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 Table of Contents
 Report by the dean for researc...
 Research foundation professors
 Research administration
 Campus research programs
 Research and education centers
 Director’s financial report














Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
Title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008296/00012
 Material Information
Title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Series Title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville
Alternate Title: Annual research report for the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 2003
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1987; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00008296
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6654
oclc - 20304921
lccn - sn 92011064
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Report by the dean for research
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Research foundation professors
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Research administration
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16-25
    Campus research programs
        Page 26
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    Research and education centers
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    Director’s financial report
        Page 266
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Full Text









,:VERSITY OF
*::ORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agicultural Experiment Station


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







UNIVERSITY OF
LOIDA TABLE OF CONTENTS
IFAS
Florida Agricultual Experiment Station

2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Report by the D ean for Research ............................. .....................................................................................................................................................6

Research Foundation Professors .............................. ............................................ ......... ........................... 8

R research A dm in istration ..............................................................................................................................................................................................14
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs FAMU
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
Center for Natural Resources

CAM PUS RESEA RCH PRO G RAM S ............................. ....... ..........................................................................................................................................18

Agricultural & Biological Engineering
Agricultural Education & Communication
Agronomy
Animal Sciences
Entomology & Nematology
Environmental Horticulture
Family, Youth & Community Sciences
Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences
Food & Resource Economics
Food Science & Human Nutrition
Forest Resources & Conservation, School of
Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History
Horticultural Sciences
Microbiology & Cell Science
Plant Pathology
Soil & Water Science
Statistics
Veterinary Medicine, College of
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

RESEARCH & EDUCATIO N CENTERS ...................................................................................... .................................. .................................. 176

Citrus REC Lake Alfred
Everglades REC Belle Glade
Florida Medical Entomology Lab Vero Beach
Ft. Lauderdale REC Ft. Lauderdale
Gulf Coast REC Bradenton, Dover
Indian River REC Ft. Pierce
Mid-Florida REC Apopka
North Florida REC Quincy, Marianna, Live Oak
Range Cattle REC Ona
Southwest Florida REC Immokalee
Subtropical Agricultural Research Station Brooksville
Tropical REC Homestead
West Florida REC Jay, Milton

DIRECTO R'S FINANCIA L REPO RT .............................. ................................................................................................................................................ 266


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 4







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


2003 REPORT BY THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


An invisible force shapes up Florida's economic engine.
The fact that agriculture continues to be the second largest
economic force in Florida is a surprise to many Florida's
agriculture is not very visible to the 80% of Florida's residents
who live within 20 miles of the coast.
It is important that Florida's agricultural industry remain
strong. Its $60+ billion economic engine was a principle reason
that Florida's economy remained relatively stable during the
recent economic downturn that negatively impacted many
states, particularly some who had staked their economic well
being on more cyclic industries such as those in Silicone
Valley. Many of these industries make discretionary products
that sink or swim with the economy, whereas agriculture
addresses a stable demand.
American agriculture is probably the most phenomenal
achievement of the 20th century. The consumer has benefited
enormously from an increased productivity in agriculture that
truly revolutionized American society. Research, development,
and education transformed the United States from an agrarian
society where most resources were allocated to food produc-
tion, to a society where 2% of the population produces our
food at a cost of 11 cents of the family dollar thus freeing
American society to pursue alternative endeavors which have
resulted in the America we know today. Even more dramati-


cally, this productivity increase has freed millions of acres of
land for other human enterprises,both with economic and
environmental benefits. All of this has been enabled by
research that provides new information, processes, and mate-
rial technologies.
Keeping Florida's economy stable makes it important that
we keep Florida farmers competitive in a world market. To
remain competitive in the global economy, Florida agriculture
can follow the proverbial competitive opportunities do it
better (higher quality), do it cheaper, or do it quicker. But
Florida agriculture is challenged by global competition, some
fair some not fair. Foreign labor is much cheaper than
Florida labor, and many environmental regulations are nonex-
istent in other countries and even global agreements make
illegal in the U.S., cheap and valuable chemicals that are
allowed to be used by our competition. To meet this challenge,
Florida farmers need labor alternatives and higher quality
products; they need research and development.
The solutions to cheap labor and unavailable chemicals
are labor alternatives in the form of mechanization and robot-
ics, and chemical alternatives that are environmentally
friendly, effective and inexpensive. So to keep the economic
impact of Florida agriculture viable, continued and enhanced
research and development must receive the support of opinion
leaders, policy makers and funding agencies.
Modern agriculture uses the most advanced technologies
such as robotics, molecular biology and Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) to enable a high quality, low cost,
environmentally friendly product. Today, inputs such as water
and fertilizer are precisely controlled and automatically deliv-
ered based on need. Waste products are recycled. Plants and
animals are engineered to maximize their efficiencies of
converting carbon dioxide and water into our favorite foods.
Such engineering requires the highest level of knowledge in
science molecular biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, math-
ematics, etc., and the use of this knowledge to invent high tech
applications in soil and water science, plant breeding, pest
management, hydrology, and environmental management
among the many fields that directly support agriculture.
For over 100 years, faculty of the University of Florida's
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) have
provided these new technologies for Florida farmers. But
improved technologies are now needed more than ever. Just as
the development of mechanical pickers for cotton and corn
kept field crop farmers competitive, the development of
mechanical harvesters for citrus and other Florida fruits will
keep Florida farmers competitive. UF/IFAS faculty are prepared
to advance the science in these areas. Thanks to their work,
Florida farmers have new plant varieties that enhance quality
and yield with reduced inputs. They have promising


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 6







2003 REPORT BY THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH


alternatives to chemicals such as methyl bromide, which
could be phased out of the U.S. They have technologies that
dramatically minimize use of water and technologies that
recycle waste products. Research conducted by UF/IFAS
faculty to develop closed systems for life on Mars will invent
technologies enabling Florida growers to apply systems
approaches to manage farms as "nearly closed" systems a
necessity with restrictions on water and waste.
"Nearly closed" systems are made possible by precision
agriculture a prescriptive technology based on GIS that
enable guided, real time measurement and processing of
field information which in turn allows for precise and local-
ized application of nutrients, chemicals and water, based on
crop need. This technology lowers costs and enhances envi-
ronmental quality.

To continue a successful agriculture in Florida, Florida
farmers need:
* Better plant varieties with higher quality products and
better yields with lower inputs. In some cases, specialized
characteristics will be needed like tolerance to salt, drought
or water.


* Robotic harvesting equipment.
* Reduced risk chemicals (environmentally friendly) for
management of pests.
* High speed, real time GIS based precision equipment.
* Year-round, high quality forages for cattle.
* Heat tolerant, disease resistant, high quality cattle.
* Environmentally friendly production technologies.

Through state of the art research development and
education, UF/IFAS will continue to keep Florida farmers
competitive in a global environment.


7 1 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION













- :VERSITY OF
::' ,ORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agricalulal Experiment Station


2003 University of Florida
Research Foundation Professors


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 8








JAMES GRAHAM & DONALD HUBER


JAMES GRAHAM, PH.D.
Professor of Soil and Water Science
Citrus Research and Education Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Jim Graham conducts a
wide range of research in the
pathological and microbio-
logical relationships of citrus
and citrus soils.
Asiatic citrus canker is
an exotic and damaging fruit
and foliage bacterial spot
that has threatened to spread
from metro Miami into
several areas of Florida's
citrus industry since the mid
1990s.
In collaboration with
the Florida Citrus Canker Eradication Program and U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Graham participated in a joint study that demonstrated the
bacterium is readily spread by subtropical rainstorms and
that the majority of new canker infections after storms
occur within about 1,900 feet of source trees in the urban
environment. This research served as the basis for the state's
"1,900-foot rule" requiring all trees within that radius of an
infected tree to be destroyed.
Graham and Jaime Cubero, his postdoctoral associate,
have designed and applied new molecular probes capable of
detecting and identifying the bacterial strains from each
canker outbreak to make inferences about their origin and
spread in Florida. These molecular tests are utilized
routinely for the diagnosis of citrus canker by Florida's
Division of Plant Industry.
Another aspect of Graham's research addresses interac-
tion between soilborne pathogens and root pests of citrus. A
root weevil called Diaprepes abbreviatus has caused devas-
tating tree losses in more than 50,000 acres of citrus and is
spreading rapidly. Graham discovered that the citrus root
pathogen, Phytophthora, forms a complex with insect larval
feeding, and moreover, that a newly discovered species, RP
palmivora, severely damages roots, causing rapid tree loss.
According to Graham's studies, the traditional sources of
citrus rootstock resistance are highly susceptible to P.
palmivora. Graham's discoveries have served to redirect the
efforts of rootstock development programs at UF and the
USDA.


DONALD HUBER, PH.D.
Professor of Horticultural Sciences
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Donald Huber's research
Sfis directed toward under-
standing and controlling the
cellular processes responsible
for ripening, aging and dete-
rioration of horticultural
crops after they have been
harvested.
"In a broad sense, this
i involves study of the envi-
ronmental and biological
Factors to which fruits and
Vegetables are exposed from
harvest through retail sales,
and how these factors might be manipulated to extend shelf
life while also ensuring high quality and nutritional proper-
ties," Huber says.
This field of research, known as postharvest biology,
has many parallels with the biology of plant stress and deals
with the effects of continued development during storage,
including fruits harvested prior to completion of ripening,
bruising and other mechanical injuries, and low- and high-
temperature injuries.
Huber's particular interests address the processes
responsible for fruit softening, as it occurs either during
ripening or as an adverse response to low-temperature
storage or ethylene exposure.
"Softening and deterioration of harvested produce
involves, in part, the production of specific proteins that are
designed to aid in loss of fruit structural integrity and, ulti-
mately, seed dispersal:' Huber says. "Suppression of these
proteins through identification and silencing of relevant
genes can significantly extend the period of useful shelf-life
in the retail and home environments."
Proteins and genes of interest to Huber's research
program include those targeting cell walls, membranes,
ethylene biosynthesis, and oxidative reactions. In his 22
years with the university, Huber has published more than
115 articles in international scholarly journals and chaired
16 Ph.D. committees. Over the past six years he has attracted
$600,000 in federal and industry funding.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 10








LENA MA & RUDOLF SCHEFFRAHN


LENA MA, PH.D.
Professor of Soil and Water Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Lena Ma is a national
leader in the emerging
science of phytoremediation,
which uses plants to extract
contaminants from the soil.
In particular, Ma has
identified ferns as the ideal
plants to extract arsenic.
Wood homes, fences,
decks and soil in Florida, and
throughout the country,
contain dangerous trace
metals like lead, cadmium,
arsenic and mercury. Cattle
ranchers in Florida often used arsenic on their herds to
combat fleas and other vermin. As a result of this activity
alone, the state has more than 3,200 known sites contami-
nated by arsenic.
"Over the past 20 years, the idea of using plants to
decontaminate areas affected by trace metals has become
more and more popular because it's cost-effective and envi-
ronmentally friendly," Ma says.
Ma's research team found that the brake fern soaks up
arsenic with staggering efficiency. They measured levels as
much as 200 times higher in the fern than in contaminated
soils where it was growing.
In an example from a site contaminated by lumber
treated with chromium-copper-arsenic solution, the soil had
38.9 parts per million of arsenic, while the fern fronds had
7,526 parts per million of arsenic.
In greenhouse tests using soil artificially infused with
arsenic, concentrations of the heavy metal in the fern's
fronds have reached 22,630 parts per million.
Because the fern accumulates 90 percent of the arsenic
in its fronds and stems, ferns could be grown on toxic sites,
then the "above-ground biomass" could be transferred to a
hazardous waste facility.
During the past five years, Ma has secured more than
$2.8 million from federal, state and private agencies, has
published 50 refereed articles in top journals and was
selected in 2003 as a Fellow of the American Society of
Agronomy.


RUDOLF SCHEFFRAHN, PH.D.
Professor of Entomology and Nematology
Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Rudolf Scheffrahn
knows termites and how to
kill them, and he has used
that knowledge to tackle a far
more dangerous pest -
anthrax.
Scheffrahn is an inter-
national authority on
drywood termite control and
structural fumigation. His
database of 17,000 termite
colony samples is larger than
the Smithsonian Institution's
and has proven invaluable in
his development of hypotheses about the historic origins of
New World termites.
Scheffrahn's research has led to new treatment and
prevention techniques for drywood termites and has
resulted in major modifications in the labeling of Vikane, a
common termite fumigant.
In response to the anthrax attacks of 2001, Scheffrahn
and a colleague patented the use of methyl bromide for
remediation of buildings contaminated with anthrax.
"Tests indicate the fumigant, used for more than 50
years to control insect pests in buildings, grain elevators and
fresh fruit, is a better option than current treatments such as
chlorine dioxide for killing anthrax and other bacterial
spores," says Scheffrahn, who has studied pest control fumi-
gants for more than 15 years.
Scheffrahn and graduate research assistant John Warner
also have developed a bait that is highly attractive to the
tiny, white-footed ants that have become a major nuisance in
South Florida.
In 1998, Scheffrahn was recognized for his research on
urban entomology with the Orkin National Research
Excellence Award and in 2002 he was selected "Entomologist
of the Year" by the Florida Entomological Society.


11 | 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







CHARLES STAPES & ARTHUR TEIXEIRA


CHARLES STAPLES, PH.D.
Professor of Animal Sciences
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Repetitive calving is
considered an excellent strat-
egy to maximize milk
production over a dairy
cow's lifetime. However, one
of the greatest challenges
facing the dairy industry is
how to most efficiently
return cows to the pregnant
state soon after delivery of a
calf.
Charles R. Staples, an
internationally recognized
ruminant nutritionist, has
researched and identified dietary nutrients that play key
roles in improving reproduction. Staples found that feeding
supplemental omega-three fatty acids, such as those found
in fish, have improved pregnancy rates. Also, feeding other
fat sources such as soybean oil, that contain higher concen-
trations of the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic
acids, have improved cows' fertility. These improvements in
pregnancy rates are thought to be due to more active
ovaries, to a reduction in embryonic death and to an
improvement in liver function.
"Utilizing dietary nutrients to coordinate tissues and
organs to set up for conception and embryo survival has
been the most exciting aspect of my work," Staples says.
Besides obtaining more than $550,000 in funding
during the last five years, Staples is regarded nationally and
internationally as a speaker and consultant in the field of
dairy nutrition. Based upon his work of using dietary nutri-
ents to improve reproduction in dairy cows, Staples was
honored in 1998 by the American Dairy Science Association
with the Nutritional Professionals Applied Nutrition Award.


ARTHUR TEIXEIRA, PH.D.
Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Art Teixeira has spent
two decades seeking to
improve the quality, cost and
safety of canned food.
Teixeira has developed
mathematical models that
simulate the processing of
S canned food, allowing manu-
a facturers to more accurately
Predict how the destruction
of bacterial spores is affected
by the way that heat transfers
through the food.
The combination of
time and temperature that results in the highest food quality
while assuring a safe level of sterilization is called process
optimization.
In the early days of process optimization, scientists
would calculate the precise levels of time and temperature
that would be required as the standard in the factory.
However, the process only worked if factory conditions
stayed the same. If variables like steam pressure and temper-
ature in the pressure cooker changed, food safety would be
compromised and the entire batch had to be destroyed.
Teixeira's programs calculate the amount of lethality in
response to actual temperature-time conditions as measured
in the cooker. These real-time controls won't allow the
process to end until the required target lethality is achieved.
"That means that these types of control systems are
capable of automatically extending the process time by the
exact amount needed to compensate for an unexpected drop
in temperature" Teixeira says. "They're capable of correcting
the process so the product is always safely sterilized and
never has to be destroyed."
During the past five years, Teixeira has published two
book chapters and 24 refereed journal articles, while receiv-
ing a Fulbright Scholar Award and an International
Distinguished Food Engineering Award.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 12














- VERSITY OF
:',ORIDA
IFAS
Florida Agricultual Experiment Station


2003 Research Administration


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 1









AGRICULTURAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY
Dukes, M.D.
Graham, W.D.
Graham, W.D.

Graham, W.D.,
Campbell, K.L.
Shukla, S.
Graham, W.D.
Graetz, D.A.
Graham, W.D.
Haman, D.Z.

Haman, D.Z.
Haman, D.Z.

Haman, D.Z.
Jones, J.W.

Jones, J.W.

Jones, J.W.

Jones, J.W.
Jones, J.W.

Jones, J.W.
Hildebrand, PE.
Jones, J.W.

Jones, J.W.
Judge, J.

Leary, J.D.

Lee, W.S.
Jordan, J.D
Lee, W.S.

Lee, W.S.
Lehtola, C.J.
Lehtola, C.J.

Lehtola, C.J.

Nordstedt, R.

Price, D.
Reddy, K.R.
Graham, W.D.
Teixeira, A.A.
Teixeira, A.A.
Stanfill, R.K.
Welt, BA.


SOURCE OF FUNDS
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. of Environmental Protect


AMOUNT
5,000.00
207,000.00
234,323.00

1,152,229.00


Florida Water Resources Center 77,540.00
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Prog. 597,193.00


TITLE
Testing of On-demand Irrigation Control Systems
USDA National Needs Fellowships in Water Science
Evaluation of the Impacts of Alternative Citrus Production
Practices on Groundwater
Demonstration of Water Quality Best Management Practices for
Beef Cattle Ranching in the Lake Okeechobee Basin

Development of a Multiple Scale, Multiple Process Hydrologic Model
Evaluating the Effectiveness of BMP's for Reducing Nutrient Inputs
to Groundwater in the Suwannee River Basin
Demonstration of Ebb and Flow Water Application System for
Outdoor Containerized Plant Production in Florida
Controlling Irrigation with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Probes
Demonstration of Ebb and Flow Water Application System for
Outdoor Containerized Plant Production in Florida (DACS Match)
Demonstration of Multipot Boxes for Container Nursery Production
Determining Spatial Soil Properties by Objective Parameterization
ofthe Ceres-Maize Model
Tools for Assessing Integrated Crop-Livestock Farm Household
Economic Risks
Spatial Data & Scaling Methods F/Assessment of Agricultural
Impacts of Climate: Managing Multiple Sources of Uncertainty
Carbon From Communitites: A Satellite View
Measuring and Assessing Soil Carbon Sequestration by Agricultural
Systems in Developing Countries
Agricultural Application of Climate Information System for
Agricultural and Water Resource Management in the SE USA
Decision Support System for Reducing Agricultural Risks Caused
by Climate Variability
Risk Reduction for Specialty Crops in the Southeastern USA
Linking Changes in Dynamic Vegetation to Passive Microwave
Remote Sensing
Demonstrate Nematode Control in Conventional & Organic
Vegetable Productions Systems
Maintainingthe Competitiveness of Tree Fruit Production Through
Precision Agriculture
Development of a Reflectance Spectropscopic P-sensor for
Terrestrial and Aquatic Exosystems in the Lake Okeechobee...
Citrus Yield Mapping Systems Using Machine Vision
Florida's Water Resources: An Extension Education Initiative
National Agricultural Safety Database (NASD): Editorial Review and
Network Building
Disaster Mitigation and Homeland Security: A Training Module for
the Safe and Secure Storage of Agricultural Chemicals
Monitoring and Evaluation of Demonstration Wastewater...Lime at
Riverview Dairy Farm
IPA for Donald R. Price with National Science Foundation
Determination of Indicators of Ecological Change

Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications
Integrated Product and Process Design Program

Development of Tomato Packer Productivity Monitoring System
(GatorPacker(TM))


196,003.50


3,000.00
38,000.00


50,485.00
34,129.00

45,000.00

360,564.00

148,813.00
580,000.00

675,000.00

620,000.00


499,938.00
24,000.00


56,190.00

800,000.00


399,300.00

25,000.00
36,750.00
50,775.00

6,8oo.oo

24,168.00


170,043.00
2,013,454.00

50,000.00
15,000.00

13,250.00


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 26


Dept. of Environmental Protect

Natl. Foliage Foundation
Dept. of Environmental Protect

Dept. of Environmental Protect
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture/FAS

NSF/Natl. Ctr. for Atmospheric Res.

NASA/Univ. of Georgia
USAID/Univ. of Hawaii

NOAA/Univ. of Miami

USDA/Florida State University

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture/RMA
NASA


Mississippi State University

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Michigan State University

Chemical Lime

National Science Foundation
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL,SERDP

NASA
Firehouse Restaurant

Custom Pak Division of SixL's







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION
305 Rolfs Hall, PO Box 110540 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0540
352-392-0502 I http://ace.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The vision of the Department of Agricultural Education
and Communication is to lead in developing and strengthen-
ing educators, communicators, and leaders to meet society's
challenges in agriculture and natural resources.
The four programmatic themes within the department
include teaching and learning processes, opinion formation
and institutional communication, program development and
evaluation, and leadership and human resource development.
Faculty members apply their cross-cutting expertise in these
areas to many types of problems and issues in the agriculture
and natural resource industries. The mission of the depart-
ment is to serve society through the land-grant mission of
teaching, research, and extension in agriculture and natural
resources by enhancing leadership in communities and organi-
zations, education in formal and nonformal settings, and
communication of ideas and issues.


Primary constituent groups include agriscience teachers
in the public schools, extension educators, professional agricul-
tural communicators, and specialists in agribusiness, commu-
nity, and governmental agencies who serve in leadership,
education, and/or communications capacities. The applied
nature of research conducted in the department suggests a
strong connection between research and practice in profes-
sional arenas and vice versa. Examples of current faculty and
graduate student research projects include predicting
consumer acceptance of GMO foods, the influence of social
capital on education and technology transfer outcomes, critical
thinking skills and dispositions of college students, the effec-
tiveness of communication and distance education technolo-
gies, the influence of learning style on cognitive process skill
development, and impact of faculty orientation and leadership
development programs.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 28







AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


TEACHING FOR CRITICAL THINKING IN THE AGRICULTURAL
AND LIFE SCIENCES

SIGNIFICANCE: In the modern workplace, employees are
expected to be technically competent, intellectually mature,
and sophisticated problem solvers who can make decisions
in an ill-defined, unstructured, complicated environment of
multiple concepts (Duffy, 1999; Hunt, 1995; Myers, 1996;
National Association of Colleges and Employers, 2000).
Today's college graduate is expected to perform at levels of
competence never before expected in the workplace.
Graduates who can think critically in and about their career
are at a distinct advantage over students who cannot.
Critical thinking has been called one of the most
important attributes for success in the 21st century (Huitt,
1998). Meyers (1986) argued that for students to reach their
fullest potential in today's society, they must learn to think
and reason critically. Paul (2002) contended that "in a world
of accelerating change, intensifying complexity and increas-
ing interdependence, critical thinking is now a requirement
for economic and social survival."
According to Halpern (1989) critical thinking is "think-
ing that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed. It is the
kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating
inferences, calculating likelihood, and making decisions" (p.
5). Norris and Ennis (1989) provided one of the simplest
definitions of critical thinking. They declared that critical
thinking is the "reasonable and reflective thinking that is
focused upon deciding what to believe or do" (p. 18).
Although there is a significant amount of literature on
the teaching of critical thinking and its components identi-
fying a set of skills or standards, few researchers have
focused on the role of critical thinking in reaching high
quality thinking outcomes. Rudd, Baker, and Hoover (2000)
alluded to this role in the following definition of critical
thinking:
"Critical thinking is a reasoned, purposive, and intro-
spective approach to solving problems or addressing ques-
tions, with incomplete evidence and information, and for
which an incontrovertible solution is unlikely."
The definition offered by Rudd, et. al., proposes that
critical thinking is used in problem solving and decision
making to reach an answer, it contributes to the reasoned
process of reaching a meaningful solution. The definition is
one of the few to acknowledge the role of evidence and
information and the fact that answers can and most often do
vary, even among experts.

RATIONALE: Based on the above, developing critical thinking
in College of Agriculture and Life Sciences students is a
desirable instructional goal. Teaching students to remember
factual information and return it in the form of an examina-
tion is, however, too often the prevalent teaching mode


employed in post-secondary institutions. To teach to think
critically, instructors can no longer be "information givers"
(Meyers, 1986). Teaching thinking skills is a different and
much more difficult endeavor. Teaching to promote thinking
takes more time to prepare, is difficult to plan, and poten-
tially limits the amount of content "taught." To further
compound this effort, no clear theoretical framework exists
to guide critical thinking teaching efforts.
Research has shown that factual matter has a relatively
short life span with students (Terezini, Springer, Pascarella,
& Nora, 1993). When coupled with the reality that fact-based
information learned today quickly becomes outdated, is it
any wonder that our students struggle when they reach the
work place? Few would disagree that teaching our students
to think critically should be a priority of schools today.
In fact, development of critical thinking skills in college
graduates is necessary for our students to experience career
success. In the National Association of Colleges and
Employers (2000) listed the top seven skills desired by
employers from college graduates (Table 1), all of the desired
"hire-ability" skills can be associated with student critical


Rick Rudd


29 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


thinking skills of interpretation, analysis, evaluation,
inference, explanation, and self regulation (Facione, 1990). In
addition, the critical thinking dispositions of engagement,
cognitive maturity, and innovativeness clearly contribute to a
new-hires success in their career.


Employer Rating of New Hire Skills
Skill
Interpersonal
Teamwork
Verbal communication
Analytical
Computer
Written communication
Leadership
Note. 5-point scale. 1 = not at all important; 5


Mean
4.54
4.51
4.51
4.24
4.12
4.11
3.94
very important


Research conducted in the College of Agricultural and
Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida in 1999
revealed that CALS students surveyed scored below 50 in all
critical thinking disposition construct areas of the California
Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) indicating
that, as a whole, these students did not possess a strong
disposition toward critical thinking in any construct.
Students scored above 40 in five of the seven construct areas
(open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, self-confidence,
and inquisitiveness). Two constructs, intellectual maturity
and truth-seeking, were identified as "weak" critical thinking
disposition aspects with students scoring below 40 points in
those constructs.
There were also significant gender differences in critical
thinking disposition with females having a greater disposi-
tion to think critically as judged by the CCTDI total score
and the constructs of truth-seeking, open-mindedness, and
maturity.
When compared to baseline data for undergraduate
students compiled by Facione et. al. (1996), there were three
times fewer students with a high disposition toward critical
thinking and 50% more students with a low disposition
toward critical thinking in this sample.

IMPACT: This continuing line of research has led to a
number of findings with implications for teaching for critical
thinking in higher education. Two USDA Higher Education
Challenge Grants totaling $200,000 have funded the research.


The initial research concentrated on working with
faculty members to integrate critical thinking into their
courses by learning critical thinking teaching methods and
utilizing them as they taught existing content. This effort met
with limited success in that students did mot show signifi-
cant change in their critical thinking disposition as a result
of the instructional changes.
As the research emphasis was refocused on impacting
student critical thinking skills, the researcher and collabora-
tors concentrated on a case course (Seeds of Change) taught
by Maria Gallo-Meagher in Agronomy. The researcher and
collaborators worked with Dr. Gallo-Meagher to integrate
teaching for critical thinking into the course, concentrating
on specific critical thinking skills. In addition the skills were
taught explicitly to the students as part of the course.
Students who received the treatment (redesigned course)
made significant individual gains in critical thinking skills as
a result of the course and were as a group higher in critical
thinking skill that the control group.
Several significant products of the research are currently
available via internet for public use. First, a set of teaching
methods designed to teach specific critical thinking skills
was designed by the researcher and the collaborators in the
project. Second, a template for restructuring college courses
to teach for critical thinking is available for individual faculty
members to adapt for existing courses. Third, two instru-
ments for assessing critical thinking skill and disposition
were developed through this research.
The researcher has been invited to share the results of
his research regionally, nationally, and internationally. In
addition, 14 refereed articles and abstracts have been
published with collaborators and graduate students in this
research line.

COLLABORATORS: Dr. Tracy Irani, Assistant Professor,
Department of Agricultural Education and Communication;
Dr. Maria Gallo-Meagher, Associate Professor, Department of
Agronomy, University of Florida; Dr. John Ricketts, Assistant
Professor, University of Georgia; Dr. Matt Baker, Professor,
Department of Agricultural Education and Communication,
Texas Tech University


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 30









AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY

Edward W. Osborne

Larry R. Arrington

Marshall H. Breeze

Cheri Brodeur

Jimmy G. Cheek

James E. Dyer

Marta M. Hartmann

Tracy A. Irani

Glenn D. Israel

Howard W. Ladewig

Lacy Park

NickT. Place

Rebekah Raulerson

RickW. Rudd

RickyW. Telg

Bryan Terry

Pete Vergot

Shannon Washburn


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Assoc. Dean

Assoc. Prof.

Infor. Coord./Pub. Serv.

Dean

Asst. Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Coord/Acad Support Service

Asst. Prof.

Coord/Educ/Tr Prog.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Coord./Statistical Research

Assoc. Prof. and Dist. Ext. Dir.

Asst. Prof.


SPECIALTY TEACHING

Teaching Methods/Agriscience Instruction 65

Extension

Public Opinion/Conflict Resolution 50

Extension o

Academic Programs

Teaching/Learning Strategies 70

Multicultural Education 70

Consumer Perceptions/Communications Tech. 70

Evaluation Methods 10

Adoption/Diffusion ofAgricultural Technology 20

Academic Programs 50

Extension Education/Professional Development 60

Academic Programs 50

Leadership/Critical Thinking 55

Media Relations/Distance Education 80

Extension o

Extension o

Educational Strategies/Youth Development 60


RESEARCH EXTENSION

5 30


25 20

0 20

0 100

0 100

0 40


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR

AEC-o3799 Rudd, R.D.


AEC-o3879


AEC-o3957

AEC-o4082


AEC-o4048


Irani, T.A.


Israel, G.D.

Israel, G.D.


Dyer, J.E.


TITLE

Influence of Selected Instructional Interventions Upon Critical and Creative Thinking
of Students in Higher Education Programs

Factors Influencing Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology: Developing a
Model to Predict Consumer Acceptance of GMO Foods

The Influence of Social Capital on Education and Technology Transfer Outcomes

The Influence of Family, School & Community Social Capital on Beaulieu, L.T. Early
Childhood Educational Outcomes of RuralYouth

The Influence of Learning Style in Cognitive Process Skill Development


31 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS


Beaulieu, L.J., G.D. Israel and R.C. Wimberly. 2003. Challenges for Rural
America in the Twenty-First Century. Penn State University Press. University
Park, PA.

Davis, K. and N.T. Place. 2003. Non-governmental Organizations as an
Important Actor in Agricultural Extension in Semiarid East Africa. Journal of
International Agricultural and Extension Education. 10(1):31-36.

Davis, K., K. Payson and T. Irani. 2003. Going Forward in Education on
Agricultural Biotechnology: Extension's Role Internationally. Journal of
International Agricultural and Extension Education. pp.1.

Dyer, J.E., P.S. Wittler and S.G. Washburn. 2003. Structuring Agricultural
Education Research Using Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks. Journal
of Agricultural Education. 44(2):61-74.

Dyer, J.E., L.M. Breja and A.L. Ball. 2003. A Delphi study of Agriculture
Teacher Perceptions of Problems in Student Retention. Journal of Agricultural
Education. 44(2):86-95.

Dyer, J.E. and L.M. Breja. 2003. Problems in Recruiting Students into
Agricultural Education Programs: A Delphi Study of Agriculture Teacher
Perceptions. Journal of Agricultural Education. 44(2):75-85.

Irani, T., N.T. Place and C. Mott. 2003. Integrating Adult Learning into
Extension: Identifying Importance and Possession of Adult Education
Competencies Among County Extension Faculty. Journal of Southern
Agricultural Education Research. pp.1.


Irani, T., R. Telg and N.T. Place. 2003. The University of Florida's Distance
Education faculty Training Program. North American Colleges and Teachers of
Agriculture Journal. 47(1):48-52.

Irani, T. and R.W. Telg. 2003. Personality Type and its Relationship to Distance
Education Students' Course Perceptions and Performance. Quarterly Review of
Distance Education. 4(4)1.

Irani, T. and R. Telg. 2003. Personality Type and its Relationship to Distance
Education Students' Course Perceptions and Performance. Quarterly Review of
Distance Education. 4(4):1.

Irani, T., N.T. Place and C. Mott. 2003. Integrating Adult Learning into
Extension: Identifying Importance and Possession of Adult Education
Competencies Among County Extension Faculty. Journal of Southern
Agricultural Education Research. pp.1.

Irani, T. and J. Sinclair. 2003. The Effect of Labeling Genetically Modified Food
on Perceptions of Accountability. Journal of Applied Communications. pp.1.

Myers, B.E., J.E. Dyer and L.M. Breja. 2003. Recruitment Strategies and
Activities Used by Agriculture Teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education.
44(4):94-105.

Ricketts, J., T. Irani and L. Jones. 2003. The Effect of Instructional Delivery
Methods on the Critical Thinking Dispositions of Distance Learners and
Traditional On-Campus Learners. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education
Research. pp.1.

Telg, R.W. and T. Irani. 2003. The University of Florida's Distance Education
Faculty Training Program: A Case Study. NACTA Journal. 47(1):48-52.

Telg, R.W. and T. Irani. 2003. Gauging Distance Education Students' Level with
Technology and Perceptions of Self-assessment and Technology Training
Initiatives. Journal of Applied Communications. pp.1.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE

Developing a Critical Thinking Instructional Model & Skills
Assessment Instrument for Food Biotechnology

Training the Trainer: The Distance Education Instructional
Designer Project

The Influence of Family, School and CommunitySocial Capitalon
Early Childhood Educational Outcomes of RuralYouth

Space Agriculture in the Classroom


SOURCE OF FUNDS

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


NASA


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 32


FACULTY

Irani, T.A.
Rudd, R.D.
Telg, R.W.
Irani, T.A.

Israel, G.D.


Osborne, E.W.
Dyer, J.E.
Washburn, S.G.
Israel, G.D.


AMOUNT

$100,000.00


$249,952.00


$103,000.00


$50,000.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY
304 Newell Hall, PO Box 110500 | Gainesville, FL 32611-0500
352-392-1811 http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The mission of the Agronomy Department is to discover,
develop, evaluate and disseminate knowledge and information
necessary to support the agronomic-related industries of the
State and nation, and to promote and enhance the production
and utilization of agronomic commodities and the manage-
ment of pest plant species for the benefit of society.
The Agronomy Department's research mission is accom-
plished through statewide programs conducted by faculty
members located on the Gainesville campus and throughout a
network of UF/IFAS Research and Education Centers across the
State. Research programs of the Department are programmati-
cally organized into the following four areas:

GENETICS PROGRAM AREA The strength of the Genetics
Program Area has been in traditional, applied breeding
programs to develop improved cultivars of forages, legumes,
sugarcane and small grains. Forage and field crop scientists in
the Department have released over 230 crop cultivars since the
early 1900s. Molecular biology programs are now making
significant contributions to the more traditional forage,
peanut, and sugarcane breeding programs.

MANAGEMENT AND NUTRITION PROGRAM AREA National
and international strengths in this program include forage
evaluation, management, and utilization; diversified row crop
and forage management; conservation tillage, multiple-
cropping systems; utilization of urban and agricultural wastes
as nutrient sources for crop production; and alternative crop
plants. Emphasis has recently been placed on environmental
impacts of forage production prac-
tices. Management recommendations
have been developed that facilitate
increased efficiency of nutrient
cycling in grazed pastures and use of
dairy wastes for production of forage
crops while minimizing environmen-
tal impacts. For field crops, an impor-
tant strength has been the presence of


a highly diversified crop management team that possesses
expertise in cultivation practices of numerous crop plants
including peanut, cotton, tobacco, corn, small grains, soybean,
sugarcane and rice.

WEED SCIENCE PROGRAM AREA Weed scientists in the
Department have developed, evaluated and implemented weed
management strategies for terrestrial and aquatic weeds in
temperate, subtropical and tropical environments. Current
strengths include biology, molecular genetics, and physiology
of weed species; aquatic and invasive plant research and
management; weed management strategies for southeastern
cropping systems; weed/crop interference mechanisms;
computer decision modeling; wetland mitigation; and pasture,
rangeland and noncrop weed management systems.

PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY PROGRAM AREA Traditional
strengths have been documenting and understanding the
physiology of crops at the leaf, whole plant and crop canopy
levels, particularly in response to global climate change factors
and other environmental factors, and development of
computer simulations of crop growth, development, and yield.
Significant contributions include documenting crop responses
to rising carbon dioxide and climate change factors and devel-
opment of crop simulation growth models for grain legumes
that incorporate physiological mechanisms and allow assess-
ment of hypothetical responses to climate change, crop
management and genetic improvement.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 134







AGRONOMY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC TRANSFORMATION
PROTOCOLS FOR MOLECULAR IMPROVEMENT OF TURF-
AND FORAGE GRASSES

SIGNIFICANCE: The grass family (Gramineae) includes many
commercially important species like turf and forage grasses,
as well as the cereals. Turfgrasses cover about 4.4 million
cultivated acres of land in Florida and Florida consumers
spend about $6.5 billion a year on turfgrass maintenance
and products, including $940 million on turf seeds or sod.
Seashore paspalum has the potential to expand in acreage
due to its high turf quality and excellent environmental
compatibility. It is very salt tolerant, adapted to close
mowing, has good wear tolerance and requires less fertilizer
than some of the more commonly used turfgrasses.
Pastureland occupies 6.5 million acres in Florida,
supporting a cow/calf industry of $1.1 billion value.
Bahiagrass is one of the most popular perennial pasture
grasses in the southern USA. It is native to South America
and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions
from Central Mexico to Argentina. Bahiagrass is the predom-
inant forage grass utilized by the beef cattle industry in
Florida with 5.0 million acres. Bahiagrass also accounts for
19 % (0.75 million acres) of the total turfgrass area in
Florida, where it is used for utility turf along highways and
for home lawns. The popularity of bahiagrass is attributed to
its tolerance of marginal soil fertility and excellent persist-
ence under grazing.
Common targets for development of genetically
improved cultivars of turf and forage grasses by conven-
tional breeding and genetic engineering include insect
resistance, cold and drought tolerance, disease resistance
and reduced winter dormancy.

RATIONALE: Genetic improvement by conventional plant
breeding involves sexual hybridization of selected parents to
identify progeny that combine the desirable characteristics.
Unfortunately many of the promising turf and forage grass
cultivars like seashore paspalum cv. Sealslel or bahiagrass
cv. Argentine reproduce asexually, which represents a barrier
for improvement by traditional breeding. However with
genetic engineering value adding genes can be introduced
into these important cultivars. At the same time the asexual
reproduction of genetically improved turf- and forage
grasses significantly reduces their potential movement into
natural habitats. Many turf and forage grasses are recalci-
trant in tissue culture, a procedure required for production
of transgenic plants. Consequently efficient tissue culture
and genetic transformation protocols were still missing for
commercially important bahiagrass and seashore paspalum
cultivars. Efficient genetic transformation protocols will
support the reproducible generation of transgenic plants


with defined transgene integration patterns and stable and
defined expression of value adding transgenes.
Stress adaptive transcription factors, like a master
switch, turn on multiple stress response genes at a time.
Knowledge of these mechanisms provides the basis to link
whole plant physiology and crop traits with genomics-type
data into an integrated strategy to mechanistically under-
stand and eventually modify plant performance under stress
conditions. Although one cannot expect to make plants grow
and produce under extreme and persistent stress, some
protection might be achieved, such that longer periods of
intermittent stress can be tolerated without a decline in
growth. In this context genetic engineering of stress adap-
tive transcription factors has a high potential to improve
stress tolerance.

IMPACT: Ongoing research has developed improved tissue
culture protocols for both commercially important seashore
paspalum cv. SeaIsle 1 and bahiagrass cv. Argentine. The
latter has already provided a platform to successfully
develop of a genetic transformation protocol for bahiagrass
cultivar Argentine. This transformation protocol will
support bahiagrass improvement by genetic engineering
and will provide a good level of transgene containment, due
to asexual reproduction of Argentine bahiagrass. We are
currently investigating factors with potential impact on the
expression level and stability of transgenic grasses and the
reduction of tissue culture derived variation.
Cold and drought inducible regulatory promoter
sequences and transcription factors will be important
components for the engineering and dissection of environ-
mental stress response. We have isolated several regulatory
gene candidates from stress tolerant grasses, confirmed
them by sequence
analysis and
prepared chimeric
constructs for their
functional analysis
in transgenic
grasses.

