Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report by the dean of research
 Research foundation professors
 Selected research accomplishme...
 Putting Florida first
 Changes in faculty
 Research administration
 Campus research programs
 Research and education centers
 Director's financial report


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008296/00008
 Material Information
Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report
Alternate title: Annual research report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1999
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Food -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note: Description based on: 1987; title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20304921
lccn - sn 92011064
System ID: UF00008296:00008
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Contents 1
        Contents 2
    Report by the dean of research
        Page 1
    Research foundation professors
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 24
    Selected research accomplishments
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 69
        Page 70
    Putting Florida first
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Changes in faculty
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Research administration
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Campus research programs
        Page 79
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    Research and education centers
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
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    Director's financial report
        Page 261
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Full Text


[year of pubhcation] Florida Museum of Natural History [source text]

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Museum, holds all nghts to the source text of ths electronic resource on
behalf ofthe State of Flonda The Flonda Museum of Natural History shall
be considered the copyrght holder for the text and images of this

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Museum of Natural History (Ganesville, FL) publisher of the Bulletin of the
Flonda State Museum, as a division of state government makes its
documents public ( e publshed) and extends to the state's official agencies
and hbranes, including the University ofFlonda's Smathers Library, limited
nghts of reproduction

The Flonda Museum of Natural History has made this publication available
to the University of Flonda, on behalf of the State Unversity System, for
purposes of digitization and Internet distnbution

The Flonda Museum of Natural History reserves all nghts to this
publication All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of
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division of the Unversity of Flonda, i Gamesville, Flonda, for additional
information and permission




FocsiamF-~xesorrsmn oltiol-( "& nr

1999 Annual

Research Report
for the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
The Agricultural Experiment Station

Report by the Dean for Research....................................... 1
Research Foundation Professors ...................................... 3
Selected Research Accomplishments ................................. 25
Putting Florida FIRST ............................................... 71
Changes in Faculty .................................................. 75
Research Administration.............................................. 77

Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs FAMU
Center for Aquatic Plants
Center for Natural Resource Programs
Center for Natural Resource Programs (Biomass Programs)

Campus Research Programs ......................................... 79

Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Agricultural Education and Communication
Animal Science
Dairy and Poultry Sciences (r
Entomology and Nematology
Environmental Horticulture r+
Family, Youth and Community Sciences
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Food and Resource Economics
Food Science and Human Nutrition
Forest Resources and Conservation, School of
Horticultural Sciences
Microbiology and Cell Science
Plant Pathology
Soil and Water Science
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
College of Veterinary Medicine

Research and Education Centers .................................... 190

Citrus REC Lake Alfred
Everglades REC Belle Glade
Florida Medical Entomology Lab Vero Beach
Ft. Lauderdale REC Ft. Lauderdale
Gulf Coast REC Bradenton, Dover
Hastings REC Hasting

Indian River REC Ft. Pierce
Mid-Florida REC Apopka, Sanford, Leesburg
North Florida REC Quincy, Marianna, Monticello
Range Cattle REC Ona
Southwest Florida REC Immokalee
Subtropical REC Brooksville
Tropical REC Homestead
West Florida REC Jay

Director's Financial Report......................................... 261


*Richa d Js are critical to any institution. For IFAS, these
Richard L. Jon es values include excellence, diversity, accountability,
a global perspective, and a commitment to public

Florida FIRST identifies the important
cornerstone scientific capabilities essential to
excellent IFAS programs. These include leadership
in the rapidly growing technologies of
biotechnology, information and communications 10
technology, systems analyses, precision
technologies, and process technologies.

Based on the above considerations and
based upon extensive input from industry and ED
clientele from around the state, Florida FIRST s
identified eight major program imperatives on 0
which to focus in the near term. These include
(highly abridged): 1) Water; 2) Resource Protection
from Pests; 3) Management of Natural and Coastal r
Ecosystems; 4) Global Competitiveness; 5) Food
Technologies; 6) Human Resources; 7) Education;
and 8) Public Policy. IFAS will use these
imperatives in all resource allocation decisions, (D
The year 1999 has been the year of "Florida including our most significant the allocation of
FIRST" at the Florida Agricultural Experiment faculty positions. In fact, we have just released 20
Station (page 69). IFAS faculty and administration faculty positions to be filled, all of which contribute
devoted significant time to the development of this significantly to these imperatives.
now implemented IFAS plan for the future. It is
important to note that Florida FIRST is the result of Additionally, we have launched two
extensive consultation among IFAS faculty and special initiatives of high importance an analysis O
staff and with numerous agricultural and natural of the economic impact of the industries IFAS s
resource industry groups and citizens from around serves, and an analysis of the state labor situation.
the state. This document is important since it sets
our research program agenda for the next few Last, but not least, IFAS has pledged to be
years. I will briefly describe the highlights of make internal adjustments in our organization to
Florida FIRST in this letter. enhance our efficiency and effectiveness, to build 1
on our partnerships, to improve extensive delivery
Florida FIRST identifies the important methods, to document accountability, and to
forces for change that are impacting Florida improve our institutional marketing.
agriculture and natural resources. This
information serves as a foundation from which the FAES research programs will use Florida
remainder of the planning document evolved. FIRST as a guide to research planning and resource
These major impacts include the rapidly changing allocation. This plan is dynamic and will be
demographics of Florida, the products of rapidly revisited regularly. Florida FIRST is the
emerging technologies, competition for labor, and springboard to launch FAES into the twenty-first
the competition for natural resources among century with a goal to provide research that is
agriculture, urban use, and preservation. second to none in quality, innovation, and
relevance to our agriculture and natural resource
Florida FIRST introduces the core values of industries and to Florida's citizens.
IFAS. The recognition and practice of core values


