines
gy and Community-based Management of Neotropical Forests


Ankersen, T. and G. Barnes. 2004. Inside the Polygon: Emerging Community

Tenure Systems and Forest Resource Extraction. Pages 156-177 In: D. J. Zarin,
J. R. R. Alavalapati, E E. Putz and M. Schmink (eds.). Working Forests in the
Neotropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management? Columbia University
Press: New York.
Athman, J. and M. Monroe. 2004. Motivating Students Through Environment-
based Education. Legacy. 15(4):42-44.
Athman, J. and M. Monroe. 2004. The Effects of Environment-based Education
on Students' Achievement Motivation. Journal of Interpretation Research.
9(1):9-25.
Becker, B.N., D.L. Rockwood, L.Q. Ma, J.G. Isebrands, R.B. Hall, N. Brown, C.
Lin and R. Lange. 2004. Poplar, Eucalypt, and Willow Genotypes for PCE, TCE,
Toluene, and Arsenic Dendroremediation Systems. Page 351 In: Book of Abstracts,
1st World Congress of Agroforestry. June 27-July 2, 2004. Orlando, FL.
Behm, A.L., M.L. Duryea, A.J. Long and W.C. Zipperer. 2004. Flammability
of Native Understory Species in Pine Flatwood and Hardwood Hammock
Ecosystems and Implications for the Wildland-Urban Interface. International
Journal of Wildland Fire. 13(3):355-365.
Biber, P.D., M.A. Harwell and W.P. Cropper, Jr. 2004. Modeling the Dynamics of
Three Functional Groups of Macroalgae in Tropical Seagrass Habitats. Ecological
Modelling. 175:25-54.
Bryant, D.M., M.J. Ducey, J.C. Innes, T.D. Lee, R.T. Eckert and D.J. Zarin.
2004. Forest Community Analysis and the Point-centered Quarter Method. Plant
Ecology. 175:193-203.
Clark, J.K. and T.V. Stein. 2004. Applying the Nominal Group Technique to
Recreation Planning on Public Natural Areas. Journal of Park and Recreation
Administration. 22(1):1-22.
Coelho, R.F.R., D.J. Zarin, I.S. Miranda and J.M.Tucker. 2004. Analise Floristica
e Estrutural de Uma Floresta em Diferentes Estagios Sucessionais no Municipio
de Castanhal, Para [Floristic and Structural Analysis of Different Stages of
Successional Forest in the Municipality of Castanhal, Para]. Acta Amazonica.
33:563-582.


96 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Coelho, R.F.R., D.J. Zarin, I.S. Miranda and J.M.Tucker. 2004. Ingresso e
Mortalidade de Uma Floresta em Diferentes Estagios Sucessionais no Municipio
de Castanhal, Para [Recruitment and Mortality of Different Stages of Successional
Forest in the Municipality of Castanhal, Para]. Acta Amazonica. 33:619-630.
Cogdill, R.P., L. Schimleck, P.D. Jones, G.F. Peter, R.F. Daniels and A. Clark,
III. 2004. Estimation of the Physical Wood Properties of Pinus Taeda L. Radial
Strips Using Least Squares Support Vector Machines. Journal of Near Infrared
Spectroscopy. 12(4):263-270.
Cooke, J.E.K., A.M. Morse and J.M. Davis. 2004. Forestry. Pages 881-904 In:
P. Christou and H. Klee (eds.). Handbook of Plant Biotechnology. John Wiley &
Sons, West Sussex, UK.
Cropper, W.P., Jr. 2004. Forest Dynamics and Disturbance Regimes. Studies from
Temperate Evergreen-deciduous Forests. (book review) Agricultural and Forest
Meteorology. 123:237.
Cropper, W.P., Jr. and P.J. Anderson. 2004. Population Dynamics of a Tropical
Palm: Use of a Genetic Algorithm for Inverse Parameter Estimation. Ecological
Modelling. 177:119-127.
Cumming, G., G. Barnes, S. Perz, M. Schmink, K. Sieving, J. Southworth, M.
Binford, R. Holt, C. Stickler and T. Van Holt. 2004. An Exploratory Framework
for the Empirical Measurement of Resilience. Ecosystems.
Dickens, E.D., J.P. Barnett, W.G. Hubbard and E.J. Jokela (eds.). 2004. Slash
Pine: Still Growing and Growing! Proc. of the Slash Pine Symposium. USDA
Forest Service Gen. Tech. Report SRS 76. 145 pp.
Drew, W.M., J.R.R. Alavalapati and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. Determining Agroforestry
Profitability Using the Policy Analysis Matrix: A Case Study from Pohnpei,
Federated States of Micronesia. Pages 59-78 In: J. R. R. Alavalapati and E.
Mercer (eds.). Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods and Applications. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Egertsdotter, U., L. van Zyl, J. MacKay, G.F. Peter, M. Kirst, R. Whetten and R.
Sederoff. 2004. Variation in the Expression Profiles of 350 Genes During Wood
Formation in Loblolly Pine. Plant Biology. 6(6):654-663.
Ernst, J. and M.C. Monroe. 2004. The Effects of Environment-based Education
on Students' Critical Thinking Skills and Disposition Toward Critical Thinking.
Environmental Education Research. 10(4):507-522.
Ersoz, E.S., S. Gonzalez-Martinez, G. Gill, G. Brown, A. Morse, T. White, J.
Davis and D.B. Neale. 2004. SNP Discovery in Candidate Genes Conferring
Resistance to Pitch Canker and Fusiform Rust in Loblolly Pine. Page 306 In: Plant
and Animal Genome Conference, January 10-14, San Diego, CA.
Fox, T.R., E.J. Jokela and H.L. Allen. 2004. The Evolution of Pine Plantation
Silviculture in the Southern United States. Pages 63-82 In: M. Rauscher and K.
Johnsen (eds.). History of Forest Science in the Southern United States. USDA
Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. 75.
Gagnon, J.L., E.J. Jokela, W.K. Moser and D.A. Huber. 2004. Characteristics of
Gaps and Natural Regeneration in Mature Longleaf Pine Flatwoods Ecosystems.
Forest Ecology and Management. 187:373-380.
Gezan, S.A., D.A. Huber and T.L. White. 2004. Design and Analysis of
Experiments in Forestry: Incorporating Spatial Variation. Pages 28-31 In: 2004
IEG Meeting: Advancing Regeneration Technologies for the Deployment of Elite
Southern Pine Germplasm. June 22-24, Jekyll Island, GA.
Green, A., A. Hermansen-Baez, A. Hodges, W. Smith, D. Rockwood and J.
Stricker. 2004. Multidisciplinary Academic Demonstration of a Biomass Alliance
with Natural Gas. In: Proc. International Conference on Engineering Education.
Hermansen, A., W. Smith, A. Long, C. Randall, A. Behm and D. Doran. 2004.
Fire in the Wildland-Urban Interface in the USA South. Pages 319-334 In: Forestry
Serving Urbanized Societies, IUFRO Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
Hodges, A., D. Mulkey, J.R.R. Alavalapati, D.R. Carter and C. Kiker. 2004.
Economic Impacts of the Forest Industry in Florida, A Final Report to the Florida
Forestry Association. 47 pp.
Hodges, A., D. Mulkey, J.R.R. Alavalapati, D.R. Carter and C. Kiker. 2004.
Executive Summary: Economic Impacts of the Forest Products Industry in Florida.
Florida Forests. (Fall) Vol. 8(3):12-15.
Irlandi, E.A., B.A. Orlando and W.P. Cropper, Jr. 2004. Short term Effects of
Nutrient Addition on Growth and Biomass of Thalassia Testudinum in Biscayne
Bay, FL. Florida Scientist. 67:18-26.
Isebrands, J., D. Rockwood, R. Hall, A. Lindner, A. Pacheco, N. Brown and
R. Lange. 2004. Phytoremediation of a Perchloroethylene Contaminated Site in
LaSalle, Illinois with Populus Clones A Field Evaluation. Proc. AEES Conference.
June 4, 2004, Fayetteville, AR.


Jawdy, S.S., S.P. DiFazio, U.C. Kalluri, J.M. Davis, A.M. Morse, C. Dervinis,
K.E. Smith and G.A. Tuskan. 2004. Using SSH and RCA to Identify Auxin-
responsive Transcripts in Populus. Page 26 In: 12th New Phytologist Symposium,
Functional Genomics of Environmental Adaptation in Populus. October 10-13,
Gatlinburg, TN.
Jokela, E.J. 2004. Nutrient Management of Southern Pines. Pages 27-35 In: E.D.
Dickens, J.P Barnett, WG. Hubbard and E.J. Jokela (eds.). Slash Pine: Still Growing
and Growing! Proc. of the Slash Pine Symposium. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech.
Report SRS-76.
Jokela, E.J. and P.M. Dougherty (eds.). 2004. Long-term Production Dynamics
of Loblolly Pine Stands in the Southern United States. A Special Issue of Forest
Ecology and Management. Vol. 192:1-130.
Jokela, E.J. and P.M. Dougherty. 2004. Long-term Production Dynamics
of Loblolly Pine Stand in the Southern United States. Forest Ecology and
Management. 192:1-2.
Jokela, E.J., P.M. Dougherty and T.A. Martin. 2004. Production Dynamics
of Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Stands in the Southern United States: A
Synthesis of Seven Long-term Experiments. Forest Ecology and Management.
192:117-130.
Kaya, B. and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. Dynamics of Particulate Organic Matter
Following Biomass Addition from Fallow-improvement Species in Southern Mali.
Agroforestry Systems. 60:267-276.
Kirst, M., A. Myburg, and R. Sederoff. 2004. Genetic Mapping in Forest Trees:
Markers, Linkage Analysis and Genomics. Pages 105-141 In: J. K. Setlow (ed.).
Genetic Engineering, Principles and Methods (v. 26). Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Publishers.
Kirst, M., A. Myburg, M.E. Kirst, J. Scott, J. and R. Sederoff. 2004. Quantitative
Analysis of Transcript Variation on Microarrays Reveals Coordinated
Downregulation of Lignin Gene Transcripts Associated with Two Quantitative
Trait Loci for Growth in a Eucalyptus Hybrid Backcross. Plant Physiology.
135:2368-2378.
Kumar, B.M. and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. The Enigma of Tropical Homegardens.
Agroforestry Systems. 61 & 62:135-154.
Lawrence, S.D., C. Dervinis and J.M. Davis. 2004. Cytokinin and Wound Signal
Interaction Reduces Weight of Gypsy Moth Larvae Feeding on Poplar. Page 497 In:
2004 American Society of Plant Biologists Meeting. July 24-28, Lake Buena Vista,
FL.
Lindner, A., A. Pacheco, D. Rockwood, J. Isebrands and R. Brigmon. 2004.
Phytoremediation of TCE at Two Superfund Sites: Assessing Methanotroph
Activity in the Rhizosphere. SBRP Annual Meeting. November 3-4, 2004, Seattle,
WA.
Long, A.J., 14 others. 2004. Prescribed Fire and Slash Pine. Pages 66-78 In: E.D.
Dickens, J.P Barnett, WG. Hubbard and E.J. Jokela (eds.). Slash Pine: Still Growing
and Growing! Proceedings of the Slash Pine Symposium, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-76.
Asheville, NC: USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 145 pp.
Lu, P. and T.L. White. 2004. Determining Test and Block Numbers in
Consideration of Progeny Testing Quality and Cost: An Example of Half-Sib
Families with RCB Design and Single-Tree Plots. Forest Genetics. 11(1):29-44.
Maness, T.C., R.A. Kozak and C.L. Staudhammer. 2004. Reliability Testing of
Statistical Process Control Procedures for Manufacturing with Multiple Sources of
Variation. Wood and Fiber Science. 36(3):443-458.
Martin, T.A. and E.J. Jokela. 2004. Developmental Patterns and Nutrition Impact
Radiation Use Efficiency Components in Southern Pine Stands. Ecological
Applications. 14:1839-1854.
Martin, T.A. and E.J. Jokela. 2004. Stand Development and Production Dynamics
of Loblolly Pine Growing on Spodosols in North-central Florida USA. Forest
Ecology and Management. 192:39-58.
Masozera, M. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Forest Dependency and its
Implications for Protected Areas Management: A Case Study from the Nyungwe
Forest Reserve, Rwanda. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 19(4):85-92.
McGarvey, R.C., T.A. Martin and T.L. White. 2004. Integrating Within-crown
Variation in Net Photosynthesis in Loblolly and Slash Pine Families. Tree
Physiology. 24:1209-1220.
McGarvey, R.C., T.A. Martin and T.L. White. 2004. Leaf and Crown-level Net
Photosynthesis in Loblolly and Slash Pine Families. Forest Biology Research
Cooperative Report #26. 22 pp.
Mercer, D.E. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Summary and Future Directions.
Pages 303-310 In: J. R. R. Alavalapati and E. Mercer (eds.). Valuing Agroforestry
Systems: Methods and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The
Netherlands.
Monroe, M.C. and K.C. Nelson. 2004. The Value of Assessing Public Perceptions:
Wildland Fire and Defensible Space. Applied Environmental Education and
Communication. 3:109-117.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 97