COLLABORATORS:
Ann Blount,
UF/IFAS; Paul
Mislevy, UF/IFAS;
Maria Gallo-
Meagher, UF/IFAS;
Elide Valencia,
University of
Puerto Rico.


Freddy Alpeter


35 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









AGRONOMY


FACULTY & STAFF



FACULTY

Jerry M. Bennett

Fredy Altpeter

Kenneth J. Boote

Kenneth L. Buhr

Carrol G. Chambliss

Alison M. Fox

Raymond N. Gallaher

Maria Gallo-Meagher

William T. Haller

Joe C. Joyce

Kenneth A. Langeland

Gregory E. MacDonald

Paul L. Pfahler

Gordon M. Prine

Kenneth H. Quesenberry

Johannes M. Scholberg

Aziz Shiralipour

Rex L. Smith

Lynn E. Sollenberger

Randall K. Stocker

Elmo B. Whitty

David Wofford

E.T.York, Jr.


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Exec. VP/Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Scientist

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Distinguished Service Prof.


SPECIALTY

Crop Physiology

Molecular Genetics and Breeding

Crop Physiology

Field Crop Management

Forage Crop Management

Weed Ecology

Multiple Cropping Systems

Molecular Genetics and Breeding

Aquatic Plant Management

Aquatic Plant Management

Aquatic Plant Management

Weed Science

Genetics and Breeding

Crop Ecology and Management

Genetics and Breeding

Crop Ecology and Management

Crop Physiology

Molecular Genetics and Breeding

Forage Crop Management

Weed Ecology

Field Crop Management

Genetics and Breeding

Plant Breeding


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 36


TEACHING

20

30

20

100

5

30

20

30

20




5

30

10

o

30

30

0

20

40

0

0

65


RESEARCH

50

70

80o

0

20

50

80

70

80




15

70

80

100

70

70

100

80
So

6o

50

40

35


EXTENSION

30

0

0

0

75

20

0

0



0

8o

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

50

6o

0
60




















PROJECT NO.
AGR-o3594


AGR-o3621


AGR-o3667
AGR-o3677
AGR-o3692


AGR-o3706
AGR-o3707
AGR-o3713
AGR-o3726
AGR-o3793
AGR-o3851


AGR-o3854


AGR-o3905
AGR-o3906


AGR-o3931


AGR-o3983


AGR-o3985
AGR-o4003
AGR-o4013


AGR-o4035
AGR-o4039


AGR-o4065


AGR-o4070


AGR-o4076


AGR-o4083
AGR-4092


AGR-o4133

AGR-o4159
AGR-o4165


37 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AGRONOMY


RESEARCH PROJECTS


AUTHOR TITLE

Haller, W.T., Fox, A.M., Langeland, K.A., Formation, Sprouting and Longevity of Hydrilla Tubers
Stocker, R.K.
Bennett, J.M. Drought Tolerance of N2 Fixation in Relationship to Yield, Genetic Diversity, and
Germplasm Development

Gallo-Meagher, M. Molecular Improvement of PeanutAnd Sugarcane
Whitty, E.B. Testing Field Crop Cultivars
Fox, A.M., Haller, W.T. Biology, Ecology, & Management of Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Lygoidum
Microphyllum, & Sapium Sebiferum

Pfahler, P.L. Reproductive Biology and Gametophytic Selection in Higher Plants
Pfahler, PL. Genetic Improvement of Small Grains
Quesenberry, K.H. Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization
Chambliss, C.G., Sollenberger, L.E. Evaluation of Forage Germplasm and Forage Management Practices
Boote, K.J., Alien, L.H. Development and Use of Crop Models for Selected Florida Crops
Sollenberger, L.E. Dairy Effluent and Cropping System Effects on Degree of Phosphorus Saturation and
Leaching in Soils of the Middle Suwannee River Area

Quesenberry, K. Selection and Adaptation of Grass and Legume Species for Forage Production in the
Southern Coastal Plain and Peninsular Florida

MacDonald, G.E., Tredaway, J.A. Manipulation of Vegetative Reproduction as a Means of Perennial Weed Management
Gallaher, R.N., McSorley, R., Stanley, P.A., Integrating Pest Management Alternatives with Sustainable Crop Production
McGovern, R.J.
MacDonald, G.E., Haller, W.T. Determination of the Scope and Physiological Basis for Fluridone Tolerant Hydrilla in
Florida

Gallaher, R.N. Conservation Tillage Multiple Cropping Management Strategies for Greater
Sustainability

Gallo-Meagher, M., Chase, C.D. Cell Death in S Male-Sterile Maize
Sollenberger, L E., Scholberg, J.M., Boote, K.J. Management to Minimize Nutrient Loss and Enhance Recycling in Grazed Grasslands
Scholberg, J.M., Buhr, K.L., Ferguson, J.., Integrative Use of Perennial Peanut for Cost-Effective Weed Control in Organic Citrus.
McSorley, R.
Scholberg, J.M. Improved Use of Crop Nutrient Interception Capacity for Groundwater Protection
Sollenberger, L.E., Graetz, D.A. Chambliss, Verification of Interim BMP's for Nitrogen Fertilization of hayfields within the Suwannee
C.G., Scholberg, J.M. River Water Management District

Gallaher, R.N., McSorley, R., Wang, K.H., Effects of Management Practices on Pests, Pathogens, and Beneficials in Soil
McGovern, R.J., Kokalis-Burelle, N. Ecosystems
Fox, A.M., Stocker, R.K., Langeland, K.A. Assessment of the Growth, Dispersal, and Impacts of Invasive, Non-native Plants in
Florida's Natural Areas

Altpeter, F. Dissection of Trait Components and Molecular Improvement of Grasses through
Genetic Engineering

Wofford, D.S., Quesenberry, K.H. Genetic Improvement of Forage Grass and Legume Species
Scholberg, J.M., Beck, H.W., Boote, K.J., Improved Resource management for Profitable and Environmentally Sound Integrated
Obreza, T.A., Dukes, M.D., Hutchinson, C.M. Cropping Systems
Quesenberry, K.H., Williams, M.J. Genetic Diversity and Domestication of Forage Legumes for the Subtropics and Tropics

Quesenberry, K.H., Prine, G.M. Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization
MacDonald, G.E. Development of Sustainable Peanut Production Technologies for Amerindian Villages in
the Rupununi Region of Guyana








PUBLICATIONS


Allen, Jr., L.H., S.L. Albrecht, W. Colon-Guasp, S.A. Covell, J.T. Baker, D. Pan
and K.J. Boote. 2003. Methane Emissions of Rice Increased by Elevated
Carbon Dioxide and Temperature. J. Environ. Qual. 32:1978-1991.

Allen, Jr., L.H., D. Pan, K.J. Boote, N.B. Pickering and J.W. Jones. 2003. Carbon
Dioxide and Temperature Effects on Evapotranspiration and Water-use
Efficiency of Soybean. Agronomy Journal. 95:1071-1081.

Altpeter, F., J. Xu, Y. Fang, X. Ma, J. Schubert, G. Hensel, H. Baeumlein and V.
Valkov. 2003. Plant Biotechnology 2002 and Beyond. Kluwer Academic
Publishers. pp.519-524.

Altpeter, F., Y. Fang, J. Xu and X. Ma. 2003. Molecular Breeding of Forage and
Turf.

Andrew, W.M., W.T. Haller and D.G. Shilling. 2003. Response of St. Augustine
Grass to Fluridone in Irrigation Water. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 41:61-63.

Blount, A.R., R.N. Gates, P.L. Pfahler and K.H. Quesenberry. 2003. Early Plant
Selection Effects on Crown Traits in Pensacola Bahiagrass with Selection
Cycle. Crop Science. 43:1996-1998.

Boote, K.J., J.W. Jones, W.D. Batchelor, E.D. Nafziger and 0. Myers. 2003.
Genetic Coefficients in the CROPGRO-Soybean Model: Links to Field
Performance and Genomics. Agronomy Journal. 95:32-51.

Boote, K.J., J.W. Jones, W.D. Batchelor, J.I. Lizaso, G. Alagarswamy and A.S.
DuToit. 2003. Evaluating and Improving CROPGRO -Soybean and CERES-
Maize Models for Predicting Growth and Yield Response to Climate Change.
National Institute for Global Environmental Change.

Boote, K.J. 2003. Testing and Documenting the Use of Crop Growth Models as
BMP Tools for Predicting Crop Production, N Uptake, and Nitrate Leaching.
Florida Department of Agricultural & Consumer Services.

Chikagwa-Malunga, S., N. Krueger, L.E. Sollenberger, D. Dean and A.
Adesogan. 2003. Effect of Maturity at Harvest on the Nutritive Value, Botanical
Fractions and Biomass Yield of Mucuna Pruriens. Tropical and Subtropical
Agroecosystems. 1:127-130.

Dean, D., N. Krueger, L.E. Sollenberger, R.C. Littell and A. Adesogan. 2003.
The Effect of Treatment of Bermudagrass and Bahiagrass Hays with Fibrolytic
Enzymes on Digestibility in Vitro. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems.
1:197-200.

Eilitta, M., L.E. Sollenberger, R.C. Littell and L.W. Harrington. 2003. On-farm
Experiments with Maize-mucuna Systems in the Los Tuxtlas Region of
Veracruz, S. Mexico: I. Mucuna Biomass and Maize Grain Yield. Experimental
Agriculture. 39:5-17.

Eilitta, M., L.E. Sollenberger, R.C. Littell and L.W. Harrington. 2003. On-farm
Experiments with Maize-mucuna Systems in the Los Tuxtlas Region of
Veracruz, S. Mexico: II. Mucuna Variety Evaluation and Subsequent Maize
Yield. Experimental Agriculture. 39:19-27.

Fike, J.H., C.R. Staples, L.E. Sollenberger, B. Macoon and J.E. Moore. 2003.
Pasture Forages, Supplementation Rate, and Stocking Rate Effects on Dairy
Cow Performance. Journal of Dairy Science. 86:1268-1281.

Fox, A.M., D.R. Gordon and R.K. Stocker. 2003. Challenges of Reaching
Consensus on Assessing which Non-Native Plants are Invasive in Natural
Areas. HortScience. 38:11-13.

Fox, A.M. and M. Gallo-Meagher. 2003. Final Report to the Department of
Environmental Protection June 2003 Tracking the Introduction and Spread
of Populations of Wetland Nightshade Using Molecular Markers.

Fox, A.M. and K. Kitajima. 2003. Final Report to the Department of
Environmental Protection, July 2002- July 2003 An Evaluation of the Spread
and Impacts of Ruellia brittoniana in Natural Areas.

Fox, A.M. and K. Kitajima. 2003. Status Report to the Department of
Environmental Protection, July -December 2003 An Evaluation of the Spread
and Impacts of Ruellia brittoniana in Natural Areas.

Fox, A.M. 2003. Status Report to the Department of Environmental Protection
January to March 2003 Applying a New Protocol to Quantify the Influence of
Birds on the Dispersal of Invasive Plants.


Fox, A.M. 2003. Final Report to the Department of Environmental Protection
January June 2003 Applying a New Protocol to Quantify the Influence of
Birds on the Dispersal of Invasive Plants.

Fox, A.M. 2003. Status Report to the Department of Environmental Protection
June December 2003 Applying a New Protocol to Quantify the Influence of
Birds on the Dispersal of Invasive Plants.

Gesch, R.W., I. Kang, M. Gallo-Meagher, J.C. Vu, K.J. Boote, L.H. Allen and G.
Bowes. 2003. Rubisco Expression in Rice Leaves is Related to Genotypic
Variation of Photosynthesis Under Elevated Growth CO2 and Temperature.
Plant, Cell and Environ. 26:1941-1950.

Gwata, E.T., D.S. Wofford, K.J. Boote and P.L. Pfahler. 2003. Pollen
Morphology and in Vitro Germination Characteristics of a Nodulating and
Nonnodulating Soybean. Theor. Appl. Gen. 106:837-839.

Gwata, E.T., D.S. Wofford and K.J. Boote. 2003. Genetics of Promiscuous
Nodulation in Soybean: Nodule Dry Weight and Leaf Color Score. Journal of
Heredity. pp. 1.

Gwata, E.T., D.S. Wofford, K.J. Boote and H. Mushoriwa. 2003. Detemination
of Effective Nodulation in Early Juvenile Soybean Plants for Genetic and
Biotechnological Studies. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2:417-420.

Haller, W.T. and R.K. Stocker. 2003. Toxicity of 19 Adjuvants to Lepomis
macrochirus (Bluegill Sunfish). Environ. Toxicol. and Chem. 22(3):615-619.

He, X., M. Hall, M. Gallo-Meagher and R.L. Smith. 2003. Improvement of
Forage Quality by Down-regulation of Maize O-methyltransferase. Crop Sci.
43:2240-2251.

Jones, J.W., G. Hoogenboom, C.H. Porter, K.J. Boote, W.D. Batchelor, L.A.
Hunt, P.W. Wilkens, U. Singh, A.J. Gijsman and J.T. Ritchie. 2003. The DSSAT
Cropping System Model. European Journal of Agronomy. 18:235-265.

Kenty, M.M. and D.S. Wofford. 2003. Formulas and Software for Plant
Geneticists and Breeders. Haworth Press. pp. 77-88.

Koschnick, T.J., W.T. Haller, V.V. Vandiver and M.J. Santra. 2003. Efficacy and
Residue Comparisons of Two Slow-release Formulations of Fluridone. J. Aquat.
Plant Manage. 41:25-27.

Langeland, K.A. 2003. Integrated Pest Management: Current and Future
Strategies. Council on Agricultural Science and Technology. pp. 145-156.

Lundy, L., T. Irani, J. Ricketts, E. Eubanks, R. Rudd, M. Gallo-Meagher and
S.G. Fulford. 2003. A Mixed Methods Study of Undergraduate Dispositions
Toward Critical Thinking About Biotechnology. J. Ag. Educ. pp. 1.

Macoon, B., L.E. Sollenberger, J.E. Moore, C.R. Staples, J.H. Fike and K.M.
Portier. 2003. Comparison of Three Techniques for Estimating Forage Intake
of Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture. Journal of Animal Science. 81:2357-2366.

Main, C.L., J.T. Ducar, E.B. Whitty and G.E. Macdonald. 2003. Response of
Three Runner-type Peanut Cultivars to Flumioxazin. Weed Technology.
17:89-93.

Mathews, B.W. and L.E. Sollenberger. 2003. Use of Dilute Oxalate to Recover
Exchangeable Aluminum Immobilized by Sulfate Salt Addition to a Rhodic
Kandiudult Subsoil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.
34:531-545.

Meagher, Jr., R.L. and M. Gallo-Meagher. 2003. Identifying Host Strains of Fall
Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida Using Mitochondrial Markers.
Florida Entomol. 86:450-455.

Newman, Y.C., L.E. Sollenberger, A.M. Fox and C.G. Chambliss. 2003. Canopy
Height Effects on Vaseygrass and Bermudagrass Spread in Limpograss
Pastures. Agronomy Journal. 95:390-394.

Newman, Y.C., L.E. Sollenberger, A.M. Fox and C.G. Chambliss. 2003. Canopy
Height Effects on Vaseygrass and Bermudagrass Spread in Limpograss
Pastures. Agronomy Journal. 95:390-394.

Newman, Y.C., L.E. Sollenberger and C.G. Chambliss. 2003. Canopy
Characteristics of Continuously Stocked Limpograss Swards Grazed to
Different Heights. Agronomy Journal. 95:1246-1252.

Nyambati, E. and L.E. Sollenberger. 2003. Nutritive Value of Top-canopy
Herbage of Mucuna and Lablab Relay Cropped in Maize in the Sub-humid
Highlands of Northwestern Kenya. Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems.
1:81-86.

Nyambati, E., L.E. Sollenberger and WE. Kunkle. 2003. Feed Intake and
Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows Offered Napiergrass Supplemented with
Legume Hay. Livestock Production Science. 83:179-189.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 138








PUBLICATIONS








Paterson, A.H., H.T. Stalker, M. Gallo-Meagher, M.D. Burow, S.L. Dwividi,
J.H. Crouch and E.S. Mace. 2003. Genomics for Legume Crops. AOCS Press.
Popelka, J.C. and F. Altpeter. 2003. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated
Genetic Transformation of Rye (Secale cereale L.). Molecular Breeding.
11(3):203-211.
Popelka, J.C. and F. Altpeter. 2003. Evaluation of Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Inbred Lines and Their Crosses for Tissue Culture Response and Stable
Genetic Transformation of Homozygous Rye Inbred Line L22 by Biolistic
Gene Transfer. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 107(4):583-590.
Popelka, J.C., J. Xu and F. Altpeter. 2003. Generation of Rye (Secale cereale
L.) Plants with Low Transgene Copy Number After Biolistic Gene Transfer
and Production of Instantly Marker-free Transgenic Rye. Transgenic
Research. pp. 1.
Possley, J., K. Kitajima, G Tanner, D. Sutton and R.K. Stocker. 2003. Effect
of Season and Shoot Removal on Root Carbohydrate Storage in a
Subtropical Invasive Shrub, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Florida Scientist.
66:157-167.

Quarin., C.L., M.H. Urbani, A.R. Blount, E.J. Martinez, C.M. Hack, G.W.
Burton and K.H. Quesenberry. 2003. Registration of Q4188 and Q4205,
Sexual Tetraploid Lines of Bahiagrass. Crop Science. 43:745-746.
Quesenberry, K.H., J.M. Mullaney, A.R. Blount, R.S. Kalmbacher and J.
Noircini. 2003. Characterization of Physiological and Morphological
Variability in Buffalo Clover. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 62:66-69.


Sollenberger, L.E. and M. Collins. 2003. Forages: An Introduction to Grassland
Agriculture (6th edition). Iowa State University. pp. 191-213.
Thomas, J.M. G., K.J. Boote, L.H. Allen, M. Gallo-Meagher and J. Davis. 2003.
Elevated Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Effects on Soybean Seed
Composition and Transcript Abundance. Crop Sci. 43:1548-1557.
Tremelling, M.J., R. McSorley and R.N. Gallaher. 2003. Effect of Winter Cover
Crops on the Soil Surface Invertebrate Community. Proceedings of the Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida. 62:77-82.
Vara Prasad, P.V., K.J. Boote, L.H. Allen, Jr. and J.M. Thomas. 2003. Supra-
optimal Temperatures are Detrimental to Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)
Reproductive Processes and Yield at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide.
Global Change Biology. 9:1775-1787.
Wang, K.H., R. McSorley and R.N. Gallaher. 2003. Effect of Crotalaria juncea
Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of
Nematology. 35(3):294-301.
Widodo, W., J.C.V. Vu, K.J. Boote, J.T. Baker and L.H. Allen, Jr. 2003. Elevated
Growth C02 Delays Drought Stress and Accelerates Recovery of Rice Leaf
Photosynthesis. Environ. Exp. Bot. 49:259-272.
Woodard, K.R., E.C. French, L.A. Sweat, D.A. Graetz, L.E. Sollenberger, B.
Macoon, K.M. Portier, S.J. Rymph, B.L. Wade, G.M. Prine and H.H. VanHorn.
2003. Nitrogen Removal and Nitrate Leaching for Two Perennial, Sod-based
Forage Systems Receiving Dairy Effluent. Journal of Environmental Quality.
32:996-1007.

Zhang, L., M.C.K. Yang, M. Gallo-Meagher, B.A. Larkins and R. Wu. 2003. A
Statistical Model for Estimating Joint Maternal-offspring Effects on Seed
Development in Autogamous Plants. Genetics. pp. 1.


39 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









AGRONOMY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY TITLE

Altpeter, F. Molecular Improvement of Physiological Traits Defining
Environmental Adaption of Tropical Forage Grass Production

Bennett, J.M. Drought Tolerance of Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Plant
Introductions and Breeding Lines in Florida

Bennett, J.M. Drought Tolerance of Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Plant
Introductions

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Soybean Production

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Peanut Production

Boote, K.J. Evaluating and Improving Cropgro-Soybean and Ceres-Maize
Models for Predicting Growth and Yield Response to Climate

Boote, K.J. Simulation of Peanut CroppingSystems to Improve Prodcution
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource Management

Boote, K.J. Testing & Documenting the Use of Crop Growth Models as BMP
Tools for Predicting Crop Production, N Uptake & Nitrate...

Bennett, J.M. Drought Stress Tolerance in Florida

Bennett, J.M. Research Projects in Florida Tobacco Production Tobacco
Check-off Funds

Fox, A.M. Applying a New Protocol to Quan itify the Influence of Birds on the
Dispersal of Invasive Plants

Fox, A.M. Evaluation of the Spread & Impacts of Ruella Brittoniana in
Kitajima, K. Natural Areas

Gallo-Meagher, M. Reducing Peanut Food Allergy Risks

Haller, W.T. WES/IFAS Cooperative Agreement Task 4C FYo2

MacDonald, G.E. Native Plant Restoration Following Cogongrass Control on Reclaimed
Shilling, D.G MiningAreas

Langeland, K.A. Site Weed (Invastive Plant) Management Plan
MacDonald, G.E.

Prine, G.M. Ryegrass Variety Trials

Quesenberry, K.H. Genetic Diversity and Domestication of Forage Legumes
Williams, M.J.

Scholberg, J.M. Integrative Use of Perennial Peanut for Cost Effective Weed Control
Ferguson, J.J. in Organic Citrus

Scholberg, J.M. Crop Phytoremediation of Phosphorus-enriched Soils in the Lake
Okeechobee Region

Scholberg, J.M. A System Approach for Improved Integration of Green Manure in
McSorley, R.T. Commercial Vegetable Production Systems

Scholberg, J.M. Implementation and Evaluation of aWeb-based Nutrient
Beck, H.W Management Plan Support (NUMAPS) System for Florida Crops

Shiralipour, A. Human Health nad Ecological RiskAssessment and Remediation of
Contaminated Soils

Shiralipour, A. Year -Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Training and Other
Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Related Activities

Shiralipour, A. Human Health and Ecological RiskAssessment and Remediation of
Contaminated Soils

Sollenberger, L.E. Management to Minimize Nutrient Loss and Enhance Recycling in
Scholberg, J.M. Grazed Grasslands


SOURCE OF FUNDS

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
Univ. of Nebraska


Univ. of Georgia


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Alabama A&M University

U.S. Army

FL Inst. of Phosphate Research


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Miscellaneous Donors

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.



Univ. of Georgia


Dept. of Environmental Protect.

Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 40


AMOUNT

95,118.00


33,093.00


81,147.00


33,361.50
72,708.82
150,000.00


150,000.00


55,637.00


57.340.00
14,500.00


5,010.00


2,783.00


146,995.00
5,000.00
27,825.00


23,940.00


13,995.00
100,000.00


162,601.00


419,580.00



171,800.00


299,889.00

130,000.00


60,000.00


130,000.00


60,000.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL SCIENCE
Building 499, Shealy Drive I Gainesville, FL 32611
352-392-1981 | http://animal.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The primary mission of the statewide Animal Sciences
program is to assist the livestock industries of Florida to
achieve efficient production by contributing to the solution of
livestock production problems through research, resident
instruction and extension programs. This mission is accom-
plished through the cooperative efforts of the faculties of the
Department of Animal Sciences, the Range Cattle Research and
Education Center (Ona), the North Florida Research and
Education Center (Marianna), the Subtropical Agricultural
Research Station, USDA-ARS (Brooksville) and the sixty-seven
county extension facilities. One integral part of the accomplish-
ment of this mission is the cooperation and support of people
in the livestock industries. In addition, personnel from a
number of campus departments cooperate with Animal
Sciences faculty members in program support. The
Department of Animal Sciences balanced research program
ranges from basic research in molecular biology and cloning
to applied livestock production research conducted at coopera-
tor farms. Some research areas of major focus include, improv-
ing bovine embryo survival, improving the efficiency of dairy
and beef production, improving the skeletal development of
the horse through improved nutrition, improving reproductive
efficiency of the horse, developing systems for utilizing


by-products and waste materials in animal production and
developing new or improved meat and poultry products. These
major focus areas are addressed through research in reproduc-
tive physiology, nutrition, animal breeding and genetics,
molecular biology, meat and poultry products and livestock
management systems. The Department of Animal Sciences
maintains several research and teaching farms in the
Gainesville area where the animal resources to support the
programs are housed. These include a swine teaching and
research farm and facilities that house sheep, horses and some
cattle for short term research projects on the University of
Florida Campus. The department has four off-campus farms in
the Gainesville area. An 1100 acre dairy farm with 600 cows
plus replacement heifers provides resources for the dairy
research program. Beef cattle research facilities include 1200
and 1600 acre beef farms designed to support individual
animal as well as large group research. The Horse Research
Center near Ocala is the site that supports the majority of the
equine research conducted by the department. Research
conducted at privately owned horse, dairy and beef farms with
cooperating farm owners is vital to the department's total
research effort and is an extension of the department's
research resources.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 42







ANIMAL SCIENCE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND SKELETAL
DEVELOPMENT OF GROWING HORSES

SITUATION: The equine athlete is only as good as the sound-
ness of his skeletal system. The race horse, hunter jumper,
cutting horse, reining horse, polo pony and other equine
athletes are all dependent on sound feet and legs. Skeletal
failure is one of the major causes of horses being retired
from the race track and other performance activities, so the
economic impact of this problem is of major concern to the
horse industry. Skeletal soundness starts early. Horses as
young as three months of age may show signs of abnormal
development. These problems are even more evident when
young horses are put through the sales where one must
maximize growth to be competitive and guarantee sound-
ness. Radiographs of the joints often reveal osteochondrosis,
osteochondritis dessicans or other conditions generally
grouped together as developmental orthopedic disease, that
can impair the animals ability to tolerate the stress of train-
ing. The causes of these problems are multifactorial and
include genetics, environment, management, stress and
nutrition. Although bone may appear to be an inert struc-
ture, it is really a dynamic organ that changes as the animal
matures. At birth, bone may be 55% mineral and 45%
organic matrix (protein). At maturity the bone will be 65%
mineral and 35% matrix. The mineral portion gives bone the
strength it needs to tolerate the stresses of work. The matrix
provides the elasticity to help the bone tolerate strain. The
ability of the equine athlete to tolerate the stress of training
and competition is dependent on how well the skeleton has
developed during the growth phase of the animal.

RATIONAL: Two of the factors that can be controlled by the
horse owner are nutrition and management. Our research
has therefore focused on those nutritional factors that influ-
ence the bone development of the growing horse and the
management factors that may be applied to the animal to
facilitate skeletal development. Although the mineral portion
of the skeletal system is mostly calcium and phosphorus
there are many other minerals involved in bone develop-
ment. Of primary interest are copper, which is required for
cartilage synthesis, zinc, which is required for many of the
enzymes involved in bone mineralization, and manganese,
which is also an enzyme activator for critical enzymes. We
have been interested in the amounts of these minerals that
the growing horse requires, the influence of mineral supple-
mentation of the mare on the mineral status of her foal and
the influence of source of the minerals on their efficiency of
utilization. Because high starch intake and the stress of exer-
cise have been suggested as causes of DOD in growing
horses, we have also studied the influence starch intake and
fat supplementation on foal growth and bone development
and compared pasture feeding programs with drylot feeding
programs with and without forced exercise.


IMPACT: Our research revealed that although meeting the
mare's requirements for trace minerals (NRC,1989) is impor-
tant, higher levels of supplementation did not influence the
mineral status of her foal and did not improve skeletal
development of the suckling foal. Supplementation of the
growing foal with copper, zinc and manganese increased
bone mineralization verifying the importance of these three
trace minerals in feeding programs for the foal. The use of
proteinated trace minerals did not improve bone mineraliza-
tion when compared with inorganic salt of the minerals but
did improve hoof growth. Starch intake has been implicated
as a possible cause of skeletal development problems;
however, our initial research on starch indicated that a zero
starch diet would not give comparable growth or skeletal
development when compared to a more conventional
feeding program providing 30% starch in the concentrate. In
a second experiment, growth and skeletal development of
growing horses fed a 15% starch and 5% added fat concen-
trate was compared with the response of yearlings fed a 30%
starch concentrate. In the later study, growth was the same
and the incidence of developmental orthopedic disease was
not different between the two groups. Yearling horses fed on


43 1 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ANIMAL SCIENCE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


pasture had greater growth and skeletal development than
yearlings fed in drylot even though the calculated nutrient
intake levels were similar. This suggests that pasture intake is
higher than estimated by projecting the same dry matter
intake as the hay provided the confined horses, that the
pasture provides nutrients that are not present in the hay, or
the exercise on pasture has a positive influence on both
growth and skeletal development. However, weanlings fed in
drylot subjected to forced exercise for 30 min., four days per
week did not provide evidence that exercise of this type
would increase bone mineral deposition.
Our research has provided evidence that proper balance of
nutrients in the diets of growing horses is essential for maxi-
mizing skeletal development. The practice in the field by
some feeders of restricting energy intake to prevent develop-
mental orthopedic disease is counter productive to maximiz-
ing bone mineralization. Horses require a balance of all of


the nutrients to insure proper growth and skeletal develop-
ment. Our research also suggests that fat supplementation of
growing horses may have positive effects on growth and feed
efficiency and modest starch intake will support maximum
development of the foal as long as energy needs are satisfied.
This may have its largest benefit in allowing the feeder to
feed more forage and less concentrate, which can minimize
digestive problems in the foal. This research and research at
other stations on the nutritional needs of the growing horse
provide horse owners with guidelines for proper feeding. It
also provides information by which feed companies can
develop products and feeding recommendations that will
benefit the horse industry.


COLLABORATORS: College of Veterinary Medicine faculty
members Patrick Colahan, Murray Brown and Greg Roberts
have participated in this research.


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY


TITLE


Foster G. Hembrv


Adegbola T. Adesogan

Kermit C. Bachman

Lokenga Badinga

David R. Bray

Joel H. Brendemuhl

William F. Brown

Bobby L. Damron

Albert De Vries

Mauricio A. Elzo

Michael J. Fields

Mary B. Hall

Peter Hansen

Robert H. Harms

Henry H. Head

Matthew J. Herson

Dwain D. Johnson

Edward L. Johnson


Sandi Lieb

Timothy Marshall

Floyd B. Mather

Lee R. McDowell


SPECIALTY


Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.


Extension Agent IV

Asst. Chair & Prof.

Assistant Dean and Prof.


Asst. Prof.


Prof.


Assoc. Prof.

Prof.


Graduate Research Prof.

Prof.

Extension Beef Specialist


Prof.


Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.


Animal Nutrition


Ruminant Nutrition

Physiology and Lactation

Reproductive Physiology

Mastitis and Milking Management

Swine Nutrition

Ruminant Nutrition, Forage Evaluation

Poultry Nutrition

Dairy Systems

Animal Breeding and Genetics

Animal Reproductive Physiology

Dairy Cattle Nutrition

Reproductive Physiology

Poultry Nutrition

Animal Physiology and Lactation

Ruminant Nutrition


Meat Science


Extension Equine Specialist

Animal Nutrition, Equine

Beef Cattle Management

Poultry Physiology

Tropical Animal Nutrition


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION

30 40 30

60 40 o

40 60 0

40 60 o

0 0 100


80 20 0


100 (adm)


20 60 20

10 50 40

20 80 0

30 70 0

5 50 45

30 70 0

5 85 10

6o 40 0

o 50 50

20 80 0


0 100


30 70 0

80 o 20

40 o 60

20 80 0


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 144









ANIMAL SCIENCE


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY

JoelA. McQuagge

Richard D. Miles, Jr.

Karen Moore

Roger P. Natzke

Timothy A. Olson

Edgar A. Ott

Robert S. Sand

Daniel C. Sharp, III

Don R. Sloan

Charles R. Staples

Saundra H. Tenbroeck

William W. Thatcher

Todd A. Thrift

James E. Umphrey

DanielW. Webb

Sally K. Williams

JoelV.Yelich


TITLE

Asst. In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Graduate Research Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. In.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY TEACHING

Equine loo

Poultry Nutrition and Management 30

Molecular Embryologist 20

Mastitis and Milking Management 25

Animal Breeding and Genetics, Beef 40

Animal Nutrition, Equine 30

Extension Beef Specialist, Repro. Physiology 0

Reproductive Physiology, Equine 20

Poultry Management 50

Ruminant Nutrition 30

Extension Equine Specialist, Repro. Physiology 40

Animal Physiology Reproduction 20

Extension Beef Specialist, Repro. Physiology 60

Youth Development and Recruitment 30

Extension Dairy Management o

Meat and Poultry Science, Products 30

Animal Reproductive Physiology, Beef 60


RESEARCH EXTENSION


45 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









ANIMAL SCIENCE


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR

ANS-o3476 Damron, B.L.


ANS-o3532 Harms, R.H., Sloan, D.R., Wilson, H.R.

ANS-o3557 Olson, T.A., Johnson, D.D., West, R.L.

ANS-o3651 Olson, T.A.


ANS-o3695 Kunkle, W.E., Bates, D.B., Reiling, B.A.

ANS-o3736 Bachman, K.C.

ANS-o3742 Simmen, R.C., Simmen, F.A.

ANS-o3768 Brendemuh[, J.H.

ANS-o3774 Simmen, R.C., Simmen, F.A.

ANS-o3792 McDowell, L.R.

ANS-o3800 Badinga, L.

ANS-o3818 Elzo, M.A., Johnson, D.D., Kunkle, W.E.

ANS-o3821 Yelich, J.V.

ANS-o3833 Williams, S.K.

ANS-o3859 Head, H.H., Bachman, K.C.


ANS-o3886 McDowell, L.R., Ramos-Santana, R.

ANS-o3895 Simmen, R.C.

ANS-o3912 Hansen, P.J., Staples, C.R.

ANS-o3956 Sharp, D.C.

ANS-o3980 Moore, K.

ANS-o3981 Hansen, P.J., Spencer, T.E.

ANS-o4001 Hansen, P.J., de Vries, A., Staples, C.R.,
Olson, T.A., Drost, M., Thatcher, W. W.,
Willard, S.T., Whisnant, C.S., Misztal, I.,
Rutledge, J.J., Edwards, J.L., Chase, C.C.

ANS-o4003-F Fields, M.J.


ANS-o4003-H Hansen, P.J.

ANS-o4058 Hall, M.B., Nair, V.D., Harris, W.G.,
Graetz, D.A.
ANS-o4063 Hansen, P.J.

ANS-o4080-A Adesogan, A.T., Staples, C.R., Valencia, E.,
Sollenberger, L.E.

ANS-o4080-H Hall, M.B., Adesogan, A., Riquelme, E.


ANS-o4080-O Olson, T.A., Moore, K., Pantoja, J.

ANS-o4089 de Vries, A.


ANS-o4111 Ott, E.A.

ANS-o4144 Williams, S.K.


TITLE

Feed and Water Nutrition, Spent Hen and Mortality By-products; Additives and
Ingredients for Poultry

Amino Acid Requirements of Commercial Laying Hens and Broiler Breeder Hens

Methods of Improving Meat Tenderness Through Genetic Means

Breeding to Optimize Maternal Performance and Reproduction of Beef Cows in
Southern Region

Use of Molasses-Based Mixtures in Cow-Calf Production Systems

Shortening the Non-Income Producing Dry Period of Dairy Cows with Estrogen

Structure and Regulation of the Porcine Aromatase Gene Family

Nutritional Systems for Swine to Increase Reproductive Efficiency

Uteroferrin Gene Expression During Development

Mineral and Vitamin Supplementation of Ruminants

Bovine Somatotropin Medicated Effects to Increase Embryonic Survival in Cattle

Improvement of Beef Cattle in Multibreed Populations: Phase III

Synchronization of Estrus in Cattle of Bos Indicus Breeding

The Poultry Food System: A Farm to Table Model

Use of bST, Shortening the Dry Period, and Prepartum Feeding of Anionic Salts to
Improve Milk Production and Health of Dairy Cows

Selenium Supplementation for Ruminants

The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System and Stallion Infertility

Enhancing Production and Reproductive Performance of Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Synthesis and Secretion Regulation in Horses

Improving Efficiencies of In Vitro Embryo Production Technologies in Cattle

Progesterone-Induced Uterine Immunoregulatory Proteins

Improving Fertility of Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle




Effect of Oxytocin on the Uterine Oxytocine Prostanoid System in the
Peri-Implantation Cow

Use of Embryo Transfer to Improve Fertility of Heat-Stressed Cows

Manure-derived Components and Their Influence on Long-term Phosphorous Stability
in Soils
Apoptosis and Stress in Preimplantation Embryos

Improving Forage Quality and Livestock Productivity with Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes


Assessing Digestibility of Cell Wall Crude Protein in Tropically Grown Forages for
Improved Livestock Production

Evaluation and Utilization ofSlick Hair Gene in Florida and Caribbean Dairies

Management Systems to Improve the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of
Dairy Enterprises

Influence of Nutrition and Management on Skeletal Development of Growing Horses

Production Systems to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of Small and
Economically Disadvantaged Livestock Family Farms


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 46








PUBLICATIONS








Adesogan, A.T., M.B. Salawu, A.B. Ross, D.R. Davie and A.A. Brooks. 2003.
Effect of Lactobacillus Buchneri, L. Fermentum or Leuconostoc Mesenteroides
Inoculants or a Chemical additive on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and
Nutritive Value of Crimped Wheat Grains. Journal of Dairy Science. 86:1789-
1796.
Adesogan, AT. 2003. The Effect of Biotal Buchneritm 500 on the Fermentation
Characteristics and Aerobic Stability of Bermudagrass.
Arizmendi-Maldonado, D., L.R. McDowell, T.R. Sinclair, P. Mislevy, FG.
Martin and N.S. Wilkinson. 2003. Mineral Alpha-tocopherol and Beta-
carotene Concentrations in Tropical Grasses as Affected by Increasing Day
Length. Tropical and Subtropical Agrosystems. 3:547-549.
Badinga, L., K.T. Selberg, A.C. Dinges, C.W. Comer and R.D. Miles. 2003.
Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Hepatic Lipid Content and Fatty Acid
Composition in Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science. 82:111-116.
Bernard, J.K. and D.R. Bray. 2003. Using Recycled Sand and Sand Retaining
Devices in Free Stalls. Hoards Dairyman. 148(16):600.
Block, J., M. Drost, R.L. Monson, J.J. Rutledge, R.M. Rivera, F.E Paula-Lopes,
O.M. Ocon, C.E. Krininger, J.Liu and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Use of Insulin-like
Growth Ffactor-1 During Embryo Culture and Treatment of Recipients with
GnRH to Increase Pregnancy Rates Following the Transfer of in Vitro
Produced Embryos to Heat-stressed, Lactating Cows. Journal of Animal
Science. 81:1590-1602.
Bray, D.R., R. Giesy and R.A. Bucklin. 2003. What About Rubber Matting?
Hoards Dairyman. 148(10):396.
Bray, D.R. 2003. Reduce Stray Voltage from Extension Cords. Hoards
Dairyman. 148(18):701
Bray, D.R. 2003. Rubber Matting Useful? Hoards Dairyman. 148(19):729.
Bridges, G.A., G.E. Portillo, M.K. Dahms, J.W. de Araujo and J.V. Yelich. 2003.
Single Versus a Split dose of PGF2alpha After a 14-d Melengestrol Acetate
Treatment to Synchronize Estrus in Crossbred Bos Indicus Beef Heifers. Beef
Report UF Department of Animal Sciences.
Britt, J.S., R.C. Thomas, N.C. Speer and M.B. Hall. 2003. Efficiency of
Converting Nutrient Dry Matter to Milk in Holstein Herds. Journal of Dairy
Science. 86:3796-3801.
Carvalho, F, F Barbosa and L. McDowell. 2003. Nutrigao de Bovinos a Pasto.
Matsuda Brazil and Florida Department of Animals Sciences. President
Prudente, Brazil.
Chapman, C.A. L.J. Chapman, K.D. Rode, E.M. Hauck and L.R. McDowell.
2003. Variation in the Nutritional Value of Primate Foods Among Trees, Time
Periods and Areas. Inter. I. Primatology. 24:317-333.
Chapman, C.A., L.J. Chapman, L. Naughton-Treves, M.J. Lawes, L.R.
McDowell. 2003. Predicting Folivore Abundances: Black-and-white Colobous
and Other Primates in Forest Fragments of Western Ugando. Inter. I.
Primatology. pp. 1.
Chikagwa-Malunga, S., N. Krueger, D.B. Dean, L.E. Sollenberger and A.T.
Adesogan. 2003. Effect of Maturity at Harvest on the Nutritive Value, Botanical
Fractions and Biomass Yield of Mucuna Pruiriens. Tropical and Subtropical
Agroecosystems. 3:127-130.
Cosenza, G.H., S.K. Williams, D.D. Johnson, C. Sims ands C.H. McGowan.
2003. Development and Evaluation of a Fermented Cabrito Snack Stick
Product. Meat Science. 64(1):51-57.
Cosenza, G.H., S.K. Williams, D.D. Johnson, C. Sims and C.H. McGowan.
2003. Development and Evaluation of a Cabrito Smoked Sausage Product.
Meat Science. 62(2):119-124.
Cristaldi, L.A., L.R. McDowell, D.D. Buergelet, P.A. Davis, N.S. Wilkinson and
EG. Martin. 2003. Tolerance of Inorganic Selenium in Wether Sheep. Small
Ruminant Research. pp. 1.
Davis, P.A., WE. Kunkle, J.D. Arthington and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Effects of
Liquid Supplement Feeder Wheel Width and Turning Capability on the Intake
of Beef Heifers. The Professional Animal Scientist. 19:321-325.
Dean, D.B., N. Krueger, W. Krueger, A.T. Adesogan, L.E. Sollenberger and R.
Littel. 2003. The Effect of treatment of Bermudagrass and Bahiagrass Hays
with Fibrolytic Enzymes on Digestibility in Vitro. Tropical and Subtropical
Agroecosystems. 3:197-200.
Elzo, M.A., A. Jara and N. Barria. 2003. Genetic Parameters and Trends in the
Chilean Multibreed dairy Cattle Population. Journal of Dairy Science. pp. 1.


Elzo, M.A. 2003. Revised Manual for the Maintenance of Two-breed
Multibreed Mating Systems for 2004 and Beyond. Animal Science Department,
University of Florida. Animal Breeding Mimeo Series. pp. 60.
Elzo, M.A. 2003. Multibreed Program Genetictrends (version May 28, 2003).
Animal Science Department, University of Florida. Animal Breeding Mimeo
Series. pp. 61.
Elzo, M.A. 2003. Multibreed Connectedness Program CSET for Calf and Dam
Files (version 12/17/2003). Animal Science Department, University of Florida.
Animal Breeding Mimeo Series. pp. 63.
Elzo, M.A. 2003. Multibreed Editing Program EDPED for Calf and Dam Files
(version 12/17/2003). Animal Science Department, University of Florida.
Animal Breeding Mimeo Series. pp. 62.
Faria, D.E., R.H. Harms, R.S. Antar and G.B. Russell. 2003. Re-evaluation of
the Lysine Requirement of the commercial Laying Hen in C corn-soybean
Meal Diet. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 23:161-174.
Fike, J.H., C.R. Staples, L.E. Sollenberger, B. Macoon and J.E. Moore. 2003.
Pasture Forages, Supplementation Rate, and Stocking Rate Effects on Dairy
Cow Performance. J. Dairy Science. 86:1268-1281.
Garay, A.H., L.E. Sollenberger, C.R. Staples and C.G.S. Pedreira. 2003.
Florigraze and Arbrook Rhizoma Peanut as Pasture Forage for Growing
Holstein Heifers. Agronomy Journal. pp. 1.
Gulay, M.S., M.J. Hayen, K.C. Bachman, T.I. Belloso, M. Liboni and H.H.
Head. 2003. Milk Production and Feed Intake of Holstein cows Given Short
(30-d) or Normal (60-d) Dry Periods. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2030-2038.
Gulay, M.S., M.J. Hayen, L.A. Teixeira, C.J. Wilcox and H.H. Head. 2003.
Responses of Holstein Cows to Low Dose of Somatotropin (bST) Prepartum
and Postpartum. J. Dairy Sci. 86:3195-3205.
Gulay, M.S., M.J. Hayen, K.C. Bachman, T.I. Belloso, M. Liboni and H.H.
Head. 2003. Milk Production and Feed Intake of Holstein Cows Given Short
(30D) or Normal (60D) Dry Periods. I. Dairy Sci. 86:1.
Gulay, M.S., M.J. Hayen, K.C. Bachman, T.I. Belloso, M. Liboni and H.H.
Head. 2003. Milk Production and Feed Intake of Holstein Cows Given Short
(30d) or Normal (60d) Dry Periods. I. Dairy Science. 86:2030-2038.
Hall, M.B. 2003. Challenges with Nonfiber Carbohydrate Methods. Journal of
Animal Science. 81:3226-3232.
Harms, R.H., D.E. Faria and G.B. Russell. 2003. Evaluation of the Suggested
Requirement of Six Amino Acids for the Commercial Laying Hen. Journal of
Applied Animal Research. 23:129-138.
Harms, R.H., G.B. Russell, C.R. Bohnsack and W.D. Merkel. 2003. Performance
of Commercial Laying Hens When the Level of Corn Oil in the Diet was
Reduced. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science. 5:141-148.
He, X., M.B. Hall, M. Gallo-Meagher and R. Smith. 2003. Improvement of
Forage Quality by Downregulation of Maize O-methyltransferase. Crop
Science. 43:2240-2251.
Head, H.H., Y.M. Hafez, M. Liboni and M.J. Hayen. 2003. Prepartum Milking
of Holstein Cows and First Calf Heifers: Effects on Secretion Yields and
Constituents, Lactogenesis, Udder Edem, and Subsequent Milk Production.
Proc. IX World Conf. in Animal Prod. pp. 1.
Hidiroglou, N., P.L. Toutain and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Influence of Sources and
Dietary Vitamin E on the Maternal Transfer of Alpha Tocopherol to Fetal and
Neonatal Guinea Pigs Using a Stable Isotopic Technique. Brit. J. Nutr. 89:455-
466.
Hiers, E., C. Barthle, M.K. Dahms, G.E. Portillo, G.A. Bridges, O. Rae, W.
Thatcher and J.V. Yelich. 2003. Synchronization of Bos indicus x Bos taurus
Cows for Timed Artificial Insemination Using Gonadotropin-releasing
Hormone Plus Prostaglandin F2alpha in Combination with Melengestrol
Acetate. Journal of Animal Science. 81:830-835.
Hiers, E., C. Barthle, M.K. Dahms, G.E. Portillo, G.A. Bridges and J.V. Yelich.
2003. Comparison of Different Prostaglandin F2alpha Treatments in the GnRH
+ ProstaglandinF2alpha Synchronization System in Cattle of Bos indicus
Breeding. UF-IFAS. Beef Report UF Department of Animal Sciences.
Holdo, R.M. and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Termite Mounds as Nutrient-rich Food
Patches for Elephants. Biotropica. pp. 1.
Johnson, D.D. 2003. Beef Muscle Profiling. Florida Cattlemen. 67(11):68-70.
Kavazis, A. and E.A. Ott. 2003. Growth Rates in Thoroughbred Horses Raised
in Florida. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 23(8):353-357.
Krininger, C.E., J. Block, Y.M. Al-Katanani, R.M. Rivera, C.C. Chase and P.J.
Hansen. 2003. Differences Between Brahman and Holstein Cows in Response
to Estrous Synchronization, Superovulation and Resistance of Embryos to
Heat Shock. Animal Reproduction Science. 78:13-24.
Krueger, N., C.R. Staples, R. Littel, D.B. Dean, L.E. Sollenberger, A.T.
Adesogan and W. Krueger. 2003. The Potential for Increasing the Digestibility
of Poor Quality Forages with a Fungal ferulic Acid Esterase Enzyme
Preparation. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 3:205-209.


47 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS








Krueger, N., C.R. Staples, R. Littel, D.B. Dean, W. Krueger and A.T. Adesogan.
2003. The Influence of Enzymes Containing High Esterase, Cellulase, and
Endogalacturonase Activity on the Digestibility of Mature, C4 Grass Hays.
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 3:201-204.
Liboni, M., M.S. Gulay, T.I. Belloso, H.H. Head. 2003. Use of Somatotropin
(bST) During the Transition Period: Effects on Blood Measures, Calving and
Milk Production. Proc IX World Conf Animal Prod. pp. 1.
Macoon, B., L.E. Sollenberger, J.E. Moore, C.R. Staples, J.H. Fike and K.M.
Portier. 2003. Comparison of Three Techniques for Estimating the Forage
Intake of Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture. Journal of Animal Science.
81:2357-2366.
Mattos, R., A. Guzeloglu, L. Badinga, C.R. Staples and W.W. Thatcher. 2003.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Bovine Interferon-tau Modify Phorbol Ester-
induced Secretion of PGF2 Alpha and Expression of Endoperoxide Synthase-2
and Phospholipase A2 in Bovine Endometrial Cells. Biology of Reproduction.
69:780-787.
Mattos, R., A. Guzeloglu, L. Badinga, C.R. Staples and W.W. Thatcher. 2003.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Bovine Interferon Modify Phorbol Ester-
induced Secretion of Prostaglandin F2alpha and Expression of Prostaglandin
Endoperoxide Synthase-2 and Phospholipase-A2 in Bovine Endometrial Cells.
Biology of Reproduction. 69:780-787.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd ed.
Elsevier Sci. London.
McDowell, L. and T. Marshall. 2003. Florida 2003 Beef Report. University of
Florida.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Providing Minerals to Grazing Ruminants. Feedstuffs.
75(47):12-19.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Free-choice Mineral Supplements for Grazing Sheep.
Conference "Meat Sheep Alliance of Florida." Gainesville, FL.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Importance of Minerals for Grazing Sheep. Meat Sheep
Alliance of Florida. Gainesville, FL.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Mineral Elements: Macro, Encyclopedia of Animal
Science. Marcel Dekker.
McDowell, L.R. 2003. Feed Supplements: Mineral Salts, Encyclopedia of
Animal Science. Marcel Dekker.
Melendez, P., A. Donovan, J. Hernandez, J. Bartolome, C. Risco, C.R. Staples,
W.W. Thatcher. 2003. Milk, Plasma, Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations,
Dietary Protein Nutrition, and Fertility in Dairy Cattle. J. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc., Timely Topics in Nutrition. 223(5):628-634.
Miles, R.D., P.R. Henry, V.C. Sampath, M. Shivazad and C.W. Comer. 2003.
Relative Bioavailability of Novel Amino Acid Chelates of Manganese and
Copper for Chicks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 12:417-423.
Miles, R.D. and L. Badinga. 2003. Uso de Acido Linoleico Conjugado. Industria
Avicola. October. pp. 28-29.
Myer, R.O. and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Potential for Gossypol Toxicity When
Feeding Whole Cottonseed to Beef Cattle. University of Florida Extension,
North Florida Research and Education Center. Marianna, FL.
Natzke, D. 2003. Peak Performance: Challenging Dry Period Dogma. Western
Dairy Business. September. pp. 39.
Natzke, D. 2003. Peak Performance: Shorter Dry Period Provides Benefits.
Western Dairy Business. September. pp. 40-41.
Ocon, O.M. and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Disruption of Bovine Oocytes and
Preimplantation Embryos by Urea and Acidic pH. Journal of Dairy Science.
86:1194-1200.
Olson, T.A., C.J. Lucena, C.C. Chase, Jr. and A.C. Hammond. 2003. Evidence of
a Major Gene Influencing Hair Length and Heat Tolerance in Bos taurus
Cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 81:80-90.
Olson, T.A., C.C. Chase, Jr., R.S. Sand and S.W. Coleman. 2003. Performance
of Charolais-sired Calves from Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x
Angus Fl Crossbred Cows. Department of Animal Sciences, University of
Florida.
Ott, E.A. 2003. Grassy Green. Equus Caballus EC. 2:12-13.
Ott, E.A. 2003. But I Thought. Equus Caballus EC. 2:20-21.


Paula-Lopes, FF, C.C. Chase, Y.M. Al-Katanani, C.E. Krininger, R.M. Rivera,
S. Tekin, A.M. Majewski, O.M. Ocon, T.A. Olson and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Genetic
Divergence in Cellular Resistance to Heat Shock in Cattle: Differences Between
Breeds Developed in Temperate Versus Hot Climates in Responses of
Preimplantation Embryos, Reproductive Tract Tissues and Lymphocytes to
Increased Culture Temperatures. Reproduction. 125:285-294.
Paula-Lopes, FE, Y.M. Al-Katanani, A.M. Majewski, L.R. McDowell and P.J.
Hansen. 2003. Manipulation of Antioxidant Status Fails to Improve Fertility of
Lactating Cows or Survival of Heat-shocked Embryos. Journal of Dairy
Science. 86:2343-2351.
Paula-Lopes, F.F., Y.M. Al-Katanani, A.C. Majewski, L.R. McDowell and P.J.
Hansen. 2003. Failure of Manipulation of Antioxidant Status to Improve
Fertility of Lactating Holstein Cows or Enhance Survival of cultured Embryos
Exposed to Heat Shock. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2343-2351.
Paula-Lopes, F.F., C.C. Chase, Jr., Y.M. Al-Katanani, C.E. Krininger, R.M.
Rivera, S. Tekin, A.C. Majewski, A.C. Ocon, T.A. Olson and P.J. Hansen. 2003.
Genetic Divergence in Cellular Resistance to Heat Shock in Cattle: Differences
Between Breeds Developed in Temperate Versus Hot Climates in Responses of
Preimplantation Embryos, Reproductive Tract Tissues and Lymphocytes to
Elevated Culture Temperatures. Reproduction. 125:285-294.
Pershing, R.A., A.C. Dinges, W.W. Thatcher and L. Badinga. 2003. Plasma and
Uterine Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding Proteins in
Lactating Dairy Cows Treated with Bovine Somatotropin. Journal of Animal
and Veterinary Advances. 2:67-73.
Peterson, T.E., L.R. McDowell, R.J. McMahon, N.S. Wilkinson, O. Rosendo,
W.M. Seymour, P.R. Henry, EG. Martin and J.K. Shearer. 2003. Balance and
Serum Concentration of Biotin in Sheep Fed Alfalfa Meal Based Diets with
Increasing Level of Concentrate. J. Anim. Sci. pp. 1.
Pryor, G.S., J.B. Royes, F.A. Chapman and R.D. Miles. 2003.
Mannanoligosaccharides in Fish Nutrition: Effects of Dietary
Supplementation on Growth and Gastrointestinal Villi Structure in Gulf of
Mexico Sturgeon. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 65(2):106-111.
Rathman, S.C., R. Blanchard, L. Badinga, J.E Gregory, S. Eisenschenk and R.J.
McMahon. 2003. Dietary Carbamazepine Administration Decreases Liver
Pyruvate Carboxylase Activity and Biotinylation by Decreasing Protein and
mRNA Expression in Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 133:2119-2124.
Reiling, B. and D.D. Johnson. 2003. Effects of Implant Regimens (Trebolone
Acetate-estradial) and Vitamin D3 on Fresh Beef Color and Quality. Journal of
Animal Science. 81:135-142.
Reller, E., J. Kivipelto and E.A. Ott. 2003. Age-related Changes for Serum Bone
Metabolism Markers in Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse Foals. J. Equine Vet.
Sci. 23:117-120.
Riley, D.G., C.C. Chase, Jr., T.D. Pringle, R.L. West, D.D. Johnson, T.A. Olson,
A.C. Hammond and S.W. Coleman. 2003. Effect of Sire on U- and M-Calpain
Activity and Rate of Tenderization as Indicated by Myofibril Fragmentation
Indices of Steaks of Brahman Cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 81:2440-2447.
Riley, D.G., C.C. Chase, Jr., A.C. Hammond, R.L. West, D.D. Johnson, T.A.
Olson and S.W. Coleman. 2003. Estimated Genetic Parameters for Palatability
Traits of Steaks from Brahman Cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 81:54-60.
Riley, D.G., C.C. Chase, Jr., R.L. West, D.D. Johnson, T.A. Olson, A.C.
Hammond and S.W. Coleman. 2003. Estimation of the Genetic Control of
Brahman Beef Quality, Quantity, and Palatability Traits. The Brahman Journal.
33(12):27-29.
Rivera, RM., K.K. Kelley, G.W. Erdos and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Alterations in
Ultrastructural Morphology of Two-cell Bovine Embryos Produced in Vitro
and in Vivo Following a Physiologically-relevant heat Shock. Biology of
Reproduction. 69:2068-2077.
Rode, K.D., C.A. Chapman, L.J. Chapman and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Mineral
Resource availability and Consumption by Colobus Monkeys in Kibale
National Park, Uganda. Inter. J. Primatology. 24:541-573.
Rosendo, O., M.B. Hall, C. Staples and D. Bates. 2003. Effect de Diferentes
Polisacaridos Solubles Neutron-detergent en la Cinetica de digestion in Vitro
de la Fibra Neutron-detergente Forrajera yen la Sintesis de Proteina
Microbiana (The Effect of different Neutral detergent-soluble Polysaccharides
on Digestive Kinetics in Vitro of Neutral Detergent Forage Fiber and the
Synthesis of Microbial Protein). Revista Cientifica. XIII(1):18-27.
Rosendo, O., M.B. Hall, C.R. Staples and D. Bates. 2003. The Effect of Different
Neutral Detergent Soluble Polysaccharides in Digestive Cynetics in Vitro of
Neutral Detergent Forrage Fiber and the Synthesis of Microbial Protein.
Revista Cientifica. XIII(1):18-27.
Rosendo, O., D.B. Bates, L.R. McDowell, C.R. Staples, R. McMahon and N.S.
Wilkinson. 2003. Availability and Ability of Biotin for Promoting Forage Fiber
in Vitro Ruminal Digestibility. J. Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2(6)350-357.
Rosendo, O., D. Bates, L.R. McDowell, C.R. Staples, R. McMahon and N.S.
Wilkinson. 2003. Availability and Ability of Biotin for Promoting Forage Fiber
in Vitro Ruminal Digestibility. J. Animal Vet. Av. 2(6):350-357.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 48








PUBLICATIONS








Rosendo, 0., L.R. McDowell, M.Y. Diaz, N. Wilkinson, A. Boning, J. Castillo,
H. Fragachan and C. Lucena. 2003. Concentraciones Sericas de Vitamin A y B-
caroteno en Vacas Holstein. Gace to de Ciencias Veterinarias. 2(6):350-357.
Rosendo, 0. and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Relationship Between Liver Dry Matter
and Liver Lipids in Periparturient Dairy Cows. Act. Vet. Brno. 72:1.
Rosendo, O., D. Bates, L.R. McDowell, C.R. Staples, R.J. McMahon and N.S.
Wilkinson. 2003. Biotin Availability for Ruminal Microbes. Daws Laboratories
Frontiers in Nutrition.
Rosendo, O., C.R. Staples, L.R. McDowell, R.J. McMahon, FG. Martin, L.
Badinga, J.K. Shearer, W.M. Seymour and N.S. Wilkinson. 2003. Biotin
Supplementation for the Transistion Cow. Daw's Laboratories Frontiers in
Nutrition.
Selberg, K.T., A.C. Lowe, C.R. Staples, N.D. Luchini and L. Badinga. 2003.
Production and Metabolic Responses of Periparturient Holstein Cows to
Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans-octadecenoic Acids. J. Dairy
Science. pp. 1.
Soto, P., R.P. Natzke and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Identification of Possible Mediators
of Embryonic Mortality Caused by Mastitis: Actions of Lipopolysaccharide,
Prostaglandin F2, and the Nitric Oxide Generator, Sodium Nitroprusside
Dihydrate, on Oocyte Maturation and Embryonic Development in Cattle.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 50:263-272.
Soto, P., R.P. Natzke and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Actions of Tumor Necrosis Factor-?
on Oocyte Maturation and Embryonic Development in Cattle. American
Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 50:380-388.
Soto, P., R.P. Natzke and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Role of Prostaglandins in the
Development of Hyperthermia in Heat-stressed, Lactating Holstein Cows.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 26:435-437.
Staples, C. and L.R. McDowell. 2003. Biotin: Benefits Beyond Improved Hoof




GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY

Adesogan, A.T.
Sollenberger, L.E.

Fields, M.J.


Fields, M.J.


TITLE

Improving Forage Quality and Livestock Productivity with Exogenous
Fibrolytic Enzymes

Effect of Oxytocin on the Uterine Prostanoid System in the Peri-
implantation Cow

Effects of Oxytocin on the Uterine Oxytocin Prostanoid System in
the Peri-implantation Cow


Hall, M.B. Assessing Digestibility of CellWall Crude Protein in Tropically Grown
Adesogan, A.T. Forages for Improved Livestock Production

Hansen, P.J. Improving Fertility of Heat Stressed Dairy Cattle
Drost, M.

Hansen, P.J. Apoptosis and Stress in Preimplantation Embryos

Hansen, P.J. Use of Embryo Transfer to Improve Fertility of Heat-stressed
dairy Cows

Johnson, D. Properties of Cow and Beef Muscles Benchmarking the Differences
and Similarities

Moore, K. Restoration of Lost Bone Mass after Ovariectomy

Olson, T.A. Evaluation and Utilization of the Slick Hair Gene in Florida and
Moore, K. Caribbean Dairies

Sand, R.S Production Practices to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of
Small and Economically Disadvantaged Livestock Family

Stelzleni, A.M. Determining Factors That Cause Variaton of Beef Flavor: Phase I
Johnson, D.

Thatcher, W.W. Epidemiology and Lameness in Dairy Cows


Williams, S.K.


Production Systems to Improve the Efficiency and Profitability of
Small and Economically Disadvantaged Family Farms


Health. Dairy Update, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida.
Tekin, S. and P.J. Hansen. 2003. Lymphocyte-mediated Lysis of Sheep Chorion:
Susceptibility of Chorionic Cells to Third-party and Maternal Cytotoxic
Lymphocytes and Presence of Cells in the Endometrium Exhibiting
Cytotoxicity Toward Natural-killer Cell Targets. Theriogenology. 59:787-800.
Thatcher, W.W., A. Guzeloglu, A. Meikle, S. Kamimura, T. Bilby, A.A.
Kowalski, L. Badinga, R.A. Pershing, J. Bartolome and J. Santos. 2003.
Regulation of Embryo Survival in Cattle. Reproduction. 61:253-266.
Umesiobi, D.O., U. Kalu, U. Ogundu, M.U. Iloeje, D.C. Anyanwu and L.R.
McDowell. 2003. Fertility Studies on the Methods of Libido Maintenance in
West African Dward Rams. Inter. J. Anim. Sci. pp. 1.
Valle, G., L.R. McDowell, D.L. Prichard, P.J. Chenoweth, D.L. Wright, F.G.
Martin, WE. Kunkle and N.S. Wilkinson. 2003. Selenium Status of Beef Calves
from Dams Receiving Selenium Supplementation. J. Animal and Vet. Advances.
2(6):338-342.
Valle, G., L.R. McDowell, D.L. Prichard, P.J. Chenoweth, D.L. Wright, F.G.
Martin, W.E. Kunkle and N.S. Wilkinson. 2003. Effects of Supplementing
Selenium to a Beef Cattle Cow-calf Herd on Tissue Selenium Concentration. J.
Anim. Vet Adv. 2(3):126-132.
Van Horn, H.H. and D.R. Bray. 2003. Encyclopedia of Water Science. Marcel
Dekker, Inc. pp. 1-5.
Yost, G.P., J.D. Arthington, L.R. McDowell, EG. Martin, N.S. Wilkinson and
C.K. Swenson. 2003. Effect of Copper Source and Level on the Copper Status of
Holstein Heifers Receiving High Doses of Zinc. Inter. I. Anim. Sci. pp. 1.
de Vries, A. and B.J. Conlin. 2003. Economic Value of Timely Detection of an
Unexpected Decrease in Estrous Detection. Journal of Dairy Science. 86:3516-
3526.
de Vries, A. and B.J. Conlin. 2003. Design and Performance of Statistical
Process Control Charts Applied to Estrous Detection Efficiency. Journal of
Dairy Science. 86:1970-1984
de los Reyes Borjas, A., M.A. Elzo, R.B. Lobo, L.A.F. Bezerra and C de U
Magnabosco. 2003. Genetic Variability of Alternative Measures of Scrotal
Circumference in Nellore Cattle. Livestock Research for Rural Development.
15(10):1.


SOURCE OF FUNDS

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Natl. Cattlemen's BeefAssn


Natl. Institutes of Health

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Florida A & M University


FL Beef Council


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Florida A & M University


AMOUNT

$75,000.00


$32,000.00


$28,000.00


$56,700.00


$1,484,500.00


$270,000.00

$29,280.00


$52,695.00


$91,135o00

$75,000.00


$53,704.00


$5,000.00


$19,444.00
$102,222.00


49 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY
Building 970, Surge Area Drive, PO Box 110620 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0620
352-392-1901, Ext. 110 I http://entnemdept.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The Department of Entomology and Nematology main-
tains tripartite priorities consistent with the mandate given to
full-service land-grant universities and associated experiment
stations: research, extension, and instruction. This Department
is unusual in that about 35 of its 60 faculty are not located on
the main campus; rather, they are located at 10 Research and
Education Centers distributed through the state. This provides
an exceptional opportunity to address the diverse needs of the
state and for students to work in diverse ecological and crop
production systems.
Entomology and Nematology offers an undergraduate
program leading to a BS., and graduate programs leading to
M.S. (thesis), M.S. (non-thesis) and Ph.D in entomology and
nematology. The Department is one of the largest entomology
programs nation-wide, and one of only a few that offer
comprehensive training in Nematology. Besides providing a
full complement of regular and special topics courses needed
for degree candidates, the Department offers, at the undergrad-
uate level, service courses in basic entomology for a wide
range of disciplines. Further, departmental faculty offer
courses that are credited to the Liberal Arts and Sciences
undergraduate honors and general education requirements.
The Department also participates in a new professional degree
program, the Doctor of Plant Medicine.
Entomology and Nematology faculty and staff garner over
$1 million in extramural and donation support annually for
pursuit of a wide range of research, instruction, and extension
activities. These sources of funding support about 80 graduate
students pursuing M.S. and/or Ph.D.
degrees. About 30% of all graduate
students are international. This, plus
significant collaborative international
research and education efforts, give the
department a strong international
dimension in addition to its domestic
mandate.


Molecular, whole organism, and population ecology
studies are included in the range of supported research within
Entomology and Nematology. The USDA, National Science
Foundation, various agrochemical industries, and the State of
Florida are among the donors sponsoring departmental
research, extension, and instruction programs.

The major areas of emphasis include:
Behavior, Ecology, and Systematics
Biological Control
Integrated Pest Management
Medical, Veterinary and Urban Entomology
Nematology
Physiology, Genetics and Biotechnology

For more information, visit the Web site at
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu
John Capinera, Chairman


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 50







ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


INSECT VIRUSES: BIOCONTROL, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS
Insect pests of agricultural importance have viral
diseases that infect and kill them. Viruses that kill insects
can potentially be used in integrated pest management
programs to minimize the use of chemical pesticides that by
having a broad spectrum are harmful to beneficial insects.
The insect virology research program investigates insect
pathogenic viruses using several approaches from basic
research using molecular biology to the field application as
biological pesticides. A molecular approach can help deter-
mine and elucidate the function of genes involved in patho-
genesis, virulence and host specificity of these pathogens.
This is a key to furthering their use as biological pesticides.
These insect pathogens have been tested in agricultural
crops, such as soybean, in Florida with the cooperation of
industry and university scientists to determine their useful-
ness as biological pesticides. Insect cell cultures are used
extensively to produce, study and manipulate insect patho-
genic viruses. Additionally, insect baculoviruses and insect
cell cultures are being used as molecular expression systems
to produce important proteins for medical, veterinary and
agricultural purposes.

BACULOVIRUSES AS BIOLOGICAL PESTICIDES: The
Anticarsia ,. 1,11,1.,il, baculovirus pathogenic to the
velvetbean caterpillar has been used as a biological pesticide
in Brazil on over two million hectares of soybean. The Brazil
baculovirus program was started by Dr. Flavio Moscardi a
graduate of the Department of Entomology & Nematology at
the University of Florida. We have collaborated with Dr.
Moscardi and tested this biological pesticide with good
results against larvae in Florida soybeans at the Quincy
Research and Education Center with Dr. Joe Funderburk.
The results from this research will help in the registration of
this baculovirus with the Environmental Protection Agency
so that it can be used in Florida and the United States as it is
used in Brazil. The Anticarsia ,. 1,,111,til, baculovirus is
considered the most successful viral pathogen used as a
biological control agent in the world. Other research has
provided complete data on the genome of the Anticarsia
I. ..,1,,il baculovirus. This will provide a foundation to
understand the biological significance of the genetic varia-
tion of this and other baculoviruses. My laboratory and my
Brazilian collaborators are currently performing the bioin-
formatics to determine what genes exist in the baculovirus
genome and how they are involved in virulence and host
specificity.
As we understand which genes are involved in control-
ling virulence and host range, we can begin to improve upon
these key determinants of effectiveness as a biological pesti-
cide. Information about essential genes from a baculovirus
distantly related to the lepidopteran baculoviruses, such as


those from the velvetbean caterpillar, would also help deter-
mine the minimal genes necessary for replication of
baculoviruses. The Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly)
baculovirus is the most diverged baculovirus sequenced to
date because its host, the sawfly, is a hymenoptera. Results
from gene comparison with the sawfly baculovirus will
provide a fundamental basis for the improvement of
baculoviruses. This will help to understand which genes of
baculoviruses are specific for the different insect hosts.
Regions on the baculovirus genome can be found that may
be genetically engineered to expand the host range of to
multiple insect pests in the crop system without harming
beneficial insects.

IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF A BACULOVIRUSES AS
BIOPESTICIDES: Although baculoviruses have been used
successfully as biopesticides and as protein production
systems, there are limitations of using the baculovirus
expression system to make certain gene products such as
insect toxins. The reduction of the yield of the recombinant
viruses containing insect toxic genes decreases their


Jim Maruniak


51 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


possibility to replace chemical pesticides. One of the solu-
tions to eliminate the deleterious effect of these toxins or
other inhibitory gene products on the yield of the recombi-
nant viruses is to block the activity of the toxins during viral
replication. This work should allow any recombinant
baculovirus having a toxic gene to replicate in transformed
cells in yields comparable to normal baculoviruses.
RNA interference (RNAi) or silencing using small
double stranded RNA molecules homologous to certain
genes can be used to block the expression of the genes
causing cytotoxicity or killing the insect host quickly during
the production phase of recombinant baculoviruses carrying
such genes. The RNAi can be used to produce cell lines that
can make double stranded RNA of the toxic gene that will
eventually inhibit the expression of the target gene during
the viral replication in these transformed cells. The function
of the target gene can resume its activity when the virus
replicates in a normal cell line. The RNAi could also be used
to produce transformed insects that could be used as a host
to propagate the recombinant viruses carrying genes with
products that would be deleterious to the nontransformed
host.
We have made additional recombinant viruses that are
helping us determine how RNA silencing functions in insect
cell lines. We are using fluorescent activated cell sorting and
confocal microscopy at the McKnight Brain Institute to
measure the extent of RNA silencing of our recombinant
baculoviruses.


WEST NILE VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY: The research program
also investigates the insects that transmit West Nile Virus, St.
Louis Encephalitis Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis.
Mosquitoes are trapped and determined if they have
arboviruses using cell culture methods and molecular analy-
sis in Biosafety Level 3 containment.
We are determining which species of mosquitoes trans-
mit West Nile Virus in Florida. Mosquitoes are collected
using CDC light traps at the Equine Training Unit on campus
where horses have been infected and at alligator farms where
alligators have been dying of West Nile Virus according to
scientists at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical
College and the Florida Department of Health. Mosquitoes
are also being collected to determine if they are infected with
West Nile Virus at Paynes Prairie and at Seahorse Key off
Cedar Key. Because there are 77 species of mosquitoes in
Florida, it is important to determine which ones are capable
of transmitting West Nile Virus. This information can help
elucidate the epidemiology of the West Nile Virus to predict
which mosquitoes are involved in epidemics and to recom-
mend the appropriate control measures.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 52









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY

John L. Capinera

Carl S. Barfield

Drion G. Boucias

Marc Branham

Jerry F. Butler

Paul M. Choate

William T. Crow

James P. Cuda

Donald W. Dickson

Eileen A. Buss

Thomas R. Fasulo

John L. Foltz

John H. Frank

Harlan G. Hall

Donald W. Hall

Marjorie A. Hoy

Philip G. Koehler

Pauline 0. Lawrence

Norman C. Leppla

Oscar E. Liburd

James E. Maruniak

Heather J. McAuslane

Robert T. Mc Sorley

Julio C. Medal

Faith M. Oi

FrankJ. Slansky

Jerry L. Stimac

Susan E. Webb

RuideXue

Simon S. Yu


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Lecturer

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. In

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Eminent Scholar

Prof.

Prof.

Prof. & Program Director

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

VisitingAsst. In

Asst. Extension Scientist

Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.


SPECIALTY

Pest Management and Ecology

Pest Management

Insect Pathology

Systematics

Vet/Med Entomology

Insect Behavior Instruction

Nematology

Biological Weed Control

Nematology

Ornamental Plants & Turf

Software Development

Forest Insects

Biological Control

Honey Bee Genetics

Medical Entomology

Biological Control

Urban Entomology

Physiology and Biochemistry

Biocontrol and Ecology

Small Fruits and Vegetables

Insect Pathology

Plant Resistance

Nematology

Biological Control

Urban Entomology Termites

Nutritional Ecology

Population Ecology

Virus-Vector Studies, Vegetables

Medical Entomology

Insect Toxicology


TEACHING

10

100


RESEARCH EXTENSION

50 40


53 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


10 90

70 30

20 80

60 10

5 25

5 65

20 70

5 25

o 10

10 70

20 60

10 90

70 30

10 80

25 20

20 80

5 50

10 50

20 80

20 80

20 80

0 100

35 15

20 80

20 80

5 25

0 100

10 90









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH PROJECTS


AUTHOR

Lawrence, P.O.

Dickson, D.W., Dunn, R.A.

Dickson, D.W.


Nation, J.L.

McSorley, R.

Frank, J.H.

Dickson, D.W.

Butler, J.F.


Koehler, P.G., Oi, F.M., Fasulo, T.,
Williams, D., Patterson, R.S.

Foltz, J.L.

Cuda, J.P., Medal, J.C., Pearlstine, L.G.


McSorley, R.

Boucias, D.G., Adams, B., Maruniak, J.


Frank, J.H., Cuda, .P., Hoy, M.A., Leppla, N.C.,
Capinera, J.L., Hall, D.W.


ENY-o3942 Yu, S.J.

ENY-o3945 Webb, S.E.

ENY-o3961 Hall, H.G., Wu, R.


ENY-o3982 Maruniak, J.E.


ENY-o3994 Hall, H.G., Wu, R.

ENY-o4003-C Cuda, J.P., Medal, J.C.

ENY-o4003-H Hoy, M.A.

ENY-o4003-L Leppla, N.C., Pantoja, A., Frank, J.H.

ENY-o4008 Dickson, D.W., Ou, L., Locascio, S., No[ing, J.,
Roberts, P., Bryant, H.

ENY-o4011 Adams, B.J.


ENY-04012-L Liburd, O.E., Nuessly, D.J., Schuster, D.J.,
Funderburk, J.E., Stansly, P.A., Leibee, G.L.,
Webb, S.E.

ENY-04012-W Webb, S.E., Nuessly, G.S., Schuster, D.J.,
Funderburk, J.E., Stansly, P.A., Leibee, G.L.,
Liburd, O.E.

ENY-04022 Liburd, O.E.

ENY-o4025 McAuslane, H.J., Liburd, O.E.


ENY-o4030 Butler, J.F.

ENY-o4059 Liburd, O.E.

ENY-o4065 McSorley, R., McGovern, R.J., Wang, K.H.,
Gallager, R.N., Kokalis-Burelle, N.


PROJECT NO.

ENY-o3507

ENY-o3613

ENY-o3703


ENY-o3723

ENY-o3788

ENY-o3796

ENY-o3798

ENY-o3824


ENY-o3845


ENY-o3860

ENY-o3867


ENY-o3906

ENY-o3924


ENY-o3934


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 54


TITLE

Interactions Between a Parasitic Wasp and Its Insect Host

Biology and Management of Nematodes Affecting Agronomic and Horticultural Crops

Role ofAdhesin Epitopes on Attachment of Pasteuria Endospores to Phytopathogenic
Nematodes

Conservation and Laboratory Rearing of Butterflies

Development of Ecological Methods for Nematode Management

Biological Control of Scapteriscus Mole Crickets

Biologically Based IPM Systems for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Systems for Controlling Air Pollutant Emissions and Indoor Environments of Poultry,
Swine, and Dairy Facilities

Household Pest Management


Interactions Among Bark Beetles, Pathogens, and Conifers in North American Forests

Classical Biological Control of Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius
(Anacardiaceae), in Florida

Integrating Pest Management Alternatives with Sustainable Crop Production

Development, Evaluation, and Safety of Entomopathogens for Control of
Arthropod Pests

Biological Control of Arthropod Pests and Weeds


Toxicology of Agriculturally Important Insect Pests of Florida

Incidence and Variability of Cucurbit Viruses in Florida and Puerto Rico

Selection of Honey Bees for Suppressed Reproduction of the Parasitic Varroa Mite and
mapping of the Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL) Involved

Baculovirus Genomics and Phylogeny Based Upon the DNA Sequence of Neodiprion
Sertifer Nucleopolyhedrovirus

OTL Involved in Suppression of Varroa Mite Reproduction on Honey Bees

Biological Control of the Invasive Strawberry Guava for Caribfly Suppression

Classical Biological Control of the Brown Citrus Aphid in Florida
Release and Evaluate an Exoitic Nematode for Mole Cricket Control in Puerto Rico

Multi-tacticApproach to pest Management for Methyl Bromide Dependent Crops
in Florida

A Comparative Analysis of Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes: A Novel Approach to
Controlling Insect Pests and Plant Pathogens

Biology and management of Arthropd Pests of Vegetables



Biology and Management of Arthropod Pests of Vegetables



Protecting High Value Fruit from Key Agricultural Pests

Chemical Ecology and Management of Insect Pests of Blueberry, Vaccinium spp.,
in Florida

Sources, Dispersal and Management of Stable Flies on Grazing Beef and Dairy

A Multifaceted Approach for Control of Blueberry Pests in Southern United States

Effects of Management Practices on Pests, Pathogens, and Beneficial in Soil
Ecosystems









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.

ENY-o4080-A

ENY-o4080-F

ENY-o4080-L

ENY-o4097

ENY-o4137


ENY-o4138


AUTHOR

Liburd, O.E.

Frank, J.H.

Liburd, O.E.

Buss, E.A.

Leppla, N.C., Larson, B.C.


Leppla, N.C.