PUBLICATIONS



Montagnini, F. and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. Carbon Sequestration: An Under-exploited
Environmental Benefit of Agroforestry Systems. Agroforestry Systems. 61 &
62:281-298.
Morse, A.M., J.E.K. Cooke and J.M. Davis. 2004. Functional Genomics in Forest
Trees.Pages 3-18 In: S. Kumar and M. Fladung (eds.). Molecular Genetics and
Breeding of Forest Trees. The Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY.
Morse, A.M., C.D. Nelson, S.F. Covert, A.G. Holliday, K.E. Smith and J.M.
Davis. 2004. Pine Genes Regulated by the Necrotrophic Pathogen Fusarium
circinatum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 109: 922-932.
Murray G. and M.E. Bannister. 2004. Peasants, Agroforesters, and
Anthropologists: A 20-year Venture in Income-generating Trees and Hedgerows in
Haiti. Agroforestry Systems. 61:383-397.
Nair, P.K.R., M.R. Rao and L.E. Buck (eds.). 2004. New Vistas in Agroforestry.
A Compendium for the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry, Florida, USA, 2004.
Kluwer, The Netherlands. 475 pp.
Neale, D.B., J.M. Davis, T.L. White, T.A. Martin, J.E.D. Dean, S.F. Covert, L.H.
Pratt and M-M. Cordonnier-Pratt. 2004. Genomics to Breeding in Loblolly Pine.
Page 34 In: 2004 IEG Meeting: Advancing Regeneration Technologies for the
Deployment of Elite Southern Pine Germplasm. June 22-24, Jekyll Island, GA.
Nelson, K., M.C. Monroe, J. Johnson and A. Bowers. 2004. Living with Fire:
A Comparison of Homeowner Assessment of Landscape Values and Defensible
Space in Minnesota and Florida USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire.
13:413-425.
Nowak, J. and A. Long. 2004. Slash Pine in Integrated Timber, Forage, and
Livestock Silvopastoral Systems. Pages 98-104 In: E. D. Dickens, J. P Barnett,
W G. Hubbard and E. J. Jokela (eds.). Slash Pine: Still Growing and Growing!
Proceedings of the Slash Pine Symposium, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-76. Asheville, NC:
USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 145 pp.
Onokpise, 0., D. Worthen, D. Rockwood and T. Willis. 2004. Proceedings of
the Symposium on Celebrating Minority Professionals in Forestry and Natural
Resources Conservation. Volume II: Annotated Version. Forestry and Natural
Resources Conservation, DAS, CESTA, FAMU: Talahassee, FL.
Osorio, L.F., T.L. White, D.A. Huber and G.L. Powell. 2004. Breeding Strategy
and Vegetative Propagation of Eucalyptus grandis at Smurfit Carton de Colombia.
Page 10 In: 2004 IEG Meeting: Advancing Regeneration Technologies for the
Deployment of Elite Southern Pine Germplasm. June 22-24, Jekyll Island, GA.
Pennisi, L.A., S.M. Holland and T.V. Stein. 2004. Achieving Bat Conservation
through Tourism. Journal ofEcotourism. 3(3):195-207.
Peter, G.F. and D.B. Neale. 2004. Molecular Basis for the Evolution of Xylem
Lignification. Current Opinions in Plant Biology. 7:737-742.
Peter, G.F., J. Fernandez, D.E. White, C. Courchene and G.A. Baum. 2004.
Impact of Forest Biotechnology on the Economics of Corrugated Box Production.
TAPPI Fall Technical Conference, TAPPI Press. CD-ROM.
Peter, G.F., D.E. White, N. Sicarelli, R. de la Torre and D. Newman. 2004.
Commercialization of Forest Biotechnology Targets for Enhanced Global
Competitiveness of the US Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI Paper Summit Spring
Technical and International Environmental Conference, TAPPI Press. CD-ROM.
Pierskalla, C.D., M.E. Lee, T.V. Stein, D.H. Anderson and R. Nickerson. 2004.
Understanding Relationships Among Recreation Opportunities: A Meta-Analysis
of Nine Studies. Leisure Sciences. 26:1-18.
Pitre, F.E., M. Ouellet, M. Davis, J.M. Davis, J.J. Mackay and J.E.K. Cooke. 2004.
Nitrogen Availability Affects Wood Formation in Poplar. Page 46 In: 12th New
Phytologist Symposium, Functional Genomics of Environmental Adaptation in
Populus. October 10-13, Gatlinburg, TN.
Puri, S. and P.K.R. Nair. 2004. Agroforestry Research for Development in India:
25 Years of Experiences of a National Program. Agroforestry Systems. 61 &
62:437-452.
Ramirez, G., C. Dervinis, A.M. Morse, S.P. Difazio and J.M. Davis. 2004.
Characterization of the Poplar Cytokinin Response Regulator Gene Family. Page
50 In: 12th New Phytologist Symposium, Functional Genomics of Environmental
Adaptation in Populus. October 10-13, Gatlinburg, TN.
Rockwood, D.L., C.V. Naidu, D.R. Carter, M. Rahmani, T. Spriggs, C. Lin, G.R.
Alker, J.G. Isebrands and S.A. Segrest. 2004. Short-rotation Woody Crops and
Phytoremediation: Opportunities for Agroforestry? Pages 51-63 In: P. K. R. Nair,
M. R. Rao and L. E. Buck (eds.). New Vistas in Agroforestry. A Compendium
for the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry, 2004. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands.


Sanborn, A., A. Belcher, R. Albritton and T. Stein. 2004. Florida National Scenic
Trail Visitor Assessment: 2003-2004 Annual Report. Gainesville, FL. School of
Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida.
Schimleck, L., P.D. Jones, G.F. Peter, R.F. Daniels and A. Clark, III. 2004.
Nondestructive Estimation of Tracheid Length from Sections of Radial Wood
Strips by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Holzforschung. 58:375-381.
Schmidt, R.A. 2004. Major Disease Issues with Slash Pine Management. Pages 87-
90 In: E. D. Dickens, J.P. Barnett, WG. Hubbard and E.J. Jokela (eds.). Slash Pine:
Still Growing and Growing! Proc. of the Slash Pine Symposium. USDA Forest
Service Gen. Tech. Report SRS-76.
Segrest, S., D. Rockwood, D. Carter, W. Smith, A. Green and J. Stricker. 2004.
Short Rotation Woody Crops for Cofiring in Central Florida. In: Proc. 29th
International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems. April 18-
22, 2004, Clearwater, FL. Coal Technology Association CD, ISBN No. 0-932066-
29-54, Paper 12.
Shepard, J.P., H. Abd-El Monsef and L.G. Arvanitis. 2004. Relationships Between
National Wetlands Inventory Maps and Hydrophytic Vegetation in Florida.
Wetlands Ecology and Management. 12:409-418.
Shrestha, R.K. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Effect of Ranchland Attributes on
Recreational Hunting in Florida: A Hedonic Price Analysis. Journal of Agricultural
and Applied Economics. 36(3):763-772.
Shrestha, R.K. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Estimating Ranchers' Cost of
Agroforestry Adoption: A Contingent Valuation Approach. Pages 183-199 In:
J.R.R. Alavalapati and E. Mercer (eds.). Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods
and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Shrestha, R.K. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Valuing Environmental Benefits of
Silvopasture Practice: A Case Study of the Lake Okeechobee Watershed in Florida.
Ecological Economics. 49:349-359.
Shrestha, R.K., J.R.R. Alavalapati and R.S. Kalmbacher. 2004. Exploring the
Potential for Silvopasture Adoption in South-Central Florida: An Application of
SWOT-AHP Method. Agricultural Systems. 81:185-199.
Stainback, G. and J. Alavalapati. 2004. Modeling Catastrophic Risk in Economic
Analysis of Forest Carbon Sequestration. Natural Resource Modeling.
17(3):299-317.
Stainback, G.A. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Restoring Longleaf Pine Through
Silvopasture Practices: An Economic Analysis. Forest Policy and Economics. 6
(3-4):371-378.
Stainback, G., J. Alavalapati, R. Shrestha, S. Larkin and G. Wong. 2004.
Improving Environmental Quality in South Florida through Silvopasture: An
Economic Approach. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
36(2):481-489.
Tamang, B., M. Langholtz, B. Becker, S. Segrest, D. Rockwood, S. Richardson
and J. Stricker. 2004. Fast Growing Tree Bridge Crops for Ecological Restoration
of Phosphate Mined Lands. First National Conference on Ecosystem Restoration.
December 6-10, 2004, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
Thangata, P.H., J.R.R. Alavalapati and P.E. Hildebrand. 2004. Metamodeling
Agroforestry Adoption: Assessing Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved
Fallows in Southern Africa Using an Integrated Linear Programming and
Econometric Model. Pages 219-236 In: J. R. R. Alavalapati, and E. Mercer (eds.).
Valuing Agroforestry Systems: Methods and Applications. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Timko, T. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2004. Economic Impact of Adopting
Silvopasture in Florida: A CGE analysis. Pages 294-303 In: Proceedings of the
Southern Forest Economics Workers Annual Conference, March 14-16, 2004, St.
Augustine, Florida.
Vasconcelos, S.S., D.J. Zarin, M. Capanu, R. Littell, E. A. Davidson, EY. Ishida,
E.B. Santos, M.M. Aradjo, D.V. Aragao, L.G.T. Rangel-Vasconcelos, FA.
Oliveira, W.H. McDowell and C.J.R. Carvalho. 2004. Moisture and Substrate
Availability Constrain Soil Trace Gas Fluxes in an Eastern Amazonian Regrowth
Forest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB2009, doi:10.1029/2003GB002210.
Vergara, R, T.L. White, D.A. Huber, B.D. Shiver and D.L. Rockwood. 2004.
Estimated Realized Gains for First-generation Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii var.
elliottii) Tree Improvement in the Southeastern United States. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research. 34:2587-2600.
Wanvestraut, R., S. Jose, P.K.R. Nair and B.J. Brecke. 2004. Competition for
Water in a Pecan-Cotton Alley Cropping System in the Southern United States.
Agroforestry Systems. 60:167-179.
White, D.E., G.F. Peter and M.A. Evans. 2004. A Cross-industry Systems
Assessment of Future Printing and Papermaking Industry Trends. GTAF World
Technology Forecast. 16:66-69.


98 | 2004ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTforthe FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS



White, T.L. 2004. Breeding Theory and Genetic Testing. Pages 1551-1561 In:
J. Burley, J. Evans and J. A. Youngquist (eds.). Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences.
Elsevier Ltd, Pub. Oxford, UK. Vol. 4.
White, T.L. and T.D. Byram. 2004. Slash Pine Tree Improvement. Pages 7-19 In:
E.D. Dickens, J.P Barnett, WG. Hubbard and E.J. Jokela (eds.). Slash Pine: Still
Growing and Growing! Proceedings of the Slash Pine Symposium, Jekyll Island,
GA, April 23-25, 2002. USDA Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-76. Asheville, NC: US Dept of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
White, T.L. and M. Carson. 2004. Breeding Programs of Conifers. Pages 61-85
In: C. Walter and M.J. Carson (eds.). Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21"
Century. Research Signpost, Kerala, India.


Wullschleger, S., S. Segrest, D. Rockwood and C. Garten. 2004. Enhancing Soil
Carbon Sequestration on Phosphate Mine Lands in Florida by Planting Short-
rotation Bioenergy Crops. Third Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration.
Washington, DC.
Yates, G., D. DeGraw and T. Stein. 2004. Scenic Highway Corridor Group
Leaders' Perceptions of the Florida Scenic Highway Program Process. Gainesville,
FL. School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida.
Zarin, D.J. 2004. Neotropical Working Forests: Concepts and Realities. Pages 1-12
In: D.J. Zarin, J.R.R. Alavalapati, F.E. Putz and M. Schmink (eds.). Working Forests
in the Neotropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management? Columbia
University Press: New York.
Zarin, D.J., J.R.R. Alavalapati, F.E. Putz and M. Schmink (eds.). 2004. Working
Forests in the Neotropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management?
Columbia University Press: New York. 437 pp.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Alavalapati, J.R.


Bannister, M.E.


Bannister, M.E.


Carter, D.R.


Davis, J.M.


Davis, J.M.


Davis, J.M.


Davis, J.M.

Duryea, M.L.

Jokela, E.J.


Jokela, E.J.


Jose, S.


Long, A.J.

Long, A.J.


Long, A.J.

Long, A.J.

Martin, T.A.


Martin, T.A.


Martin, T.A.


Martin, T.A.

Martin, T.A.


Monroe, M.C.


Monroe, M.C.


Monroe, M.C.


Identification and Assessment of Conservation Compatible Prac-
tices on Private Forestlands

Developing Agroforestry and Natural Resource Distance Education:
Meeting the Needs of the Changing Southeastern US

Tree-crop Diversity and Enterprise Development Through Agrofor-
estry: a Participatory Survey and Gis-based Analysis

Rapid Assessment of Timber Market Conditions and Trends in the
Southeastern United States

Allele Discovery for Genes Controlling Economic Traits in Loblolly
Pine

Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in
Poplar

Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in
Poplar

Genetic Screening of Resin Traits Linked to Spb Resistance

Turfgrass Research

Indisciplinary Program in Natural Resource Management:
Integrated Analysis of Forested Watersheds

Spatial Modeling of Nitrogen Emissions from Poultry Operation and
Their Influence on Pitch Canker in Pinus Elliottii

Restoration Ecoloyg of Longleaf Pine Ecosystems: Developing an
Interdisciplinary Distance Education Course

Fire Risk Ratings and Mitigation Options for Southern Landowners

Research Synthesis for a Hypertext Encyclopedia of Southern Fire
Science Information

Cooperative Wood Testing Program

Florida Forest Stewardship Program

Comparing Pine Families Using Large-scale Methods: Agenda 2020,
Part 3

Improving Nfdrs by Understanding Understory Dynamics of Fuel-
loading and Fuel Moisture in Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plai

SecondaryXylem Form and Function: Linkages amongWood Qual-
ity, Growth and Tree Water Relations:Year 2

Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability

Dynamics of Carbon,water,and Energy Fluxes for Pine Ecosysteems
in Florida: Recovery from Perturbation and Variation Acro

Community Partnerships Landscape Level Strategies to Reduce the
Risk and Loss from Catastrophic Fire

Developing Resource Managers Skills for Wildland Urban Interface
Challenges

Florida Plt Fire Education Program


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 99


Natl. Sci. for Sus. Forestry


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of California


U.S. Dept. of Energy


Battelle


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Fl. Turf-grass Association

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Agricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Fl. Forestry Association

Dept. of Agricul. & Consumer Ser.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Fl. Forestry Association

Univ. of Alabama


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Am. Forestry Foundation


99,249


241,928


115,841


15,000


863,363


239,876


199,494


65,843

42,680

99,814


24,898


164,936


51,000

40,000


20,000

63,878

40,000


40,000


46,000


245,900

216,733


117,000


161,000


5,000









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


Monroe, M.C. Expanding Our Research: Project Learning Tree Ee Centers

Nair, R.P. Training of Icfre (India) Forestry Professionals

Nair, R.P. Support to the First World Congress ofAgroforestry, 2004

Nair, R.P. Establishing a Center for Subtropical Agroforestry

Nair, R.P. Agroforestry: Sustainable Land Use Patterns in the Tropics

Rockwood, D.L. Eucalyptus Energywood Plantation 2000

Rockwood, D.L. A Cooperative Multicultural Scholars Program in Natural Resources
& Forestry Between Floridda A&M Univ. & Univ. of Florida

Rockwood, D.L. Sumter County Compost for Forest Crops

Rockwood, D.L. Florida Center for Solid and Hazard Waste Management- Sponsored
Research

Rockwood, D.L. Collaborative Research: Florida Interdisciplinary Center For Environ-
mental Sound Solutions Summer Program for High School

Smith, W.H. Cooperative Wood Testing Program

Stein, T.V. Wo # 37 Big Bend Scenic Byway Study

Stein, T.V. Developing a Plan for Jackson County Sustainable Tourism
Development

Stein, T.V. Five Year Florida National Scenic Trail User Assessment

White, T.L. Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability

White, T.L. Cooperative Genetics Research Program

White, T.L. Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability

White, T.L. Project Learning Tree

White, T.L. Amendment to Dacs/dof- IFAS/SFRC Memorandum of Understand-
ing: Urban Forestry Position

White, T.L. Cooperative Genetics Research Programs

White, T.L. Enhancing Resarch and Technology Transfer Efforts of the Southern
Center for Wildland-urban Interface Research and in

Workman, S.W. Mycorrhizal Validation and Characterization for Reforestation Ef-
forts in Western Nicaragua

Zarin, D.J. Experimental Manipulation of Nutrient and Moisture Availability in
Young Secondary Forests in Eastern Amazonia

Zarin, D.J. Caribbean Dry Forest Restoration

Zarin, D.J. Igert: Working Forest in the Tropics

Zarin, D.J. Impacts ofThroughfall Reduction on UnderstoryTrees in an
Amazonian Forest


Fl. Ag. in the Classroom Inc.

Indian Coun. of Forest Res. & Ed.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Common Purpose Institute

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Sumter County

Dept. of Environmental Protect.


National Science Foundation


Fl. Forestry Association

Dept. of Transportation

Jackson County


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Fl. Forestry Association

Fl. Forestry Association

Fl. Forestry Association

Fl. Forestry Association

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Fl. Forestry Association

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


AndrewW. Mellon Foundation


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

National Science Foundation

Woods Hole Research Center


100 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


13,500
56,000

10,000

3,913,984

15,000

2,400

60,000


25,000

8,000


10,913


32,000

179,550
13,000


30,000

269,000

105,000

226,000

10,000

10,000


99,000

10,000


15,000


470,000


50,000

641,607

11,610


















The University of Florida Herbarium is an integral unit in the
Department of Natural History of the Florida Museum of Natural
History. Personnel and students from various University of Florida
departments work and conduct research collaboratively in the
herbarium. There are 7 faculty and staff, 10 graduate students and 2
research associates housed in the herbarium. In addition 5 under-
graduate students are employed part-time as specimen preparators
and 6 volunteers actively work with our programs. An additional
11 faculty and staff and 6 graduate students from closely affiliated
departments regularly utilize herbarium facilities. Herbarium staff
manages the day-to-day operations in support of faculty, staff,
student, visitor and inter-institutional activities. The Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences provides financial support for these
operations.
Plants are essential resources, providing food, medicine, shelter,
oils, dyes and a myriad of other products. Herbarium programs, in
parallel with the overall function of the Florida Museum of Natural
History, strive to provide a structure for communicating about and
understanding the natural world. The herbarium's mission has four
areas of focus: plant collections acquisition and care, research based
on the collections, education, and public service. Our activities are
dedicated to understanding, preserving and interpreting biological
diversity.
COLLECTIONS ACQUISITION AND CARE: The herbarium collection
consists of nearly 500,000 specimens and is growing by around 3,000
specimens per year. Specimens are acquired through fieldwork,
exchange from other institutions, the plant identification service and
gifts. Each specimen requires individual preparation prior to being
added to the collection. Data from each specimen is entered into
the computerized catalog that is available on the web for search-
ing at: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/. High-resolution,
zoomable images of selected specimens are also provided. Inter-
institutional specimen loans are shipped and received to facilitate
plant monographic studies, revisionary studies and flora projects by
researchers at the University of Florida and other Florida, national
and international herbaria. 5665 specimens were processed in 141
loan transactions during the year 2004.


COLLECTIONS-BASED RESEARCH: The research emphasis of the
herbarium is plant systematics and floristics. Major research projects
in 2004 have been in molecular and morphological systematics of
Orchidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Melastomataceae, and
Polygalaceae. Researchers are working on the floras of Florida and
the New World tropics. The herbarium collection and library also
serve as a resource for research in the fields of agronomy, anthropol-
ogy, conservation, ecology, entomology, forestry, landscape archi-
tecture, plant p II.. .._-- environmental horticulture, soil science,
wildlife ecology and zoology.
EDUCATION: Class tours introduce students to the resources and
services available at the herbarium. Techniques for specimen preser-
vation and herbarium management are taught. The herbarium web
site provides information and links on specimens, collections, plant
collecting, herbarium practice and legal issues.
PUBLIC SERVICE: The principal public service activity of the her-
barium is provided through the Plant Identification and Information
Service. Researchers and the network of Cooperative Extension
Service agents submit requests for identification and information.
Proper plant identification is crucial for plant care, weed control, re-
search, and for an understanding of potential hazards (toxicity). The
staff of the herbarium assists in providing such types of information
as scientific names and authors for cultivated plants, weeds, and na-
tive species, their common names, range, specific locations, dates of
flowering, and possible human and animal toxicity.
Researchers, students and the general public also have access to
the herbarium's non-circulating reference library. The literature in
this collection contains descriptions, illustrations, photographs,
geographical ranges and keys for differentiating species of plants, as
well as information regarding Latin plant names (nomenclature),
plant collectors and economic botany. The herbarium staff provides
assistance to visitors in the use and understanding of the library sub-
ject matter. The herbarium library catalog is available through the
State University System of Florida library catalog and on the web at:
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/lib/.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 101


NrIVERSITYOF UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA HERBARIUM,
FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

IFAS 379 Dickenson Hall, PO Box 110575 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0575
FloridaAgriculturalExpeimentSataon 352-392-1721, Ext. 212 I http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS
The Floristic Inventory of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens was
initiated in early 2002 by the University of Florida Herbarium,
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida Librar-
ies Digital Library Center, Florida Center for Library Automation,
and Kanapaha Botanical Gardens. The goal of the project is to
document the native, naturalized, and cultivated vascular plants
growing at the gardens.
Kanapaha Botanical Gardens (KBG) is a 62-acre display facil-
ity, along the southern margin of Lake Kanapaha in Gainesville,
Florida, developed and maintained by the North Florida Botanical
Society, Inc., a private nonprofit organization. Don Goodman, Di-
rector of KBG, began development of the site in 1978, and it was
formally opened to the public in October 1986. The garden derives
its name from its proximity to Lake Kanapaha. The word Kanap-
aha is formed from the Timucua Indian words for "palmetto leaf"
and "house" and taken together refer to the Indians' thatched
dwellings formerly on the western shore of Lake Kanapaha.
Kanapaha Botanical Gardens is comprised of collections of
cultivated plants bordering calcareous woodlands, prairies and
a fluctuating lake. The garden includes an impressive display of
bamboos, herb garden, colorful hummingbird and butterfly gar-
dens, palm hammock, succulent plant rock garden and water gar-
den developed in collaboration with Gainesville Regional Utilities
to provide a public demonstration of reclaimed water use. Visitors
are particularly drawn to "signature plants" such as a premier
stand ofwong chuk bamboo, Asian snake arums and, during the
warmer months, the giant hybrid Victoria water lilies. Summer
is the most colorful season when the hummingbird and butterfly
gardens and vinery are at their peak. Azaleas, camellias, ornamen-
tal cherries and Japanese magnolias are also enjoyed in the spring
as harbingers of the Spring Garden Festival in late March.
S. Barry Davis, an Herbarium staffmember and coordinator for
this project, is preparing and identifying specimens of preserved,
pressed plants for each species found. Sets are being deposited at
the University of Florida Herbarium and at the Kanapaha Botani-
cal Gardens. Additional specimens will be prepared for distribu-
tion to experts when assistance or verification of identifications
is needed. All specimen data and images are accessible at the
University of Florida Herbarium web site.
A crew of staff and volunteers are working on aspects of this
project. Don Goodman and the KGB staff facilitate access to the
gardens and help locate particular plants. Kent Perkins, Herbar-
ium Collection Manager, manages specimen accessions and the
herbarium's web site. Kathy Davis, Pat Carlysle, Rebecca Bennett
and other herbarium technicians prepare specimens for the col-
lections. Kathy Davis and the Digital Library Center staff produce
digital images of the specimens. Marybeth Rinzler, KGB Facilities
Coordinator, is working on public outreach projects.
Representative specimens of each species found growing in the
garden are preserved in flat, dry sections. Specimens are placed
in folded newspapers between blotters and cardboards in a plant
press that is put on an electric drier with good airflow and low
humidity. Data on the plant's size, habit, distinguishing features,
habitat and locality, including GPS coordinates, are recorded for
labels. The collections are identified using available literature
and by comparison with collections in the University of Florida
Herbarium. Specimens are preserved by affixing them with an ac-
companying label to a sheet of heavy, archival paper.
The specimens collected serve as vouchers and may be exam-
ined by researchers to verify the identity of the plants named in


the study. Duplicate vouchers may be distributed as gifts for deter-
mination to experts, who are the most knowledgeable in the plant
group. Vouchers are important because changes in plant classifica-
tion result in shifts in species alignments, groupings and identifi-
cations. Voucher specimens help cross-reference these changes to
previous research and may be utilized in future research.
An inventory of the KBG flora will empower its staff to make
plant selections to enhance the diversity of the garden. The speci-
mens serve as an historic record of the species and varieties being
grown with dates of flowering and fruiting. Other useful informa-
tion such as plant health and survival can be determined through
the specimen data. Knowledge of the documented occurrence and
spread of invasive or weedy plants may help eradication efforts.
The public will benefit through improved garden signage with
correct plant names. For many people from school children to
senior citizens, a setting such as KBG is their first opportunity to
see plants in natural settings and at natural stages of life; other in-
stitutions display live plants only when they are flowering. Proper
identification at all stages of growth is only possible because
identification has been made and documented.
Web pages and databases developed in this project provide
plant scientific names, common names, searchable label data, and
high-resolution specimen images. These materials can be used for
scientific and educational purposes by a broad consumer cross-
section, including, homeowners, horticulturalists, ecologists, and
other persons interested in plant recognition and identification.
In the past three years over 1000 plants have been pressed, most
in duplicate and some in triplicate where expert identification is
needed. Six hundred twenty species and cultivars have been iden-
tified, mounted, imaged and are now available on the herbarium's
Web site.
The comprehensive species list will be presented in a checklist
of plant families, still under development. This checklist will be
co-authored by Dr. Walter S. Judd and published in a scientific
journal as the final report for the project.
WEB SITES: Floristic Inventory of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens:
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/kanap/ Kanapaha Botani-
cal Gardens: http://www.kanapaha.org/