PUBLICATIONS








Acevedo, J., D. Boucias, R. Lezama and A. Pescador. 2003. Novel Metabolites of
Hirsutella Thompsonii FISHER Inhibits Oviposition by the Two-spotted
Spider Mites Tetranychus Urticae KOCH. Applied and Experimental
Acarology. 29:213-225.
Adjei, M.B., J.H. Frank and C.S. Gardner. 2003. Survey of Pest Mole Crickets
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) Activity on Pastures in South-central Florida.
Florida Entomologist. 86:199-205.
Barbara, K.A. and E.A. Buss. 2003. Interactions between Mole Crickets and
Insect-parasitic Nematodes (Steinernema scapterisci, Nematac S). The Florida
Green. Spring. pp. 56.
Bekele, J., A.J. Ngi-Song and W.A. Overholt. 2003. Olfactory Responses of
Cotesia Flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Target and Non-target
Lepidoptera and Their Host Plants. Biological Control. 28(3):360-367.
Branham, M.A., R.A. Broadley and J.W. Wenzel. 2003. McGraw-Hill Yearbook
of Science and Technology. New York, NY. pp. 33-36.
Branham, M.A. 2003. A New Technique for Collecting Glowworm Fireflies
(Lampyridae). Coleopterists Bulletin. 57(1):114-115.
Branham, M.A. and J.W. Wenzel. 2003. The Origin of Photic Behavior and the
Evolution of Sexual Communication in Fireflies (Coleoptera: Elateroidea).
Cladistics. 19(1):1-22.
Brito, J.A., J.F. Preston, D.W. Dickson, D.S. Williams, H.C. Aldrich, R. Giblin-
Davis and J.D. Rice. 2003. Temporal Formation and Immunolocalization of an
Endospore Surface Epitope During Pasteuria Penetrans Dporogenesis. Journal
of Nematology. 35:278-288.
Brooks, S., FM. Oi and P.G. Koehler. 2003. Ability of Canine Termite Detectors
to Locate Live Termites and Discriminate them from Non-yermite Material. J.
Econ. Entomol. 96:1259-1266.
Buss, E.A. and J.B. Unruh. 2003. Florida Lawn Handbook. University of
Florida IFAS.
Buss, E.A. 2003. To Treat or not to Treat for Bugs? Golfdom: Turfgrass Trends.
59(11):37-42.
Buss, E.A. and J. Foltz. 2003. How to Beat Borers. Ornamental Outlook. July.
pp. 16-18.
Chinwada, P., W.A. Overholt, C.O. Omwega and J.M. Mueke. 2003. Geographic
Differences in Host Acceptance and Suitability of Two Cotesia Sesamiae
Populations in Zimbabwe. Biological Control. 28(3):354-359.
Choate, P.M. 2003. A Field Guide and Identification Manual to Florida and
Eastern US Tiger Beetles. University Press of Florida.


TITLE

Utilization of Living Mulches to Suppress Cucurbit Pests

Controlling Mexican Bromeliad Weevil

Utilization of Living Mulches to Suppress Cucurbit Pets

Management Strategies forArthropod Pests ofTurfgrass and Ornamental Plans

Incorporating Alternative, Multi-tactic IPM into the Crop Planning Process of Florida
Vegetable Growers

loth Workshop of the IOBC Global Working Group on Arthropod Mass Rearing and
Quality Control


Crow, W.T. and N.R. Walker. 2003. Diagnosis of Peltamigratus christiei from
Warm-season Turfgrasses in the Southern United States. Plant Health
Progress. pp. 1.
Crow, W.T., R.M. Giblin-Davis and D.W. Lickfeldt. 2003. Slit-jection of 1,3-
Dichloropropene for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Established
Bermudagrass. Journal of Nematology. 35:302-305.
Crow, W.T. 2003. Are Alternatives to Traditional Nematicides a Real
Possibility? USGA Green Section Record. 41(6):7-8.
Crow, W.T. 2003. Not All Stubby-root Nematodes are Created Equal. Florida
Turf Digest. 20(5):20-22.
Crow, W.T. 2003. Research Highlights Future Nematode Treatments. Golfdom.
59(10):76.
Cuda, J.P. 2003. Monitoring the Establishment, Distribution and Impact of Two
Biological Control Agents on Hydrilla Verticillata in the Wacissa River
Watershed. FLDEP Contract No. 849 TA26, Progress Report. Entomology and
Nematology Department. University of Florida.
Cuda, J.P. 2003. Classical Biological Control of Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus
Terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), in Florida. FLDEP Contract No. 849 Annual
Report. Entomology and Nematology Department. University of Florida.
Cuda, J.P. 2003. Prospects for Classical Biological Control of Torpedo Grass,
Panicum repens L. (Poaceae), with Host Specific Arthropods. Entomology and
Nematology Department. University of Florida.
Cuda, J.P., D.H. Habeck, S.D. Hight, J.C. Medal and J.H. Pedrosa. 2003.
Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. State University
Press. Corvallis, Oregon.
DeSalle, R., M.A. Branham, P. O'Grady and J. Gatesy. 2003. The Evolution of
HomC Homeoboxes in the Dipteran Family Drosophilidae. Insect Molecular
Biology. 12(4):345-351.
Emana, G., WA. Overholt and C.O. Omwega. 2003. Evidence of the
Establishment of Cotesia Flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a
Parasitoid of Cereal Stemborers, and its Host Range Expansion in Ethiopia.
Bulletin of Entomological Research. 93:125-129.
Emana, G., WA. Overholt and E. Kairu. 2003. Comparative Studies on the
Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Developmental Time
of Two Populations of Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron). Ethiopian Journal of
Biological Sciences. 2:49-60.
Frank, J.H. 2003. Book Review: A Color Handbook of Biological Control in
Plant Protection. Florida Entomologist. 86:497.
Frank, J.H. 2003. Book Review: Insects Revealed. Monsters or Marvels? Florida
Entomologist. 86:498.
Frank, J.H. 2003. Book Review: Guia para los Generos de Staphylinidae
(Coleoptera): de Mexico. Florida Entomologist. 86:499.
Frank, J.H. and T.J. Walker. 2003. Mole Crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in
Jamaica. Florida Entomologist. 86:484-485.
Frank, J.H., A. Arevalo and K.A. Barbara. 2003. The Little Wasp that Really
Can. Florida Turf Digest. 20(4):18-24.


55 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS








Giblin-Davis, R., D.S. Williams, S. Bekal, D.W. Dickson, J.A. Brito, J.O. Becker
and J.F. Preston. 2003.'Candidatus Pasteuria Usage' sp. Nov., an Obligate
Endoparasite of the Phytoparasitic Nematode, Belonolaimus Longicaudatus.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53:197-
200.
Giblin-Davis, R.M. and WT. Crow. 2003. Nematicidal Potential of Mustard-
based Products Excites Researchers. Florida Turf Digest. 20(1):18-19.
Gohole, L., W.A. Overholt, Z.R. Khan, J.A. Pickett and L.E. Vet. 2003. Effect of
Molasses Grass, Melinis Minutiflora Volatiles on the Foraging Behavior of the
Cereal Stemborer Parasitoid, Cotesia Sesamiae. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
29:1-9.
Gohole, L., W.A. Overholt, Z.R. Khan and L.E. Vet. 2003. Role of Volatiles
Emitted by Host and Non-host Plants in the Foraging Behavior of
Dentichasmias Busseola, a Pupal Parasitoid of the Spotted Stemborer Chilo
Partellus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 107:1-9.
Grenier, S., P. De Clercq and N.C. Leppla. 2003. Arthropod Mass Rearing and
Quality Control, the 10th Workshop, IOBC Working Group. IOBC, WPRS.
Montpellier, France.
Hamill, J.E. and D.W Dickson. 2003. Sting Nematode Plagues Local
Strawberry Growers During the 2002-2003 Season. Berry/Vegetable Times. 3:1.
Hamill, J.E., O.E. Liburd and S.R. Aim. 2003. Comparison of Biodegradable,
Plastic and Wooden Imidacloprid-treated Spheres for Control of Rhagoletis
mendax (Diptera: Tephritidae) Flies. Florida Entomologist. 86(2):206-210.
Hill, S.L. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. Interactions between the Red Imported Fire Ant
Solenopsis Invicta and the Parasitoid Lipolexis Scutellaris Potentially Affect
Classical Biological Control of the Aphid Toxoptera Citricida. Biological
Control. 27:11-19.
Hodges, A.C., G.S. Hodges and K.E. Espelie. 2003. New Publication. Annals of
the Entomology Society of America. 96:61-64.
Hoy, M.A. and J.M. Alvarez. 2003. Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii, 14-18
January 2002. USDA Forest Service. Morgantown, West Virginia. pp. 75-89.
Hoy, M.A. 2003. Insect Molecular Genetics, Second Edition. Academic Press.
Huang, J., H.J. McAuslane and G.S. Nuessly. 2003. Resistance in Lettuce to
Diabrotica balteata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): The Roles of Latex and
Inducible Defenses. Environmental Entomology. 32(1):9-16.
Huang, J., G.S. Nuessly, H.J. McAuslane and R.T. Nagata. 2003. Effects of
Screening Methods on Expression of Romaine Lettuce Resistance to Adult
Banded Cucumber Beetle, Diabrotica balteata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
Florida Entomologist. 86(2):194-198.
James, B., P. Neuenschwander, R. Markham, P. Anderson, A. Brown, W.A.
Overholt, Z. Khan, K. Makkouk and A. Emechebe. 2003. Integrated Pest
Management in the Global Arena. CAB International. Wallington, Oxon, UK.
Jeyaprakash, A., M.A. Hoy and M.H. Allsop. 2003. Bacterial Diversity in
Worker Adults of Apis Mellifera Capensis and A. M. Scutellata (Insecta:
Hymenoptera) Assessed Using 16S rRNA Sequences. Journal of Invertebrate
Pathology. 84:96-103.
Khan, Z.R., W.A. Overholt and A. Mengech. 2003. Integrated Pest Management
in the Global Arena. CAB International. Wallington, Oxon, UK.
Khan, Z.R., A. Hassanali, T.M. Khamis, W.A. Overholt, A.M. Hooper, J.A.
Pickett, L.J. Wadhams and C.M. Woodcock. 2003. Control of Witchweed, Striga
Hermonthica, by Intercropping with Desmodium spp. and the Mechanism
Defined as Allelopathic. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
28(9):1871-1885.
Lawrence, P.O. 2003. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer. The Netherlands.
Legaspi, J.C., C. Gardner, J.P. Cuda and N.C. Leppla. 2003. Demonstrating
Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers to Resource-limited Producers.
CESTA-FAMU. Tallahassee, FL.
Leppla, N.C. 2003. Principles and Procedures for Rearing High Quality
Insects. Mississippi State University Press.
Leppla, N.C. 2003. Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Dordrecht, The Netherlands.


Leppla, N.C. 2003. Quality Control of Natural Enemies Used in Biological Pest
Control: Theoretical Background and Development of Testing Procedures.
CABI Publishing. Wallingford, United Kingdom. pp. 19-24.
Leppla, N.C., K.A. Bloem and R.F. Luck. 2003. Quality Control for Mass-reared
Arthropods, the 8th and 9th Workshops of the IOBC Working Group on
Quality Control of Mass-Reared Arthropods. IOBC, WPRS. Santa Barbara,
California.
Liburd, O.E., E.M. Finn, K.L. Pettit and J.C. Wise. 2003. Response of Blueberry
Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Imidacloprid-treated Spheres and
Selected Classes of Insecticides. Canadian Entomologists. 135:427-438.
Liburd, O.E. 2003. Protecting High- value Fruit from Key Rhagoletis Species.
North Central Regional Integrated Pest Management Grants Programs 1998-
2000. Illinois.
Lobinske, R.J., J.L. Stimac and A. Ali. 2003. A Spatially Explicit Model for
Immature Distributions of Glyptotendipes Paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) in
Central Florida Lakes. Hydrobiologia. pp. 1.
McSorley, R. and S.H. Thomas. 2003. Diseases Caused by Nematodes.
American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN. pp. 46-49.
McSorley, R. 2003. Adaptations of Nematodes to environmental extremes.
Florida Entomologist. 86:138-142.
Medal, J.C., H. Norambuena and D. Gandolfo. 2003. Proceedings of the'First
Latin-American Course on Biological Control of Weeds (in Spanish).
University of Florida-IFAS.
Medal, J.C. 2003. Implementation of Biological Control of Tropical Soda Apple:
Annual Report.
Medal, J.C. 2003. Biological Control of Tropical Soda Apple: Research Update.
Mochiah, M.B., A.J. Ngi-Song, W.A. Overholt and M. Botchey. 2003. Variation
in Total and Differential Haemocyte Count of Busseola Fusca Fuller
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Parasitized by Two Biotypes of Cotesia Sesamiae
(Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Larval Growth Responses.
Environmental Entomology. 32:247-255.
Mochiah, M.B., A.J. Ngi-Song, W.A. Overholt and R. Stouthamer. 2003.
Variation in Encapsulation Sensitivity of Cotesia Sesamiae (Cameron)
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Biotypes to Busseola Fusca (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 105:111-118.
Mohamed, S.A., W.A. Overholt, R.A. Wharton, S.A. Lux and E.M. Eltoum.
2003. Host Specificity of Psyttalia Consyrae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and
the Effect of Different Host Species on Parasitoid Fitness. Biological Control.
28:155-163.
Mwaengo, D. and P.O. Lawrence. 2003. A Putative DNA Helicase and Novel
Oligoribonuclease in the Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Entomopoxvirus
(DIEPV). Archives of Virology. 148:1431-1444.
Oi, F.M., S.E. Brooks and P.G. Koehler. 2003. Top Dog, Part I. Pest Control
Technology. Jan 2003. pp. 30-84.
Oi, F.M., S.E. Brooks and P.G. Koehler. 2003. Top Dog, Part II. Pest Control
Technology. Sept. 2003. pp. 68-74.
Osborne, L.S. and J.P. Cuda. 2003. Release of Exotic Natural Enemies for
Biological Control: A Case of Damned if We do and Damned if We don't.
Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law. 18(2):399-408.
Overholt, W.A., D.E. Conlong, R. Kfir, F. Schulthess and M. Setamou. 2003.
Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa. CABI. Wallington, Oxon, UK. pp.
131-144.
Perez, E.E., D.P. Weingartner, R. McSorley and R. Littell. 2003. Estimates of
Sample Size for Detection and Estimation of Incidence and Severity of Corky
Ringspot of Potato. J. Potato Res. 80:117-124.
Persad, A.B. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. Intra- and Interspecific Interactions between
Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Lipolexis scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)
Reared on Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic
Entomology. 96:564-569.
Persad, A.B. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. Predation by Solenopsis Invicta and Blattella
Asahinai on Toxoptera Citricida Parasitized by Lysiphlebus Testaceipes and
Lipolexis Oregmae on Citrus in Florida. Biological Control. pp. 1.
Persad, A.B. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. Manipulation of Female Parasitoid Age
Enhances Laboratory Culture of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera:
Aphidiidae) Reared on Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Florida
Entomologist. 86(4):429-436.
Preston, J.F., D.W. Dickson, J.E. Maruniak, G. Nong, J.A. Brito, L.M. Schmitt
and R. Giblin-Davis. 2003. Pasteuria spp.: Systematic and Phylogeny of These
Bacterial Parasitess of Phytopathogenic Nematodes. Journal of Nematology.
35:198-207.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 56








PUBLICATIONS








Preston, J.F, D.W. Dickson, J.E. Maruniak, G. Nong, J.A. Brito, L.M. Schmidt
and R. Giblin-Davis. 2003. Pasteuria spp.: Systematic Phylogeny of These
Bacterial Parasites of Phytopathogenic Nematodes. Journal of Nematology.
35:198-207.
Sarzynski, E.M. and O.E. Liburd. 2003. Techniques for Monitoring Cranberry
Tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Rabbiteye and Southern Highbush
Blueberries. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(6):1821-1827.
Schmitt, L.M., J.F Preston, D.W. Dickson, J.D. Rice and T.E. Hewlett. 2003.
Environmental Quantification of Pasteuria Penetrans Endospores Using
Antigen Extraction and Immunodection with a Monoclonal Antibody. FEMS
Microbiology Ecology. pp. 1.
Shabana, Y.M., J.P. Cuda and R. Charudattan. 2003. Evaluation of Pathogens as
Potential Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla. J. Phytopathology. 151:1-7.
Skelley, L.H. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. A Synchronous Rearing Method for the
Asian Citrus Psyllid and its Parasitoids in Quarantine. Biological Control.
29:14-23.
Tartar, A., D. Boucias, B. Adams and J. Becnel. 2003. Comparison of Plastid
16S rDNA (rrnl6) Genes from Helicosporidium spp.: Evidence Supporting the
Reclassification of Helicosporidia as Green Algae (Chlorophyta). International
J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 53:1719-1723.
Thomas, J.E., L.H. Allen, Jr., L.A. McCormack, J.C. Vu, D.W. Dickson and L.T.
Ou. 2003. Diffusion and Emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene in Florida Sandy
Soil in Microplots Affected by Soil Moisture, Organic Matter, and Plastic Film.
Pest Management Science. 60:1.


Tucker, C.L., F.M. Oi and P.G. Koehler. 2003. Influence of Soil compaction on
Tunnel Network Construction by Reticulitermes Flavipes (Kollar) (ISOPTERA:
RHINOTERMITIDAE). J. Econ. Entomol. pp. 1.
Tucker, C.L., P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi. 2003. Soil Compaction Influences on
Tunnel Network Construction by Reticulitermes Flavipes (Kollar). J. Econ.
Entomol. pp. 1.
Walker, A.M. and M.A. Hoy. 2003. Responses of Lipolexis Oregmae
(Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to Different Instars of Toxoptera Citricida
(Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(6):1685-1692.
Wallace, J. and J.P. Cuda. 2003. UF Tests Biological Controls. Florida
Cattleman. pp. 1.
Wang, K., R. McSorley and R.N. Gallaher. 2003. Effect of Crotalaria Juncea
Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural
Histories. J. Nematol. 35:294-301.
Wineriter, S.A., G.R. Buckingham and J.H. Frank. 2003. Host Range of
Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a Potential Biocontrol
Agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (Myrtaceae), Under
Quarantine. Biological Control. 27:273-292.
Yu, S.S. 2003. Encyclopedia Entomology. J.L. Kluwer.
Yu, S.S. 2003. Biochemical Characteristics of Insecticide Resistance in the Fall
Armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda (.E. Smith). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.
77:1-11.
Zaki, T.I. and J.E. Maruniak. 2003. Three Polymorphic Genes Encoding a
Depressant Toxin from the Egyptian Scorpion Leiurus Quinquestriatus
Quinquestriatus. Toxicon. 41:109-113.
Zhou, G., W.A. Overholt and S.W. Kimani-Njogu. 2003. Species Richness and
Parasitism in an Assemblage of Parasitoids Attacking Maize Stem Borers in
Coastal Kenya. Ecological Entomology. 28:109-118.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY


TITLE


Adams, B.J. Leveraging Taxonomic Expertise in Existing Research Programs
Vargas, R. Utilizing Steineemea Scrapterisci for Control of Mole Cricket
Adams, B.J. Trait Deterioration in Entomopathogen Nematodes
Boucias, D.G. Mechanisms for Biosynthesis, Release & Detection of Volatile
Chemicals in Plant Insect Interatcions
Boucias, D.G. Cell Structure and Biology of Heliosporidum a Unique Group of
Adams, B.J. Invertrebrate Pathogens
Boucias, D.G. Reu Supplement: Cell Structure and Biology of Heliosporidum
Aunique Group of Invertrebrate Pathogens
Boucias, D.G. Isolation of Microbes Toxic to the Corn Rootworm Diabrotica
Virgifera
Boucias, D.G. Mechanisms for Biosynthesis, Release & Detection of Volatile
Chemicals in Plant Insect Interatcions
Buss, E.A. Biology and Management of Kermes Scale on Live Oak
Buss, E.A. Evaluation of Integrated Pest Management Practices in Urban
Leppla, N.C. Turfgrass
Cuda, J.P. Biological Control of the Invasive Strawberry Guava for Caribfly
Medal, J.C. Suppression
Dickson, D.W. Multi-tacticApproach to Pest Management for Methyl Bromide
Dependent Crops in Florida
Dickson, D.W. Optimization of Metam Sodium Application Methods for Maximum
Efficacy and Minimum Volatilization Losses

Frank, J.H. Controlling Mexican Bromeliad Weevil
Hall, H.G. Qtl Involved in Suppression of Farroa Mite Reproduction on
Wu, R. Honey Bees
Hall, H.G. Improvement of DNA Delivery for Gene Transfer in Economically
Important


SOURCE OF FUNDS

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


National Science Foundation


National Science Foundation


Syngenta Biotechnology


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


City of Clearwater
Environmental Protection Agcy.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Texas A&M University


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


57 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AMOUNT

$51,376.00


$26,500.00

$135,000.00


$163,600.00


$36,000.00


$40,000.00


$215,854.00


$15,ooo.oo
$67,072.00


$24,584.00


$397,000.00


$18,012.00


$70,000.00
$180,000.00


$180,000.00









ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY


GRANTS & CONTRACTS

FACULTY TITLE
Hall, H.G. Improvement of DNA Delivery Gene Transfer in Economically
Important Insect
Hoy, M.A. Classical Biological Control of the Brown Citrus Aphid in Florida
Hoy, M.A. Classical Biological Control of Citrus Psylla & Pink Mealybug
Koehler, P.G. Cellulose Inhibitors of Termites
Oi, F.M.
Lawrence, P.O. Interatcions of an Entomopoxvirus, its ParasiticWasp and their
Insect Host: Viral Morphogenesis and Gene Expression
Lawrence, P.O. Reu-interactions of an Entomopoxvirus, its Parasitic Wasp & their
Insect Host: Viral Morphogenesis and Gene Expression
Leppla, N.C. Efficacy ofSulfuryl Flouride as Methyl Bromide Alternative in
Processing Mills
Leppla, N.C. Release and Evaluate an Exotic Nematode for Mole Cricket Control
Frank, J.H. in Puerto Rico
Leppla, N.C. Increasing Adoption of Reduced Risk Practices in the Production
of Woody Ornamentals
Liburd, O.E. Utilization of living Mulches to Suppress Cucurbit Pests
Liburd, O.E. Developing an IPM Program for Management of Flower Thrips in
Florida Blueberry Plantings
McSorley, R.T. Effects of Management Practices on Pests, Pathogens, and
Gallaher, R.N. Beneficials in Soil Ecosystems
McSorley, R.T. Management of Root-knot Nematodes in Field Production of Floral
and Ornamental Crops
Webb, S.E. Incidence and Variability of Cucurbit Viruses in Florida and
Hiebert, E. Puerto Rico
Webb, S.E. Management of Insects on Potatoes with a New Insecticide
USA-o3-816


SOURCE OF FUNDS
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
Procter & Gamble Company


National Science Foundation


National Science Foundation


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Environmental Protection Agcy


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
FL Fruit and Veg. Res. & Ed. Fdtn.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of Puerto Rico


Dupont Company


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 58


AMOUNT
$127,050.00


$35,000.00
$32,000.00
$190,000.00


$105,679.00


$18,750.00


$40,500.00

$24,850.00


$39,870.00


$46,466.00
$39,692.00


$245,474.00


$21,950.00


$20,040.00


$2,000.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE
1545 Fifield Hall, PO Box 110670 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0670
352-392-1831 | http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The Department of Environmental Horticulture is
committed to developing and communicating scientifically
based research and information on the enhancement of inte-
rior and exterior living environments through the use of orna-
mental plant material and turfgrasses. Environmental
Horticulture plays a dominant role in Florida's agricultural
economy with the production, sales and maintenance of orna-
mental plants (woody plants, floricultural crops, foliage plants,
bedding plants, and cut foliage) exceeding $5 billion per year.
Turfgrass production and maintenance, an integral part of
Florida's tourism industry, adds another $7 billion to state
economy while golf courses contribute $5 billion to the
economy of Florida. Environmental Horticulture faculty
located in Gainesville and at Research and Education Centers
from Jay to Homestead are addressing the following research
areas:
Water Management and Plant Nutrition Identify,
develop and disseminate environmentally and economically
sound technologies that will increase production and utiliza-
tion efficiencies as well as protect or improve environmental
quality. Research is providing significant results leading to
water conservation in nurseries, landscapes and on golf
courses. New research will address the water and fertilizer
requirements of turfgrasses and landscape plants.
Landscape Conservation and Ecology Florida, by virtue
of its size, diversity, geographic location and multiple climatic
zones provides unique opportunities for modeling a sustain-
able horticultural industry in subtropical and tropical regions
throughout the world. The components of the success of this
model are development of appropriate propagation and
production techniques and introduction of new plants to the
industry. Research to develop micropropagation techniques
has led to rapid availability of sea oats and wetland plants for
beach and landscape restoration. An additional component,
invasive plant evaluation, is being addressed for existing plants
and new plant introductions.
Biotechnology, Plant Breeding and New Crop
Development We are striving to develop horticultural char-
acteristics, disease and host/plant resistance through classical
genetics and molecular techniques, allowing us to create
marketable products for consumers. Today, the floral biotech-
nology program is among the leading programs nationally and
internationally.
Plant Production Management An important source of
sound research-based information to the professional horticul-
tural industry, the scientific community and the
consumer/student. This program is viewed as a leader in crop
production and physiology information and will set an
example for the industry in environmentally safe practices.
Consumer Horticulture-People, Plants and the
Environment Communicate environmentally sound


landscape and gardening practices to the citizens of Florida in
order to sustain the natural beauty and protect the natural
resources of Florida, and to promote quality of life for resi-
dents and tourists.
Postharvest/Post Production Address the needs of the
foliage and floriculture market chain. Currently the best inte-
rior evaluation facilities in the US are located within this
department, and it is the only program nationally addressing
whole plant longevity on a broad scale. Additional research is
being conducted to improve the performance of fresh cut
flowers for the consumer.
Landscape and Turfgrass Management Develop and
provide research based principles and practices to government
agencies, landscape professionals, golf course superintendents,
sod producers and consumers that will ensure the successful
establishment of landscape plants and turfgrass without
polluting the environment or wasting resources. These projects
range from the proper use of fertilizer in the landscape to the
fate of pesticides on golf courses.

The Environmental Horticulture Program addresses the
use of ornamental plants and turfgrasses for home and
commercial landscapes and for beautification in the home and
office. Today, teaching, research and extension programs blend
current day recommendations with the need to maintain and
enhance our environment and preserve our natural resources.
Florida faces many challenges in the future with efficient water
use and prevention of runoff, production of a broad range of
plant material for distribution world-wide and the need for
highly qualified individuals to fill critical industry jobs. The
faculty and staff in Environmental Horticulture are poised to
meet these challenges with sound scientific research that is
recognized throughout the world.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 60







ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


NOVEL APPROACHES TO LANDSCAPE
RESTORATION/CONSERVATION

SIGNIFICANCE: Although wetlands are now recognized as
being important for maintaining water quality, recharging
groundwater, providing unique wildlife habitats and storing
flood waters, more than 90% of Florida's coastal and inland
wetlands have been destroyed or negatively impacted. It is
estimated that U.S. freshwater and coastal wetlands
combined provide approximately $30,000/hectare each year
in services. Federal and State statutes require rehabilitation
of degraded wetlands, or replacement of destroyed wetlands
(mitigation), through extensive planting and successful
establishment of herbaceous and woody plant species. The
aesthetically pleasing appearance of wetlands and their use
as efficient biological filters for excess nutrients in storm
water runoff has stimulated integrated use of herbaceous
wetland plants around retention ponds in urban areas and
in the construction of treatment wetlands to enhance water
quality. Large-scale habitat restoration projects are often
associated with phosphate mining operations and coastal
and inland wetland mitigation sites associated with develop-
ment. Consequently, the increased demand for plants has
promoted a rapidly expanding native wetland and coastal
plant nursery industry in Florida.
The demand for native plants is presently met from
several sources, including nursery-grown plants from seed,
propagules in mulch from destroyed wetlands, and bare-root
transplants obtained from on-site or donor wetland sites.
The most prevalent practice, however, for many companies
involved in wetland restoration/mitigation have been to
collect plant material from donor sites for replanting else-
where. In Florida, the Department of Environmental
Protection, allows permitees to collect aquatic/wetland
plants from donor sites in a manner that provides for
reasonable assurance of sustaining native plant populations.
Although this rule has provides a low-cost, short-term solu-
tion to the problem, accelerated urbanization and a greater
demand for wetland plants has lead to over-collection in and
subsequent damage to numerous wetland plant donor sites.
Increased restrictions on field collection have promoted
efforts to develop more efficient nursery production prac-
tices for wetland plants including the use of in vitro propa-
gation (micropropagation).

RATIONALE: Nursery production of native plants for restora-
tion/mitigation often raises two ecologically important
concerns: 1) the lack of knowledge and maintenance of
genetic diversity within vegetatively propagated species and
2) the potential negative results following introduction of
plants genetically mismatched to specific wetland site condi-
tions. Some regulatory agencies have attempted to set guide-
lines that restrict collections of either bare-root transplants


or propagules for nursery production from local popula-
tions within a limited radial distance from planting sites.
Revegetation projects strictly specifying use of plant materi-
als obtained on-site are becoming more prevalent. These
restrictions limit sufficient availability of plants produced
using conventional propagation methods. However, the rela-
tionship between geographical source distance and wetland
plant adaptability remains unknown. Regulation of collec-
tion distance alone does not ensure use of physiologically
adaptable plants. Studies of freshwater and tidal marsh
species indicate that morphologically and physiologically
distinct populations can develop over short distances in
response to habitat differences. The application of micro-
propagation technology for selection, long-term storage and
propagation of wetland plant ecological varieties (ecotypes)
from populations adapted to particular site conditions may
more effectively ensure wetland restoration/creation success
with respect to establishment of ecological structure and
function. Clearly, more information is needed concerning
the degree of ecotypic variation within native plant popula-
tions and the advantages and limitations of exploiting this


Michael Kane


61 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


variation for habitat restoration. Validation of this approach
requires: 1) characterization of the magnitude of genetic
differentiation within and between plant populations and 2)
development of an efficient system to propagate uniform
genotypes selected for reciprocal transplantation and
common environment studies.


IMPACT: Our lab has developed modified DNA based finger-
printing procedures to evaluate native plant population
diversity and structure and differentiate genotypes. Efficient
micropropagation protocols were developed to produce and
store wetland species including Pontederia cordata, Sagittaria
latifolia and the dune species Uniola paniculata (sea oats).
Early growth comparisons of micropropagated genotypes
under greenhouse conditions demonstrate significant differ-
ences in growth rate, morphology and flowering. Subsequent


multiple year field trials demonstrate that many of these
differences are observed following transplantation. In
general, micropropagated plants exhibit rapid establishment
and high survival under field conditions. Our studies clearly
demonstrate that native plant micropropagation is an effi-
cient propagation method. Uniola genotypes have been
released to Florida commercial micropropagation laborato-
ries for evaluation.


COLLABORATORS: S. Wilson, UF/IFAS Indian River Research
& Education Center; W. Vendrame, UF/IFAS Tropical Research
and Education Center; G. Thursby, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency; D. Sylvia, Department of Crop and Soil
Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University. D. Crewz, Florida
Marine Research Institute; .. R. Stocker, UF/IFAS Center for
Aquatic and Invasive Plants; O. Bundy Sr., EcoGroup, Inc.


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY


TITLE


Terrill A. Nell


Chair and Prof.


James E. Barrett

David G. Clark

Bijan Dehgan

Everett R. Emino

Edward F. Gilman

Charles L.Guy

Lisa A. Hall


Michael E. Kane

Dennis B. McConnell

Grady L. Miller

Richard K. Schoelhorn

Laurie E. Trenholm


Tom Wichman


Prof.


Assoc. Prof.

Prof.


Prof.


Crd. Academic Programs


Prof.


Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.


Extension Agent II


Thomas H. Yeager


SPECIALTY

Floriculture

Floriculture


Floriculture/Biotechnology

Taxonomy

Floriculture

Arboriculture/Landscaping

Biotechnology

Education/Recruitment


Tissue Culture

Foliage

Turfgrass

Floriculture


Turfgrass/Urban Horticulture

Master Gardener Program

Woody Ornamentals


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


25 55 20

30 70 o

30 70 o

70 30 o

20 80 0


45 50


30 70 o

100 0 0

30 70 o

70 30 o

60 40 o

30 o 70

5 45 50


0 100


5 25 70


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 62









ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.

ENH-o3609


ENH-o3669


ENH-o3791


ENH-o3870

ENH-o3914


ENH-o3922


ENH-o4003

ENH-o4033

ENH-o4046

ENH-o4054


ENH-o4069


AUTHOR

Dudeck, A.E., Barrett, J.E., Clark, D.G.
Dehgan, B.

Bradley, J.C.


Nell, T.A.


Guy, C.L.

Gabosky, J.C., Gilman, E.


Trenholm, L.E., Unruh, J.B.


Dehgan, B., Guy, C.L.

Miller, G.L.

Clark, D.G.

Guy, C.L.


Emino, E.R., Schoellhorn, R.K.


PUBLICATIONS








Baum, M.C., M.D. Dukes and G.L. Miller. 2003. Residential Irrigation Water
Reduction Based on Deficit Irrigation. Florida Turf Digest. 20(5):14-18.
Beeson, R.C. and T.H. Yeager. 2003. Canopy Affects Sprinkler Irrigation
Application Efficiency of Container-grown Ornamentals. HortScience.
38:1373-1377.

Busey, P. 2003. Biology, Breeding, and Genetics of Turfgrasses. Ann Arbor
Press. Ann Arbor, Michigan. pp. 309-330.

Busey, P. 2003. Biology, Breeding, and Genetics of Turfgrasses. Ann Arbor
Press. Ann Arbor, Michigan. pp. 331-348.
Busey, P. 2003. Winter Survival of St. Augustinegrass Cultivars. HortScience.
38(7):1439-1440.
Busey, P., T.K. Broshat and D.L. Johnston. 2003. Injury to Landscape and
Vegetable Plants by Volatile Turf Herbicides. HortTechnology. 13:650-653.
Busey, P. 2003. Cultural Management of weeds in Turfgrass: A Review. Crop
Science. 43:1899-1911.

Busey, P. 2003. Reduction of Torpedograss (Panicum Repens) Canopy and
Rhizomes by Quinclorac Split Applications. Weed Technology. 17:190-194.

Busey, P. 2003. Florida Turfgrass Research. Fort Lauderdale. 2:32.
Busey, P. 2003. Possible Alternative to MSMA. Florida Turf Digest. 20(3):16-17.
Busey, P. 2003. New Turf Herbicide Revolver Controls Goosegrass. Florida Turf
Digest. 20(4):30-31.


TITLE

Introduction And Evaluation Of Ornamental Plants


Effects of Horticulture, Gardening Experiences, and Green Spaces on Human
Populations

Postproduction Evaluation of Foliage Plants, Potted Flowering Plants and Fresh Cut
Flowers for Interior Use

Functional Analysis of the Stress 70 Chaperone Family in Arabidopsis

Landscape Tree Establishment and Protection in the Development and Maintenance of
Urban Environments

Best Management Practices for Residential and Commercial Landscape Turfgrasses in
Florida

Reproductive Biology and Invasive Potential of Lantana Camara Cultivars

Improve Turfgrass Management as Related to Environmental Parameters

Molecular Genetics of Floriculture Crops

Maltose as a Chloroplast Emergency Compatible Solute in Response to Acute
Temperature Shock

Cultural Systems for Specialty Cut Flowers and Other New Ornamental Crops for Florida


Chang, H., M.L. Jones, G.M. Banowetz and D.G. Clark. 2003. Overproduction
of Cytokinins in Petunia Flowers Transformed with Psagl2-IPT Delays Corolla
Senescence and Decreases Sensitivity to Ethylene. Plant Physiology.
132:2174-2183.

Chen, J., R.J. Henny, D.B. McConnell and R.D. Caldwell. 2003. Gibberellic Acid
Affects Growth and Flowering of Philodendron 'Black Cardinal' Plant Growth
Regulation. 40:1.
Chen, J., R.C. Beeson, T.H. Yeager, R. Stamps and L. Felter. 2003. Evaluation of
Captured Rainwater and Irrigation Runoff for Greenhouse Foliage and
Bedding Plant Production. HortScience. 38:228-233.

Dukes, M.D., M.C. Baum and G.L. Miller. 2003. Residential Irrigation Water
use Reduction Based on Deficit Irrigation. North Carolina Turfgrass.
21(6):16-20.
Gilman, E.F., A. Stodola, M. Marshall and J. Grabosky. 2003. Irrigation and
Container Type Impact Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) 5 Years After Landscape
Planting. J Arboriculture. 29(4):231-236.
Gilman, E.F. 2003. Branch to Stem Diameter Ratio Affects Strength of
Attachment. J Arboriculture. 29(5):291-294.
Gilman, E.F. 2003. Pruning Trees in Urban and Suburban Landscapes. USDA
Forest Service. USDA FS Report.
Gilman, E.F. 2003. Planting Specifications. RPG News. pp. 2.
Gilman, E.F. and S. Lilly. 2003. Pruning at the Nursery. American Nurserymen.
March 2003. pp. 28-33.
Guy, C.L. 2003. Freezing Tolerance of Plants: Current Understanding and
Selected Emerging Concepts. Canadian Journal of Botany. 81:1216-1223.
Irmak, S., D. Haman, T.H. Yeager, J. Jones and K. Campbell. 2003.
Quantification and Evaluation of Irrigation, Runoff, Plant Biomass, and
Irrigation Efficiencies. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, ASAE. pp. 1.


63 12003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS








Irmak, S., D. Haman, A. Irmak, J. Jones, T.H. Yeager, W. Crisman and K.
Campbell. 2003. A New Irrigation-plant Production System for Water
Conservation in Ornamental Nurseries: Analyses of Growth and Stress
Parameters of Viburnum Odoratissimum (Ker-Gawl). J. Amer. Soc.
HortSci. pp. 1.

Landschoot, P. and G.L. Miller. 2003. Feast or Famine Fertility: Experts Weigh
in on Targeted Fertilizer Rates. Grounds Maintenance. 38(4):14-48.

Miller, G.L. and A. Thomas. 2003. Using Near Infrared Reflectance
Spectroscopy to Evaluate Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium.
HortScience. 38(6):1247-1250.

Miller, G.L., N. Pressler and M.D. Dukes. 2003. How Uniform is Coverage from
your Irrigation System? Golf Course Management. 71(8):100-102.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Speaking Turf! SportsTURF 19(4):54.

Miller, G.L., R.T. Nagata and J. Edenfield. 2003. Influence of Shade on Dwarf-
type Bermudagrass. The Florida Green. Spring. pp. 58.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Tough Turf. Grounds Maintenance. 48(9):10-32.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Soil pH. SportsTURF 19(2):46.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Who is on First? SportsTURF 19(6):50.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Run a Mile in Their Shoes. SportsTURF 19(8):46.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Not so Friendly Low Places. SportsTURF 19(10):46.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Looking at your CEC. SportsTURF 19(12):46.

Miller, G.L. 2003. Information to Help Maintain Florida Athletic Fields.
Florida Turf Digest. 20(2):30-32.


Miller, G.L. 2003. Ever Think About Hiring a Turf Student Intern? Florida Turf
Digest. 20(3):20.

Miller, G.L. 2003. West Florida Crew Saves the Day at Gainesville Field Day.
Florida Turf Digest. 20(5):33.

Miller, G.L. and J.S. Weinbrecht. 2003. Overseeding Trials, New Construction,
and Doveweed. Florida Turf Digest. 20(1):28.

Negre, F, C.M. Kish, J. Boatright, B. Underwood, K. Shibuya, C. Wagner, D.G.
Clark and N. Dudareva. 2003. Regulation of Methylbenzoate Emission After
Pollination in Snapdragon and Petunia Flowers. Plant Cell. 15:2992-3006.

Perry, F 2003. Turf Grows by the Inch and is Killed by the Foot. Grounds
Maintenance Services. Orlando, FL.

Sung, D.Y. and C.L. Guy. 2003. Physiological and Molecular Characterization
of Over-/under-expression of HSC70-1 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology.
132:979-987.

Sung, D.Y., F Kaplan, K.J. Lee and C.L. Guy. 2003. Acquired Tolerance to
Temperature Extremes. Trends in Plant Science. 8:179-187.

Teuton, T.C., B.J. Brecke, J.B. Unruh, S. Chandramohan, R. Charudattan, C.
Stiles, G.L. Miller, J.S. Weinbrecht and L. Trenholm. 2003. Tropical Singalgrass
Management in Warm-season Turf. Florida Turf Digest. 22(2):18-22.

Teuton, T.C., B.J. Brecke, J.B. Unruh, S. Chandramohan, C. Stiles, G.L. Miller,
J.S. Weinbrecht and L. Trenholm. 2003. Tropical Signalgrass Management in
Warm-season Turf. Florida Turf Digest. 20(2):18-21.

Trenholm, L.E. 2003. Green Industries Best Management Practices Education
Program. Florida Turf Digest. pp. 1.

Urban, S. and D.G. Clark. 2003. Flowers of the Future. Florist's Review.
November. pp.73-134.

Worden, E.C. and K. Moore. 2003. University of Florida Fort Lauderdale Trial
Garden. Southeastern Floriculture. 6:1.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 64









ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY

Clark, D.G.


Clark, D.G.


Dehgan, B.
Guy, C.L.
Dehgan. B.
Norcini, J.G.

Gilman, E.F.
Gilman, E.F.
Guy, C.L.
Guy, C.L.


Kane, M.E.


Kane, M.E.


Kane, M.E.


Kelly-Begazo, C.A.
Nell, T.A.
Kelly-Begazo, C.A.
Nell, T.A.
Knox, G.W.
Kelly-Begazo, C.A.
Knox, G.W.
Kelly-Begazo, C.A.
Nell, T.A.


Nell, T.A.


Trenholm, L.E.


Yeager, T.H.

Yeager, T.H.


Yeager, T.H.
Yeager, T.H.
Yeager, T.H.


TITLE

Cloning of Petal Specific Promoters and Production of Transgenic
Petunias with Extended Flower Life
Floriculture Genomics Basic Tools for Crop Improvement Through
Biotechnology
Reproductive Biology and Invasive Potential of Lantana Camara
Cultivars
Treatment and Germination of Florida Native Wildflower Seeds for
Commercial Production and Natural Landscaping

Southern Trees USDA-FS Project
Tree Selection Web Release of Southern Trees and Northern Trees

Royalty Returns
Maltose as a Chloroplast Emergency Compatible Solute in Response
to a Cute Temperature Shock
Efficient in Vitro Propogation of Ornamental Water Lilies
Bynonzygotic Embryogenesis
Enhanced CommercialSelection and Micropropagation of Sea Oats
Genotypes for Dune Stabilization R/C-S-41
Application of Micropropagation Technology for Storage &
Production of FL Native Wildflower Ecotypes Used for Seed...
Western Panhandle Florida Yards and Neighborhoods Program


Continued Expansion & Sustainability of the FLYards &
Neighborhoods (Builder Developer Pilot Project)
Continued Expansion & Sustainability of the FLYards and
Neighborhoods Program to Protect Water Quality from Nonpoint
FLYards & Neighborhoods Prgm to Protect Water Quality form
Non-point Source Pollution (Marion, Osceola, Charlotte...)
Florial Initiation, Crop Culture & Post Production Longevity of
Poinsettias

Investigation on the Effect of Co2 Technologies Activ-Pad
On postharvest Vase Life
Best Management Practices for Florida's Green Inudtries:
Educational Program
Using Foliar Fertilization to Minimize Nutrient Loss to Runoff

Determination of Runoff Quality and Quantity of Container-grown
Plant Production
Reclaimed Water for Irrigation of Container-grow Plants
Rotem Fertilizer Evaluation
Nutrient Removal From Nursery Runoff Water Using a Novel
Bioremediation System


SOURCE OF FUNDS

Scotts Company


Am. Floral Endowment


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect.


Miscellaneous Donors

Rutgers State University
UF Reserach Foundation

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


FL Wildflower Advisory Council


Dept of Environmental Protect


Dept. of Environmental Protect


Dept. of Environmental Protect


Dept. of Environmental Protect


Paul Ecke Poinsettias Inc.


Co2 Technologies


Dept. of Environmental Protect


Horticulutural Research Inst

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Water Management Districts
Rotem Fertilizers, Inc.
Horticultural Research Inst.


65 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AMOUNT

$225,000.00


$10,000.00


$54,301.00


$15,000.00


$6,450.00

$55,ooo.oo
$130.88
$125,000.00


$29,898.00


$70,640.00


$10,130.00


$89,119.00


$69,755.00


$314,722.00


$133,098.00


$90,000.00


$16,000.00


$114,866.50


$7,500.00

$43,875.00


$89,000.00

$3,000.00
$12,000.00







UNIVERSITY OF
.FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES
3001 McCarty Hall, PO Box 110310 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0310
352-392-1778 1 http://fycs.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The mission of the Department of Family, Youth and
Community Sciences is to enhance lifelong learning and the
personal, social, economic, and environmental well-being of
diverse individuals, families and communities through state-
of-the-art extension, research and teaching programs.

The Mission includes the following key elements:
To apply research-based information through innovative
outreach programs.
To extend the frontiers of knowledge through research
and other scholarly endeavors.
To build student competencies for successful careers in
human and community development.
To enhance the professional development of individuals
through continuing professional education.

A major strength of the department is the diversity of
disciplines that operate in collaborative and complementary
ways to address issues of importance to individuals, families
and communities. This diversity allows human development to


be considered from a broad perspective, giving consideration
to the key contextual settings in which people are embedded.
These contextual factors include the family, neighborhoods,
schools, communities, and extra-community linkages. These
elements form the conceptual foundation for the research,
teaching, and outreach activities of the unit.
Some faculty primarily devote their attention to key issues
within a singular setting (for example, enhancing the economic
stability of the business and industrial sector of a community).
Other faculty attend to issues that necessitate the examination
of the interconnectedness among the various contexts. Still
other faculty prepare graduate and undergraduate students for
fulfilling careers in human services, community development,
and family and youth professions through the broad-based
social science degree, Family, Youth and Community Services.
The scope of the Department of Family, Youth and
Community Sciences reflects an integrated approach to under-
standing the linkages among individuals, families and commu-
nities, and the environments in which they function.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 166







FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES:
IMPORTANCE OF TASTE, PHYTONUTRIENT CONTENT, AND
PRICE.

SIGNIFICANCE: Recent national surveys reveal that
Americans spend $715 billion on food each year, but only a
small part of this is for fruits and vegetables. Despite an
increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables in the last
20 years, most Americans do not consume the recommended
daily servings of vegetables and fruits as suggested by the
USDA's Food Guide Pyramid or the "5 A Day for Better
Health" program. By knowing consumer demands for
produce, breeders, producers, and educators can develop
strategies to promote increase consumption of fruits and
vegetables contributing to improved health as well as
economical gains for producers.

RATIONALE: Fruits and vegetables are excellent dietary
sources of vitamins, minerals and fiber. They are also good
sources of phytochemicals such as carotenoids, polypheno-
lics and other organic components with potential anticar-
cinogenic properties. Previous research revealed that there is
a link between consumers' food choices and their health
concerns. Consumer preferences for fruits and vegetables
are complex. Limited consumer research has been done to
identify product attributes that are most important to
consumers when they select fruits and vegetables. Dr. Amy
Simonne's research team in the Department of Family, Youth
and Community Sciences engages in research to gain an
understanding of factors that affect consumer purchase
decisions for fruits and vegetables such as quality, country
of origin, phytonutrient content, safety, and price. This
research program integrates consumer and laboratory
research enabling a better understanding of how these
various factors affect consumer purchase decisions of
selected fruits and vegetables grown in Florida.

IMPACT: Preliminary results from our research indicated
that price, nutrition, and production method were all impor-
tant in consumer food purchasing decisions. Consistently,


price emerged as the most important product attribute with
over 50% of consumers' preference based on this factor.
Nutrition emerged as the second most important attribute,
with production method (organic or conventional) as a rela-
tively unimportant product attribute. The information
gained by this current research will be helpful to producers,
vendors, and educators in understanding factors affecting
consumer preference and purchase decision of specialty
tomatoes and selected specialty tropical and subtropical
fruits, enabling them to develop new strategies to increase
produce consumption.

COLLABORATORS: This research program involves a diverse
group of collaborators both within and outside of IFAS
including: Department of Family, Youth and Community
Sciences (Mickie Swisher); Horticulture Science Department
(Jeff Brecht, Jonathan Crane, Steve Sargent; Eric Simonne);
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department (Maurice R.
Marshall, Murat Balaban); and Michigan State University
(Bridget K. Behe).


Any Simonne


67 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY

Nayda I. Torres

Rosemary V. Barnett

Linda B. Bobroff

Elizabeth B. Bolton

Scott E. Burns

Gerald R. Culen

Garret D. Evans

Millie Ferrer

Lisa A. Guion

Mary N. Harrison

Joy C. Jordan

Marilyn K. Lesmeister

Heidi J. Liss

Marilyn N. Norman

Amarat H. Simonne

Suzanna D. Smith

Michael S. Spranger

Marilyn E. Swisher

Josephine Turner

Glenda L. Warren

Carolyn S. Wilken


TITLE

Chair and Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Lecturer

Assoc. Prof. & Acting Prog. Dir.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Scientist

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof. and Asst. Dean

Asst. Program Dir. &Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Family and Consumer Economics

Youth Development and Public Policy

Foods and Nutrition

Community Development

Social Research and Community Issues

Youth Development

Clinical Psychology

Human Development

Program Planning and Evaluation

Consumer Education

Youth Development

4-H Volunteer Development

Rural Behavior/Violence Prevention

Youth Development

Food Safety and Quality

Human Development



Sustainable Agriculture

Family and Consumer Economics

Nutrition-EFNEP

Family Life


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 168


TEACHING

0

65

5

40

100

40

O

20

30

0

0

0



0

0

8o
0


50

30

o

70


RESEARCH

0

35

o

o

0

0

25

O

0

0

0

35



0

35

20

0

0

0

0

0


EXTENSION

100

0

95

60

o

60

o

80

70

100

100

65



100

65

o

100

50

70

100

30









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.

FYC-o3782

FYC-o3923


FYC-o3960

FYC-o4080


AUTHOR

Evans, G.D.

Barnett, R.V.


Simonne,A.H.

Simonne, A.H., Marshall, M. R.


PUBLICATIONS


Barnett, R.V. 2003. How to Effectively Use Data Collection Instruments for
School Safety Action Planning. School Business Affairs. 69(9):24-25.
Barnett, R.V., K.H. Mulkerrin, T.L. Jackson and A.R. Smith. 2003. Research-
based Evaluation of Palm Beach County Youth Court 2001-02. Dept. of Family,
Youth and Community Sciences, IFAS, University of Florida.
Bobroff, L.B. 2003. Guide to World Nutrition and Health. Macmillan Reference
USA. New York.
Bobroff, L.B., R.E. Turner, D.O. Weddle, J.H. Brake, L.S. Lieberman and T.B.
Allen. 2003. Interactive Learning for Congregate Nutrition Site Nutrition
Education: A Pilot Study. J of Nutrition for the Elderly. 23(1):81-93.
Culen, G.R. and P. Mony. 2003. Assessing Environmental Literacy in a
Nonformal Youth Program. Journal of Environmental Education. 34(4):26-28.
Ferrer, M., A. Fugate and I. Rivera. 2003. Working with School Age Children,
Part 1: Preventing Misbehavior. http://www.cyfernet.org (CYFERnet School
Age site). pp. 1-9.

Ferrer, M., I. Rivera and A. Fugate. 2003. Parenting During the Elementary
School Years, Part 2: Discipline. http://www.cyfernet.org (CYFERnet School
Age site). pp. 1-8.


TITLE

Early Childhood Interventions for Violence Prevention in Florida

Evaluation Research in the Area ofYouth Development and Youth Crime and Violence
in Public Schools

Technologies and Consumer Research

Consumer Preference and Phytonutrient Contents of Specialty Tomatoes and Tropical
Fruits in the Caribbean Region


Guion, L.A. and S. Chattaraj. 2003. Ethnic Marketing: A Method to Market
Programs to Ethnically Diverse Audiences in Extension. National Extension
Diversity Center. Peer Reviewed Electronic Articles. pp. 1.
Simonne, A.H., S. Cazaux, K. Kouri, D. Studstill, B. Huchmuth, S. Stapleton,
W. Davis and M. Taylor. 2003. Assessing the eating Quality of Mushmeon
Varieties Using Sensory Evaluation. Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Society. pp. 1.
Smith, S. and M. Ferrer. 2003. A Cost-effective Approach to Family Life
Professional In-service Training. Journal of Teaching in Marriage and Family:
Innovations in Family Science Education. 3(2):119-138.
Smith, S., S. Jacob, M. Jepson and G. Israel. 2003. After the Florida Net Ban:
The Impacts on Commercial Fishing Families. Society and Natural Resources.
16:39-59.
Tremethick, M.J., C.S. Wilken, R. Miller, D.K. Walker and P. Meier. 2003.
Meeting Health Promotion Needs of Older Adults: Continuing the Path from
Healthy People 2000 to Healthy People 2010. Journal of the Southwest Society
on Aging. pp. 1.
Wilken, C.S., H. Beck, B. Gainer, L. Lemaire, A. Plucienkowski, D. Bobb, S.
Ferrer, J. Mayberry, B. Wendling and A. Lohrer. 2003. Methods of Family Life
Education: Learning to Develop Tools to Help Families Fulfill Their Dreams.
The Journal of the FRHD and FERM Divisions of the American Association of
Family and Consumer Sciences. pp. 1.

Zimmerman, R. and M.E. Swisher. 2003. Judicious Use of Insecticides. World
Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.


69 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FAMILY, YOUTH & COMMUNITY SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY
Culen, G.R.
Culen, G.R.
Culen, G.R.
Culen, G.R.

Culen, G.R.
Guion, L.A.


Harrison, M.N.
Jordan, J.C.
Simonne,A.
Marshall, Jr., M.R.
Simonne, A.
Simonne, A.
Swisher, M.E.
Swisher, M.E.
Swisher, M.E.
Torres N.I.
Torres N.I.


TITLE

4-H Camping Program Enhancement- Cloverleaf
4-H Youth Development Program
4-H Camp Ocala Support
4-H Camping Program Support Cherry Lake

4-H Camp Business Manager Support
Developing Programs to Effectively Work with Multi-need,
Diverse Audiences
Understanding Lead-based Paint Regulations
Youth Curriculum Development
Consumer Preference nad Phytonutrient Contents of Speicalty
Tomatoes and Tropical Fruits in the Caribbean Region
Safe Workers for Specialty Produce in Florida
Bringing Food Safety Concepts to Small Farms in Florida


2003 Annual Training Plan
Chemical Ecology of Microtheca Ochroloma
Family Nutrition Program
Cyfar Conference Facilities and Registration Coordination


SOURCE OF FUNDS
FL 4-H Foundation
FL 4-H Foundation
FL 4-H Foundation
FL 4-H Foundation

FL 4-H Foundation


Univ.of Kentucky
Univ. of Georgia
FL 4-H Foundation


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
FL Fruit and Veg. Res. & Ed. Fdtn.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Univ. of Georgia
Univ. of Georgia
Dept. of Children & Families
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 170


AMOUNT

$57,258.00
$47,200.02
$27,938.50

$42,238.04
$27,420.92


$65,000.00

$10,389.00
$22,500.00


$70,000.00
$50,000.00

$19,770.00


$10,000.00

$3,057.00
$2,610,000.00

$374,661.oo







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES
7922 NW 71st Street, PO Box 110600 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0600
352-392-9617 | http://fishweb.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The mission of the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences (FAS) has two major components: (1) to achieve
greater understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological
features of aquatic systems through research, education, and
public outreach, and (2) to foster the informed management
and husbandry of aquatic resources.
For the past decade, the Department has been organized
into three programmatic areas: freshwater, marine and aqua-
culture. While this program structure has provided a useful
platform for organizing our research, teaching, and extension
efforts, it has not fully reflected the interdisciplinary nature of
many of our activities or the great range of expertise of our
faculty and staff. In June of 2003 the faculty of FAS developed a
new programmatic structure that more accurately conveys the
strengths of our Department and how our capabilities best
meet current and future challenges facing Florida.

The four programmatic areas are:
Aquaculture
Aquatic animal health
Conservation and management of aquatic environments
Sustainable fisheries
The goals of the four programs are strongly intercon-
nected by shared concerns and opportunities, such as the
integrity and sustainability of water resources.

AQUACULTURE is the fastest growing sector of agriculture in
Florida, the United States, and the world. Its importance is
marked, primarily, because aquatic organisms (e.g. fish) are
diverse and among the most efficient animals known to
convert food into protein for human consumption. World fish-
eries landings have leveled-off at approximately 100 million
tons. Most of the stocks are considered fully exploited or


overexploited. Aquaculture will be one of the major means to
make up for limited fisheries stocks during this century and
beyond.

AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH is a truly interdisciplinary program
well established at the University of Florida that involves
faculty, staff and students from the Department of Fisheries
and Aquatic Sciences, The College of Veterinary Medicine, and
The Whitney Laboratory. This program focuses on, 1) disease
diagnosis & health management, 2) assessment of the effects of
toxic algal blooms & environment contaminants, and 3) an
intensive educational program in aquatic animal health
through the Graduate School and Extension Programs.

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC ENVIRON-
MENTS is a response to the serious challenges facing Florida
due to the explosive growth of human development. This
program focuses on 1) achieving an objective and comprehen-
sive understanding of the structure and function of ecosys-
tems, 2) providing critical information needed for the develop-
ment of management approaches that ensure the integrity and
sustainability of critical natural resources and 3) generating
the human resources needed to meet the management chal-
lenges of the future through education and extension
programs.

SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES serve Florida's recreational and
commercial fisheries, which together represent an economic
value unmatched by fisheries of any other state in the nation.
The program focuses on 1) the effects of habitat quality on fish
population abundance, 2) population modeling and stock
assessment, 3) essential fish habitat & ecological forecasting,
and 4) public outreach for sustainable fisheries.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 72







FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


SUSTAINABLE MARINE FISHERIES
Coastal marine fisheries in Florida are worth $2 Billion
to the annual economy of the state, based on direct spending
by recreational anglers and wholesale values for commercial
fisheries. When economic multipliers are applied, such as
industry-related jobs, the actual economic value of marine
fisheries in Florida is between $5-8 Billion per year (Source:
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission).
However, many of the world's stocks of harvested marine
fishes are overexploited or maximally exploited, including
Florida's economically valuable marine fisheries. The recov-
ery and future sustainability of these stocks are assessed
using quantitative models that combine catch statistics from
the recreational and commercial fisheries with data on
population dynamics and ecology of the stocks (e.g., age and
growth, mortality rates, egg production, distribution, essen-
tial fish habitat). As our understanding of the population
dynamics, ecology, and life histories of exploited fish stocks
increases, so does our ability to provide sound management
strategies for sustainable fisheries.
Debra Murie's research program in Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences (FAS) focuses on the population biology
and ecology of coastal marine fishes, especially as they inte-
grates into past, present, and future fisheries. Her program
specializes in relationships between prey resources and fish
production. Her interest in prey resources focuses on prey
availability and distribution, which is especially relevant to
essential fish habitat. Fish production is directly connected
to prey resources through consumption rates as energy
input into the fish or population. This is then related to the
growth and reproductive potential of fish in relation to their
age. Although primarily focused on reef fish species, such as
gag grouper, white grunt, sheepshead, and hogfish, Dr. Murie
is also involved in related studies of Gulf of Mexico stur-
geon, dolphinfish, redfish, Nile tilapia and Nile perch in
Uganda, sunfishes and gar in the Everglades, and introduced
Asian swamp eels in South Florida.
In association with Dr. Bill Lindberg (FAS), Dr. Doran
Mason (Great Lakes Research Laboratory), and FAS graduate
students Elizabeth Berens, Mark Butler, Rick Kline, and
Brian Nagy, Dr. Murie is studying gag grouper production in
the Gulf of Mexico as it relates to the gag's consumption of
seasonal bait fishes, and ultimately the grouper's growth and
condition, on artificial and natural reefs of varying architec-
tures. This project has yielded production data on gag
grouper that are counter-intuitive to most current thinking
about essential habitat for groupers, namely that gag
grouper grow faster and are in better condition when they
reside on smaller reefs versus larger reefs. This is significant
to gag grouper management in Florida because gag is the
second most economically important grouper species landed
in Florida, and Florida has one of the largest concentrations
of artificial reefs in the U.S.A.


Considering essential fish habitat is also important for
migratory fishes that transit through estuarine areas. This is
especially the case for fish designated as a threatened
species, such as the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon. Dr. Murie and
FAS colleagues Dr. Daryl Parkyn, Doug Colle, Jamie
Holloway, and graduate student Julianne Harris, have devel-
oped a nonlethal lavage method to sample sturgeon stomach
contents, ultrasonically tracked sturgeon year round, and
correlated the movements of the sturgeon to the mapped
densities and distribution of their primary prey resources in
the Suwannee River estuary. This information can then be
used by agencies, such as the National Marine Fisheries
Service (NMFS) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to desig-
nate areas of protection and importance to the recovery of
the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, an activity to which they are
legally mandated.
Understanding factors that lead to increased produc-
tion in fishes, such as available prey resources and food
consumption rates, goes hand-in-hand with age and growth.
Reliably aging fish and predicting their growth is essential
for estimating production, and thereby designating the fish
stock as sustainable or overexploited. Case in point, for

Debra Murie


4 .I


73 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


example, was Dr. Murie's research completed on white grunt,
a common reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. A minimum size
limit regulation was proposed for white grunt because they
were thought to be severely overfished off the Gulf coast of
Florida. In particular, the fish being landed by the recre-
ational and commercial fisheries on Florida's west coast were
very small compared to white grunt from the Carolinas
where their age and growth was already known. In collabora-
tion with Dr. Parkyn, however, their research established that
white grunt in the Gulf lived much longer and were much
smaller at any given age than white grunt from the
Carolinas. Using this information, a stock assessment was
done in collaboration with research scientists Drs. Bob
Muller and Mike Murphy at the Florida Marine Research
Institute (FMRI). This determined that white grunt in the
Gulf were not currently overexploited on Florida's Gulf coast
and the proposed minimum size limit on white grunt was
therefore unnecessary. Had this size regulation gone into
effect it would have prevented the inshore head-boat fishery
from landing -95% of the fish they normally catch. Since the
head-boat fishery is primarily based on tourists, it would
have severely impacted not only the fishery but also the
fishery-related businesses from central to south Florida.
The importance of aging fish and developing new aging
methods for the future takes on added importance when
dealing with endangered or threatened species of fish, such
as the Nassau grouper, or fisheries regulated in Marine
Protected Areas. In these instances, it is unacceptable to
sacrifice large numbers of the fish to determine their age
structure, which is necessary to assess their stage of recovery
towards a harvestable stock or to assess the efficacy of the
protected area. For these fish species, the conventional, but
lethal, ageing method that uses the fish's otoliths or "ear
stones" must be replaced by a reliable, but nonlethal method.
Dr. Murie, in collaboration with Dr. Parkyn, FAS graduate
student Jaclyn Debicella, and state and federal fisheries


scientists, is developing and validating a nonlethal aging
method using rays and spines in the fins of these fishes.
Alternative approaches in aging have also benefited fisheries
biologists in Uganda. Dr. Murie, in collaboration with Dr.
Lauren Chapman (Department of Zoology) and Ms. Gladys
Bwanika (Makerere University, Kampala), has shown that the
number one fisheries resource of the region, the infamous
Nile Perch or African Snook, can be successfully aged using
otoliths. This will lead to a reliable stock assessment for Nile
Perch based on their population age structure, which is
imperative for sustainability of the fishery in this region of
growing food demand.
On a broader scale, and as a central part of Dr. Murie's
efforts to contribute to fisheries science and management on
a regional, national, and international level, she has been
appointed to serve as a scientific expert on the Finfish Stock
Assessment Panel for the Gulf of Mexico Fisheries
Management Council, the Scientific and Statistical Committee
for the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, as well
as Stock Assessment and Review Committees for the National
Marine Fisheries Service. Her involvement in state, regional,
and national Panels allows her to have a direct impact on
fisheries management and provides an integral link between
the University of Florida and state and federal fisheries
agencies.

PRIMARY COLLABORATORS: Drs. Daryl Parkyn, Bill
Lindberg, Tom Frazer, Mike Allen, Shirley Baker, and Ed
Phlips (FAS), Dr. Doran Mason (NOAA Great Lakes Research
Laboratory), Dr. Lauren Chapman and Ms. Gladys Bwanika
(Department of Zoology and Makerere University, Uganda),
Dr. Rich McBride (FMRI), Drs. Leo Nico and Bill Loftus (US
Geological Survey), and many FAS graduate students and
biologists. Funding has been provided primarily through
Florida SeaGrant, FMRI, NMFS Marine Fisheries Initiative,
Disney Conservation, and USGS.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 74









FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY

Randall K. Stocker

Micheal S. Allen

Roger Bachman

Patrick K. Baker

Shirley M. Baker

Claude D. Brown

Daniel E. Canfield, Jr.

FrankA. Chapman

Charles E. Cichra

Ruth Francis-Floyd

Thomas K. Fazer

Charles A. Jacoby



William J. Lindberg

Carlos V. Martinez

Debra J. Murie

Daryl C. Parkyn

Edward J. Phlips

William Seaman, Jr.

Craig A. Watson

David L. Watson

Thomas J. Whitmore

Roy P.Yanong


TITLE

Acting Chair & Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Visiting Prof.

Research Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Joint Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.



Assoc. Prof.

Asst. In

Asst. Prof.

Research Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Coord. Res. Prog.

Asst. In

Asst. In

Asst. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Invasive Plants, Ecology & Management

Freshwater Fisheries Ecology

Limnology

Invertebrate zoology & malacology

Ecological Physiology

Florida Lakewatch

Limnology

Fisheries and Reprod. Biology

Fish Ecology and Management

Fish Health Management

Marine Ecology

Coastal Estuarine Ecology, Water Quality,
Habitat Quality

Marine Fisheries Ecology

Aquaculture

Fisheries Ecologist

Fish, Ecophysiology and Neuroethology

Algal Physiology and Ecology

Marine fisheries

Tropical Aquaculture

Florida Lakewatch

Limnology

Fish Medicine


TEACHING

0

20

0

0

20

0

20

20

40

15

20

5


20

0

20

0

20

0

0

0

0

5


RESEARCH EXTENSION

50 50

80 0

100 0

100 0

8o 0

100 0

8o 0

60 20


75 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO.

FAS-o3902


FAS-o3904


FAS-o3909

FAS-o3947

FAS-o3953


FAS-o3955


FAS-o3978



FAS-o4007




FAS-o4042

FAS-o4045




FAS-o4123


AUTHOR

Baker, S.M., Phlips, EJ., Montague, C.,
Sturmer, L.S., Wilhelm, R.S.

Lindberg, WJ., Watson, C.A.,Yanong, R.P.,
Francis-Floyd, R., Bowen, B.


TITLE

CLAMMRS: Clam Lease Assessment, Monitoring, and Modeling Using Remote Sensing


TropicalAquaculture Research Florida


Phlips, E.J., Baker, S., Murie, D., Frazer, T.K. Coastal Eutrophication and Productivity of Clams and Oysters


Lindberg, W.J., Baker, S.M.

Alien, M.S., Canfield, J.E., Cichra, C.E.,
Phlips, E.J., Frazer, T.K.

Watson, C.A., Liindberg, W.J., Yanong, R.P.,
Lane, M., Canfield, D.E. Baldwin, J.

Jacoby, C., Lindberg, B., Baker, S., Baker, P.,
Chapman, F., Frazer, T., Murie, D., Parkyn, D.,
Phlips, E.

Chapman, F.A., Baker, S.M., Baker, P.,
Bowen, B.R., Cichra, C.E., Francis-Floyd, R.,
Murie, D.M., Parkyn, D.C., Phlips, E.J.,
Watson, C.A., Yanong, R.P.

Lindberg, W.J., Watson, C.A.,Yanong, R.P.

Lindberg, W.J., Baker, S.M., Philips, E.J.,
Sturmer, L.N., Degner, R.L., OtwellW.S.,
Wright, A.C., Rodrick, G.E., Baker, P.K.,
Francis-Floyd, R.,Yanong, R., Adams, C.M.

Watson, C.A., Lindberg, W.J.


PUBLICATIONS


Allen, M., M.V.D. Ayvle, F. Harris and R. Noble. 2003. A 50-year History of the
Southern Division American Fisheries Society. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. pp. 1.
Allen, M., K. Tugend and M. Mann. 2003. Largemouth Bass Abundance and
Angler Catch Rates Following a Habitat Enhancement Project at Lake
Kissimmee, Florida. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.
23:845-855.

Bachmann, R.W., M.V. Hoyer and D.E. Canfield. 2003. An Alternative to
Proposed Phosphorus TMDL's for Management of Lake Okeechobee. Lake and
Reservoir Management. 19:251-264.
Bachmann, R.W., M.V. Hoyer and D.E. Canfield. 2003. Predicting the
Frequencies of High Chlorophyll Levels in Florida Lakes from Average
Chlorophyll or Nutrient Data. Lake and Reservoir Management. 19:229-241.
Baker, S. and D. Padilla. 2003. New Frontiers in Functional Morphology of
Molluscs: A Tribute to Drs. Vera Fretter and Ruth Turner. American
Malacological Bulletin. 18(1/2):1.


Aquaculture, Florida Research Project

Fisheries, Aquatic Ecology and Limnology of Florida's Freshwater Ecosystems


Tropical Aquaculture, Florida


Management and Ecology of Florida's Coastal Marine Ecosystem



The Science of Aquaculture: the Biology, Husbandry, and Utilization of
Aquatic Organism



TropicalAquaculture Research, Florida, 2002

Aquaculture, Florida Research Project




TropicalAquaculture Florida, 2003









Baker, S.M. and J.S. Levinton. 2003. Selective Feeding by Three Native North
American Freshwater Mussels Implies Food Competition with Zebra Mussels.
Hydrobiologia. 505:97-105.
Baker, P., D. Bergquist and S. Baker. 2003. Oyster Reef Assessment in the
Suwannee River Estuary. Final Report Submitted to the Suwannee River Water
Management District.


Bledsoe, E. and E.J. Phlips. 2003. Nutrient Loading and Hydrodynamic
Influences on Phytoplankton Standing Crops in an Inner Shelf Estuary, the
Suwannee River Estuary. Ophelia. pp. 1.
Canfield, D.E. 2003. Florida Lakewatch. Florida Lakewatch Data Summaries for
2002. Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, University of Florida -
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Canfield, D.E. 2003. Long-term Fish Population Trends in Florida Lakes: 2002
Data. Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences in Cooperation with the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Gainesville, FL.

Canfield, D.E. 2003. Upload to STORET of All Florida Lakewatch/Project Coast
Data. U.S. EPA. Washington, D.C.
Greenawalt, J.M., T.K. Frazer, S.R. Keller and C.A. Jacoby. 2003. Abundance
and Sizes of Bay Scallops in Heterogeneous Habitats Along the Gulf Coast of
Florida. Gulf of Mexico Marine Science. pp. 1.
Murie, D.J. 2003. A Practical Handbook for Determining the Age of Gulf of
Mexico Fishes. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Ocean Springs, MS.
pp. 3-21.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 76








PUBLICATIONS








Murie, D.J. and D.C. Parkyn. 2003. Critical Winter Feeding Habitat of Gulf of
Mexico Sturgeon in the Suwannee River Estuary Phase II. Prepared for FMRI,
St. Petersburg.
Notestein, S.K., T.K. Frazer and D.E. Canfield. 2003. Nutrient Limitation of
Periphyton in a Spring-fed, coastal stream in Florida, USA. Journal of Aquatic
Plant Management. 41:57-60.
Parkyn, D.C., J.D. Austin and C.W. Hawryshyn. 2003. Acquisition of Polarised
Light Orientation in Salmonids Under Laboratory Conditions. Animal
Behavior. 65:893-904.

Phlips, E.J., S. Badylak and S. Youn. 2003. The Occurrence of Potentially Toxic
Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.
Harmful Algae. pp. 1.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE
Investigation of Effects of Variable Flows on Water Chemistry
Gradients & Fish Communities in the Lower Hillsborough River
Hatching Duration, Growth and Survival of Age Largemouth Bass
Along a Latitudinal Gradient of Florida Lakes
Abundance ofJuvenile American Shad in the St. John's River, Florida
The Collection and Analysis of Fish & Invertebrate Communities
From Sulphur Springs, FL

Genetic Analysis of Hard Clam (Mercenaria Mercenaria) Performance
in Commercial Culture

Clammers: Clam Lease Assessment, Management, and Modeling
Using Remote Sensing
Biopullution by the Green Mussel, Perna Viridis, in the
Southeastern United States
Diversification for Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry Through
Investigation of Blood Ark, Anadara Ovalis, & Ponderous Ark...
Clammers (Clam Lease Assessment, Management, and Modeling
Using Remote Sensing): Alligator Harbor Aquaculture Use Area

Florida Ornamental Aquaculture Ground & Surface Water StudyY


Evaluation of Lake Tohopikaliga Habitat Enhancement Project


Florida Lakewatch

Florida Lakewatch: Lake County Phase II
Natural Resource Values Assessments: Investigation of the Effects
of Water Level Fluctuation on Centrarchid ....

Application of Landscape Ecology Principles to the Design and
Management of Marine Protected Areas in Coral Reef Ecosy
Preliminary Health Assessment of Cultured Hard Clams (Mercenaria
Mercenaria) in Florida
Captive Nutritional Management of Atlantic Surgeonfish: Effect of
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency on Development of Hilles..
Project Coase


Complex Interactions in the Pelagic Ecosystem of Southern Ocean:
Deciphering the Antartic Paradox

Florida Keys Cerp and Water Conservation Outreach Partnership


Technology Transfer Component of the Areawide Program for
Melaleuca Quinquenervia


Tugend, K.I. and M.S. Allen. 2003. Changes in Plant and Fish Communities in
Enhanced Areas of Lake Kissimmee, Florida Following a Habitat
Enhancement. Lake and Reservoir Management. pp. 1.
Vanderklift, M.A. and C.A. Jacoby. 2003. Patterns in Fish Assemblages 25 Years
after Major Seagrass Loss. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 247:225-235.
Watson, D.L., D.R. Bayne, D.R. DeVries and J.C. Williams. 2003. Influence of
Juvenile Gizzard Shad on Phytoplankton Size and Primary Productivity in
Mesocosms and Earthen Ponds in the Southeastern U.S. Hydrobiologia.
495:17-32.

Wheeler, A.P. and M.S. Allen. 2003. Habitat and Diet Partitioning between
Shoal Bass and Largemouth Bass in the Chipola River, Florida. Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society. pp. 438-449.
Zajicek, P.W., R.S. Wilhelm, S. Bontrager, D.E. Canfield, R.W. Bachmann and
C. Watson. 2003. Florida Aquaculture Ground and Surface Water Quality
Study: Food Fish. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.


SOURCE OF FUNDS
Water Management Districts


FL Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.


FL Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.

Water Management Districts


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Environmental Protection Agcy.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


FL Fish &Wildlife Consrv. Comm.


Dept. of Environmental Protect.
Lake County
FL Fish & Wildlife Consrv. Comm.


Am. Assn. for Advance of Science


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


Water Management Districts


National Science Foundation


Water Management Districts


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


77 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY
Allen, M.S.
Murie, D.J.
Allen, M.S.


Allen, M.S.
Allen, M.S.
Murie, D.J.

Baker, P.K.
Baker, S.M.
Baker, S.M.
Phlips, E.J.
Baker, S.M.
Baker, P.K.
Baker, S.M.
Degner, R.L.
Baker, S.M.
Sturmer, L.N.

Canfield, Jr. D.E.
Watson, C.A.
Canfield, Jr. D.E.
Hoyer, M.V.
Canfield, Jr., D.E.
Canfield, Jr., D.E.
Cichra, C.
Hill, J.E.

Dunsmore, L.E
Frazer, T.K.
Francis-Floyd, R.
Yanong, R.P.
Francis-Floyd, R.


Frazer, T.K.
Jacoby, C.A.
Frazer, T.K.


Jacoby, C.A.
Spranger, M.S.
Langeland, K.A.


AMOUNT

$61,137.50


$66,929.00


$18,000.00

$23,817.50


$142,897.00


$714,294.00


$447,602.00


$81,052.00


$50,683.00


$46,614.00


$370,940.09


$900,000.00
$81,900.00

$54,600.00


$39,000.00


$16,677.00


$24,972.00


$465,000.00


$27,086.00


$91,654.00


$65,000.00









FISHERIES & AQUATIC SCIENCES


GRANTS & CONTRACTS

FACULTY TITLE
Langeland, K.A. Revision of "Identification & Biology of Non-native Plants Found in
Florida's Natural Areas"
Langeland, K.A. Cumberland Island Non-native Plant survey
Stocker, R.K.
Lindberg, WJ. Tropical Aquaculture Florida 2003
Watson, C.A.
Murie, D.J. Age and Growth ofYellow Fullhead and Two Introduced Cat-Fishes
Parkyn, D.C. From South Florida
Phlips, E.J. Coastal Eutrophication and the Productivity of Clams and Oysters
Frazer, T.K.
Phlips, E.J. Implementation of Eadin: Expert Assistance and Distance
Baker, S.M. Indentification Network
Phlips, E.J. Integration of Clams into Wastewater Treatment: A Dairy Model
Baker, P.K.
Phlips, E.J. Factors Controlling the Abundance and Composition of Blue-green
Algae in Lake
Phlips, E.J. Zookplankton Sample Analysis in the Middle St. Johns River Basin
and Orange Creek Basin
Rivers, G. Equipment and Other Procurements for Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center
Stocker, R.K. Impacts of Invasive Non-native Agricultural Plants in the U.S. Virgin
Fox, A.M. Islands Natural Areas
Stocker, R.K. UF Cooperative Aquatic Plant Education Program
Watson, C.A. Tropical/Immersion Application of GNRH Analogs in Spawning
Characins
Watson, C.A. Review of Data Necessary for SLN Labeling of Trichlorofon for
Ornamental Aquaculture
Watson, C.A. Development of Design Criteria for Recirculating Ornamental Fish
Watson, C.A. Development of Improved Harvesting, Grading and Transport
Yanong, R.P. Technology for Ornamental Finifsh Aquaculture
Watson, C.A. Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory Support
Watson, C.A. Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory Building Addition
Rivers, G.
Yanong, R.P. Streptococcus Spp. Vaccine Development of the Ornamental
Industry
Yanong, R.P. Use of 17-alpha Methytestosterone (MT) for Expression of Male
Watson, C.A. Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Ornamental Fish


SOURCE OF FUNDS
Water Management Districts


U.S. Dept. of the Interior


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of the Interior


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Water Management Districts


Water Management Districts


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


Dept. of Environmental Protect
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Mississippi State University


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 78


AMOUNT

$3,000.00


$32,370.00

$222,892.00


$29,945.00


$435,000.00


$70,000.00


$50,937.00

$110,000.00


$35,250.60

$850,000.00


$79,720.00

$25,000.00

$53,393.00


$19,073.00


$89,329.00

$33,400.00

$121,260.00
$10,000.00


$54,097.00


$73,058.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS
1167 McCarty Hall, PO Box 110240 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0240
352-392-1826 1 http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The general goal of Food and Resource Economics
research is to provide knowledge needed to guide decisions in
the production, marketing, distribution, and consumption of
food, fiber, and marine products and the development and
more efficient use of natural, human and capital resources.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE: Florida ranks as a major agricul-
tural state and often leads the nation in the production of a
wide variety of agricultural commodities. Before reaching the
consumer, each product moves through a unique marketing
channel often involving grading, processing, packaging, trans-
porting, international trade, wholesaling and retailing. The
provision of inputs and services to the agricultural sector also
involves significant economic activity. Agricultural businesses
must cope with increased regulatory pressure, shifting
consumer preferences regarding food safety and environmen-
tal protection as well as dealing with emerging opportunities
through biotechnology. Agribusiness, farm management and
production economics, marketing, international trade and
competition, and consumer economics are among the subject
matter sub-areas contributing.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT: Florida's popula-
tion growth and associated pressures on land, water, and


natural systems pose difficult policy choices for public offi-
cials. Environmental and resource problems and policies affect
agriculture and Florida's rural communities. The need for
research increases as the competition between agricultural and
nonagricultural users of land and water intensifies. These
conflicting issues are clearly part of the management challenge
in commercial agriculture. Natural resource and environmen-
tal economics, including marine economics, are the primary
subject matter sub-areas contributing.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: Economic development generally
refers to targeted programs designed to enable people to raise
overall per capital incomes or to improve circumstances for
specific disadvantaged populations. The emphasis of the
program thrust is the enhancement of people's capacity to
acquire and manage resources effectively. Economic transi-
tions underway in rural Florida result in pockets of economic
disadvantage. Public and private managers must cope with the
costs of economic change and must be able to influence both
the pattern and pace of growth. Insights are sometimes
obtained from problem-solving work in other counties that
may be applicable in Florida. Rural economic development,
international development, economic impact analysis, and
agricultural labor subject matter sub-areas contribute.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 80







FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN FLORIDA
Farm employment in Florida is driven primarily by
specialty crop agriculture. The 1997 Census of Agriculture for
Florida revealed that 84 percent of labor expenditures were
for the following three commodity groups: fruits and nuts;
greenhouse, nursery and floriculture; and vegetables and
melons. Employment in the first and third of these cate-
gories is highly seasonal, while employment in the green-
house, nursery, and floriculture industry is nearly continu-
ous. The high growth in the Florida greenhouse, nursery and
floriculture industry over recent years has greatly
contributed to the marked reduction in seasonality of
Florida farm employment. Nevertheless, the ratio of esti-
mated January to July employment is nearly two to one.
Highly seasonal employment can be met in two differ-
ent ways: either through migratory labor, or by local,
seasonal workers. Seasonal employment needs in Florida
agriculture continue to be met largely by migratory labor.
There are typically too few local workers willing and able at
prevailing wage rates to do the strenuous work required in
hand harvesting, the major activity of Florida seasonal farm
employment. Most labor force participants are employed full
time in other activities and unavailable for seasonal farm
work. Some who choose to work part time, or are unable to
locate full time work, perform seasonal farm employment
locally, but tend to represent a very small portion of the
seasonal farm work force.
The dominant component of Florida seasonal farm jobs
requires high dexterity and physical endurance to be
productive. As the economy shifts further to an information-
based economy, these are not highly valued attributes in
most other occupations. Accordingly, the average educa-
tional level of the domestic labor force has been continually
rising in anticipation of the types of jobs likely to be avail-
able throughout a person's work life. One implication of the
rising educational endowment of the labor force is that indi-
viduals have far more alternative employment options than
is the case for individuals with minimal education. The latter
individuals from the dwindling low education group are
much more likely to periodically do seasonal farm work
than persons from the expanding group with increased
education.
The labor force changes affecting agriculture are also
affecting other industries traditionally employing unskilled
labor: hotels and restaurants, meat packing, construction,
garment, and similar employers of unskilled labor. The
unskilled labor openings while not sufficiently attractive at
the prevailing wage rates in agriculture and other employers
of similar labor are highly attractive to workers from the
nearby countries of Mexico, Central America, and the
Caribbean. The result is an estimated eight to 12 million
persons working in the country without legal authorization
to do so.