S. Barry Davis


102 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


FACULTY & STAFF



FACU LTY

Norris H. Williams


Kent D. Perkins


S. Barry Davis


Robert L. Dresser


Marc S. Frank
Dana Griffin, III


Walter S. Judd



Gertrude Lindler



W. MarkWhitten


TITLE

Keeper of the Herbarium,
Curator
Collection Manager


Extension Botanist


Research Associate


Assistant Collection Manager
Emeritus Faculty, Dept. of
Botany
Professor Department of
Botany


Program Assistant



Research Scientist


SPECIALTY

Systematics and Evolution of Orchidaceae


Museum Collection Management and Comput-
erization; Endangered Species
Plant Identification and Information Service;
Asteraceae; Florida Flora
Systematics and Pollination Biology of
Orchidaceae
Horticulture and Horticultural Systematics
Bryophytes; Lichens; Plant Geography


Vascular Plant Systematics; Florida and West
Indian Floras; Generic Flora of the Southeast-
ern United States Project
Herbarium Accounting and Record Manage-
ment; Library Acquisitions and Cataloguing
and Management
Systematics and Pollination Biology of
Orchidaceae


RESEARCH PROJECT

PROJECT NO. AUTHOR TITLE
HRB-04170 Williams, Norris H., Perkins, Kent Computerization and Digitization of the University of Florida Herbarium

SELECTED PROJECTS BY FACULTY, STAFF AND ASSOCIATED RESEARCHERS:
Brown, Paul Martin Wild Orchids of North America, North of Mexico
Davis, S. Barry, Perkins Kent D. Floristic Inventory of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
Dresser, Robert L. Flora Mesoamericana: Orchidaceae Family Treatment
Huck, Robin B. Taxonomic Revision of Dicerandra linearifolia (Lamiaceae)
Judd,WalterS. Flora ofthe Greater Antilles: Ericaceae and Melastomataceae Family Treatments; Generic
Flora of the Southeastern United States: Many Family Treatments; Melastomataceae Family
Generic Level Systematics; A Revision of Miconia Sect. Chaenopleura (Melastomataceae) in
the West Indies
Whitten, W. Mark Molecular and Morphological Systematics of Stanhopeinae (Orchidaceae)
Williams, Norris H. Molecular and Morphological Systematics of the Subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae);
Revision of Tolumnia (Orchidaceae)


SELECTED PROJECTS BY GRADUATE STUDENTS:
Abbott, J. Richard



Blanco, Mario


Carlsward, Barbara
Corogin, Paul
Edwards, Christine

Endara, Lorena


Flora of Devil's Hammock, Levy County, Florida; Flora of Snipe Island, Taylor County, Florida;
ATaxonomic Revision of Badiera (Polygalaceae) in Conjunction with a Phylogenetic Analysis
of the Polygaleae (Polygalaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
A Monograph of the Genus Lockhartia (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae), Ph.D. Dissertation; Studies
of Central and Southern American Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae)
Molecular Systematics of Leafless Vandeae (Orchidaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
Flora of Tiger Creek Preserve, Polk County, Florida, M.S. Thesis
The Phylogenetics of a Clade of Southeastern U.S. Endemics in the Mentheae (Lamiaceae),
Ph.D. Dissertation
Systematics of the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae), Ph.D. Disseration


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 103









UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


RESEARCH PROJECTS

AUTHOR

Gulledge, Kimberely


Heaney, Michael
lonta, Gretchen


Jacono, Colette
Neubig, Kurt
Notis, Christine
Penneys, Darin


Porter-Utley, Kristen


PUBLICATIONS



Abbott, J.R. and B.S. Carlsward. 2004. Noteworthy Collections: Florida. Castanea
69(4): 324-327.
Brown, P.M. 2004. Understanding Platanthera chapmanii (Orchidaceae), its
Origins and Hybrids. Sida 21(2): 853-859.
Carlsward, B.S. 2004. Molecular Systematics and Anatomy of Vandeae
(Orchidaceae): The Evolution of Monopodial Leaflessness. Ph.D. Disseration.
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. xvii, 301 p.
Darst, M. and A.K. Gholson. 2004. Noteworthy Collections: Florida. Castanea.
69(4):328.
Dressier, R.L. 2004. The Sobralia undatocarinata Complex: Where Have They
Been Hiding? Orchids: The Magazine of the American Orchid Society.
73(10):774-778.
Dressier, R.L. 2004. Validation of Four Malaxis Species (Orchidaceae).
Lankesteriana. 4(1):97.
Dressier, R.L. and S. Dalstrim. 2004. A Synopsis of Cischweinfia (Orchidaceae).
Selbyana. 25(1):1 -10.
Dressier, R.L., W.M. Whitten and N.H. Williams. 2004. Phylogenetic
Relationships of Scaphyglottis and Related Genera (Laeliinae: Orchidaceae) Based
on nrDNA ITS Sequence Data. Brittonia. 56(1):58-66.
Guerrero, A., W.S. Judd and A.B. Morris. 2004. A New Species of Illicium
Subsection Parviflora (Illiciaceae) from the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Brittonia.
56(4):346-352.
Judd, W.S. and D.S. Penneys. 2004. Taxonomic Studies in the Miconieae
(Melastomataceae). VIII. A Revision of the Species of the Miconia desportesii
Complex on Hispaniola. Rhodora. 106(926):124-147.


TITLE

The Systematics, Biogeography, and Population Structure of the Genus Lechea (Cistaceae),
Ph.D. Dissertation
Anatomy and Systematics of Polystachya (Orchidaceae)
Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Rhexia (Melastomataceae); Phylogeny and Generic
Circumscription of the Subfamily Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
Introduced Marsilea Species in the Southern United States
Molecular Systematics of Dichaea (Orchidaceae), M.S. Thesis
Phylogeny of the Subfamily Kielmeyeroideae (Clusiaceae), M.S. Thesis
Morphological and Molecular Cladisitic Analysis of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae), Ph.D.
Dissertation
Taxonomic Revision of Passiflora section Cieca (Passifloraceae), Ph.D. Dissertation


Judd, W.S. and R.G. Olmstead. 2004. A Survey of Tricolpate (eudicot)
Phylogenetic Relationships. American Journal of Botany. 91:1627-1644.
Judd, W.S., D.S. Penneys, and J.D. Skean, Jr. 2004. Rediscovery of Ossaea
alloeotricha, an Endemic of the High-elevation Massif de la Hotte, Haiti, and its
Transfer to Miconia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae). Brittonia. 56(2):159-165.
Kabat, C.A., S.M. Kabat, and W.S. Judd. 2004. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora
of Morningside Nature Center, Alachua County, Florida. Rhodora.
106(927):226-252.
Michelangeli, FA., D.S. Penneys, J. Giza, D. Soltis, M.H. Hils & J.D. Skean, Jr.
2004. A Preliminary Phylogeny of the Tribe Miconieae (Melastomataceae) Based
on nrITS Sequence Sata and its Implications on Inflorescence Position. Taxon.
53(2):279-290.
Notis, C. 2004. Phylogeny and Character Evolution of Kielmeyeroideae
(Clusiaceae) Based on Molecular and Morphological Data. M.S. Thesis, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL. xi, 116 p.
Penneys, D.S. and W.S. Judd. 2004. Two New Species of Charianthus
(Melastomataceae: Miconieae) from the Lesser Antilles. Brittonia. 56(2):151-158.
Stern, W.L., W.S. Judd and B.S. Carlsward. 2004. Systematic and Comparative
Anatomy of Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae), Sans Oncidiinae. Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society. 144:251-274.
Whitten, W.M. 2004. Review of Native Ecuadorian Orchids. Volume IV by
Calaway H. Dodson. Orchids: The Magazine of the American Orchid Society.
73(2):142.
Zomlefer, W.B., D.E. Giannasi, W.S. Judd, L.M. Kruse and K.A. Bettinger.
2004. A Floristic Survey of Fort Matanzas National Monument, St. Johns County,
Florida. Sida. 21(2):1081-1106.


104 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS

FACULTY TITLE

Soltis, D.E., Judd, AToL: Collaborative Research: Resolving the Trunk ofthe Angio-
W.S., Manchester, sperm Tree and Twelve of its Thorniest Branches
S.R., Soltis, P.S.
Williams, N.H., General Support for Orchid Research
Dresser, R.L.
Williams, N.H. Molecular and Morphological Systematics of theSubtribe Onci-
diinae (Orchidaceae)
Williams, N.H. Systematics of Maxillariinae: Generic Delimitation, Pollinator
Rewards and Pollination.
Williams, N.H. What is Oncidium? Phy[ogenetics as a Prelude to a Revised Clas-
sification of Oncidium and Related Genera


SOURCE OF FUNDS

National Science Foundation



South Florida Orchid Society

National Science Foundation

National Science Foundation

American Orchid Society Fund


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 105


AMOUNT

$403,433


$1,800

$25,000

$300,000

$10,802


















The Horticultural Sciences Department, a unit of the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, has statewide
responsibilities for undergraduate and graduate instruction and
for Cooperative Extension activities. Research responsibilities are
shared with faculty assigned to several Agricultural Research and
Education Centers and Agricultural Research Centers. Statewide
research is coordinated, and overall research planning is the respon-
sibility of the Chair of the Horticultural Sciences Department. Co-
operative research with faculty from other on- and off-campus units
is essential to serve the complex Florida fruit and vegetable industry
and to develop an extensive fruit and vegetable crops information
base.
Any organization whose primary interest is in fruit and/or
vegetable crops can exist only as a part of agriculture the only
fundamental or primary occupation. Without plant life there could
be no agriculture, and the systematic production and utilization of a
major group of plants a keystone of agriculture. The purpose of the
Horticultural Sciences Department is to develop, evaluate, assemble,
maintain, and disseminate the knowledge necessary to ensure that
this keystone remains strong, dynamic, relevant and intact. The size
and diversity of the domestic industry and the world-wide impor-
tance of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition and economic
development emphasize the need for consolidation of resources to
accomplish this purpose into a single department. The Horticultural
Sciences Department assumes this role of coordinating the search
for and application of special knowledge from many disciplines.
GOALS: Goals of the department must be consistent with the
basic role of agriculture, reflect the needs of a changing world
environment, and represent an enduring quality. The goals of the
Horticultural Sciences Department are:
1. TEACHING To develop undergraduate students with a scientific
understanding of fruit and vegetable production, handling,


storage and marketing. To develop graduate students who have
the basic scientific knowledge to teach effectively, do .!,uoi i-, 1
research and to consult with the industry. To make a continu-
ous concerted effort to attract and maintain qualified teachers
for all of the undergraduate and graduate (Horticultural Sci-
ences) programs and to take positive measures to recruit and
train the best possible students at both levels for their future
careers in industry, business, research, or extension.
2. RESEARCH To solve immediate technical problems facing the
fruit and vegetable industries. To develop new information,
materials and techniques to increase the efficiency of produc-
tion, harvest and postharvest handling. To develop basic infor-
mation on the genetics, growth, development and senescence
of these crops through a continuous reservoir of research in
breeding and genetics, biotechnology and molecular biology,
biochemistry, and '1- ..-i-1.. -l .i is at the forefront of knowl-
edge applicable immediately or in the future.
3. EXTENSION To develop and disseminate recommendations to
the commercial fruit and vegetable industry based on research
results. To develop and disseminate recommendations to home
gardeners and youth organizations.
4. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS Through the Office of Inter-
national Programs, to assist in disseminating knowledge of
technology to developing countries, aiding in solving problems
in their industries, and teaching their students.
The Horticultural Sciences Department in Gainesville has devel-
oped various centers of excellence in several research disciplines that
include molecular and cellular biology, breeding and genetics, physi-
ology, postharvest physiology, and culture and management. Details
of programs under each of these areas, as well as Faculty involved
are available on our Web site at http://www.hos.ufl.edu/.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 107


# UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES
IFAS 1251 Fifield Hall, PO Box 110690 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0690
Florida culturalExper ti 352-392-1928 I http://www.hos.ufl.edu


2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


IDENTIFICATION OF GENES CONTROLLING TOMATO FLAVOR

Research efforts initiated in the laboratory of Harry Klee in
the Horticultural Sciences Department, IFAS/UF, are helping to
develop tools that may lead to a better tasting tomato. Using the
modern molecular techniques commonly referred to as genomics
and metabolomics, the first genes involved in synthesis of com-
pounds that contribute to overall flavor have been identified.
Generally, most consumers feel that the flavor of fresh super-
market tomatoes does not approach that of home-grown variet-
ies. In recent years, many of the breeding companies have begun
to appreciate that flavor is an important trait and varieties with
better flavor may give them a marketing edge. The problem is that
"flavor" is a highly complex trait regulated by literally hundreds
of genes. Thus, one does not simply go out and identify a tomato
with great taste. Tomato flavor consists of a complex interaction
between sugars, acids and a set of 20 or more volatile compounds.
While breeders have paid attention to the sugars and acids, the
volatile compounds have been largely ignored. Yet these are the
molecules that give tomato its distinct flavor and aroma. Despite
their recognized importance, very little is known about their syn-
thesis and the genes that regulate their accumulation.
The Klee lab initiated the molecular aspects of this project
as part of a collaboration with Jay Scott, the tomato breeder in
Horticultural Sciences, and Elizabeth Baldwin a USDA re-
searcher in Winter Haven. This early work was made possible by
an endowment from the Dickman family, noted for their long
involvement in the Florida tomato industry. More recently the
project has expanded into a major collaborative effort to cata-
logue the genes involved in synthesis and accumulation of the
twenty most important volatiles. The approaches have involved
the latest molecular biology techniques as well as more traditional
biochemical techniques. The Klee lab has established a collabora-
tion with Jim Giovannoni in the USDA/ARS laboratory at Cornell
University to catalogue expression of over 10,000 genes expressed
during tomato fruit ripening. Together, the UF and USDA groups
are cataloguing the patterns of gene expression, correlating these
patterns with the accumulation of the various volatile compounds
and building computer databases to uncover the genes regulating
their synthesis. Already, 14 genetic loci affecting various volatile
compounds have been identified and the first two genes in path-
ways for synthesis of volatiles have been isolated.
In collaboration with Don McCarty, also in Horticultural Sci-
ences, the Klee lab has also been using more directed approaches
to gene identification. These two groups have identified a family
of genes that break down the carotenoid compounds lycopene and
beta-carotene to release several important volatiles. These carot-
enoid-derived volatiles are very important contributors to flavor
having fruity/floral properties (Simkin et al. The tomato CCD1
(CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXGENASE 1)) genes contribute
to the formation of the flavor volatiles p-ionone, pseudoionone
and geranylacetone. Plant J. 40: 882-892). In the course of char-
acterizing these genes, they also uncovered evidence for a new


class of carotenoid-derived plant hormones. The as yet unidenti-
fied hormone controls the ability of the plant to make branches.
This exciting and unexpected result points the way toward future
manipulation of plant architecture (Booker et al., MAX3/CCD7 is
a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase required for synthesis of a novel
plant signaling molecule. Current Biol. 14: 1232-1238)
Work being conducted in parallel with David Clark in En-
vironmental Horticulture indicates that many of these same
flavor volatiles are also important constituents of aroma in many
ornamental species such as petunia and rose (Simkin et al. Circa-
dian regulation of the PhCCD1 carotenoid dioxygenase controls
emission of p-ionone, a fragrance volatile of petunia flowers. Plant
Physiol. 136: 3504-3514). For example, the major constituent of
rose flavor is a compound called 2-phenylethanol. In selecting
for larger, more colorful flowers over the years, the natural rose
scent has been lost from many of the commercial varieties. With
the isolation of the genes encoding 2-phenylethanol synthesis, it
should now be possible via biotechnology to replace the lost scent,
giving added value to the product.
It is clear that there is strong support for this research in both
the public and private sector. To understand the complexities
of tomato flavor has required a multilab interdisciplinary effort.
The work has been funded by a grant from the National Science
Foundation Plant Genome program as well as several of the major
tomato seed companies. In the near future, it is hoped that this
work will assist breeders by providing tools for them to select
higher levels of the desirable volatile compounds and lower levels
of the undesirable volatiles. In the longer term, as the many genes
S..,iii..hlli, ilihm synthesis are isolated, it should be possible to
create transgenic designer fruits that have improved flavor that
will hold up to postharvest storage and shipping as well as flowers
with improved scent. For example, it should be possible to pro-
duce beautiful, long-lived roses that actually smell the way a rose
should smell. Many of the chemicals targeted by this program also
contribute to the flavor of other fruits and vegetables. Thus, it can
be expected that this work will provide a foundation for quality
improvement in many crops important for Florida agriculture.


108 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES


FACULTY & STAFF



FACU LTY

Daniel J. Cantliffe

MarkJ. Bassett

Jeffrey K. Brecht

JoseX. Chaparro

Carlene A. Chase

Christine D. Chase

Kenneth C. Cline

Rebecca L. Darnell

Frederick S. Davies

Thomas R. Dreschel

James J. Ferguson

Robert J. Fer[


Kevin M. Folta

Larkin C. Hannah

Andrew D. Hanson

Donald J. Huber

Chad M. Hutchinson

Eileeen A. Kabella

HarryJ. Klee

Karen E. Koch

Paul M. Lyrene

Donald R. McCarty

Gloria A. Moore

Annalisa Paul

Balasubramani Rathinasabapathi

Sanja Roje

Steven A. Sargent

Paul C. Se[nke

Andrew M. Settles

Eric H. Simmone

William M. Stall

Denise M. Tieman

Carlos E. Vallejos

Jeffrey G. Williamson


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof. and Assoc. Chair

Prof.

Assoc. Scientist

Prof.

Prof. and Asst. Program
Director

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

EminentScholar

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

EminentScholar

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. In

Asst. Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.

Asst. In

Assistant Professor

Asst. Prof.

Prof. and Asst. Chair

Asst. In

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.


SPECIALTY

Seed Physiology

Common bean genetics/snap bean breeding

Postharvest Physiology

Breeding and Genetics

Weed Physiology

Molecular Biology

Cell Biology, Biochemistry

Physiology and Biochemistry

Environmental Physiology of Citrus

Molecular Biology

Commercial Citrus Production

Biological Sciences


Genetics, Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology of Maize

Metabolic Engineering

Fruit Ripening

Alternative Vegetable Crops

Cucurbit Breeding and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Blueberry Breeding

Molecular Genetics

Citrus Genetics

Biological Sciences

Plant Physiology

Metabolic Engineering

Postharvest Technology

Biological Sciences

Plant Molecular Biology

Vegetable Production

Weed Science

Molecular Biology

Genetics, Molecular Biology & Physiology

Deciduous Fruit Industry


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 109


TEACHING

20

10

10

30

20

20

10

50

30

0

10

20


20

20

10

30

0

30

20

20

20

10

10

0

50

0

10

0

20

0

5

0

10


RESEARCH

80

90

60

70

80

80

90

50

70

100

20

80


80

80

90

70

60

70

80

80

80

90

90

100

50

100

20

100

80

20

20

100

90

15


EXTENSION

0

0

30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

70

0


0

0

0

0

40

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

70

0

0

80

75

0

0

80









HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.


AUTHOR


HOS-03793 Martsolf, J.D.
HOS-03795 Chase, C.D.
HOS-03822 Bassett, M.J.
HOS-03832 Locascio, S.J., Simonne, E.H.


HOS-03846 Brecht, J.K., Huber, D.J., Sargent, S.A.
HOS-03862 Cline, K.C.
HOS-03865 Hutchinson, C.M.


HOS-03880 Hannah, L.C.
HOS-03907 Ferl, R. J., Sehnke, P.C.
HOS-03920 Lyrene, P. M., Sherman, W.B.
HOS-03939 Chase, C.A., Rathinasabapathi, B., Stall, W.M.


HOS-03940 Ferl, R.J., Paul, A.L.
HOS-03988 McCarty, D.R., Koch, K.E., Hannah, L.C.,
Settles, A.M.
HOS-03996 Sherman, W.B., Lyrene, P.M.
HOS-04003-D Darnell, R.L., Williamson, J.G., Brunner, B.B.,
Taylor, T.G.
HOS-04003-S Sargent, S.A., Brecht, J.K., Huber, D.J.,
Bartz, J.A., Sims, C.A.
HOS-04013 Ferguson, J.J., McSorley, R.T., Scholberg, J.,
Buhr, K.T.
HOS-04024 Hanson, A.D.
HOS-04031 Rathinsabapathi, B.
HOS-04080 Cantliffe, D.J., Osborne, L.S.


HOS-04080 Vallejos, C.E., Jones, J.B., Stall, R.E.


HOS-04084 Simonne, E.H.
HOS-04108 Hutchinson, C.M.


HOS-04109 Klee, H.J.
HOS-04133-H Huber, D.J., Bartz, J.A.
HOS-04133-K Klee, H.J., Cantliffe, D.J., Sargent, S.A.
HOS-04139 Moore, G.A.
HOS-04160 Davies, F.S., Schaffer, B.A., Crane, J.H.,
Munoz-Carpena, R., Li,Y.C.
HOS-04166 Folta, K.M.
HOS-04174 Koch, K.E.
HOS-04186 Folta, K.M
HOS-04243 Cantliffe, D.J.


TITLE

Development and Use of Crop Models for Selected Florida Crops
Nuclear Genes Regulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function in a Maize Model System
Development of Snap Bean Varieties and Genetic Investigations in Common Bean
Microirrigation Technologies for Protection of Natural Resources of Natural Resources and
Optimum Production
Postharvest Quality and Safety in Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits
Targeting and Assembly of Thylakoid Membrane Proteins
ImprovingSoil[ and Nutrient Management Practices in Florida to Minimize Environmental
Impacts
Intron Enhanced Gene Expression in Maize
The Arabidopsis GF 14/14 3-3 Family: Structure and Function
Breeding, Genetics, and Ecology of Florida Blueberries
ImprovingWeed Management in Horticultural Crops: Biological, Physiological, and
Biochemical Approaches.
Transgenic Plant Biomonitors of Spaceflight Exposure
Functional Genomics of Endosperm Development in Maize


Deciduous and Subtropical Fruit Crops Cultivar Development
Environmentally Sound Off-season Production of Raspberry in the Tropics and Subtropics


Extending Postharvest Quality of Specialty Tomatoes in the Caribbean Region


Integrative Use of Perennial Peanut for Cost-effective Weed Control in Organic Citrus


Folate Synthesis, Catabolism, and Engineering in Plants
Development of Plant Pathogens as Bioherbicides for Weed Control
Enhanced Product Quality and Productivity of Vegetables Through Sustainable Protected
Agriculture Utilizing Reduced Pesticides
Identification, Characterization, and Molecular Tagging ofa Gene for Resistance toA[[
Tomato Races ofXanthomonas
Vegetable Variety Evaluation in Florida
Development of New Potato Clones for Improved Pest Resistance, Marketabilitym and
Sustainability in the Eastern United States
Functional GenomicAnalysis of Fruit Flavor and Nutrition
Shelf Life Extension of Intact and Fresh Cut Tropical Fruit with 1-meth[cyclopropene
Galia Melon: A New High QualityShipping Melon for Florida Producers
Resistance to Citrus Tristeza Virus via Gene Silencing and Plant Resistance Genes
Environmental Physiology and Management of Subtropical and Tropical Fruit Crops in Florida


Characterization of Light-Sensing Pathways in Plants
Regulation of Photosynthetic Processes
Development of Molecular Tools for Improvement of Octoploid Strawberry
Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Seed Quality and Performance


110 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Basset, G., E. Quinlivan, S. Ravanel, F. Rebeille, B. Nichols, K. Shinozaki,
M. Seki, L. Adams-Phillips, J. Giovannoni, J. Gregory III and A. Hanson.
2004. Folate Synthesis in Plants: the P-Aminobenzoate Branch is Initiated by a
Bifunctional PabA-PabB Protein that is Targeted to Plastids. Annual Review of
Nutrition. 101:1496-1501.
Basset, G., S. Ravanel, E. Quinlivan, R. White, J. Giovannoni, F. Rebeille, B.
Nichols, K. Shinozaki, M. Seki, J. Gregory III and A. Hanson. 2004. Folate
Synthesis in Plants: The Last Step of the P-aminobenzoate Branch is Catalyzed by a
Plastidial Aminodeoxychorismate Lyase. Plant J. 40:453-461.
Booker, J., M. Auldridge, S. Wills, D. McCarty, H. Klee and 0. Leyser. 2004.
MAX3/CCD7 is a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Required for Synthesis of a
Novel Plant Signaling Molecule. Current Biology. 14:1232-1238.
Brecht, J., M. Ritenour and S. Sargent. 2004. Advances in Temperature
Monitoring Management. American Vegetable Grower. August:36.
Brecht, J., M. Saltveit, S. Talcott, K. Schneider and K. Felkey. 2004. Fresh Cut
Vegetables and Fruits. Fresh Cut Vegetables and Fruits. 30:185-251.
Chase, C. and S. Gabay-Laughnan. 2004. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Fertility
Restoration by Nuclear Genes. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant
Organelles. Springer, pp. 593-622
Clark, D., C. Dervinis, J. Barrett, H. Klee and J. Jones. 2004. Drought Induced
Leaf Senescence and Horticultural Performance of Transgenic P-SAG12-IPT
Petunias. J Am Soc Hort Sci. 129:93-99.
Clevenger, D., J. Barrett, H. Klee and D. Clark. 2004. Factors Affecting Seed
Poduction in Transgenic Ethylene-Insensitive Petunias. J Am Soc Hort Sci.
129:401-406.
Coaker, G., T. Meulia, E. Kabelka, A. Jones and D. Francis. 2004. A QTL
Controlling Stem Morphology and Vascular Development in Lycopersicon
Esculentum x L hirsutum (Solanaceae) Crosses is Located on Chromosome 2.
89(12):1859-1866.
Daniell, H. and C. Chase. 2004. Introduction to the Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology of Plant Organelles. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant
Organelles. Springer.
Daniell, H. and C. Chase. 2004. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant
Organelles. Springer.
Darnell, R., J. Williamson and H. Alvarado. 2004. Off season Raspberry
Production in a Subtropical Climate. Acta Hort. 659:67-71.
Duval, J., J. Price, G. Hochmuth, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S. Olson, T. Taylor,
S. Smith and E. Simonne. 2004. Strawberry Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
Emond, J. and J. Brecht. 2004. Development of Quality Curves for Highbush
Blueberries as a Function of the Storage Temperature. Food Products Press.
Ergun, M. and D. Huber. 2004. Suppression of Ethylene Perception Extends Shelf
life and Quality of'Sunrise Solo' Papaya Fruit at Both Pre-ripe and Ripe Stages of
Development. 69:184-192.
Ezz, T., M. Ritenour and J. Brecht. 2004. Hot Water and Elevated C02 Effects on
Proline and Other Compositional Changes in Relation to Post-harvest Chilling
Injury of'Marsh Grapefruit. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129(4):576-582.
Ferguson, J. and M. Gal. 2004. A Method to Screen Weed-Suppressing
Allelochemicals in Florida Biomass. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural
Society.
Francis, D., E. Kabelka, J. Bell and B. Franchino. 2004. Resistance to Bacterial
Canker of Tomato in Lycopersicon hirsutum LA407 and Inbred Backcross Progeny
Derived from Crosses to Cultivated Tomato (L. esculentum). 85:1171-1176.
Gabay-Laughnan, S., C. Chase, V. Ortega and L. Zhao. 2004. Molecular-Genetic
Characterization of CMS-S Restorer-of Fertility Alleles Identified in Mexican
Maize and Teosinte. Genetics. 166:959-970.
Gilreath, P. and W. Stall. 2004. Proceedings Florida Tomato Institute. Citrus and
Vegetable Magazine and Vance Publishers.
Goyer, A., T. Johnson, L. Olsen, E. Collakova, Y. Shachar-Hill, D. Rhodes and
A. Hanson. 2004. Characterization and Metabolic Function of a Peroxisomal
Sarcosine and Pipecolate Oxidase from Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 279:16947-
16953.
Goyer, A., V. Illarionova, S. Roje, M. Fischer, A. Bacher and A. Hanson. 2004.
Folate Biosynthesis in Higher Plants: cDNA Cloning, Heterologous Expression,
and Characterization of Dihydroneopterin Aldolases. Plant Physiol. 135:103-111.


Grumet, R., E. Kabelka, S. McQueen, T. Wai and R. Humphrey. 2004.
Characterization of Sources of Resistance to the Watermelon Strain of Papaya
Ringspot Virus in Cucumber: Allelism and Co-segregation with Other Potyvirus
Resistances. 101:463-472.
Haman, D. and P. Lyrene. 2004. Blueberry Response to Irrigation and Ground
Cover. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D. and P. Lyrene. 2004. Use of Tensiometers for Blueberry Irrigation
Scheduling. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Haman, D., P. Lyrene and R. Pritchard. 2004. Response of Young Blueberry
Plants to Irrigation in Florida. HortScience. 32(7):1194-1196.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Evapotranspiration and Crop
Coefficients for Young Blueberries in Florida. Applied Engineering in Agriculture.
13(2):209-216.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Response of Young Blueberry
Plants to Microirrigation in Florida. Microirrigation for a Changing World:
Conserving Resources/Preserving the Environment. Proceedings of the Fifth
International Microirrigation Congress. ASAE.
Haman, D., R. Pritchard and P. Lyrene. 2004. Water Use and Irrigation
Scheduling of Young Blueberries. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Hochmuth, G., D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall and T. Kucharek. 2004.
Beet Production in Florida. Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida. Vance
Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS. pp. 115-116.
Hochmuth, G., D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S. Webb.
2004. Celery Production in Florida. Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida.
Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
Hochmuth, R., A. Weiss, E. Simonne and W. Laughlin. 2004. Using a Polymer
Coating on Plastic Mulch to Reduce Permeability to Soil Fumigant. North Florida
REC Suwannee Valley: http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, M. Dukes and D. Studstill. 2004.
Field Testing of Possible Nitrogen Fertilizer Best Management Practices for
Watermelon Grown on Sandy Soils.
Hochmuth, R., J. Fletcher, M. Sweat, D. Dinkins, A. Tyree, C. Vann, W. Thomas,
D. Goode, Jr, C. Starling, J. Breman, J. Jones, E. Simonne and G. Hochmuth.
2004. Suwannee Valley Water and Nutrient Mangement Demonstrations.
Hochmuth, R., L. Davis, W. Laughlin, E. Simonne and R. Sprenkel. 2004.
Developing a Production System for Growing Organic Herbs Using Soilless
Culture in a Greenhouse. North Florida REC Suwannee Valley:
http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., L. Davis, W. Laughlin, E. Simonne, S. Sargent and A. Berry.
2004. Evaluation of Twelve Beit-alpha Cucumber Varieties and Two Growing
Systems. Acta Hort. 659:461-466.
Hochmuth, R., L. Davis, W. Laughlin, E. Simonne, S. Sargent and A. Berry.
2004. Evaluation of Twelve Greenhouse Beit-Alpha Cucumber Varieties and Two
Growing Systems During 2002-2003 Winter Season in Florida. North Florida REC
- Suwannee Valley: http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., L. Davis, W. Laughlin, S. Sargent, A. Berry and E. Simonne.
2004. The Effect of Abcissic Acid (VBC-30025) on the Acceleration of Ripening of
Bell Pepper. North Florida REC Suwannee Valley: http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., L. Davis, W. Laughlin, S. Sargent, A. Berry and E. Simonne.
2004. The Effect of Abcissic Acid on the Acceleration of Ripening of Bell Pepper.
North Florida REC Suwannee Valley: North Florida REC Suwannee Valley.
Hochmuth, R., W. Laughlin and E. Simonne. 2004. Poblano Pepper Cultivar
Evaluation for North Florida in the Spring of 2004. North Florida REC Suwannee
Valley: http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., W. Laughlin and E. Simonne. 2004. The Effect of Bokashi (a
fermented microbial amendment) on the Production and Quality of Cucumber.
North Florida REC Suwannee Valley: http://nfrec.ifas.ufl.edu.
Hochmuth, R., W. Laughlin, S. Kerr, L. Davis, E. Simonne, W. Stall, A. Weiss,
J. Nance and J. Mirusso. 2004. Effect of Various Soil Fumigant, Mulch Type,
and Herbicide Treatments on Pepper Plant Stand and Control of Nutsedge and
Nematodes. North Florida REC Suwannee Valley: http://nfrec-sv.ifas.ufl.edu.
Huber, D., J. Jeong and M. Ritenour. 2004. The Power of 1: Use of 1-
Methylcyclopropene (1 -MCP) may Enhance Shelf Life and Quality Retention for
Tomatoes and Avocadoes. Florida Grower. April:14.
Hutchinson, C., D. Gergela and J. White. 2004. Pumpkin Large Jack-o-Lantern
Variety Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003.
S-396:41.
Hutchinson, C., D. Gergela and J. White. 2004. Pumpkin Miniature Variety Trial
Results Apopka. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 11 1









PUBLICATIONS



Hutchinson, C., D. Gergela and J. White. 2004. Pumpkin Small-Sized Variety
Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-
396:37.
Hutchinson, C., D. Gergela and J. White. 2004. Pumpkins Medium Jack-o-
Lantern Variety Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida
for 2003. S-396:38.
Hutchinson, C., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Potato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 259-268.
Hutchinson, C., R. Hochmuth and K. Haynes. 2004. Yield of Potatoes Grown in a
Soilless Perlite Production System.
Jeong, J. and D. Huber. 2004. Suppression of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)
Fruit Softening, and Changes Incell Wall Matrix Polysaccharides and Enzyme
Activities: Differential Responses to 1-MCP and Delayed Ethylene Application.
129:752-759.
Jeong, J., J. Brecht, D. Huber and S. Sargent. 2004. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-
MCP) for Extending Shelf-life and Maintaining Quality of Fresh-cut Tomato.
39:1359-1362.
Jovicich, E., D. Cantliffe and P. Stoffella. 2004. Fruit Yield and Quality of
Greenhouse Grown Bell Pepper as Influenced by Density, Container, and Trellis
System. HortTechnology. 14:507-513.
Jovicich, E., D. Cantliffe, L. Osborne and P. Stoffella. 2004. Mite Population and
Damage Caused by Broad Mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) Infesting
Bell Pepper (Capsicum anmuum L.) at Different Seedling Developmental Stages.
Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Protected Culture in a
Mid-Winter Climate, International Society for Horticulture Science, pp. 339-344.
Kabelka, E. and R. Grumet. 2004. Inheritance of Resistance to the Moroccan
Watermelon Mosaid Virus in the Cucumber Line TMG-1 and Cosegregation with
Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance. 95:237-242.
Kabelka, E., B. Diers, W. Fehr, A. LeRoy, I. Baianu, T. You, D. Neece and
R. Nelson. 2004. Putative Alleles for Increased Yield from Soybean Plant
Introductions. Putative Alleles for Increased Yield from Soybean Plant
Introductions. 44:784-791.
Kabelka, E., B. Franchino and D. Francis. 2004. Two Loci from Lycopersicon
hirsutum LA407 Confer Resistance to Strains of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp.
Michiganensis. 92(5):504-510.
Kabelka, E., W. Yang and D. Francis. 2004. Improved Tomato Fruit Color within
an Inbred Backcross Line Derived from Lycopersicon esculentum and L. Hirsutum
Involves the Interaction of Loci. 129(2):250-257.
Kabelka, E., Z. Ullah and R. Grumet. 2004. Multiple Alleles for Zucchini Yellow
Mosaic Virus Resistance at the Zym Locus in Cucumber. 95:997-1004.
Karakurt, Y. and D. Huber. 2004. Ethylene -induced Gene Expression, Enzyme
Activities, and Water Soaking in Immature and Ripe Watermelon (Citrullus
lanatus) Fruit. Ethylene-induced Gene Expression, Enzyme Activities, and Water
Soaking in Immature and Ripe Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Fruit. 161:381-388.
Karrupiah, K., M. Ritenour, M. Burton, J. Brecht and T. McCollum. 2004.
Short-duration, Hot Water Treatment for the Control of Chilling Injury and Post-
harvest Decay in Citrus. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Society, pp. 117.
Klaus, S., A. Wegkamp, W. Sybesma, J. Hugenholtz, J. Gregory III and A.
Hanson. 2004. A Nudix Enzyme Removes Pyrophosphate from Dihydroneopterin
Triphosphate in the Folate Synthesis Pathway of Bacteria and Plants. J Biol Chem.
Klee, H. 2004. Ethylene Signal Transduction. Moving Beyond Arabidopsis. Plant
Physiol. 135:660-667.
Klee, H. and D. Clark. 2004. Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Flowers.
Plant hHormones: Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction, Action!. Kluwer Academic
Publishers: Dordrecht: The Netherlands. pp. 369-390.
Klee, H. and P. Davies. 2004. Plant Hormones: Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction,
Action!. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht: The Netherlands.
Krewer, G., D. Nesmith, J. Williamson, B. Maust and B. Mullinix. 2004.
Ethephon for Bloom Delay of Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush Blueberries.
Small Fruits Review.
Lyrene, P. 2004. Early Ripening Rabbiteye Blueberries. Proceedings of 2004
Southeastern Blueberry Conference, pp. 113-116.
Lyrene, P. 2004. Effect of Weather on Pollination of Southern Highbush
Blueberries. Proceedings Southeastern Blueberry Conference, pp. 119-124.