Analysis of surveys conducted for the U.S. Department
of Labor reveal that over two-thirds of the workers in
perishable commodity agriculture in the southeast self-
report to be workers from other countries working in the
U.S. without proper authorization. The resulting employ-
ment situation is surrounded with uncertainty both for the
employer and for the worker lacking work authorization. A
concurrent change in the labor market has been a shift away
from direct employment by the grower to increased use of
contract labor.
Growers respond to the set of price signals for products
and inputs employed in the production process given avail-
able technology. Throughout the first half of the 20th
century of U.S. agriculture, technology has typically been
characterized as labor-saving by permitting additional ways
of substituting capital and other inputs for labor at an
advantageous cost. Our analyses focus on the latter part of
the 20th century using the Immigration Reform and Control
Act of 1986 (IRCA) as a demarcation point. Our results
suggest that technology has shifted from being neutral with
respect to labor prior to IRCA to being labor-using following


Robert Emerson


~/


81 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


IRCA. The interpretation is that for given input prices, tech-
nologies shifted to induce the employment of more labor
than if the technologies had been neutral. In addition, the
technologies favored the additional employment of contract
labor over labor employed directly by the grower. The results
are strongly suggestive that technologies adjust to the avail-
ability of labor.
The increased role of unauthorized workers in agricul-
ture also affects how easily employees can be located. When
the same employees return year after year, recruiting and
training costs are reduced, and the employer has reason to
believe that labor will be available when needed. We find that
the expected length of time of work in agriculture is dramat-
ically different for authorized and unauthorized workers: five


years versus two years. The implication is that in the pres-
ence of unauthorized workers increased effort must be
extended to attract new workers, and that there is increased
uncertainty in securing the necessary employees.
The research directly informs a number of concerns
currently being discussed in the policy debate on immigra-
tion reform. The primary implication of our research is that
the system adjusts to changes in the labor market. With more
readily available labor, technologies have adjusted to utilize
that resource more intensely. By contrast, with less readily
available labor, technologies will likewise adjust to utilize
other inputs more intensely. Consequently, the effects of
changes in the labor market due to immigration reform are
likely to be less than casual observation may suggest.


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY


TITLE


SPECIALTY


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION


Thomas H.Spreen

Charles M. Adams

Richard P. Beilock

Robert J. Burkhardt

Roy R. Carriker

Henry M. Cothran

Carlton G. Davis

Robert L. Degner

Evan Drummond

Robert D. Emerson

Gary F. Fairchild

Alan W. Hodges

Lisa A. House

Nathaniel Johnson

Clyde F. Kiker

Richard L. Kilmer

Sherry L. Larkin

Donna J. Lee

Burl F. Long

Charles B. Moss

David Mulkey


Chairman and Prof.


Prof.

Prof.

Prof.


Quantitative Methods, Citrus Economics


Marine Economics


Marketing Transportation


Philosophy and Ethics in Agriculture


Natural Resource and Environmental Economics 30


Assoc. In


Distinguished Service Prof.

Prof. and Program Director

Assoc. Director & Prof.


Prof.

Asst. In.


Assoc. Prof.


Lecurer

Prof.


Prof.


Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


Prof.


Budget Analysis, Community Development

International Economics


Market Research Center


Senior Assoc. Dir. Of Honors Program

Econometrics, Agricultural Labor

Marketing &Trade

Horticultural Economic, Impact Analysis

Agribusiness Management


Ag Economics 100oo

Natural Resources/Environ mental Economics 50


Azrcultural Marketinz


Natural Resource and Environmental Economics 30


Natural Resource Economics

Natural Resource Economics Public Policy


Agribusiness Finance and Quantitative Methods 30


Regional Economics


25 50 25


0 100


30 70 0

40 40 20


o 70


20 o 80

10 90 o

o 60 40

100 0 0

40 6o o

80 20 0

o 30 70

60 40 o


0 0


50 o


30 70 o


70 o


60 40 o

80 o 20


70 o


5 30 65


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 82









FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS


FACULTY & STAFF


SPECIALTY

Ag. Economics

Agricultural Law

Marketing and Trade


TEACHING RESEARCH EXTENSION

100 0 0


30 70


James L. Seale, Jr.

James A. Sterns

Timothy G. Taylor

PeterJ. Van Blokland

John J. Van Sickle

Ronald W. Ward

Richard N. Weldon

Alien F. Wysocki


Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.


Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.


International Agricultural Trade, Finance & Policy 30 70

Agribusiness Mnagement 60 40

International Economics and Agribusiness 40 60

Agribusiness Finance 40 o


Agricultural Marketing & Trade

Agricultural Marketing

Agribusiness Finance

Food Distribution and Marketing


20 10 70


30 70

70 30


RESEARCH PROJECTS


AUTHOR

Beilock, R.P.


Lee, D.J.

Seale, J.L.

Weldon, R.N.


Hodges,A.W.


Larkin,S L.

Burkhardt, R.J.

Kilmer, R.L., Washington, A.A.

House, L., Degner, R.

VanSickle, J.J., Evans, E.A., Knapp, J.L.,
Alamo-Gonzalez, C.I.

Davis, C.G.


Hodges, A.W., Mulkey, W.D.


VanSickle, J.J.


Moss, C.B., Schmitz, A.


TITLE

Agricultural and Food Product Logistics: Implications for Florida and the U. S. in a
World Market

Economic Valuation of Florida's Environmental and Natural Resources

Impacts of Trade Agreements and Economic Policies on Southern Agriculture

Financing Agriculture and RuralAmerica: Issues for Policy Structure and Technical
Change

Technical and Economical Efficiencies of Producing, Marketing, and Managing
Environmental Plants

The Efficiency of Alternative Natural Resource and Environmental Policies and Practices

Agriculture and Natural Resource Ethics

A Differential Factor Demand Approach to Import Demand Analysis

Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Florida Agricultural Products

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT): Economic and Trade Impacts of Regulations to
Control Invasive Pests

Caribbean Basin Countries Agricultural Sector Adjustment Challenges Under Emerging
Trade Liberalization and Integration Regimes

Economic, Environmental and Fiscal ImpactAnalysis of Agriculture, Natural Resources
and Amenity-based Services in Florida

Economics of Managing Invasive Species in Tropical and Sub-tropical Areas of the US
Caribbean Basin

Impact Analysis and Decision Strategies for Agricultural Research


83 1 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


FACULTY


David O'Gorman

Michael T. Olexa

Andrew Schmitz


TITLE

Lecurer

Prof.

Eminent Scholar


PROJECT NO.

FRE-o3701


FRE-o3712

FRE-o3752

FRE-o3769


FRE-o3825


FRE-o3863

FRE-o3890

FRE-o3968

FRE-o4005

FRE-o4080


FRE-o4090


FRE-o4118


FRE-o4145


FRE-o4163








PUBLICATIONS


Adams, C. and S. Versaggi. 2003. International Agricultural Trade Disputes:
Case Studies in North America. Gainesville, FL.

Adams, C. andL. Sturmer. 2003. Hard Clam Culture: A Commercial Success
Story in Florida. World Aquaculture. pp. 1.

Adams, C., M. Palma and F Wirth. 2003. Buying Cultured Sturgeon. Global
Aquaculture Advocate. 6(6):31-32.

Adams, D.C., R.L. Kilmer, C.B. Moss and A. Schmitz. 2003. Valuing
Catastrophic Losses for Perennial Agricultural Crops: Citrus as a Model.
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society: Refereed Article. pp. 1.

Adams, D., S.L. Larkin and F Rossi. 2003. Regime Changes and Intrinsic
Amenity Valuation: Effects on Optimal Old-growth Stock Levels. Teaching and
Learning Papers. Food and Resource Economics, Gainesville, FL.

Anderson, R., T. Taylor and T. Josling. 2003. Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a
Trade Dispute. CABI. U.K. pp. 123-150.

Beilock, R. 2003. Schedule Tightness Among Tractor-trailer Drivers. Traffic
Injury Prevention. 4(2):105-112.

Beilock, R. and D. Dimitrova. 2003. An Exploratory Model of Inter-country
Internet Diffusion. Telecommunications Policy. 27:237-252.

Beilock, R. 2003. Helping Armenia Without Helping the Blockade. Armenian
Journal of Public Policy. 1(1):79-112.

Beilock, R. 2003. The Elusive Sweatshop. Journal of the Transportation
Research Forum. 57(3):153-166.

Beilock, R. and D. Grigorian. 2003. The Role and Potential for Public-private.
Prepared for Armenia 2020. Gainesville Fl.

Blakeley, L., R.N. Weldon and G.E Fairchild. 2003. Economic Analysis of
Aldicarb on Citrus in the Indian River Area in Southeastern Florida.
HortTechnology. 13(4):165-167.

Burkhardt, J. 2003. Ethics and Novel Foods: Implications for Scientific
Practice. Science and Engineering Ethics. 10(9):503-516.

Cannon, S., A. Wysocki and G. Fairchild. 2003. Selling the Satisfied Customer:
A Pioneer Hi-bred International, Inc., Selling Case. Journal of Applied Case
Research. pp. 1.

Cantliffe, D.J. and J.J. VanSickle. 2003. Mexican Greenhouse Tomato Growth.
The Tomato Magazine. 7(5):20-21.

Chen, D. and J.L. Seale, Jr. 2003. The Informational Fit and Maximum
Likelihood in a Pooled Cross-country Demand System with Autocorrelation.
Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. pp. 139-144.

Codron, J., J.A. Sterns and T. Reardon. 2003. Strategic Choices in Produce
Marketing: Issues of Compatible Use and Exclusion Costs. Journal of Food
Distribution Research. 34(3):1-12.

Deepak, S.D., J.L. Seale and C.B. Moss. 2003. Per Capita Income, Human
Capital, and Income Convergence. Journal of Agricultural and Applied
Economics. 35:171-180.

Deepak, S.D., J.L. Seale, Jr. and C.B. Moss. 2003. Income Inequality, Human
Capital, and Convergence: A Latent Variable Approach. Journal of Agricultural
and Applied Economics. pp. 171-181.

Degner, R.L. 2003. The Florida Handbook. Peninsular Publishing Company.
Tallahassee, FL. pp. 581-584.

Emerson, R.D., O. Napasintuwong, L. Walters and J.J. VanSickle. 2003. Trade
Adjustment Assistance Reform Act of 2002: Evaluation of Florida Impacts.

Erickson, K., A.K. Mishra and C.B. Moss. 2003. Government Policy and
Farmland Markets: The Maintenance of Farmer Wealth. Iowa State University
Press. Ames, Iowa. pp. 223-235.

Fairchild, G., J. Nichols and 0. Capps, Jr. 2003. "Observations on Economic
Adulteration of High-value Food Products: The Honey Case." Journal of Food
Distribution Research. 34(2):38-45.


Featherstone, A.M. and C.B. Moss. 2003. Government Policy and Farmland
Markets: The Maintenance of Farmer Wealth. Iowa State University Press.
Ames, Iowa. pp. 159-178.

Girapunthong, N., J.J. VanSickle and A. Renwick. 2003. Price Asymmetry in the
United States Fresh Tomato Market. Journal of Food Distribution Research.
34(3):51-59.

Hall, C., G. Fairchild, T. Taylor, K. Litzenberg and G. Baker. 2003.
"Agribusiness Capstone Courses Design: Objectives and Strategies."
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. pp. 1.

Haydu, J.J. and A.W. Hodges. 2003. Developing New Markets for Turfgrass-sod
in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Business. 4(1-2):371-
376.

Haydu, J.J., A.W. Hodges and L.N. Satterthwaite. 2003. Market Expansion
Strategies for Turfgrass Producers in the Western United States. UF/IFAS
(EDIS). Gainesville, FL.

Hodges, A.W. and D. Mulkey. 2003. Regional Economic Impacts of Florida's
Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries. Florida Cooperative Extension.
Gainesville, Florida.

Hodges, A.W. and J.J. Haydu. 2003. Golf, Tourism and Amenity-based
Development in Florida. Journal of the American Academy of Business. 4(1-
2):481-488.

Hodges, A.W. and J.J. Haydu. 2003. Economic Impacts of Drought on the
Environmental Horticulture Industry. UF/IFAS (EDIS). Gainesville, FL.

Hodges, A.W. and W.D. Mulkey. 2003. Regional Economic Impacts of Florida's
Agricultural and Natural Resource Industries. UF/IFAS/FRE (EDIS).
Gainesville, FL.

House, L.A., S. Melgar and B. Barnett. 2003. Victor Melgar's Coffee Farm.
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. 3:1.

House, L.A. and J. Sterns. 2003. What are Agricultural Economics Ph.D.
Students Learning about Agribusiness Research Methods and Subject Areas.
NACTA Journal. June. 47(2):31-35.

House, L.A., T. Hanson and S. Sureshwaran. 2003. U.S. Consumers Examining
the Decision to Consume Oysters and the Decision of How Frequent to
Consume Oysters. Journal of Shellfish Research. 22:51-59.

Isik, M., K. Coble, D. Hudson and L.A. House. 2003. Investment Under
Uncertainty: Applications of Real Option Valuation to Agribusiness
Investments in Remote Sensing Technologies. Agricultural Economics: The
Journal of the International Agricultural Economics Association. 28:215-224.

Just, R. and A. Schmitz. 2003. Government Policy and Farmland Markets: The
Maintenance of Farmer Wealth. Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA. pp.
53-80.

Kilmer, R.L. and T.J. Stevens, III. 2003. Supply Chains May Deliver Safer Food.
Choices. 17(4):41-43.

Larkin, S.L., C. DeBodisco and R.L. Degner. 2003. Marine Ornamental Species:
Collection, Culture, and Conservation. Iowa State Press. Ames, Iowa. pp. 125-
137.

Larkin, S.L. 2003. Marine Ornamental Species: Collection, Culture, and
Conservation. Blackwell Science Press. pp. 77-92.

Larkin, S.L. and C. Debodisco. 2003. Marine Ornamental Species: Collection,
Culture, and Conservation. Blackwell Science Press. pp. 125-140.

Larkin, S.L., G. Sylvia and C. Tuininga. 2003. Portfolio Analysis for Optimal
Seafood Product Diversification and Resource Management. Journal of
Agricultural and Resource Economics. 28(2):252-271.

Lee, D.J. and C.S. Kim. 2003. Groundwater Quality Regulations In Irrigated
Agriculture the Case of Buffalo and Hall Counties in Nebraska. World Bank.
http://worldbank.org.

Lowe, G.G., C.G. Davis and R.L. Kilmer. 2003. United States Trade Flows for
Selected Categories of Specialty Crops. UF/IFAS/FRED/IATPC. Gainesville, FL.

Moss, C.B., J.S. Shonkwiler and A. Schmitz. 2003. Government Policy and
Farmland Markets: The Maintenance of Farmer Wealth. Iowa State University
Press. Ames, Iowa. pp. 209-222.

Moss, C.B., T.G. Schmitz, A. Kagan and A. Schmitz. 2003. Institutional
Economics and the Emergence of E-commerce in Agribusiness. Journal of
Agribusiness. 21(1):83-102.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 84








PUBLICATIONS


Moss, C.B. 2003. It is Obvious that... Journal of Agricultural and Applied
Economics. 35:1.

Moss, C.B. and H. Theil. 2003. Homogeneity Testing Revisited. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 35:3-4.

Moss, C.B. and J.L. Seale, Jr. 2003. Henri Theil Memorial Special Issue. Journal
of Agricultural and Applied Economics. pp. 1-196.

Olexa, M.T., G.E Fairchild, A.E Wysocki and R.N. Weldon. 2003. An
Agricultural Law Minor: The University of Florida Experience. NACTA.
47(3):38-40.

Olexa, M.T., G.E Fairchild, A.E Wysocki and R.N. Weldon. 2003. An
Agricultural Law Minor: The University of Florida Experience. Teaching and
Learning Paper Series. Dept. Food and Resource Economics.

Rahmani, M., A.W. Hodges and C.F. Kiker. 2003. Compost Users' Attitudes
Toward Compost Application in Florida. Compost Science and Utilization.
pp. 1.
Roberts, R., B. English, J. Larson, R. Cochran, B. Goodman, S.L. Larkin, M.
Marra, S. Martin, D. Shurley and J. Reeves. 2003. Cotton Precision Farming
Technology Adoption as Influenced by Farm Attributes and Farmer
Characteristics and Perceptions. Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station,
Department of Agricultural Economics. Knoxville, TN.

Rossi, F., S.L. Larkin and N. Ngwenyama. 2003. Optimization of Joint Forest
Management Models in India for Timber, Groundwater Recharge, and
Mushroom Collection Benefits. Teaching and Learning Papers, Food and
Resource Economics. Gainesville, FL.

Ruth, A., L. Sturmer and C. Adams. 2003. Organizational Structures and
Strategies for the Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry in Florida. Univ. of
Florida.

Schmitz, T.G., C.B. Moss and A. Schmitz. 2003. Marketing Channels Compete
for U.S. Stocker Cattle. Journal of Agribusiness. 21(2):131-148.

Schmitz, A., C.B. Moss and J.S. Shonkwiler. 2003. Government Policy and
Farmland Markets: The Maintenance of Farmer Wealth. Iowa State University
Press. Ames, IA. pp. 209-222.

Schmitz, A. 2003. Directions in Policy Analysis. Journal of Agricultural and
Applied Economics. 35(2):222-225.

Schmitz, A., J.L. Seale, Jr. and T.G. Schmitz. 2003. Sweetener-ethanol Complex
in Brazil, the United States, and Mexico: Do Prices Matter. International Sugar
Journal. 105(1259):505-513.

Schmitz, T.G., C.B. Moss and A. Schmitz. 2003. Marketing Channels Compete
for U.S. Stocker Cattle. Journal of Agribusiness. 21(2):131-148.

Schmitz, T.G. and A. Schmitz. 2003. Food Supply Management and
Tariffication: A Game Theoretic Approach. Journal of Agricultural and Food
Industrial Organization. 1(1):1-19.

Schmitz, T.G., A. Schmitz and J.L. Seale, Jr. 2003. Brazil's Ethanol Program:
The Case of Hidden Sugar Subsidies. International Sugar Journal.
105(1254):254-265.

Seale, Jr., J.L. 2003. Uniform Substitutes When Group Preferences are
Blockwise Dependent. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. pp. 51-
55.

Seale, Jr., J.L., M.A. Marchant and A. Basso. 2003. Imports Versus Domestic
Production: A Demand System Analysis of the U.S. Red Wine Market. Review
of Agricultural Economics. 25:187-202.

Seale, Jr., J.L. 2003. Three Characteristics of Hans Theil. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. pp. 49-50.

Spreen, T.H. and M. Paggi. 2003. Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade
Dispute. CAB International. Wallingford UK.

Spreen, T.H., R.P. Muraro and M.L. Zansler. 2003. The Costs and Value Loss
Associated with Florida Citrus Groves Exposed to Citrus Canker. Proceedings
of the Florida State Horticultural Society. pp. 1.


Spreen, T.H., C. Brewster and M.G. Brown. 2003. The Free Trade Area of the
Americas and the World Processed Orange Market. Journal of Agricultural
and Applied Economics. 35:107-126.

Spreen, T.H. 2003. Projections of World Citrus Production and Consumption
to 2010. Fruit Processing. 13:378-385.

Stevens, T., A.W. Hodges and D. Mulkey. 2003. Florida Agriculture and the
Vegetable Industry. International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center.
Gainesville, Florida.

Stevens, T.J., A.W. Hodges and W.D. Mulkey. 2003. Florida Agriculture and the
Vegetable Industry. UF/FRE/IATPC. Gainesville, FL.

Taylor, T. 2003. Banana Wars: The Anatomy of a Trade Dispute. CABI
International. UK. pp. 67-96.

Taylor, T. and B. Francis. 2003. Agricultural Export Diversification in Latin
America and the Caribbean. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
35:77-87.

Taylor, T. 2003. Export Diversification in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The International Trade Journal. 27:101-128.

Theil, H. and C.B. Moss. 2003. The Five Layers of Affluence. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 35:165-168.

Thomas, C.Y. and C.G. Davis. 2003. Achieving Sustainable Communities in a
Global Economy: Alternative Private Strategies and Public Policies. World
Scientific Publishing Co. River Edge, NJ.

Thornsbury, S. and G. Fairchild. 2003. King or Pawn: Consumer Preferences in
International Trade. Choices. pp. 1.

Trejo-Pech, C., L.A. House and C. L6pez-Reyna. 2003. Cargill Hybrid Seeds
Mexico: A Case Study. International Food and Agribusiness Management
Review. 5(3):1.

VanBlokland, P.J. 2003. Why Most Citrus Growers Cannot Use the Futures
Market to Hedge Their Grove Costs. Florida Grower: Citrus 2003. Mid August.
pp. 26-28.

VanSickle, J.J., E.A. Evans and R.D. Emerson. 2003. U.S.-Canadian Tomato
Wars: An Economist Tries to Make Sense Out of Recent Antidumping Suits.
Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 35(2):283-296.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Vegetable Production Guide for Florida 2003-2004.
University of Florida. pp. 103-106.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: Buying Crop Insurance Adds Value to Your
Operation. The Florida Agri-Journal. 2(11):6.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: When Growers Ask for Help in Marketing
They Usually Mean "Find Me a Buyer" or "Find Me a Higher Price". The
Florida Agri-Journal. 2(6):6.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: An El Nino Year is With Us. The Florida Agri
Journal. 2(7):6.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: The New Farm Bill Changes the Peanut
Program for Producers. The Florida Agri-Journal. 2(8):6.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: With the 2003 Tax Season fading Into
Memory, it is Never too Early to Begin Thinking About 2004. The Florida Agri-
Journal. 2(9):6.

VanSickle, J.J. 2003. Agri-nomics: Cool and Food Safety. The Florida Agri-
Journal. 2(10):6.

Walters, L.M., G.G. Lowe and C.G. Davis. 2003. Economic Asymmetries, Trade
Liberalization and Integration: Issues and Policy Implications for CARICOM
Countries. UF/IFAS/FRED/IATPC. Gainesville, FL.

Weatherspoon, D.D., J.L. Seale and CB. Moss. 2003. Extending Theil's
Inequality Index: Addressing Dynamic Convergence in the OECD. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 35:183-194.

Weatherspoon, D.D., J.L. Seale, Jr. and C.B. Moss. 2003. Extending Theil's
Inequality Index: Addressing Dynamic Convergence in the OECD. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. pp. 185-196.

Weldon, R.N., A.A. Washington and R.L. Kilmer. 2003. Reducing Seasonality
in Dairy Production. http://www.choicesmagazine.org/current/2003-4-08.htm.
Choices. 18(4):1-5.

Woods, M., S. Thornsbury, K. Raper, R.N. Weldon and A.E Wysocki. 2003.
Food Safety and Fresh Strawberry Markets. Dep. of Agricultural Economics -
Staff Paper 03-20. Michigan State University.


85 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS








Wysocki, A.F., G.F. Fairchild, R.N. Weldon, A. Biere, J. Fulton and C.
McIntosh. 2003. Agricultural, Agribusiness and International Marketing
Courses in Undergraduate Curricula: Issues and Ideas. Journal of
Agribusiness. 21(2):197-212.


Wysocki, A.F., G.F. Fairchild, R.N. Weldon, A. Biere, J. Fulton and C.
McIntosh. 2003. Marketing Courses in Undergraduate Agricultural Economics
Curricula: Issue and Ideas. Dept. Food and Resource Economics. Univ. of
Florida.

Wysocki, A.F., H.C. Peterson and S.B. Harsh. 2003. Quantifying Strategic
Choice Along the Vertical Coordination Continuum. International Food and
Agribusiness Review. 6(3):1-15.
Xiaming, G., C.B. Moss, H. Theil and D.D. Weatherspoon. 2003. The
Development of the GDPs of the G-7 Countries, 1950-1988. Journal of
Agricultural and Applied Economics. 35:151-154.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY
Adams, C.M.
Larkin, S.L.
Beilock, R.P.
Fairchild, G.F
Taylor, T.G.

Haydu, J.J.
Hodges, A.W.
House, L.A.


Kilmer, R.L.
Larkin, S.L.


Lee, D.J.
Hodges, A.W.
Mulkey, D.
Adams, C.M.
Mulkey, D.
Hodges, A.W.
Olexa, M.T.
Reynolds, J.E
Taylor, T.G.
Seale, Jr., J.L.
Smith, W.H.
Long, A.J.
Spreen, T.H.
Kilmer, R.L.
Spreen, T.H.
Sterns, J.A.
Athearn, K.R.
Vansickle, J.J.


Vansickle, J.J.
Vansickle, J.J.
Knapp, Jr., J.L.
Vansickle, J.J.
Evans, E.A.
Vansickle, J.J.


Ward, R.W.


TITLE
Assessing the Fair Market Value of Commercial Shark Vessels in the
Gulf of Mexico
Refrigerated Motor Carrier Trends in Florida Produce
Cross-border Curricular Programs in International Environmental
and Agribusiness Management

Economic Impacts of the Green Industry in the United States


Measures of Consumer Acceptance of and Willingness to Pay for
Genetically-modified Foods in the U.S. and the E.U.
A Differential Factor Deman Approach to Import Demand Analysis
Optimal Resource Rents Through Bioeconomic Management: A
Case Study of the Falkland Islands Squid Fishery
The Effect of Federal Water System Management on Florida's
Agricultural Industry
Input-output Model of the Commercial Fishing Industry Along the
East Coast of Florida
Economic Impact Analysis of the Florida Forest Products Industry


Handbooks & Fact Sheets Related to Water Quality
Agricultural Land Use Projections within the Southwest FL Water
Management District
Estimating Import & Export Demand for Specialty Crops
Assessing and Mitigating Fire Risk for Landowners in the Southern
Wildland-urban Interface
Food & Agricultural Sciences National Needs Graduate Fellowship
Grants Program
Marketing Florida Citrus Products
Economic Research on Organic Citrus Production and Marketing
in Florida
Information Gathering and Analysis to Identify Options for
Developing Risk Managemetn Tool for Speciality Crop Producer

Florida Agricultural Competiveness and Trade
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT): Economic & Trade Impacts of
Regulations to Control Invasive Pests and to Ensure Food
Economics of Managing Invasive Species in Tropical Areas of the
United States of America
Consumer Willingness to Pay for Country of Origin Labeling of Fresh
Produce and Impacts on Growers
Beef Demand and its Response to the Beef Checkoff


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 186


SOURCE OF FUNDS
Gulf &S. Atlantic Fish Dev. Fd.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Univ. of Maine


Univ. of Tennessee


Mississippi State University


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Syldon Associates Inc.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


FL Forestry Association


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
Water Management Districts


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. of Citrus
Organic Farming Research Fdtn.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


FL Fruit and Veg. Res. & Ed. Fdtn.


Natl. Cattlemen's BeefAssn.


AMOUNT

$30,413.00


$15,000.00

$50,450.00


$24,000.00


$71,667.00


$150,000.00
$23,999.00


$27,000.00


$25,000.00


$45,500.00


$10,728.00
$20,000.00


$22,500.00
$123,290.00


$138,000.00


$27,500.00
$6,500.00


$394,487.00

$1,ooo,ooo.oo
$80,000.00


$290,901.00


$10,000.00


$62,500.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION
359 Food Science Building I Gainesville, FL 32611-0970
352-392-1997 1 http://fshn.ifas.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The Food Science and Human Nutrition department is
dedicated to quality research, teaching, extension, and service
programs in the broad and diverse areas of food science,
human nutrition, and dietetics. We have faculty both on
campus and at the Citrus Research and Education Center, and
several faculty members participate in the Center for
Nutritional Sciences, an interdisciplinary program encouraging
comprehensive training and research in the science of nutri-
tion. Members of the faculty also participate in programs in
other departments in IFAS and across the University of
Florida, other universities, and government agencies. Members
of the faculty are well recognized nationally and internation-
ally, as evidenced by the recent election of a faculty member to
the National Academy of Sciences. The faculty has also been
very successful in generating grants from federal, state, and
industry sources, and grant expenditures last year totaled over
$2 million.
The department's research programs can be divided into
two broad categories: food science and human nutrition.
Research in the area of food science addresses problems and
opportunities important to the food industry in Florida and
throughout the world. Research projects involve many of the
commodities important in Florida, including seafood and


aquaculture products, citrus, fresh fruits and vegetables, and
dairy products. Research areas include food safety and micro-
biology issues, food processing and new method development,
quality and sensory aspects of foods, and composition and
chemistry of foods. Research in the area of human nutrition
addresses basic and applied aspects of human nutrition in
efforts to improve the health and wellness of Floridians and
the world population, and includes studies on gene regulation,
immunity, and women's health. Research areas include the
function and biochemistry of micronutrients, the role of
water-soluble vitamins in the health of various population, the
effects of phytochemicals and nutrient supplements on health,
and the development of education programs for improved
nutrition and health.
The department publishes in many national and interna-
tional journals, including several popular publications.
Research programs in the department offer many opportuni-
ties for the training of graduate and undergraduate students,
and faculty with appointments in the Cooperative Extension
Service effectively share research findings with clientele in
Florida and around the world. For more information on the
Food Science and Human Nutrition department, please contact
Charles Sims or visit our Web site: FSHN.IFAS.UFL.EDU


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 88







FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


RESEARCH ON THE HALF SHELL


SIGNIFICANCE: One of the greatest threats to the Florida
oyster industry does not involve hurricanes or over-fishing,
but rather the public perception of seafood safety. Although
seafood-related deaths are relatively rare (< 30 cases/year
nationwide compared to the thousands attributed to poultry
and beef consumption), dangers of eating raw shellfish have
received considerable attention. The center of this storm is a
bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, which is indigenous to all
temperate coastal waters. Unfortunately disease can produce
life-threatening toxic shock in susceptible persons, and
spread rapidly to the bloodstream and tissues to cause death
in less than 24 hours. However, healthy oyster lovers should
not be alarmed, as they can (and probably do) consume
thousands of these bacteria with no ill effects. On the other
hand, persons with liver disease or immune dysfunction
(AIDS), should avoid oysters, especially of the raw or "on the
half shell" variety. Persons with hemochromatosis are
particularly at risk. This hereditary condition disrupts iron
metabolism, resulting in excess iron in serum and tissues
that facilitates bacterial growth and leads to overwhelming
infections.
Currently seafood is not tested for V vulnificus, and
public safety measures have focused on warning labels and
identification of "at risk" groups. Traditional screening
methods are difficult because of background bacteria, as
well as the number and difficulty of tests required for
confirmation of V vulnificus. The FDA recently mandated
implementation of new industry practices to reduce contam-
ination in oysters. Possible postharvest oyster treatments
include freezing, pasteurization (mild heating), irradiation,
and high pressure. Unfortunately, most of these methods
also kill the oysters and are not suited to the "half shell'
market. More rapid methods are needed for monitoring
product and evaluating pathogen reduction treatments to
ensure consumer safety.
V vulnificus studies also focus on understanding bacter-
ial factors that produce such rapid disease in vertebrate
hosts. One of the primary virulence factors is the polysac-
charide capsule that sugarcoatss" the bacterium to protect it
from host defenses. The capsule may also provide protection
by preventing bacterial killing in the oyster or by promoting
survival in the environment. Not all strains make capsule,
and these isolates can be differentiated by altered colony
appearance. The unencapusulated colonies appear more
translucent than typical opaque colonies of encapsulated
strains, and are less virulent in animal models. Observations
of colony type stability revealed rapid switching or phase
variation between the two types at a rate of about 1 in every
1000 colonies. This phase variation is common to other viru-
lence-associated structures such as pili and flagella, but the
genetic basis for capsule switching is not understood.


RATIONALE: The research in our laboratory focuses on
improved ways to detect V vulnificus in food and the envi-
ronment. In order to improve detection methods, we
recently developed a real-time PCR assay that provides more
accurate evaluation of hundreds of oyster samples in a
matter of hours (Campbell and Wright, 2003). We are
currently collaborating with the FDA to standardize these
methods and incorporate detection of other medically
important pathogens. Other studies target virulence and
focus on genes responsible for making the protective poly-
saccharide capsule (Wright et al., 1999 and 2000). We recently
identified genetic rearrangements that correlated with
switching from virulent to avirulent phenotype. Unique
regions of DNA appear to mediate specific deletions that
control the phase variation in some strains. We will also
monitor virulence gene expression with real-time PCR in
order to evaluate factors that may lead to attenuation of
virulence. Through PCR-based DNA fingerprinting of envi-
ronmental isolates, we examine the diversity and virulence
potential of vibrios in the environment. Using these


Anita Wright


89 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


methods, we also surveyed another oyster-borne pathogen,
Salmonella enterica, from Suwannee River samples. Although
>2000 clinical serotypes are described, we found surprisingly
little diversity in environmental isolates, suggesting the
vertebrate host may select for increased genetic mutations.
Other projects include the use rapid detection methods to
monitor clam aquaculture initiatives in Cedar Key, Florida
and provide better assurance of the health and safety of this
rapidly growing industry.
Finally, we are trying to better understand the ecology
of V vulnificus in oysters: For example, do they coexist symbi-
otically in a manner similar to relationships described for
other vibrios and invertebrates? We recently found that
switching to avirulent colony types increases attachment of
V vulnificus to surfaces (Joseph and Wright, 2004). In aquatic
environments these attachments can develop into complex
multispecies communities, termed biofilms, which are essen-
tial for survival. Investigating biofilms of oysters may reduce
the risk to consumers by reducing attachment of more viru-
lent variants or by providing potential targets for treatment
and prevention of infections in both humans and oysters.

IMPACT: Molecular detection, such as the real-time PCR,
offers needed tools for regulatory agencies to rapidly assess
seafood safety of raw shellfish. It also provides rapid, cost-
effective access to industry for evaluation of the effectiveness
of various postharvest treatments. We are working with
others (Drs. Rodrick and Otwell) in the Food Science and
Human Nutrition Department at the University of Florida to
assess the efficacy of different oyster treatment methods. We
collaborate with Drs. Gulig and Duckworth at the UF Medical
School to investigate novel approaches, such as the use of
bacteriophage (bacteria-specific viruses) for killing of
vibrios in oysters. As phage specifically kill bacteria (and not
oysters or humans), this method may permit decontamina-
tion of the live shellfish. We hope to provide practical
methods to tackle the V vulnificus problem in order to main-
tain an industry that is essential to the economy and history
of the Gulf of Mexico. From a basic science viewpoint,
perhaps the more important goal may be to answer the


question "Why are these vibrios in the oysters in the first
place?" These bacteria are known to be critical to the
turnover of carbon from planktonic chitin in the marine
environments. Other contributions to the health and ecology
of estuaries remain to be discovered.

FURTHER READING:
Wright A.C., Powell, J.L., Tanner, M.L., Ensor, L.A., Karpas,
A.B., Morris, J.G., Jr., and Sztein, M.B. (1999) Differential
expression of Vibrio vulnificus capsular polysaccharide.
Infect. Immun. 67: 2250-2257.
Wright, A.C., Powell, J, Kaper, J.B., Morris, J.G., Jr. (2001)
Identification of a group 1-like capsular polysaccharide
operon for Vibrio vulnificus. Infectlmmun. 69: 6893 -6901.
Campbell, M. and Wright, A.C. (2003) Real-time PCR detection
of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
69:7137 -7144
Joseph, L.A. and Wright, A.C. (2004) Vibrio vulnificus capsular
polysaccharide inhibits biofilm formation. J. Bacteriol.
186: 889-893.

GRADUATE STUDENTS (research areas): Ana Calero (detec-
tion methods), Mark Campbell (real-time PCR), Maria
Chatzidaki (capsule genetics), Melissa Jones (capsule regula-
tion), Lavin Joseph (Biofilms), Ayana McCoy (shellfish
disease), Masoumeh Rajabi (Salmonella), James Smith (bacte-
riophage)

COLLABORATORS (Affiliation): Drs. Rodrick, Otwell,
Schneider, Gulig, Duckworth (FSHN, UF); Mark Strom
(NOAA), Diane McDougald (University of New South Wales);
Angelo Depaola (FDA); Valerie Harwood (USF), William
Brown (ABC Research Inc., Gainesville Fl); Aldrich (Micro
and Cell Science, UF); David Heil (Fl. DACS), Leslie Sturmer
(IFAS)

FUNDING: USDA, FDA, Sea Grant, Florida Sea Grant, Florida
First Award, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Research
Foundation.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 90









FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


FACULTY & STAFF



FACULTY

Charles A. Sims

Douglas L. Archer

Lynn B. Bailey

Murat 0. Balaban

Raymond K. Blanchard

Peggy L. Borum

Ross D. Brown, Jr.

Ann K. Casella

Robert Cousins

Thomas W. Dean

Jesse F. Gregory, III

Robin J. Langkamp-Henken

Gail P. Kauwell

Mitchell D. Knutson

Hordur G. Kristinsson

Maurice R. Marshall, Jr.

Pamela S. McMahon

Charles W. Meister

Mark A. Moss er

Olaf N. Nesheim

Walter S. Otwell

Susan S. Percival

Gail C. Rampersaud

Gary E. Rodrick

Ronald H. Schmidt

Keith R. Schneider

Harry S. Sitren

Stephen T. Talcott

R. Elaine Turner

Susan W. Williams

Anita C. Wright


TITLE

Prof. and Chair

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Lecturer

Eminent Scholar &Act. Prog. Dir.

Asst. Extension Scientist

Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Lecturer

Scientist

Asst. In

Prof.