Lyrene, P. 2004. Performance de las Nuevas Variedades de Arandanos del Tipo
Southern Highbush de Florida. Infoberry. Nov/Dec:38671.
Lyrene, P. and J. Williamson. 2004. Blueberry Fruit Set as Related to Relative
Humidity in North-central Florida in Spring 2003. Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Society. 116:21-24.
Lyrene, P. and P. Lyrene. 2004. Flowering and Leafing of Low-chill Blueberries in
Florida. Small Fruits Review. 3:375-379.
Mao, L. and D. Huber. 2004. Induction of Water-soaking Deterioration in
Watermelon Fruit by Ethylene. 30:284-290.
Mao, L., Y. Karakurt and D. Huber. 2004. Incidence of Water-soaking and
Phospholipid Catabolism in Ripe Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Fruit: Induction
by Ethylene and Prophylactic Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene. pp. 33.
Maynard, D., G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S. Webb.
2004. Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida. Vegetable Production
Handbook for Florida. VancePublishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
McCollium, T., P. Stoffella, C. Powell, D. Cantliffe and S. Hanif-Khan. 2004.
Effects of Silverleaf Whitefly Feeding on Tomato Fruit Ripening. Postharvest
Biology and Technology. 31:183-190.
Morales-Payan, J. and W. Stall. 2004. Effects ofAminolevulinic Acid and
Acetylthioproline on Weed-free and Weed-infested St. Augustine Turfgrass. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. pp. 117.
Morales-Payan, J. and W. Stall. 2004. Papaya (Carica papaya) Transplant Growth
is Affected by Trichoderma-based Stimulator. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. pp. 117.
Morales-Payan, J. and W. Stall. 2004. Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Transplant
Production is Affected by Selected Biostimulants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. pp.
117.
Moussatche, P. and H. Klee. 2004. Autophosphorylation Activity of the
Arabidopsis Ethylene Receptor Multigene Family. J Biol Chem. 279:48734-48741.
Olson, S. and E. Simonne. 2004. Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida.
Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
Olson, S., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek and S.
Webb. 2004. Onion, Leek, and Chive Production in Florida. Vegetable Production
Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS.
Olson, S., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor, S. Smith and E. Simonne. 2004. Tomato Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 301-316.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cole Crop Production in
Florida. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 131-316.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Cucurbit Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation:
Lenexa, KS. pp. 169-197.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T.
Kucharek, S. Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Pepper Production in Florida.
Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
pp. 247-258.
Olson, S., E. Simonne, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Legume Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Handbook for Florida. Vance Publishing Corporation: Lenexa, KS. pp.
207-217.
Riad, G., J. Brecht and S. Talcott. 2004. Browning of Fresh-cut Sweet Corn
Kernels after Cooking is Prevented by Controlled Atmosphere Storage.
628:387-394.
Ritenour, M., K. Karrupiah, R. Pelosi, M. Burton, J. Brecht and E. Baldwin.
2004. Response of Florida Grapefruit to Short-duration Heat Treatments Using
Vapor Heat or Hot Water Dips. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Society. 116:405-409.
Ritenour, M., S. Sargent and J. Brecht. 2004. Reducing Water Loss From Fresh
Vegetables. American Vegetable Grower. Feb:54.
Rondon, S., 0. Liburd, J. Price, R. Francis and D. Cantliffe. 2004. Commercial
Availability of Predators. EDIS, UF/IFAS. pp. 6.
Rouse, R. and W. Sherman. 2004. UF Sun Peach. J. Amer. Pomological Soc..
58(2):108-110.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall and D. Shilling. 2004. Influence of Method of
Phosphorous application on Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and
Common Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) Interference in Lettuce. Weed Science.
52(5):797-801.


112 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









PUBLICATIONS



Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall and J. Gilreath. 2004. Effect of Phosphorus
Fertilization on Commom Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Duration of
Interference in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Weed Technology. 18:152-156.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall and J. Gilreath. 2004. Effect of Phosphorus
Fertilization on the Area of Influence of Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium
album) in Lettuce. 18:258 262.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall and J. Gilreath. 2004. Influence of Common
Lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) Densities and Phosphorus Fertilization on
Lettuce. Crop Protections. 23:173-176.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall, D. Shilling and J. Gilreath. 2004. Phosphorus
Absorption in Lettuce, Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and Common
Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) Mixtures. Weed Science. 52(3):389-394.
Santos, B., J. Dusky, W. Stall, J. Gilreath and D. Shilling. 2004. Mechanisms of
Interference of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and Common Purslane
(Portulaca oleraceae) on Lettuce as Influenced by Phosphorus Fertility. Weed
Science. 52:78-82.
Sargent, S., M. Ritenour and J. Brecht. 2004. The Use of Ethylene Gas. American
Vegetable Grower. May:41.
Shibuya, K., K. Barry, J. Ciardi, H. Loucas, B. Underwood, S. Nourizadeh,
J. Ecker, H. Klee and D. Clark. 2004. The Central Role of PhEIN2 in Ethylene
Responses throughout Plant Development in Petunia. Plant Physiol.
136:2900-2912.
Simkin, A., B. Underwood, M. Auldridge, H. Loucas, K. Shibuya, E. Schmelz,
D. Clark and H. Klee. 2004. Circadian Regulation of the PhCCD1 Carotenoid
Dioxygenase Controls Emission of Beta-ionone, a Fragrance Volatile of Petunia
Flowers. Plant Physiol. 136:3504-3514.
Simkin, A., S. Schwartz, M. Auldridge, M. Taylor and H. Klee. 2004. The Tomato
CCD1 Genescontribute to the Formation of the Flavor Volatiles Beta-ionone,
Pseudoionone and Geranylacetone. Plant J. 40:882-892.
Simonne, A., E. Simonne, D. Studstill, S. Stapleton, W. Davis, R. Hochmuth
and M. Taylor. 2004. Assessing the Eating Quality of Muskmelon Varieties Using
Sensory Evaluation. 116:360-363.
Simonne, E. 2004. Drip Irrigation Management for Tomato. Florida Tomato
Institute Proceedings.
Simonne, E. 2004. Fertility Management for Bell Pepper Grown with Plasticulture.
Proceedings Mid-Atlantic Fruit Vegetable Convention. 1:56-58.
Simonne, E. 2004. How do you Determine the N and K Status of Your Tomatoes,
Peppers, and Eggplants? Fresh Petiole Sap Testing. Proceedings Empire State Fruit
and Vegetable Expo. 2:94-96.
Simonne, E. 2004. Principles of Nutrient and Water Management to Optimize
Tomato, Pepper, and Eggplant Production. Proceedings Empire State Fruit and
Vegetable Expo. 2:100-103.
Simonne, E. 2004. Water Management for Tomato. Florida Tomato Institute
Proceedings. pp. 51-54.
Simonne, E. and G. Hochmuth. 2004. Double Cropping Vegetables Grown with
Plasticulture in the BMP era. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine. June:N7-N8.
Simonne, E. and G. Hochmuth. 2004. Fertilizer and Nutrient Management for
Tomato. Florida Tomato Institute Proceedings. pp. 55-60.
Simonne, E. and S. Olson. 2004. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance
Publishing: Lenexa, KS.
Simonne, E., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, S. Smith and T. Taylor. 2004. Eggplant Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 106-116.
Simonne, E., D. Maynard, G. Hochmuth, M. Lamberts, C. Vavrina, W. Stall,
T. Kucharek and S. Webb. 2004. Sweet Potato Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 293-299.
Simonne, E., D. Studstill, R. Hochmuth and J. Jones. 2004. On-farm
Demonstration of Soil Water Movement in Vegetables Grown with Plasticulture.
Simonne, E., G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek
and S. Webb. 2004. Okra Production in Florida. Vegetable Production Guide for
Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 229-233.


Simonne, E., G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, W. Stall, T. Kucharek, S.
Webb, T. Taylor and S. Smith. 2004. Sweet Corn Production in Florida. Vegetable
Production Guide for Florida. Vance Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 285-292.
Simonne, E., M. Dukes and D. Haman. 2004. Principles and Practices for
Irrigation Management. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida. Vance
Publishing: Lenexa, KS. pp. 33-39.
Simonne, E., R. Hochmuth, D. Studstill and S. Kerr. 2004. Pumpkin Strip Variety
Trial Results Live Oak.
Snowden, K., A. Simkin, B. Janssen, K. Templeton, H. Loucas, D. Clark and H.
Klee. 2004. The Dadl/PhCCD8 Gene Affects Branch Production and has a Role in
Leaf Senescence, Root Growth and Flower Development. The Plant Cell.
Spann, T., J. Williamson and R. Darnell. 2004. Photoperiod and Temperature
Effects on Growth and Carbohydrate Storage in Southern Highbush Blueberry
Interspecific Hybrid. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
129:294-298.
Stall, W. and J. Gilreath. 2004. Weed Control in Tomato. Proc. Fla. Tom. Inst.
521:61-65.
Villalta, A. and S. Sargent. 2004. Response of Beit-Alpha Cucumbers (Cucumis
sativa) to Continuous Ethylene Exposure.
Wai, T., J. Staub, E. Kabelka and R. Grumet. 2004. Linkage Analysis of Potyvirus
Resistance Alleles in Cucumber. 88(6):454-458.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Gourd Variety Trial Results Apopka.
Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:6.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Chipping Variety Trial Results -
Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:30-31.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Early-line Chip Variety Trial Results
- Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:27-29.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Early-line Fresh Market Variety Trial
Results- Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trials in Florida for 2003. S-396.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato NE 1014 Regional Project Variety Trial
Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Red and Purple-skinned Fresh Market
Variety Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003.
S-396:16-18.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Russet-skinned Fresh Market Variety
Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003.
S-396:19-20.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Snack Food Association Variety Trial
Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:32-33.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato Statewide Red-skinned Variety Trial
Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trials in Florida for 2003. S-396:9.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Potato White-skinned Fresh Market Variety
Trial Results Hastings. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003.
S-396:14-15.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Pumpkin Variety Trial Results Apopka.
Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:34-36.
White, J. and C. Hutchinson. 2004. Winter Sqush Variety Trial Results Apopka.
Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:43.
White, J., C. Hutchinson, C. Lippi, E. Redden and T. Donovan. 2004. Potato
Statewide Red-Skinned Variety Trial Results Bunnell. Vegetable Variety Trial
Results in Florida for 2003. S-396:8.
White, J., C. Hutchinson, T. Olczyk and E. McAvoy. 2004. Potato Statewide Red-
skinned Variety Trial Results South. Vegetable Variety Trials in Florida for 2003.
S-396.
Williamson, J., P. Lyrene and E. Miller. 2004. Early and Mid-fall Deloiation
Reduces Flower Bud Number and Yield of Southern Highbush Blueberry.
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 116:25-27.
Yang, W., X. Bai, E. Kabelka, C. Eaton, S. Kamoun, E. van der Knaap and D.
Francis. 2004. Discovery of Single Ncleotide Plymorphisms in Lycopersicon
Esculentum by Computer Aided Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags. 14:21-34.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 113









HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE


SOURCE OF FUNDS


Brecht, J.K.


Brecht, J.K.


Cantliffe, D.J.


Chaparro, J.X.

Darnell, R.L.


FerI, R.J.

Folta, K.M.


Hannah, L.C.

Hansen, G.R.

Hanson, A.D.

Hanson, A.D.


Hanson, A.D.

Huber, D.J.


Hutchinson, C.M.


Hutchinson, C.M.


Hutchinson, C.M.


Hutchinson, C.M.


Klee, H.J.

Klee, H.J.


Klee, H.J.


Koch, K.E.


McCarty, D.R.

McCarty, D.R.

McCarty, D.R.

Moore, G.A.


Moore, G.A.


Rondon, S.I.


Rondon, S.I.


Sargent, S.A.


Produce Safety and Biosecurity- a Multi-state Research, Education
and Extension Initiative

Systems Approach to Id entifying Critical Handling Steps and Cost-
effective Technologies to Maintain Quality of Fresh

Integrated Application of Beneficial Insects for Reduced Insecticide
Use on Strawberry

Genetic Maps of Sweet and Trifoliate Orange

Environmentally Sound Off-season Production of Raspberry in the
Tropics &Subtropics

Plant Space Biology Segment Tdi

Green LightSensing, Integration and Response During Photo-
Morphogenesis

Royality Returns

Feed Efficiency in Cattle

Transport of Folates and Their Precursors in Plants

Collaborative Research: Assigning Gene Function in the Arabidopsis
One-carbon Metabolism Network

Biosynthesis, Recycling, and Functions of Plant Pteridines

Shelf Life Extension of Intact and Fresh Cut Tropical Fruit with 1-
methylcyclopropene

Utilization of Legumes in Crop Rotation Programs to Reduce Nitrate
Leaching from Potato Production into Sensitive Florid

Potato Breeding and Variety Development to Enhance Pest Resis-
tance and Marketing Opportunities in the Eastern U.S.

Crop Yield, Sap/tissue Analysis for the Controlled Release Fertilizer
Field Demonstration Study in the Tri-county

Effects of Fertilizer Types and Fertilization Pracices on Potato Pro-
duction and Nitrogen Release to Surface Waters

Functional GenomicAnalysis of Fruit Flavor and Nutrition Pathways

'Galia' Melon: a New High Quality Shipping Melon for Florida
Producers

Reu Supplement:functional GenomicAnalysis of Fruit Flavor and
Nutrition Pathways

Indentification and Characterization of Cell Wall Mutants In Maize
and Arabidopsis Using Novel Spectroscopies

GeneticAnalysis ofAbscisicAcid Biosynthesis

Functional Analysis of B3 Domain Transcription Factors

Functional Genomics of Endosperm Development in Maize

Characterization of Antimicrobial Genes and Testing of Their
Effectiveness in Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Citrus

Resistance to Citrus Tristeza Virus via Gene Silencing and Plant
Resistance Genes

An Integrated Approach for Reducing Pesticide Risks in Commercial
Strawberry Production

Reduced Dependance on Pesticides: Integrating Pest Mgt
Tools

Extending Postharvest Quality of Specialty Tomatoes in the Carib-
bean Region


114 I 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


Univ. of Georgia


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of California

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


NASA

NationalScience Foundation


UF Research Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Natl. Institutes of Health

NationalScience Foundation


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Univ. of Maine


Water Management Districts


Water Management Districts


NationalScience Foundation

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


NationalScience Foundation


Purdue University


U.S. Dept. of Energy

NationalScience Foundation

NationalScience Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Environmental Protection Agcy.


North Carolina State Univ.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


AMOUNT

74,872


100,000


157,900


21,000

35,400


230,940

111,174


6,987

207,085

145,500

69,779


200,000

61,905


299,875


20,000


37,275


64,236


1,159,280
100,000


24,000


301,024


218,898

130,000

909,748

418,935


116,267


34,166


36,000


35,000









HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


SOURCE OF FUNDS


Sargent, S.A. Extending Postharvest Quality to Increase the Competitiveness of
Exotic Tropical Fruits and Greenhouse-grown Vegetables
Scott, J.W. Identification and Introgression ofSilverleafWhitefly (Bemisia
Argentifoli) Resistance Genes from Lycopersicon....
Simonne, E.H. Field Testing of Possible Bmps for Vegetables Grown in the Carib-
bean Bassin
Simonne, E.H. Update of UF/IFAS Nitrogen Fertilization and Management Recom-
mendations for Fresh Tomato Production in Florida in the ...
Simonne, E.H. Field Screening of Sweet Potato Germplasm
Stall, W.M. Effects of Nematodes and Weed Interactions on Plant Interference
Va[[legos, C.E. Identification, Characterization and Molecular Tagging of a Gene for
Resistance to All Tomato Races ofXabthomonas


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Clemson University
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 11 5


AMOUNT

100,000


70,000


100,000


93,666


5,500
10,000
125,688


















The research mission of the Department o01, i !..i ..i..- and
Cell Sciences is the pursuit of fundamental research regarding basic
life processes. Some of the results of the research have immediate
applications while other findings may not be reduced to application
for some time. Whatever the case, fundamental research is the foun-
dation upon which all applied applications are built. The Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station is somewhat unique in that a basic
research unit is a part of its organization. This provides an advantage
to applied researchers in IFAS because close linkages and collabo-
rations are possible within this structure, and it greatly enhances
information and technology transfer, and the time required for
application of basic information is greatly shortened. The research
faculty has been quite successful in obtaining extramural funding
for project support. At the end of 2004, there was approximately
$5,500,000 of active grants and contracts in place. Although these
projects primarily involve faculty members of the Department of
Microbiology and Cell Sciences, there are also collaborations with
researchers in the College of Veterinary Medicine, the Center for
Particle Science and Technology, Horticultural Sciences, Entomol-
ogy and Nematology, Soil and Water Sciences, and Chemistry at the
University of Florida. And there are linkages with Michigan State
University, Oakland University, and the University of North Texas.


The Department has a major teaching component, and the
breadth of the curriculum has influenced the expertise of the re-
search faculty; most faculty members are engaged in both research
and teaching. Departmental research is concentrated mainly into
one of two areas; microbial biochemistry and immunology. How-
ever, some faculty members do not fit into either of these categories.
A major area of research deals with production of fuel alcohol and
other useful chemicals from biomass using genetically modified
microorganisms. Six researchers conduct research in some aspect
of host-resistance to microbial disease. There are other important
projects that affect bovine brucellosis (Bang's disease of cattle), food
safety, and environmental impact of viruses and bacteria.
The research accomplishments of the Department are dissemi-
nated largely by publication in refereed national and international
journals. Communication via conferences, scientific meetings, and
seminars is also an effective means of sharing our research accom-
plishments with peers, and other interested parties. The accomplish-
ments of the research program benefit the citizens of Florida, and
they also have national and worldwide effects.


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 117


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA MICROBIOLOGY & CELL SCIENCE
IA Building 981, Rm. 1052, PO Box 110700 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0700
daAgrturaExpmeaon 352-392-1906 I http://www.nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/-arabian.ufl.edu
Florida Agricultural Experimnt Station

2004 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








MICROBIOLOGY & CELL SCIENCE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


REPLACING PETROLEUM WITH FUEL ETHANOL AND CHEMICALS
MADE FROM CROP RESIDUES

SIGNIFICACE: Over 3 billion gallons of ethanol are currently
made from corn starch in the U.S., approximately 2 percent of
total U.S. automotive fuel. In gasoline blends, ethanol serves as a
fuel extender, an oxygenate to improve air quality, and to increase
the octane rating. Over 55 percent of the petroleum needed each
year is imported, an amount roughly equivalent to that used as
automotive fuel and the single largest item in our national trade
imbalance. By utilizing. .. iili. _l.'r -developed in part at
UF-IFAS, it should be possible to replace up to 20 percent of the
imported petroleum with renewable fuels and chemicals made
from municipal and agricultural biomass residues.
Technology is currently available to convert the carbohydrate
polymers in woody biomass (cellulose and hemicellulose) into
sugar syrups that can be fermented to ethanol and other chemi-
cals as replacements for imported petroleum. This conversion
to sugars involves both cooking with dilute acids and treatment
with microbial enzymes. Early studies at UF developed the first
biocatalysts that can efficiently convert all of the different sugars
in woody biomass into fuel ethanol, and more recently developed
additional biocatalysts that produce a variety of single chemicals
as products. These new processes are projected to be competitive
with petroleum and have been licensed for commercialization.
Pilot plants are currently operating in Jennings, LA and Tokyo, Ja-
pan. The first large scale biomass to ethanol plant (over 20 million
gallons per year) is projected to begin operation in 2007.
RATIONALE: By the end of 2005, U.S. production of fuel ethanol
from corn starch is projected to exceed 4 billion gallons per
year. Technology developed at UF can be used produce an equal
amount of fuel ethanol from the inedible corn stems, leaves
and cobs. In combination with other undervalued agricultural
materials (beet pulp, rice hulls, sugar cane bagasse, peanut hulls,
orange pulp, forest residues, etc.) and woody waste (construction
waste, residential green waste) now buried in landfills, it should
be possible to replace up to 20 percent of the imported petroleum
with renewable products such as ethanol, biodegrable plastics, and
solvents.
Research at UF-IFAS is currently focusing on improvements
in the biocatalysts and processes that can reduce the capital and
operating costs of manufacturing renewable chemicals. Cost
areas of current focus include developing novel biocatalysts that


function optimally under more extreme conditions (acid environ-
ment, elevated temperatures) than yeast currently used for ethanol
production from starch. Additional studies are investigating the
enzymatic mechanisms and genes concerned with the depolymer-
ization of carbohydrates in biomass into soluble sugars by natural
organisms, and including some of these traits in biocatalyst that
produce ethanol, lactic acid, and other chemicals.
With industry collaboration, additional research is optimiz-
ing aspects of chemical processing to facilitate the most efficient
biological fermentation, to minimize the cost of nutrients, and
to identify market uses for co-products from biorefineries using
woody biomass.
IMPACT: The development of new manufacturing in the U.S. to
produce fuel ethanol from woody biomass waste will provide new
employment, stimulate the economy, reduce our dependence on
foreign imported oil, improve air quality, and reduce the problem
of solid waste disposal. Additional products such as biodegradable
plastics and solvents can also be produced from woody biomass as
alternatives to petroleum-based products.
COLLABORATORS: This work is being carried out at the Uni-
versity of Florida by a collaborative group of faculty including
Dr. Julie Maupin-Furlow, Dr. James F Preston, Dr. K. T. Shan-
mugam, Dr. Shengde Zhou, and Dr. Greg W. Luli (Vice President
for Research, B.C. International, Dedham, MA). Support for this
research is provided by funding from the Department of Agricul-
ture, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, Biotechnolo-
gy Research and Development Corporation, Consortium for Plant
Biotechnology Research, and by B.C. International LLC.


Lonnie Ingram


118 1 2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORTfor the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









MICROBIOLOGY & CELL SCIENCE


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY


TITLE


Eric W. Triplett

Phillip M. Achey


Henry C. Aldrich

Abdolkarim Asghari

Thomas A. Bobik

Marian L. Buszko

Eva Czamecka

Francis C. Davis, Jr.

Samuel R. Farrah

William B. Gurley

Jeri J. Houle

Lonnie 0. Ingram

Howard M. Johnson

Nematollah Keyhani

Peter E. Kima

Julie A. Maupin

Louise L. Munro

James F. Preston, III

Madeline Rasche

Keelnatham T. Shanmugam

Prem S. Subramaniam


SPECIALTY


Chair and Prof.

Prof. and Acting Program
Director

Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. In

Asst. In

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. In

Distinguished Prof.

Graduate Research Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Res. Asst. Prof.


Radiation Biology


Biological Ultrastructure

Microbiology Lab Instructor

Bacterial Genetics

Microbiology and MNR

Plant Molecular Biology

Biochem. of Development

Environmental Microbiology

Plant Molecular Biology

Immunology

Microbiology

Immunology of Lyphokines

Bacterial Pathogens

Parasitology

Bacterial Physiology

Microbiology Lab Instructor

Biological Control, Biomass Degradation

Microbial Protein Biochemistry

Bacterial Physiology

Biochemistry


2004 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 119


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION



100 0 0


50 0

0 0

50 0

50 0

100 0

30 0

50 0

60 0

100 0

85 0

85 0
50 0

40 0

50 0

0 0

50 0

50 0

50 0

100 0