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. In

Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc. In

Asst. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Food Quality

Food Safety

Human Nutrition

Food Engineering and Process

Nutritional Biochemistry

Human Nutrition

Biochemistry

Dietetics Education, Nutrition Screening

Nutritional Biochemistry

Pesticide Information

Food Chemistry

Nutrition and Dietetics

Nutrition and Dietetics

Nutrional Biochemistry

Seafood Chemistry

Seafood Chemistry/Biochemistry

Dietetics and Nutrition

Pesticide Research

Pesticide Information

Pesticide Information

Seafood Technology

Nutrition and Immunity

Nutrition Research & Education

Food Microbiology

Dairy Technology

Food Safety

Nutritional Biochemistry

Fruit and Vegetable Biochemistry

Nutritional Science

Pesticide Information

Food Microbiology


91 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


EXTENSION

10

40


RESEARCH

30

40

50

50

100

60

70


TEACHING

60

20

50

50

0

40

30

70

20

0

30

50

70

25

50

50

100

0

o

0

0

30

0

50

20

10

50

50

8o
0


50









FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


RESEARCH PROJECTS


AUTHOR

Cousins, R.J.

Bates, R.P.


Sims, C.A.

Percival, S.S.

McMahon, R.J.

Talcott, S.T.

Gregory, J.F., Stacpoole, P.W.

Bailey, L.B., Gregory, J.F., Kauwell, G.P.

Talcott, S.T.

Wright, A.C.

Sitren, H.S.

Gregory, J.F., Bailey, L.B., Stacpoole, P.W.

Otwell, W.S.

Marshall, M.R., Balaban, M.O., Simonne, A.H.,
Talcott, S.T., Mach, A.

Talcott, S.T., Percival, S.S.

Archer, D.L., Schneider, K.R., Goodrich, R.M.,


TITLE

Zinc Metabolism and Function in AnimalSystems
Food Technology Research Support to Florida Agriculture Industries in Value
Adding Enterprises

Strawberry Cultivar Development
Immunomodulation by Dietary Factors

Biotin Metabolism in a Rat Model of Sepsis

Postharvest Quality and Safety in Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits

Vitamin B6 Dependence of Homocysteine Metabolism

Folate Requirements of Nonpregnant Women by Mthfr Genotype

Phytochemical and Quality Assessment of Fresh and Processed Fruits and Vegetables

Phase Variation and Expression of Capsular Polysaccharide in Vibrio Vulnificus

Conditionally Essential Nutrients in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

Genetic Effects on Folate-Dependent One-Carbon Metabolism

Processing with Proper Control and Variance for Product Safety

High Hydrostatic Pressure to Improve Quality and Safety of Seafood from
Tropical/Subtropical Regions

Adding Value to Tropical Fruit: Techniques to Increase Bioactive Phytochemicals

Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables


PROJECT NO.

FOS-02287

FOS-o3741


FOS-o3764

FOS-o3806

FOS-o3840

FOS-o3846

FOS-o3869

FOS-o3872

FOS-o3910

FOS-o3921

FOS-o3972

FOS-o3995

FOS-o3997

FOS-o4003-M


FOS-o4003-T

FOS-04021



FOS-o4034


FOS-o4041



FOS-o4055

FOS-o4067


Langkamp-Henken, B.

Balaban, M.O., Teixeira, A.A.


FOS-o4068 Kristinsson, H.G., Balaban, M.O., Otwell, W.S.,
Marshall, M.R.

FOS-o4o80-B Balaban, M.O., Marchall, M.R.

FOS-o4080-K Kristinsson, H.G.


Percival, S.S., Talcott, S.T.

Percival, S.S., Talcott, S.T.

Kauwell, G.P, Bailey, L.B.
Otwell, W.S., Rodrick, G.E., Schneider, K.R.,


Nutrition, Immune Function, and Clinical Outcome

High Pressure Dependence of Compressibility, Density, and Viscosity of Model
Food Systems

Assessing the Use of Carbon Monoxide and Filtered Smoke on the Safety and Quality
of Seafood Products

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Processing of Tropical and Subtropical Fruit uices

Production of High-value Functional Protein Isolates from Underutilized Tropical and
Subtropical Fish Species and Byproducts

Enhancing Bioactive Phytochemicals in Fresh and Processed Guava (Psidium guajava)
Health Benefits of Red Muscadine Wine

Optimizing Health with Folate and Related Nutrients Throughout the Lifespan

Oyster Post Harvest Treatments (PHT) for Processing in Florida


Balaban, M.O., Wright, C., Kiristinsson, H.G.,
Mahan, W.T., Adams, C.M.

Marshall, M.R., Thompson, N.P, Meister, C.W., Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor Uses
Yoh,J.W., Fernando, S.Y.
Kristinsson, H.G. Tailoring the Physical and Functional Properties of Muscle Proteins by


Different Acid


and Alkali Unfolding and Refolding Strategies


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 92


Parish, M.E., Sargent, S.A., Brecht, J.F.,
Bartz, J.A.

Marshall, M.R., Thompson, N.P, Meister, C.W., Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor Uses
Yoh,J.W., Fernando, S.Y.

Otwell, W.S., Rodrick, G.E., Schneider, K.R., Advancing the Capacity of PHT for processing Safe Oysters in Florida
Balaban, M.O., Wright, A.C., Kristinsson, H.G.,
Mahan, W.T., Adams, C.M.


FOS-o4080-P

FOS-o4088

FOS-o4098

FOS-o4113



FOS-04120


FOS-o4143








PUBLICATIONS








Bailey, L.B., G.C. Rampersaud and G.P.A. Kauwell. 2003. Folic Acid
Supplements and Fortification Affect the Risk for Neural Tube Defects,
Vascular Disease, and Cancer: Evolving Science. Journal of Nutrition.
133:1961-1968.

Bailey, L.B. 2003. Folate, Methyl-related Nutrient, Alcohol and the MTHFR
677C to T Polymorphism Affects Cancer Risk: Intake Recommendations.
Journal of Nutrition. 133:3748-3753.

Baker, G., J. Cornell, D. Gorbet, S. O'Keefe, C. Sims and S. Talcott. 2003.
Determination of Pyrazine and Flavor Variations in Peanut Genotypes During
Roasting. Journal of Food Science. 68:394-400.

Barbosa, R.D., M.O. Balaban and A.A. Teixeira. 2003. Temperature and
Concentration Dependence of Heat Capacity of Model Aqueous Solutions. Int.
J. Food Properties. 6(2):239-258.

Barbosa, R.D., M.O. Balaban and A.A. Teixeira. 2003. Temperature and
Concentration Dependence of Density of Model Liquid Foods. Int. J. Food
Properties. pp. 1.

Basset, G., E.P. Quinlivan, S. Ravanel, B.P. Nichols, K. Shinozaki, M. Seki, J.J.
Giovannoni, L.C. Adams-Phillips, J.F. Gregory and A.D. Hanson. 2003. Folate
Synthesis in Plants: The P-aminobenzoate Branch is Initiated by a
Bifunctional PabA-PabB Protein that is Targeted to Plastids. PNAS. pp. 1

Bobroff, L.B., R.E. Turner, D.O. Weddle, J.H. Brake and T.B. Allen. 2003.
Interactive Learning for Congregate Nutrition Site Nutrition Education: A
Pilot Study. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly. 23:81-93.

Brecht, J.K., M.E. Saltveit, S.T. Talcott, K.R. Schneider and K. Felkey. 2003.
Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits. Horticulture Reviews. 30:185-251.

Campbell, M. and A.C. Wright. 2003. Real-time PCR Analysis of Vibrio
Vulnificus in Oysters. Appl Environ Micrbiol. 69:7137-7144.

Cousins, R.J., R.K. Blanchard, J.B. Moore, L. Cui, C.L. Green, J.P. Liuzzi, J. Cao
and J.A. Bobo. 2003. Regulation of Zinc Metabolism and Genomic Outcomes. J.
Nutr. 133:1521-1526.

Cousins, R.J., R.K. Blanchard, M.P. Popp, L. Liu, J. Cao, J.B. Moore and C.L.
Green. 2003. A Global View of the Selectivity of Zinc Deprivation and Excess
on Genes Expressed in Human THP-1 Mononuclear Cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
USA. 100:6952-6957.

Cui, L., R.K. Blanchard and R.J. Cousins. 2003. The Permissive Effect of Zinc
Deficiency on Uroguanylin and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene
Upregulation in Rat Intestine Induced by Interleukin 1 Alpha is Rapidly
Reversed by Zinc Repletion. J. Nutr. 133(1):51-56.

Davis, S.R., P.W. Stacpoole, J. Williamson, E.P. Quinlivan, B.S. Coats, B. Shane,
L.B. Bailey and J.F Gregory. 2003. Total and Folate-dependent Homocysteine
Remethylation and Homocysteine Synthesis Rates in Humans Using Amino
Acid Tracers: Importance of Serine as a 1-C Donor. Am. J. Physiol. -
Endocrinol. Metab. pp. 1.

Davis, S.R., P.W. Stacpoole, J. Williamson, L. Kick, E. Quinlivan, B. Coats, B.
Shane, L.B. Bailey and J.F Gregory. 2003. Tracer-derived Total and Folate-
dependent Homocysteine Remethylation and synthesis Rates in Humans
Indicate that Serine is the Main One-carbon Donor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol
Metab. 286:1.

Erdogdu, F and M.O. Balaban. 2003. Nonlinear Constrained Optimization of
Thermal Processing. II. Variable Process Temperature Profiles to Reduce Time
and to Improve Nutrient Retention in Spherical and Finite Cylindrical
Geometries. J. Food Process Eng. 26(4):303-314.

Erdogdu, F, M.O. Balaban and W.S. Otwell. 2003. Construction of Shrimp
Cooking Charts Using Previously Developed Mathematical Models for Heat
Transfer and Yield Loss Predictions. J. Food Engineering. 60:107-110.

Erdogdu, F and M.O. Balaban. 2003. Complex Method for Non-linear
Constrained Multi-criteria (Multi-objective Function) Optimization of
Thermal Processing. J. Food Process Eng. 26(4):357-375.

Goodrich, R. 2003. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Citrus Processing Short
Course. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Gainesville, FL.
Web-based Pages.


Gregory, J.E 2003. Fennema's Food Chemistry, 4th Ed. M. Dekker. New York.

Hertrampf, E., F Cortes, D. Erickson, M. Cayazzo, W. Freire, L.B. Bailey, C.
Howson, G.P.A. Kauwell and C. Pfeiffer. 2003. Consumption of Folic Acid-
Fortified Bread is Highly effective in Improving Folate Status in Women of
Reproductive Age in Chile. Journal of Nutrition. 133:3166-3169.

Insfran, D., C.H. Brenes and S.T. Talcott. 2003. Phytochemical Composition
and Pigment Stability of Aqai (Euterpe Oleracea Mart.). Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry. pp. 1.

Joon, L.H. and S.T. Talcott. 2003. Fruit Maturity and Juice Extraction
Influences Ellagic Acid Derivatives and Other Antioxidant Polyphenolics in
Muscadine Grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. pp. 1.

Kauwell, G.P.A. 2003. A Genomic Approach to Dietetic Practice: Are You
Ready? Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 18:81-91.

Kelleher, S.D., Y. Feng, H.G. Kristinsson, D.J. McClements and H.O. Hultin.
2003. Developments in Food Science. Elsevier. New York.

King, J.C. and R.J. Cousins. 2003. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore, MD.

Kristinsson, H.G. and N. Demir. 2003. Advances in Seafood Byproducts. Alaska
Sea Grant College Program. Fairbanks, AK. pp. 277-295.

Kristinsson, H.G. and H.O. Hultin. 2003. Role of pH and Ionic Strength on
Water Relationships in Washed Minced Chicken-breast Muscle Gels. Journal of
Food Science. 68:917-922.

Kristinsson, H.G. and H.O. Hultin. 2003. Changes in Conformation and
Subunit Assembly of Cod Myosin at Low and High pH and After Subsequent
Refolding. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51:7187-7196.

Kristinsson, H.G. and H.O. Hultin. 2003. Effect of Low and High pH Treatment
on the Functional Properties of Cod Muscle Proteins. Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry. 51:5103-5110.

Kristinsson, H.G. and H.O. Hultin. 2003. Changes in Trout Hemoglobin
Conformations and Solubility after Exposure to Acid and Alkali pH. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry. pp. 1.

Langkamp-Henken, B. 2003. If the Gut Works, Use it: But What If You Can't
(Invited Editorial). Nutr Clin Pract. 18:449-450.

Liuzzi, J.P., J.A. Bobo, L. Cui, R.J. McMahon and R.J. Cousins. 2003. Zinc
Transporters 1,2 and 4 are Differentially Expressed and Localized in Rats
During Pregnancy and Lactation. J. Nutr. 133(2):342-351.

Lominadze, D., J.T. Saari, S.S. Percival and D.A. Schuschke. 2003.
Proinflammatory Effects of Copper Deficiency on Neutrophils and Lung
Endothelial Cells. Immunology and Cell Biology. pp. 1.

Mackey, A.D., S.R. Davis and J.E Gregory. 2003. Modern Nutrition in Health
and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Mackey, A.D., S.O. Lieu, C. Carman and J.E Gregory. 2003. Hydrolytic Activity
Toward Pyridoxine-b-D-glucoside in Rat Intestinal Mucosal is not Increased
by Vitamin B-6 Deficiency: Effect of Basal Diet Composition and Pyridoxine
Intake. J. Nutr. 133:1362-1367.

Mendoza, T.E, B.A. Welt, W.S. Otwell, H.G. Kristinsson, M.O. Balaban and A.
Texeira. 2003. Kinetic Parameter Estimation of Commercially Available Time-
temperature Integrators Intended for Use with Packaged Fresh Seafood.
Journal of Food Science. pp. 1.

Mertens-Talcott, S.U., S.T. Talcott and S.S. Percival. 2003. Low Concentrations
of Quercetin and Ellagic Acid Synergistically Influence Proliferation,
Cytotoxity and Apoptosis in MOLT-4 Human Leukemia Cells. Journal of
Nutrition. 133:2669-2674.

Moore, J.B., R.K. Blanchard and R.J. Cousins. 2003. Dietary Zinc Modulates
Gene Expression in Murine Thymus: Results from a Comprehensive
Differential Display Screening. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100(7):3883-3888.

Morris, J.G. and A.C. Wright. 2003. Encyclopedia of Food Science and Human
Nutrition. Acedemic Press. London, U.K.

Nesheim, O.N. 2003.2003 University of Florida's Pest Control Guide for
Turfgrass Managers. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service. pp.
5-8.

Nesheim, O.N. 2003. 2003 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. University of
Florida Cooperative Extension Service. pp. 9.1.1-9.1.7.

Nielsen, S.S. and S.T. Talcott. 2003. Food Analysis Laboratory Manual. Kluwer
Academic/Plenum Publishers. pp. 119-127.


93 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS








Percival, S.S. and S.T. Talcott. 2003. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and
Nutrition. Elsevier Science Ltd. London. pp. 6209-6217.

Pornchalaempong, P., M.O. Balaban, A.A. Teixeira and K.V. Chau. 2003.
Development of a Mathematical Model for Conduction Heat Transfer in a
Conical Shape. J. Food Process Eng. 25(6):557-570.

Pornchalaempong, P., M.O. Balaban, K.V. Chau and A.A. Teixeira. 2003.
Optimization of Nutrient Retention for Conduction Heat Transfer in Conical
Containers. J. Food Process Eng. 25(6):539-555.

Quinlivan, E.P. and J.E Gregory. 2003. Effect of Food Fortification on Folic
Acid Intake in the United States. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77:221-225.

Quinlivan, E.P, S. Roje, G. Basset, Y. Sachar-Hill, J.F. Gregory and A.D.
Hanson. 2003. The Folate Precursor P-aminobenzoate is Reversibly Converted
to its Glucose Ester in the Plant Cytosol. J. Biol. Chem. 278:20731-20737.

Rampersaud, G.C., L.B. Bailey and G.P.A. Kauwell. 2003. National Survey
Beverage Consumption Data for Children and Adolescents Indicate the Need
to Encourage a Shift Toward More Nutritive Beverages. Journal of the
American Dietetic Association. 103:97-100.

Rampersaud, G.C., G.P.A. Kauwell and L.B. Bailey. 2003. Folate: A Key to
Optimizing Health and Reducing Disease Risk in the Elderly. Journal of the
American College of Nutrition. 22:1-8.

Rathman, S.C., R.K. Blanchard, L. Badinga, S. Eisenschenk, J.E Gregory and
R.J. McMahon. 2003. Dietary Carbamazepine Administration Decreases Liver
Pyruvate Carboxylase Activity and Biotinylation by Decreasing Protein and
mRNA Expression in Rats. J. Nutr. 133(7):2119-2124.

Rathman, S.C., J.F. Gregory, S. Eisenschenk and R.J. McMahon. 2003.
Pharmacological Biotin Supplementation Maintains Biotin Status and
Function in Rats Administered Dietary Carbamazapine. Pharmacological
Biotin Supplementation Maintains Biotin Status and Function in Rats
Administered Dietary Carbamazapine. J. Nutr. 133:2857-2862.

Rodrick, G.E. and R.H. Schmidt. 2003. Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley
Company. New York. pp. 135-154.

Rodrick, G.E. and R.H. Schmidt. 2003. Current Issues in Food Safety. John
Wiley Company, Inc. New York, NY.

Rounds, M.A. and J.E Gregory. 2003. Food Analysis, 3rd Edition. Jones and
Bartlett Publ., Inc. Boston, MA.

Schmidt, R.H. and G.E. Rodrick. 2003. Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley &
Son. New York, NY. pp. 135-164.

Schmidt, R.H. and R.E. Turner. 2003. Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley &
Son. New York, NY. pp. 671-686.

Schmidt, R.H. 2003. Government Regulations and the Food Industry. Florida
Bookstore. Gainesville, FL.

Schmidt, R.H. and R.E. Turner. 2003. Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley &
Sons Publishers. New York. pp. 673-688.

Schneider, K.R., R.H. Pierce and G.E. Rodrick. 2003. The Degradation of
Karenia Brevis Toxins Utilizing Ozonated Seawater. Harmful Algae.
2(2):101-107.


Schneider, K.R., M.E. Parish and M. Lam. 2003. Handbook of Food Technology
and Engineering. Marcel Dekker. New York.

Schott, E.J., J.A.E Robledo, A.C. Wright, A.M. Silva and G.R. Vasta. 2003. Gene
Organization and Homology Modeling of Two Iron Superoxide Dismutases of
the Early Branching Protist Perkinsus Marinus. Gene. 309:1-9.

Shelnutt, K.P., G.P.A. Kauwell, C. Chapman, J.F. Gregory, D. Maneval, A.L.
Browdy, D.W. Theriaque and L.B. Bailey. 2003. Folate Status Response to
Controlled Folate Intake is Affected by the Methylenetetrahydrofolate
Reductase 677C>T Polymorphism in Young Women. Journal of Nutrition.
133:4107-4111.

Talcott, S.T., C.H. Brenes, D.M. Pires and D. Insfran. 2003. Phytochemical and
Color Retention of Copigmented and Processed Muscadine Grape Juice.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51:957-963.

Talcott, S.T., S.S. Percival, J. Pittet-Moore and C. Celoria. 2003. Phytochemical
Composition and Antioxidant Stability of Fortified Yellow Passion Fruit
(Passiflora Edulis). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51:935-941.

Townsend, J.H., S.R. Davis, A.D. Mackey and J.E Gregory. 2003. Uptake,
Hydrolysis, and Metabolism of Pyridoxine-5'-b-D-glucoside in Caco-2 cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. pp. 1.

Turner, R.E., B. Langkamp-Henken and R.C. Littell. 2003. Update on Adequacy
of Protein and Energy Intake During Pregnancy (Letter to the Editor). J Am
Diet Assoc. 103:563.

Turner, R.E., Langkamp-Henken, R.C. Littell, M.J. Lukowski and M.E Suarez.
2003. Comparing Nutrient Intake from Food to the Estimated Average
Requirements Shows Middle-upper Income Pregnant Women Lack Iron and
Magnesium. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103:461-466.

Turner, R.E. 2003. Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley & Sons Publishers. New
York. pp. 607-626.

Weiss, E.R., R.J. Braddock, R.M. Goodrich, J.E Gregory and J. Pika. 2003.
Occurrence and Removal of Terpene Chlorohydrins in Citrus Essential Oils. J.
Food Sci. 28:2246-2149.

Wolfe, J.M., L.B. Bailey, K. Herrlinger-Garcia, D.W. Theriaque, J.E Gregory
and G.P.A. Kauwell. 2003. Folate Catabolite Excretion is Responsive to Changes
in Dietary Folate Intake in Elderly Women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
77:919-923.

Wright, A.J.A., P.M. Finglas, J.R. Dainty, D.J. Hart, C.A. Wolfe, S. Southon and
J.E Gregory. 2003. Single Oral Doses of 13C Forms of Folic Acid and 5-
Formyltetrahydrofolic Acid Elicit Differences in Short Term Kinetics of
Labelled and Unlabeled Folates in Plasma: Potential Problems in
Interpretation of Folate Bioavailability Studies. Brit. J. Nutr. 90:363-371.

Yoruk, R., J.A. Hogsette, R.S. Rolle and M.R. Marshall. 2003. Apple Polyphenol
Oxidase Inhibitor(s) from Common Housefly (Musca domestic L). Journal of
Food Science. 68(6):1942-1947.

Yoruk, R. and M.R. Marshall. 2003. A Survey on the Potential Mode of
Inhibition for Oxalic Acid on Polyphenol Oxidase. Journal of Food Science.
68(8):2479-2485.

Yoruk, R. and M.R. Marshall. 2003. Physicochemical Properties and Function
of Plant Polyphenol Oxidase: A Review. Journal Food Biochemistry.
27(5):361-422.

Zhang, H., M.O. Balaban and J.C. Principe. 2003. Improving Pattern
Recognition of Electronic Nose Data with Time-delay Neural Networks.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 96(1-2):385-389.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 94









FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY
Archer, D.L.
Schneider, K.R.
Archer, D.L.
Goodrich, R.M.
Archer, D.L.
Schneider, K.R.
Balaban, M.O.
Teixeira, A.A.

Balaban, M.O.
Marshall, Jr., M.R.
Borum, P.L.
Cousins, R.J.
Henken, R.J.


Kauwell, G.P.
Bailey, L.B.

Knutson, M.D.
Kristinsson, H.G.


Kristinsson, H.G.


Kristinsson, H.G.


Kristinsson, H.G.


Marshall, Jr., M.R.
Yoh, J.W.
Marshall, Jr., M.R.
Balaban, M.O.
Marshall, Jr., M.R.
Thompson, N.P
Nesheim, O.N.


Nesheim, O.N.
Mizell, R.F., III
Otwell, W.S.
Rodrick, G.E.
Otwell, W.S.
Wright, A.C.
Otwell, W.S.
Rodrick, G.E.
Otwell, W.S.


Otwell, W.S.


Percival, S.S.
Talcott, S.T.
Percival, SS.
Talcott, S.T.


TITLE
Dev Guidance for the Food Industries to Conduct Mock Recallsto
Minimize Exposure of Consumers to Purposefully Contaminat
Improving the Safety of Fruits & Vegetables: A Tri-State Consortium
Proposal
Developing Guidance to Expedite Feed Product Recalls to Mitigate
or Contain a Purpose Contamination of Commercially....
High Pressure Dependence of Compressibility, Density and
Viscosity of Model Food Systems

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Processing of Tropical and
Subtropical Fruit Juices
Carnitine Studies
Zinc and the Synthesis of Zinc Binding Proteins
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Study of a
Novel, Nutritionally Complete, Immune Formula in a Nursing...
Optimizing Health with Citrus Nutrients Throughout the Life Span
Collaborative Position with the Fla Dept of Citrus

Ferroportin and Iron Release From the Macrophage
Tailoring the Physical & Functional Properties of Mescle Proteins
by Different Acid & Alkai Unfolding & Refolding...
Assessing the use of Carbon Monoxide and Filered Smoke on the
Safety and Qualit of Seafood Products
Production of High-Value Functional Protein Isolates From
Underutilized Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fish Species...
Acid & Alkali Unfolding and Refolding Strategies to Improve the
Foaming Properties of Egg White Proteins
G p for the Quantification of Cmn-p Residues on & in Citrus Fruit
and It's Processed Products
High Hydrostatic Pressure to Improve Quality and Safety of Seafood
from Tropical/subtropical Regions
Southern Region Program to Clear Pest Control Agents for Minor Uses


Preparation Coordination and Implementation of Pesticide
Applicator Training and Examinations for Florida
Southern Region Pest Management Center


Advancing the Capacity of Post Harvest Treatments (Pht) for
Processing Safe Oysters
Impact of Temperature Acclimation on VibiroVulnificus Content
for Florida Farm-Raised Claims During Summer Harvest
Oyster Post Harvest Treatments (Pht) for Processing in Florida


Conducting Shipboard Studies Focused on the Conditions of
Harvested and Handling..Scombrotoxin Formation
Product Characterization to Advance the Use of Post-harvest
Treatments for Raw Oysters
Enhancing Bioactive Phytochemicals in Fresh and Processed
Guava (Psidium Guajava)
Health Benefits of Red Muscadine Wine


SOURCE OF FUNDS
University of South Florida


Texas A&M University


University of South Florida


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Miscellaneous Donors
National Institute of Health
Abbott Laboratories


Dept of Citrus


Natl. Institutes of Health
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


AM Agg Board


Dept. of Citrus


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Food and Drug Administration


Interstate Shellfish Sani. Conf.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture


95 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AMOUNT

$28,994.00


$1,308,719.00


$66,992.00


$119,688.00


$33,870.00


$4,18o.oo
$274,504.00
$68,225.30


$83,500.00


$62,843.34
$110,000.00


$422,874.00


$70,090.00


$35,200.00


$23,000.00


$61,303.00


$1,561,924.00


$124,000.00


$1,270,880.00


$374,145.00


$17,000.00


$417,923.00


$90,000.00


$75,000.00


$80,000.00


$134,827.00








FOOD SCIENCE & HUMAN NUTRITION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS

FACULTY TITLE
Schmidt, R.H. Consumer Food Safety and Food Irradiation Education
Schneider, K.R. Fresh Produce Food Safety Training Program and Curriculum
Brecht, J.K. Development
Talcott, S.T. Adding Value to Tropical Fruit: Techniques to Increase Bioactive
Percival, S.S. Phytochemicals
Wright, A.C. Improved Methods for Molecular Detection ofVibrioVulnificus
R/LR-Q-26a
Wright, A.C. Phase Variation and Expression of Capsular Polysaccharide in
Vibro Vuln ificus
Wright, A.C. Straegies for the Decontamination of Oysters Infected with Vibiro
Rodrick, G.E. Vulnificus R/LR-Q-24
Wright, A.C. Volecular Detection and Characterization of Salmonella Enterica in
Parish, M.E. Florida Produce
Wright, A.C. Quantitative Real Time PCR Probes for Pathogen ic Vibrio Species
Rodrick, G.E. R/LR-MB-15


SOURCE OF FUNDS
University of California
North Carolina State Univ.


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Dept. of Commerce


U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


U.S. Department of Commerce


Florida Fruit &Veg. Res. & Edu. Fdtn.


U.S. Department of Commerce


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 96


AMOUNT

$46,000.00
$45,649.00


$35,900.00

$128,700.00


$260,000.00


$17,000.00


$49,582.00


$47,724.00







UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION
118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, PO Box 110410 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0410
352-846-0850 I http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


SITUATION: Forests cover one-third of the world's land area
and provide a range of goods and services including timber
and nontimber products, clean water, wildlife habitat, carbon
sequestration, micro-climate amelioration, recreation and
biodiversity. Demand for these goods and services is increas-
ing; yet, the area of forests to meet these needs is decreasing.
For example, in Florida the forested area per capital has
dropped from four acres per person in 1960 to one acre per
person today. Each year, 40,000 acres of forested land are being
lost in Florida, mostly to urbanization. In some locations,
urban sprawl is causing fragmentation of forests, reducing
their ecological value. Further, timberland ownership patterns
and landowner objectives are changing rapidly in response to
changes in tax, legal and economic issues.
With all of the challenges facing the world's forests, it is
imperative that we embrace and foster all types of forests to
provide, in total, the complete range of ecological, economic
and social goods and services. For example: (1) Native forests
and protected areas conserve inherent species' richness and
genetic diversity; (2) Second-growth working forests provide
jobs, homes and products; (3) High-yield plantation forests
help meet demand for timber and paper products; (4) Urban
forests and those on the wildland-urban-interface ameliorate
micro-climate and provide recreational, aesthetic and psycho-


logical benefits; and (5) Agroforests, which combine trees and
agriculture, provide multiple benefits to the landowner and
can mitigate environmental impacts.

RESEARCH RESPONSE: The School conducts research that
generates new knowledge to meet society's needs for sustain-
able management and conservation of forests and related
resources at the state, regional, national and international
levels. Four focus areas are: (1) Forest systems biology from
the molecular to landscape scales; (2) Human dimensions
broadly defined to include social sciences, economics, recre-
ation, management, utilization and policy related to forest
resources; (3) Agroforestry and tropical forestry spanning
diverse settings such as silvopastures in Florida (photograph),
home gardens in Africa and working forests in the Amazon;
and (4) Urban forestry and the wildland-urban interface with
programs aiming to enhance existing urban forests and miti-
gate the effects of urban sprawl into rural forests.
Our goal in all of these research areas is to address
complex, real-world problems affecting the world's forest
resources. Due to the complexity, most research projects are
multidisciplinary efforts involving collaborative efforts of
School scientists with those of other universities, private
companies and research organizations.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 98







SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


UNDERSTANDING HOW MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE
INFLUENCES CARBON EXCHANGE OF PINE FORESTS

SIGNIFICANCE: Concern over elevated levels of carbon
dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and
their potential effects on global climate, has focused atten-
tion on better understanding the Earth's carbon cycle.
Forests store more than 90 percent of terrestrial carbon, so
knowing how quickly forests take up CO2 through photosyn-
thesis and lose CO2 through respiration, decay of dead plant
matter, or burning is critical for understanding the global
carbon balance. This is especially true in the southeastern
United States, where forests are the primary land use, cover-
ing almost 60% of the region. Pine forests account for about
30% of southeastern forestland, and the majority of the pine
forests are in plantations.
Understanding the mechanisms that control C uptake
in pine forests requires detailed knowledge of the structure
and function of these systems, and how these factors change
with ecosystem development, management and climate. Pine
plantations show dramatic variations in structure and
biology as they grow from establishment to harvest age, all
of which have potential impacts on the amount of C that is
taken up by or released from the system. Over the length of
a pulpwood rotation (18 to 25 years), aboveground C accu-
mulation increases from near 0 just after planting, to 35 tons
of C per acre or more just before harvest. Intensive silvicul-
tural regimes such as fertilization and competition control
have the potential to accelerate the rate and increase the
total magnitude of growth and C storage in these systems.
Even in pine forests that are much less intensively managed
than plantations, silvicultural treatments such as prescribed
fire may radically alter the amount and rate of storage of C
in the forest. In addition to the variation in C storage poten-
tially resulting from changes in stand structure and manage-
ment, environmental stresses, such as drought or extreme
temperature events, impact C dynamics of these forests, as
well. By determining how these drivers affect forest C
balance and incorporating this information into computer
models of forest growth, we will be better able to predict the
response of forest ecosystems to changes in management
regimes or climate.

RATIONALE: Researchers in the School of Forest Resources
and Conservation are studying pine forest carbon uptake
using eddy covariance, a technique which employs tower-
mounted micrometeorological equipment to measure the
net movement of CO2, water and energy into and out of large
patches of forest. This research is funded by the National
Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC), and is
part of the AmeriFlux network, a continent-wide system of
eddy covariance studies in representative ecosystems
designed to improve our understanding of the controls over


carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems. The Florida
AmeriFlux sites are located in three contrasting southern
pine ecosystems: a young regenerating slash pine plantation,
a mid-rotation slash pine plantation, and an older, naturally
regenerated slash pine / longleaf pine stand. These sites
complement earlier measurements made in a rotation-aged
slash pine stand and a cypress dome. Eddy covariance
instrumentation at each site provides continuous, ecosys-
tem-scale measurements of carbon, water and energy
exchange on a half-hourly time step. The eddy covariance
data are supported by detailed measurements at the sube-
cosystem level, including leaf gas exchange and water rela-
tions, tree sap flow, soil CO2 efflux, litterfall, and stand inven-
tory. The stand age series allows us to understand the
impacts of stand development and management inputs on
the carbon, water and energy exchange characteristics of
these forests, while our ability to measure across long time
scales enables us to examine the impacts of environmental
drivers, such as radiation, temperature and soil moisture, on
the carbon and water balance of the systems.

IMPACT: Measurements in regenerating, mid-rotation, and
rotation-aged slash pine plantations have revealed impor-
tant changes in C uptake rates that occur with stand devel-
opment. In the first year after a harvested site is prepared
for planting, the site is a net source of CO2, giving off more C
than is taken up. However, it was found that C uptake by


Tim Martin and Greg Starr


99 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION







SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


residual, nontree vegetation offsets C losses due to decay of
logging slash and soil organic matter by as much as 35%.
These results suggest that if trading of C credits or other
economic incentives for carbon sequestration become a
reality, it may become necessary to compare the relative
economic benefits associated with aggressively controlling
competing vegetation to speed tree growth, versus allowing
some competing vegetation to persist to fix C early in the
rotation. By the third year after replanting, annual C uptake
exceeded C losses, causing the stand to be a net sink for C,
and by mid-rotation, the rates of C uptake by these stands
were among the highest reported for forested ecosystems.
By simultaneously examining responses at the leaf-,
tree- and ecosystem-scales in these studies, we have been
able to begin unraveling how biological processes at smaller
scales influence "emergent" responses at higher spatial and
temporal scales. For example, measurements during the
severe drought of 1998-2000 revealed that while gross CO2
uptake and growth of plantation forests was reduced by soil
water stress, the release of CO2 by decomposer organisms in
the soil was also reduced by a similar magnitude, resulting in
a level of net C uptake similar to that in normal or wet years.
Additional work in a less-intensively managed, naturally
regenerated forest has shown that prescribed fires greatly
alter forest C dynamics, with C loss due to periodic burning
almost completely balancing C uptake by vegetation.
An important element of this study involves aggregating
stand-level information upward in space and time to better
understand controls over C balance at landscape and
regional scales. A cooperative, NASA-funded research project
recently utilized the Florida AmeriFlux data, in combination
with remote sensing and land ownership information to
understand how the C balance of four county-sized areas in
north Florida were affected by land ownership and climate
over a 25 year period. To provide additional information for
larger scale inferences, a mobile eddy covariance tower will
be deployed in "replicate" slash pine plantations across
northern Florida, allowing us to assess the degree of varia-
tion that exists within particular age classes of forest.


Taken together, these efforts have improved our under-
standing of how changes in management prescriptions and
climate alter C exchange and growth from the leaf to the
landscape level, over time spans of hours to decades, provid-
ing us with information needed to manage forests in a
dynamic world.

COLLABORATORS: This research is supported by the Office of
Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, through the SE
Regional Center of the National Institute for Global
Environmental Change under Cooperative Agreement No.
DE-FC03-90ER61010, with additional support from the School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, NASA, NSF, and the
Forest Biology Research Cooperative. Rayonier provides
access and logistical support for the plantation sites.
Collaborators include scientists in several UF departments
(Botany, Geography, and Civil and Coastal Engineering), the
University of Georgia, Florida State University, and Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 100









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


FACULTY & STAFF



FACULTY

Timothy L. White

Wayne H. Smith

Janaki R. Alavalapati

Loukas G. Arvanitis

Michael E. Bannister

George M. Blakeslee, Jr.

Douglas R. Carter

Wendell P Cropper. Jr.

John M. Davis

Mary L. Duryea

Dudley A. Huber

Eric J. Jokela

Karen A. Kainer

Alan J. Long

Timothy A. Martin

Martha C. Monroe

Ramachandran P.K. Nair

Gary F. Peter

Donald L. Rockwood

Robert A. Schmidt

Gregory Starr, Jr.

Taylor V. Stein

Sarah W. Workman

DanielJ. Zairn


TITLE

Director (08/03-present) & Prof.

Director and Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Research Asst. Prof.

Prof. and Assoc. Director

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Dean and Prof.

Assoc. In

Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Distinguished Prof.

Assoc. Prof.

Prof.

Prof. Emeritus

Res. Asst. Scientist

Asst. Prof.

Vis. Asst. Prof.

Assoc. Prof.


SPECIALTY

Quantitive Forest Genetics

School Administration

Natural Resource Policy/Administration

Biometrics

Agroforestry

Forest Health

Economics/Management

Biological Process Modeling

Forest Biotechnology

Reforestation and Urban Forestry

Forest Genetics

Silviculture

Tropical Forestry

Forest Operations and Environ. Regulations

Tree Physiology

Natural Resources Education

Agroforestry

Plant Genomics

Forest Tree Improvement

Forest Pathology

Ecophysiology

Ecotourism/Recreation

Agroforestry

Tropical Forestry


101 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


EXTENSION

20

20


20


RESEARCH

60

60

60

50

100

0

50

70

80

100 (adm)

100

6o

70


TEACHING

20

20

40

50

0

80

50

30

20

0

0

40

30

60

30

30

30

20

30

20

0

6o

0

30









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR TITLE

FOR-oooo8 Smith, W.H., White, T.L. Admi

FOR-o3555 Arvanitis, L.G. Moni

FOR-o3631 Rockwood, D.L., Carter, D.R. Short

FOR-o3662 Gholz, H.L., Clark, K.L. Carbc
Mana

FOR-o3683 White, T.L., Huber, D.A. Quan

FOR-o3781 Stein, T.V. Unde

FOR-o3789 Alavalapati, J.R. Analy

FOR-o3812 Nair, R.P. Devel

FOR-03900 Nair, R.P. Estab

FOR-o3944 Zarin, D.J. Ecolo

FOR-o3974 Smith, W.H., Duryea, M.L. Wildly

FOR-o4o60 Smith, W.H. Comp

FOR-o4o80 Bannister, M.E., Workman, S.W., Palada, M.C., Tree-
Ellis, E.A. Surve

FOR-o4093 Davis, J.M. Mole

FOR-o4095 White, T.L., Jokela, E.J., Martin, T.A., Fores
Cropper, W.P.

FOR-o4107 Rockwood, D. A Coo
betw

FOR-o4116 Davis, J.M., White, T.L., Martin, T.A. Allele

FOR-04121 Carter, D.R., Alavalapati, J.R. Socio
Regio




PUBLICATIONS








Alavalapati, J.R.R. 2003. Economics of Forestry and Rural Development: An
Empirical Introduction from Asia. W.F. Hyde and G.S. Amacher (Editors): The
University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, ISBN 0-472-11144-2; 2000: 287 pp.,
hard cover. Agroforestry Systems. 58:75-76.
Alavalapati, J.R.R., G.G. Das and C. Wilkerson. 2003. Two Paths Toward
Sustainable Forests: Public Values in Canada and the United States. Oregon
University Press. Corvallis, Oregon. pp. 251-270.
Ariza, R.J. and T.V. Stein. 2003. Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway
Partnership Opportunity Study. Gainesville, FL: School of Forest Resources
and Conservation, University of Florida.
Bannister, M. and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Agroforestry Adoption in Haiti: The
Importance of Household and Farm Characteristics. Agroforestry Systems.
57:73-83.
Bellow, J.G. and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Understory Light Availability in Stands of
Trees Used in Shaded Perennial Agroforestry Systems. Agricultural and Forest
Meteorology. 114:197-211.
Boltz, F, T.P. Holmes and D.R. Carter. 2003. Economic and Environmental
Impacts of Conventional and Reduced-Impact Logging in Tropical South
America: A Comparative Review. Forest Policy and Economics. 5(1):69-81.
Carter, D.R. and J.P. Siry. 2003. Timber Production Efficiency Analysis:
Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Applications. Pages 97-115 In: K. Abt
and E. Sills (eds.). Forests in a Market Economy. Kluwer Academic.


nistration of Mcintire-Stennis Funds and Projects

touring and Decision-Support Systems in Forestry

Rotation Woody Crops for Florida

n, Water and Energy Fluxes for Forested Ecosystems in Florida: Effects of
gement and Environment

titative Genetics and Tree Improvement of Southern Pines

standing the Benefits of Nature-Based Tourism and Recreation in Florida

sis of Forest and Natural Resource Policy Issues

opment and Evaluation of Integrated Agroforestry Systems

fishing a Center for Subtropical Agroforestry

gy and Management of Tropical Forests

and Urban Interface: Risk Mitigation and Technology Transfer

osting in the Southeast Conference and Exhibition

crop Diversity and Enterprise Development Through Agroforestry: A Participator
y and GIS-based Analysis in the Virgin Islands

cular Biology of Forest Trees

t Productivity, Health and Sustainability


perative Multicultural Scholars Program in Natural Resources and Forestry
een Florida A&M university and the University of Florida

Discovery for Genes Controlling Economic Traits in Loblolly Pine

-economic Impacts of Forest Land Ownership and Management Patterns at the
nnal Level



Clark, J.K. and T.V. Stein. 2003. Incorporating the Natural Landscape within an
Assessment of Community Aattachment. Forest Science. 49(6): 867-876.
Clark, J.K and T.V. Stein. 2003. Visitor Use and Perceptions of the Marjorie
Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway: Technical Report. Gainesville, FL. School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida.
Cooke, J.E.K., K.A. Brown, R. Wu and J.M. Davis. 2003. Gene Expression
Associated with N-induced Shifts in Resource Allocation in Poplar. Plant, Cell
and Environment. 26:757-770.
Dagang, A.B.K. and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Silvopastoral Research and Adoption in
Central America: Recent Findings and Recommendations for Future
Directiosns. Agroforestry Systems. 59:149-155.
Das, G.G. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2003. Modeling Embodied Biotechnology
Transfer and its Effective Absorption: An Application to the U.S. Forestry
Sector. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 70(6):545-562.
Fortini, L., S. Mulkey, D. Zarin, S. Vasconcelos and C. Carvalho. 2003. Drought
Constraints on Leaf Gas Exchange by Miconia Ciliata (Melastomataceae) in
the Understory of an Eastern Amazonian Regrowth Forest. American Journal
of Botany. 90:1064-1070.
Frizano, J.A., D.R. Vann, A.H. Johnson, C.M. Johnson, I.C.G Vieira and D.J.
Zarin. 2003. Labile Phosphorus in Soils of Forest Fallows and Primary Forest
in the Bragantina Region, Brazil. Biotropica. 35:2-11.
Gagnon, J.L., E.J. Jokela, W.K. Moser and D.A. Huber. 2003. Dynamics of
Artificial Regeneration in Gaps within a Longleaf Pine Flatwoods Ecosystem.
Forest Ecology and Management. 172:133-144.
Gezan, S., D. Huber, G. Powell, R. Vergara and T. White. 2003. Cooperative
Forest Genetics Research Program 45th Annual Progress Report. Cooperative
Forest Genetics Research Program. 29 pp.
Jones, E.T., K.A. Lynch, R.J. McLain and S.W. Workman (eds.). 2003. Harvester
Involvement in Inventorying and Monitoring Nontimber Forest Products,
Southeastern Workshop Results. U.S. Nontimber Forest Product Management
and Biodiversity Conservation Project.
http://www.ifcae.org/projects/ncssfl/southeastwksp/index.html.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 102








PUBLICATIONS








Kainer, K.A., M. Schmink, A.C. Leite and M.J. Fadell. 2003. Experiments in
Forest-based Development in Western Amazonia. Society and Natural
Resources. 16(10):869-886.
Lirman, D. and W.P. Cropper. 2003. The Influence of Salinity on Seagrass
Growth, Survivorship, and Distribution within Biscayne Bay, Florida: Field,
Experimental, and Modeling Studies. Estuaries. 26:131-141.
McFarlane, B.L., J.R.R. Alavalapati and D.O. Watson. 2003. Two Paths Toward
Sustainable Forests: Public Values in Canada and the United States. Oregon
University Press. Corvallis, Oregon. pp. 117-130.
Monroe, M.C. 2003. Two Avenues for Encouraging Conservation Behavior.
Human Ecology Review. 10(2):113-125.
Monroe, M.C. and S.K. Jacobson. 2003. Partnerships for Natural Resource
Education: Differing Program Needs and Perspectives of Extension Agents
and State Agency Staff. Journal of Extension. 41(3):1-9.
Monroe, M., A. Long and S. Marynoski. 2003. Wildland Fire in the Southeast:
Negotiating Defensible Space Guidelines. Journal of Forestry. 101(3):14-19.
Mudhara, M., P.E. Hildebrand and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Potential for the
Adoption of Sesbania Sesban Improved Fallows in Zimbabwe: A Linear
Programming-based Case Study of Small-scale Farmers. Agroforestry
Systems. 59:307-315.
Nair, P.K. and V.D. Nair. 2003. Carbon Storage in North American Agrforestry
Systems. In: The Potential of U. S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and
Mitigate the Greenhouse Gas Effect. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. pp. 333-346.
Osorio, L.E, T.L. White and D.A. Huber. 2003. Age-age and Trait-trait correla-
tions for Eucalyptus Grandis Hill Ex Maiden and Their Implications for
Optimal Selection Age and Design of Clonal Trials. Theoretical and Applied
Genetics. 106:735-743.
Palada, M.C., B.N. Becker, J.M. Mitchell and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Cultivation of
Medicinal Plants in Alley Cropping Systems with Moringa oleifera in the Virgin
Islands. Pages 60-76 In: Y.N. Clement and C.E. Seaforth (eds.). Proc. of the 6th
International Workshop on Herbal Medicine in the Caribbean. The Learning
Resource Centre, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad
and Tobago.
Patriquin, M., J.R.R. Alavalapati, W.L. Adamowicz and W.A. White. 2003.
Incorporating Natural Capital into Economy-wide Impact Analysis: A Case
Study from Alberta. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 86:149-169.
Patriquin, M., J.R.R. Alavalapati, A. Wellstead, S. Young, W. Adamowicz and
W. White. 2003. Estimating Impacts of Resource Management Policies in the
Foothills Model Forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 33:147-155.
Peres, C.A., C. Baider, A.P. Zuidema, L.H.O. Wadt, K.A. Kainer, D.G. Gomes-
Silvia, R.P. Salomao, L.L. Simoes, E.R.N. Francisiosi, EC. Valverde, R. Gribel,
G.H. Shepard, Jr., M. Kanashiro, P. Coventry, D.W. Yu, A.R. Watkinson and
R.P. Freckleton. 2003. Demographic Threats to the Sustainability of Brazil Nut
Exploitation. Science. 302:2112-2114.
Peter, G.F., D.M. Benton and K. Bennett. 2003. A Simple, Direct Method for
Measurement of Microfibril Angle in Single Fibers Using Differential
Interference Contrast Microscopy. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science.
29(8):274-280.
Peter, G.E, R. Singh and J. Fernandez. 2003. Trends in Forest Genetics:
Improved Paper Properties for the Benefit of the Graphics Arts Industry.
GTAF World. 15:69-70.
Proctor, P., D.L. Rockwood and D.A. Huber. 2003. Slash and Loblolly Pine
Productivity on Reclaimed Titanium Mined Lands in Northeast Florida. In:
Proc. 27th South. For. Tree Improvement Conf., June 24-27, 2003, Stillwater, OK.
Pullman, G.S., S. Johnson, G.E Peter, J. Cairney and N. Xu. 2003. Improving
Loblolly Pine Somatic Embryo Maturation: Comparison of Somatic and
Zygotic Embryo Morphology, Germination, and Gene Expression. Plant
Growth Regulator. 21:747-751.
Rahmani, M., D.L. Rockwood, D.R. Carter and W.H. Smith. 2003. Co-
Utilization Potential for Biomass in Florida. In: Proc. International Conference
on Co-Utilization of Domestic Fuels, February 5-6, 2003, Gainesville FL.
Rockwood, D.L., G.R. Alker, R.W. Cardellino, C. Lin, N. Brown, T. Spriggs, S.
Tsangaris, J.G. Isebrands, R.B. Hall, R. Lange and B. Nwokike. 2003. Fast-
Growing Trees for Heavy Metal and Chlorinated Solvent Phytoremediation.
In: VS. Magar and M.E. Kelley (eds.). In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation-
2003. Proceedings of the Seventh International In Situ and On-Site
Bioremediation Symposium, June 2-5, 2003, Orlando, FL, Paper F-12, Battelle
Press, Columbus, OH.


Rodriguez-Trejo, D.A. and M.L. Duryea. 2003. Seedling Quality Indicators in
Pinus palustris Mill. (Indicadores de Calidad de Planta en Pinus palustris
Mill.). Agrociencia. 37:299-307.
Rodriguez-Trejo, D.A., M.L. Duryea, T.L. White, J.R. English and J. McGuire.
2003. Artificially Regenerating Longleaf Pine in Canopy Gaps: Initial Survival
and Growth During a Year of Drought. Forest Ecology and Management.
180:25-36.
Schimleck, L., G.E Peter, R. Daniels, P.D. Jones, R. Yang and M. Buchanan.
2003. Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for High Throughput
Estimation of Wood and Fiber Properties in Southern Pine. Traditional
Industries Program: Pulp and Paper, State of Georgia.
Schmidt, R.A. 2003. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines: A Major Success Story
for Forest Disease Management. Phytopathology. 93:1048-1051.
Schmidt, R.A., K.P. Gramacho and T. Miller. 2003. Sporulation of Fusiform
Rust Gall Reaction Types in Slash Pine. Proc. Second IUFRO Rusts of Forest
Trees Work. Party Conf. Aug. 19-23, 2002. Yangling, China. China Forest
Research. 16:73-79.
Sierra-Lucero, V., D.A. Huber, S.E. McKeand, T.L. White and D.L. Rockwood.
2003. Genotype-by-environment Interaction and Deployment Considerations
for Families from Florida Provenances of Loblolly Pine. Forest Genetics.
10(2):85-92.
Starr, G. and S.F. Oberbauer. 2003. Photosynthesis of Arctic Evergreens Under
Snow: Implications for Tundra Ecosystem Carbon Balance. Ecology.
84(6):1415-1420.
Stein, T.V., J.K. Clark and J.L. Rickards. 2003. Assessing Nature's Role in
Ecotourism Development in Florida: Perspectives of Tourism Professionals
and Government Decision Makers. Journal of Ecotourism. 2(3):155-172.
Stein, T.V., C.B. Denny and L.A. Pennisi. 2003. Using Visitors' Motivations to
Provide Learning Opportunities at Water-based Recreation Areas. Journal of
Sustainable Tourism. 11(5):404-425.
Thangata, P. and J.R.R. Alavalapati. 2003. Agroforestry Adoption in Southern
Malawi: The Case of Mixed Intercropping of Gliricidia sepium. Agricultural
Systems. 78:57-71.
Thomas, J.M. G., K.J. Boote, L.H.Allen Jr., M. Gallo-Meagher and J.M. Davis.
2003. Elevated Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Effects on Soybean Seed
Composition and Transcript Abundance. Crop Science. 43:1548-1557.
Vergara, R., T.L. White, D.A. Huber, B.D. Shiver and D.L. Rockwood. 2003.
Validation of Predicted Breeding Values for Slash Pine (Pinus elliotii var.
Elliottii) Using Field Trials Planted in Large Block Plots. In: Proc. 27th South.
For. Tree Improvement Conf., June 24-27, 2003, Stillwater, OK.
Walla, J.A., W.R. Jacobi and R.A. Schmidt. 2003. Forest Pathology for the Last
Century: An Overview of the Symposium. Phytopathology. 93:1037-1038.
White, T.L., E.J. Jokela, T.A. Martin, R.A. Schmidt and B. Roth. 2003. Forest
Biology Research Cooperative 7th Annual Report. School For. Res.
Conservation, Univ. FL. For. Biol. Res. Coop. Rep. 24:60.
White, D.E., G.E Peter and M.A. Evans. 2003. A Cross-industry Systems
Assessment of Future Printing and Papermaking Industry Trends. GTAF
Technology Forecast 2003. pp. 1.
Wong, G., J.R.R. Alavalapati and R. Moulton. 2003. Forest Policy for Private
Forestry: Global and Regional Challenges. CABI Publishing. New York. pp. 165-
176.
Wong, G. and J R.R. Alavalapati. 2003. The Land-use Effects of a Forest
Carbon Policy in the U.S. Forest Policy and Economics. 5:249-263.
Workman S.W., M.E. Bannister and P.K.R. Nair. 2003. Agroforestry Potential in
the Southeastern United States: Perceptions of Landowners and Extension
Professionals. Agroforestry Systems. 59:73-83.
Xiao, Y., E.J. Jokela and T.L. White. 2003. Species Differences in Crown
Structure and Growth Performance in Juvenile Loblolly and Slash Pine. Forest
Ecology and Management. 174:295-313.
Xiao, Y., E.J. Jokela and T.L. White. 2003. Growth and Leaf Nutrient Response
of Loblolly and Slash Pine Families to Intensive Silvicultural Management.
Forest Ecology and Management. 183:281-295.
Zarin, D J., M. Schmink, EE. Putz, K.A. Kainer and S.K. Jacobson. 2003.
Integrated Graduate Education and Research in Neotropical Forest Regions.
Journal of Forestry. 101(6):31-37.


103 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS

FACULTY TITLE
Alavalapati, J. R. R. Economic Analysis ofAgroforestry
Alavalapati, J. R. R. Economic Impacts of Forest Invasive Species: a Case Study of
Cogongrass
Alavalapati, J. R. R. Identifying Opportunities & Challenges for Conservation Easements
Bannister, M.E. Developing Agroforestry and Natural Resource Distance Education:
Stein,T.V. Meeting the Needs of the Changing Southeastern US
Bannister, M.E. Tree-Crop Diversity and Enterprise Development Through
Workman, S.W. AgroForestry: A Participatory Survey and Gis-Based Analysis
Bannister, M.E. Hillside Agriculture Program in Haiti, RFP No. 521-00-010
Davis, J.M. Pharmacological Separation of Defense Signaling Pathways in
Hardwoods
Davis, J.M. Allele Discovery for Genes Controlling Economic Traits in Loblolly Pine
White, T.L.
Davis, J.M. Molecular Physiology of Nitrogen Allocation in Poplar
Cooke, J.E.
Davis, J.M. Chemical Induction of Disease Resistance in Trees: Molecular
Signatures of the Defense Response
Davis, J.M. Genome-Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar
White, T.L.
Martin, T.A.
Duryea, M.L. Turfgrass Research
Gholz, H.L. From Tower to Region: Integration of Patch-Size Using Experimental
and Modeling Footprint Analysis
Gholz H.L. Long-term Dynamics of Carbon, Water & Energy Fluxes for Managed
Martin, T.A. & Natural Pine Ecosystems in FL
Clark, K.L.
Starr, G.
Jokela, E.J. Indisciplinary Progam in Natural Resource Management: Inegrated
Analysis of Forested Watersheds
Jokela, E.J. Spatial Modeling of Nitrogen Emissions From Poultry Operations
Comerford, N.B. and Their Influence on Pitch Canker in Pinus Elliottii
Jose, S. Restoration Ecoloyg of Longleaf Pine Ecosystems: Developing an
Jokela, E.J. Interdisciplinary Distance Education Course
Long, A.J. Florida Forest Stewardship Program II
Long, A.J. Assessing and Mitigating Fire Risk for Landowners in the Southern
Monroe, M.C. Wildland-Urban Interface, Phase Three
Long, A.J. Fire Risk Ratings and Mitigation Options for Southern Landowners
Long, A.J. Research Synthesis for a Hypertext Encyclopedia of Southern Fire
Science Information
Martin, T.A. Comparing Pine Families Using Large-Scale Methods: Agenda 2020,
Part 3
Martin, T.A. Improving NFDRS by Understanding Understory Dynamics of
Starr, Jr., G. Fuelloading and Fuel Moisture in Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plai
Martin, T.A. SecondaryXylem Form and Function: Linkages AmongWood Quality,
Peter, G.F. Growth and Tree Water Relations
Martin, T.A. Dynamics of Carbon,Water,and Energy Fluxes for Pine Ecosysteems
Starr, Jr., G. in Florida:recovery from Perturbation and Variation Acro
Martin, T.A. Comparing the Carbon and Nutrient Relations of Contrasting Loblolly
White, T.L. and Slash Pine Families Using Large-Scale...
Martin, T.A. Comparing Pine Families Using Large Scale Methods: Agenda 2020,
Part 3
Monroe, M.C. Designing Environmental Justice Module
Monroe, M.C. Community Partnerships Landscape Level Strategies to Reduce the
Risk and Loss From Catastrophic Fire
Monroe, M.C. Tracking and Enhancing Outreach Activities and Outcome


SOURCE OF FUNDS
Source: USDA
USDA/TSTAR

UF/IFAS
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

Development Alternatives, Inc.
U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

Univ. of California

U.S. Dept. of Energy

Consort for Plant Biotech Res

Battelle



FL Turf-Grass Association
Univ. of Georgia

Nat'[ Institutes for Global Environ.
Change (NIGEC), Dept. of Energy



U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Univ. ofAlabama/DOE

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Am. Museum of Nautral History
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

U.S. Dept. of Interior


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 104


AMOUNT
$12,000.00
$12,000.00

$3,000.00
$241,928.00

$81,731.00

$248,045.00
$30,000.00

$593,363.00

$162,888.00


$34,000.00

$249,494.00



$42,680.00
$2,000.00

$520,244.00




$99,814.00

$103,872.00

$164,936.oo00


$55,756.00
$192,004.00

$51,000.00
$40,000.00

$40,000.00

$40,000.00

$45,000.00

$181,921.00

$50,000.00

$40,000.00

$1,000.00
$117,000.00

$60,143.00









SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


FACULTY TITLE
Monroe, M.C. State Leadership for Florida Project Learning Tree
Monroe, M.C. Neighborhood Associations: The Influence of Social Contractson
Homeowner Preparedness for Wiildfire
Monroe, M.C. Urban Forestry Education Program
Monroe, M.C. State Leadership for Florida Project Learning Tree
Monroe, M.C. Exploring the Relationship Between Wildfire Education Program
Agrawal, S. and Social Capital
Monroe, M.C. Firewise Demonstration Area at Austin Cary Memorial Forest
Long, A.J.
Monroe, M.C. Disseminating Urban Forestry Curriculum
Easton, J.G.
Nair, P.K.R. Training of ICFRE (India) Forestr Professionals
Nair, P.K.R. AgroForestry in Eritrea: A Proposal for a PhD Study Program at UF
Nair, P.K.R. Establishing a Center for Subtropical Agrogorestry
Nair, P.K.R. Support to the istWorld Congress of AgroForestry, 2004
Nair, P.K.R. AgroForestry: Sustainable Land use Patterns in the Tropics
Nair, P.K.R. Support to the istWorld Congress of Agroforestry, 2004
(through OCI)
Peter, G.F. Accelerated Stem Growth & Improved Fiber Properties in Loblolly Pine
Peter, G.F. Commercialization of Forest Biotechnology: Economic Targets for
Enhanced Global Competitiveness of the U.S. Pulp & Paper Industry
Rockwood, D.L. A Cooperative Multicultural Scholars Program in Natural Resources &
Forestry Between Florida A&M University and University of Florida
Rockwood, D.L. Commercial Tree Crops for Phosphate Mined Lands
Carter, D.R.
Stricker, J.A.
Rockwood, D.L. Eucalyptus Energywood Plantation 2000
Rockwood, D.L. Pine Productivit of Reclaimed Mined Lands
Rockwood, D.L. A Cooperative Multicultural Scholars Program in Natural Resources
Sager, S.A. & Forestry Between Florida A&M University and University of Florida
Smith, W.H. Cooperative Wood Testing Program
Stein, T.V. Five Year Florida National Scenic Trail User Assessment
Stein,T.V. Developing a Plan for Jackson County Sustainable Tourism
Holland, S.M. Development
Stein, T.V. Developing a Forum for Natural & Cultural Resource Development
for Pinellas County Florida: Phase One
Stein, T.V. WO #37 Big Bend Scienic Byway Study
White, T.L. Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability
White, T.L. Cooperative Genetics Research Program
White, T.L. Forest Productivity, Health and Sustainability
Workman, S.W. Molecular Physiology of Nitrogen Allocation in Poplar
Zarin, D.J. Translation of Working Forests in the Tropics Edited Volume
Zarin, D.J. Caribbean Dry Forest Restoration
Zarin, D.J. Sustainable Communities and Landscapes: A Program to Sustain
Natural and Economic Systems and Enhance Local
Zarin, D.J. Validating, Scaling, a Parameterizing a Forest Regrunitt Model for
the Amazon Region Using Aircraft and Spaceborne Sensory
Zarin, D.J. Experimental Manipulation of Nutrient and Moisture Availability in
Young Secondary Forests in Eastern Amazonia
Zarin, D.J. Working Forests in the Tropics
Kainer, K.A.


SOURCE OF FUNDS
FL Forestry Foundation
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Dept of Agricul & Consumer Ser
FL Forestry Association
U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Dept. ofAgricul. & Consumer Ser.

Indian Coun. of Forest Res. & Ed.
Univ. of Asmara
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
various

U.S. Dept of Energy
Institute of Paper Science and Technology

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

Florida Institute of Phosphate Research



Common Purpose Institute
FL Forestry Association
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

FL Forestry Association
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Jackson County

Conrod Assoc. Communications

Dept. of Transportation
FL Forestry Association
FL Forestry Association
FL Forestry Association
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Inst. of Intl. Education Brazil

Univ. of New Hampshire

Mellon Foundation, Andrew W.

National Science Foundation


105 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


AMOUNT
$60,000.00
$37,454.00

$15,000.00
$13,699.00
$62,680.00


$35,054.00

$15,ooo.oo

$56,000.00
$86,997.50
$3,913,984.00
$55,000.00
$15,000.00
$165,000.00

$166,560.00
$23,000.00

$90,000.00

$213,295.00



$2,400.00
$30,000.00
$60,000.00

$16,000.00
$30,000.00
$13,000.00

$15,ooo.oo

$179,5500oo
$269,000.00
$204,000.00
$226,000.00
$15,000.00
$10,000.00
$50,000.00
$70,534.00

$50,708.00

$470,000.00

$2,881,792.00







UNIVERSITY OF
.FLORIDA

IFAS
FloridaAgricultural Experiment Station


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA HERBARIUM,
FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
379 Dickenson Hall, PO Box 110575 I Gainesville, FL 32611-0575
352-392-1721, Ext. 212 I http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium


2003 Annual Research Report
for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The University of Florida Herbarium is an integral unit in
the Department of Natural History of the Florida Museum of
Natural History. Personnel and students from various
University of Florida departments work and conduct research
collaboratively in the herbarium. There are 7 faculty and staff,
8 graduate students and 2 research associates housed in the
herbarium and an additional 7 faculty and staff, 13 graduate
students and 4 research associates utilizing the herbarium. In
addition 10 undergraduate students are employed part-time as
specimen preparators and 3 volunteers actively work with our
programs. Herbarium staff manages the day-to-day operations
in support of faculty, staff and student activities. The Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences provides financial support
for these operations.
Plants are essential resources, providing food, medicine,
shelter, oils, dyes and a myriad of other products. Herbarium
programs, in parallel with the overall function of the Florida
Museum of Natural History, strive to provide a structure for
communicating about and understanding the natural world.
The herbarium's mission has four areas of focus: plant collec-
tions acquisition and care, research based on the collections,
education, and public service. Our activities are designed to
help researchers and the public discover, develop and conserve
our natural resources.

COLLECTIONS ACQUISITION AND CARE: The herbarium collec-
tion consists of nearly 500,000 specimens and is growing by
around 3,000 specimens per year. Specimens are acquired
through fieldwork, exchange from other institutions, the plant
identification service and gifts. Each specimen requires indi-
vidual preparation prior to being added to the collection. Data
from each specimen is entered into the computerized catalog
that is available on the web for searching at:
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/. High-resolution,
zoomable images of selected specimens are also provided.
Inter-institutional specimen loans are shipped and received to
facilitate plant monographic studies, revisionary studies and
flora projects by researchers at the University of Florida and
other Florida, national and international herbaria. 15,682 spec-
imens were processed in 204 loan transactions during the year
2003.

COLLECTIONS-BASED RESEARCH: The research emphasis of
the herbarium is plant systematics and floristics. Major


research projects in 2003 have been in molecular and morpho-
logical systematics of Orchidaceae, Melanthiaceae,
Apocynaceae, Melastomataceae, Passifloraceae and
Polygalaceae. Researchers are working on the floras of Florida
and the New World tropics. The herbarium collection and
library also serve as a resource for research in the fields of
agronomy, anthropology, conservation, ecology, entomology,
forestry, landscape architecture, plant pathology, environmen-
tal horticulture, soil science, wildlife ecology and zoology.

EDUCATION: Class tours introduce students to the resources
and services available at the herbarium. Techniques for speci-
men preservation and herbarium management are taught. The
herbarium web site provides information and links on speci-
mens, collections, plant collecting, herbarium practice and
legal issues.

PUBLIC SERVICE: The principal public service activity of the
herbarium is provided through the Plant Identification and
Information Service. Researchers and the network of
Cooperative Extension Service agents submit requests for
identification and information. Proper plant identification is
crucial for plant care, weed control, research, and for an under-
standing of potential hazards (toxicity). The staff of the
herbarium assists in providing such types of information as
scientific names and authors for cultivated plants, weeds, and
native species, their common names, range, specific locations,
dates of flowering, and possible human and animal toxicity.
Researchers, students and the general public also have
access to the herbarium's noncirculating reference library. The
literature in this collection contains descriptions, illustrations,
photographs, geographical ranges and keys for differentiating
species of plants, as well as information regarding Latin plant
names (nomenclature), plant collectors and economic botany.
The herbarium staff provides assistance to visitors in the use
and understanding of the library subject matter. The herbar-
ium library catalog is available through the State University
System of Florida library catalog and on the web at:
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/lib/.


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 1 106







UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


THE ORCHID SUBTRIBE MAXILLARIINAE: GENERIC
CONCEPTS, MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS, AND
POLLINATOR REWARDS
In addition to normal collection acquisition and cura-
tion, the Herbarium staff lead several research projects
funded by the National Science Foundation. The largest of
these projects is a three-year study of the large orchid
subtribe Maxillariinae led by Norris Williams, Mark Whitten,
and graduate students Mario Blanco (Costa Rica), Lorena
Endara (Ecuador), and Kurt Neubig (USA).
The purpose of this project is to collect, study, and clas-
sify the species of Maxillaria, one of the largest and most
poorly known orchid genera of the Neotropics. Orchids are
one of the showiest and most species-rich families of plants,
yet most species are very poorly studied. As tropical forests
are destroyed at an increasing rate, the most basic questions
we need to answer are 1) How many species exist? 2) Where
do they grow? 3) How are they related to each other and to
other plants? Maxillaria species are often large, conspicuous,
and numerically important components of the epiphytic
vegetation in the Neotropics, but species are difficult to
identify. New species of Maxillaria are discovered frequently;
the total number of species probably exceeds 650. The classi-
fication of Maxillaria and its relatives have been chaotic for
more than a century, and current/ongoing taxonomic treat-
ments offer little hope of stability unless the revisions are
based upon modern DNA- and morphology-based phyloge-
netic trees (hypotheses of evolution). In this project,
University of Florida researchers coordinate studies of
Maxillaria among collaborators in Mexico and Central and
South America. DNA sequencing is used to classify and to
estimate relationships within this large genus. Specimens,
images, keys, publications and on-line databases are being
produced to help botanists and the public identify these
orchids. The pollinators of these flowers, as well as the type
and composition of the floral rewards (nectar, oil, resin,
sexual deceit, etc.), will be studied. By plotting these pollina-
tion data onto evolutionary "trees," we can gain insight into
how pollinators have influence speciation and diversity
within this genus and in other plants.
This project will provide basic information on the
biodiversity of a major group of tropical orchids; this infor-
mation is fundamental to broader biodiversity studies such
as regional inventories florass), choosing areas of high diver-
sity for conservation priorities, and documenting rates of
species extinction. The first step in documenting conserva-
tion success or failure is to distinguish and identify all the
species that occur in an area. Specimens, photographs, and
DNA samples are being archived in the herbarium; these will
serve as a record of orchid species that may become extinct
within decades. Because orchids are beautiful and charis-
matic "poster child" plants, information on their diversity


and biology can be used to raise public awareness and
support for conserving tropical ecosystems.
In the past year, we have led collecting trips to Costa
Rica, Panama, and Ecuador, and our Brazilian colleagues
have conducted field studies at several sites in Brazil. We
collected, photographed, pressed and sequenced several
hundred orchid specimens (including several undescribed
species) and have brought many of these into cultivation for
more detailed study. Although we have just completed the
first year of the study, the results are revolutionizing our
understanding of this group of orchids. Based on DNA
sequence data, it is clear that the current traditional classifi-
cation of these orchids is incorrect and does not reflect their
evolutionary relationships. Traditional classifications have
been based on gross morphological characters such as
flower shape and color and vegetative traits. Our research
suggests that orchids (especially their flowers) are evolution-
arily extremely plastic in response to selection pressures
from pollinators. One of our immediate goals is to construct
a revised classification of Maxillaria that more closely
reflects their evolutionary history. These results will be


W. Mark Whitten


107 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS


useful to floristic botanists, ecologists, wildlife biologists, and
horticulturalists who use these classifications. It will also
help to prioritize conservation efforts as habitat loss threat-
ens these orchids with extinction.
Orchid flowers display spectacular adaptations in form
and color for attracting pollinators. In addition to shape and
color, some Maxillaria species provide chemical secretions
that reward the pollinator for their pollination services. The
most common reward in flowers is nectar, but some
Maxillaria flowers produce waxy, oily, or resinous secretions
that are not eaten by bees or hummingbirds. We are collabo-
rating with Brazilian botanists and chemists to study these
chemical reward systems. Some flowers produce oils
composed of triacyl glycerides; these buttery oils are
collected by certain female bees and are fed to their larvae as
an energy-rich food. Flowers that produce waxes or resins
are visited by other female bees that collect the resins for use
as a cement in nest construction. No orchid produces a
pollen reward for bees to collect, but some Maxillaria species
have evolved "pseudopollen," a powdery coating on parts of


the lip; female bees collect this powder as if it were pollen
and feed it to their larvae. Finally, a few orchid species have
evolved "pseudocopulation"- their flowers are visual and
chemical mimics of female bees, and aggressive male bees
pollinate the flowers as they attempt to copulate with the lip
of the flower.
Orchids are the most diverse family of flowering plants
on earth. Understanding how this diversity arose requires an
understanding of their evolutionary history and of their
ecological interactions with pollinators, fungi, and other
organisms. Our research is a first step towards documenting
a portion of this diversity. The Herbarium staff is currently
preparing a grant proposal for the NSF "Assembling The Tree
of Life" program. This collaborative project, involving
botanists from many countries, aims to construct a generic
level classification and phylogenetic tree for all the orchid
family (25,000 species, or about 10% of flowering plants). The
University of Florida will continue to play a major role in the
study of orchids and in training the next generation of
orchid biologists.


FACULTY & STAFF


FACULTY
Norris H. Williams

Kent D. Perkins

S. Barry Davis

Robert L. Dressier
Marc S. Frank
Dana Griffin III

Walter S. Judd


Gertrude Lindler

W. Mark Whitten


TITLE
Keeper of the Herbarium,
Curator
Collection Manager

Extension Botanist

Research Associate
Assistant Collection Manager
Emeritus Faculty, Dept. of
Botany Research Associate
Professor Department of


Program Assistant

Research Scientist


SPECIALTY
Systematics and Evolution of Orchidaceae

Museum Collection Management and
Computerization; Endangered Species
Plant Identification and Information Service;
Asteraceae; Florida Flora
Systematics and Pollination Biology of Orchidaceae
Horticulture and Horticultural Systematics
Bryophytes; Lichens; Plant Geography

Vascular Plant Systematics; Florida and
West Indian Floras; Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States Project
Botany
Herbarium Accounting and Record Management;
Library Acquisitions and Cataloguing and Management
Systematics and Pollination Biology of Orchidaceae


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 108









UF HERBARIUM, FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT NO. AUTHOR
HRB-o4170 Williams, N.H.
RESEARCH PROJECTS

*Herbarium operations (loans, specimen accessioning, storage and
SELECTED FACULTY AND STAFF PROJECTS:
Davis S.B., Perkins K.
Dressier, R.L.
Griffin, III, D.
Judd,W.S.




Perkins, K.
Whitten, W.M.
Williams, N.H.


Williams, N.H., Whitten, W.M., Carlward, B.


Zomlefer, W.B., Williams, N.H.,
Whitten, W.M., Judd, W.S.
SELECTED GRADUATE STUDENT PROJECTS:
Abbott, J.R.



Blanco, M.
Carlsward, B.
Corbett, S.L.


Edwards, C.


Gulledge, K.J.


lonta, G.



Jacono, C.


Kabat, C.


Morris, A.B.
Notis, C.
Penneys, D.


Porter-Utley, K.
Thompson, J.D.
Wood, T.


TITLE

Computerization and Digitization of the University of Florida Herbarium


care) support these projects.


Floristic Inventory of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
Flora Mesoamericana: Orchidaceae Family Treatment
Flora of North America: Bartramia and Related Genera (Bryophyta) Treatment
Flora of the Greater Antilles: Ericaceae and Melastomataceae Family Treatments. Flora
of North America: Rhododendron Subgenus Therorhodion (Ericaceae) Treatment.
Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States: Many Family Treatments. A Revision of
Miconia Sect. Chaenopleura (Melastomataceae) in the West Indies
University of Florida Herbarium Collection Computerization and Digital Imaging
Molecular and morphological systematics ofStanhopeinae (Orchidaceae)
Molecular and Morphological Systematics of the Subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae).
Revision of Tolumnia (Orchidaceae)
Molecular Phylogenetics of Neotropical Leafless Angraecinae (Orchidaceae):
Reevaluation of Generic Concepts

Molecular and Morphological Systematics of Tribe Melanthieae (Liliales,
Melanthiaceae)


Flora of Devil's Hammock, Levy County, Florida. Flora of Snipe Island, Taylor County,
Florida. Phylogenetic Treatment of the Genus Polygala (Polygalaceae), Ph.D.
Dissertation. South Florida Water Management District Species Surveys
A Monograph of the Genus Lockhartia (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae), Ph.D. Disseration
Molecular Systematics of Leafless Vandeae (Orchidaceae), Ph.D. dissertation
Phytogeographic History ofAilanthus Desf. (Simaroubaceae) Based on Fossil Fruits,
M.S. Thesis

The Phylogenetics of a Clade of Southeastern U.S. Endemics in the Mentheae
(Lamiaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
The Systematics, Biogeography, and Population Structure of the Genus Lechea
(Cistaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Rhexia (Melastomataceae), Special Ph.D. Project.
Phylogeny and Generic Circumscription of the Subfamily Periplocoideae
(Apocynaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
Introduced Marsilea Species in the Southern United States, Botany 6905: Independent
Studies in Botany
Floristic Inventory of Morningside Nature Center, Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida,
M.S. Thesis

Population Genetic Structure Study of Illicium parviflorum (Illiciaceae)
Phylogeny of the Subfamily Kielmeyeroideae (Clusiaceae), M.S. Thesis
Morphological and Molecular Cladisitic Analysis of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae),
Ph.D. Dissertation. Phylogenetic Studies in the Miconieae

Taxonomic Revision of Passiflora Section Cieca (Passifloraceae), Ph.D. Dissertation
Phylogenetics of the Asplenium verrecundum Complex
Monograph of the Genus Hedychium (Zingiberaceae), Ph.D. Dissertation


109 I 2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION








PUBLICATIONS


Blanco, M.A. 2003. Lepanthes gerardensis (Orchidaceae), A New Species from
Costa Rica. Lankesteriana. 8:19-22.

Boucher, L.D., S.R. Manchester and W.S. Judd. 2003. An Extinct Genus of
Salicaceae Based on Twigs with Attached Flowers, Fruits, and Foliage from the
Eocene Green River Formation of Utah and Colorado, USA. American Journal
of Botany. 90(9):1389-1399.

Carlsward, B.S., W.M. Whitten and N.H. Williams. 2003. Molecular
Phylogenetics of Neotropical Leafless Angraecinae (Orchidaceae):
Reevaluation of Generic Concepts. International Journal of Plant Sciences.
164(1):43-51.

Carnevali, G., J.L. Tapia, N.H. Williams and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Sistematica,
Filogenia y Biogeografia de Myrmecophila (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana.
7:29-32.

Dalstrom, S. and W.M. Whitten. 2003. A New Species of Solenidium
(Orchidaceae) from Ecuador. Lankesteriana. 6:1-4.

Dressier, R.L. and W.E. Higgins. 2003. Guarianthe, A Generic Name for the
"Cattleya" skinneri Complex. Lankesteriana. 7:37-38.

Dressier, R.L. 2003. Mesoamerican Orchid Novelties 4: Malaxis. Selbyana.
24(2):141-143.

Dressier, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 2003. New Combinations in Mesoamerican
Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae). Selbyana. 24(1):44-45.

Dressier, R.L. and F Pupulin. 2003. Oncidium zelenkoanum (Orchidaceae), an
Unusual New Species from Panama. Lankesteriana. 8:37-39.


Dressier, R.L. 2003. Orchidaceae in: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Ed. by
B.E. Hammel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. St. Louis, MO.

Eltz, T., D.W. Roubik and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Fragrances, Male Display and
Mating Behaviour of Euglossa hemichlora: A Flight Cage Experiment.
Entomology. 28:251-260.

Gerlach, G. and R.L. Dressier. 2003. Stanhopeinae Mesoamericanae I.
Lankesteriana. 8:23-30.

Judd, W.S. 2003. New and Noteworthy Collections from Florida. Castanea.
68(1):81-83.

Judd, W.S. 2003. The Genera of Ruscaceae in the Southeastern United States.
Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States, Treatment no. 164. Harvard
Papers in Botany. 7(2):93-149.

Notis, C.H., W.S. Judd, D.E. Soltis and P.S. Soltis. 2003. Phylogenetic Analysis
of Kielmeyeroideae (Clusiaceae) Based on ITS Sequences. Botany 2003
Abstracts: Abstract ID 353.

Ojeda, I., G. Carnevali, N.H. Williams and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Phylogeny of
the Heterotaxis Lindley Complex (Maxillariinae): Evolution of the Vegetative
Architecture and Pollination Syndromes. Lankesteriana. 7:45-47.

Penneys, D.S. and W.S. Judd. 2003. The Resurrection and Lectotypification of
Tetrazygiafadyenii (Melastomataceae: Miconieae): A Hummingbird-pollinated
Treelet Endemic to Jamaica. Sida. 20(3):877-884.

Porter-Utley, K.E. 2003. Revision of Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Supersection
Cieca (Passifloraceae). Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Botany,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Molecular Phylogenetics and Generic
Concepts in the Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana. 7:61-62.

Zomlefer, W.B., W.M. Whitten, N.H. Williams and W.S. Judd. 2003. An
Overview of Veratrum s.l. (Liliales : Melanthiaceae) and an Infrageneric
Phylogeny Based on ITS Sequence Data. Systematic Botany. 28(2):250-269.


GRANTS & CONTRACTS


TITLE

Identifying the Invaders: Creating an Online Digital Herbarium


Genera[ Support for Orchid Research


Molecular and Morphological Systematics of the Subtribe
Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)

Systematics of Maxillariinae: Generic Delimitation, Pollinator
Rewards and Pollination

What is Oncidium? Phylogenetics as a Prelude to a Revised
Classification of Oncidium and Related Genera


SOURCE OF FUNDS


AMOUNT


Florida Department of Environmental Protection $3,140.00


South Florida Orchid Society $1,800.00


National Science Foundation $25,000.00


National Science Foundation $300,000.00


American Orchid Society Fund $10,802.00


2003 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT for the FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION I 110


FACULTY

Perkins, K.D.
Haas, S.

William, N.H.
Dressier, R.L.

William, N.H.


William, N.H.


William, N.H.




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