S 0

Research Foundatio 9


Robert 3. FerI, Ph.D.
Professor of Horticultural Sciences and
Assistant Director of The Biotechnology Program
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Rob Ferl is a molecular biologist who Ferl is an enthusiastic and respected
0 specializes in the molecular mechanisms involved teacher, having received the Distinguished
U in gene expression. Teaching Award in 1984 and the Award of
SExcellence in Graduate Research and Education in
SAs a professor in horticulture, he is an 1994. He has written three widely regarded college
expert in the genetic responses of plants to textbooks for general biology audiences.
0 harmful environments. His research program is
Centered around the structure of genes and the He has served in Washington as a member
mechanisms of gene regulation. Results from his of NIH, USDA and NSF review teams, and he was
laboratory are widely published, and he is invited Panel Manager for the USDA National Research
o to lecture around the world. Initiative in Genetic Mechanisms. He has also
,,* served on several editorial boards, most currently
Ferl's laboratory work is funded by grants with the Plant Journal.
( from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),
Pb the National Institutes of Health and NASA, all of
S which are dedicated to elucidating how genes of
living organisms respond to the world around
S them. His molecular studies in the laboratory have
Pu led him to such interesting places as the beaches of
Costa Rica, where he helped pioneer the use of
DNA sequence tags in the study of marine turtles,
J and the mid-deck of the space shuttle,
I where his genetically engineered
C plants are used to study gene "
responses to microgravity and space.
W) He also shared a USDA
Secretary's Honor Award for his work
in bringing genetically engineered
crops to market.
-" I -

Jesse F. Gregory III, Ph.D.
Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Jesse Gregory is an expert on the chemistry, addition, the recently implemented fortification of
metabolism and nutritional function of B-vitamins. cereal grain food products (bread, flour, rice, pasta,
Much of his work focuses on vitamins B6 and etc.) with folic acid was supported by UF studies
folate. showing that such fortification is an effective way
of delivering the vitamin in highly absorbable
Adequate intake of both of these vitamins form. Although the natural forms of folate in many 0
is needed for normal metabolism, cell replication foods is not efficiently absorbed, Gregory and
and maintenance of health. For example, adequate colleagues found that orange juice is also a good
intake of these vitamins source of readily absorbable
reduces the risk of folate.
cardiovascular disease, and
adequate folate intake helps Gregory's research is now
reduce the risk of certain mainly directed toward
birth defects and certain determining optimal intakes
forms of cancer. of folate and vitamin B6 to
SGregomaintain optimal O
Gregory and his one-carbon metabolism to
colleagues have developed control the level of the
and applied a number of metabolite homocysteine
innovative methods associated with risk of
involving the use of cardiovascular disease. 0
nonradioactive isotopic
tracers, with which the One major goal is to
absorption, metabolism and determine the impact of
metabolic function of these common genetic variability
vitamins can be determined among humans on their
in human subjects. vitamin requirements.
Application of these (A
methods allows direct Gregory has served as a
investigations in humans member of the NIH
without the potential Nutrition Study Section,
hazards of traditional USDA Review Panels on
radioisotopic tracers. Human Nutrition and a
number of other advisory
Studies based on the panels. He also has served
use of these isotopic procedures have had direct on National Academy of Sciences Institute of
impact on national nutrition policy. Recent changes Medicine Committees that developed policy
in the Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate recommendations for the nutritional labeling of
were based largely on results of Gregory and foods. He currently serves on the editorial boards
colleagues showing that the requirement is ap- of the Journal of Nutrition and the Journal of Food
proximately twice that previously believed. In Composition and Analysis.


Susan K. Jacobson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Susan Jacobson's research explores the solutions to many human-dimensions challenges
O human dimensions of wildlife management. Her facing resource managers, particularly in tropical
I work provides the interdisciplinary data necessary countries.
S for natural resource managers to understand and
S measure over time the human context of their In Florida, Jacobson has undertaken a
management objectives and to design effective five-year study of ecosystem-based approaches to
S communication strategies to involve the public and public communication by public land managers.
f key stakeholders. Grants totaling more than $250,000 from the U.S.
Department of Defense have provided the
Jacobson's model for the design and opportunity to work with natural resource
o evaluation of environmental education programs managers at the half-million-acre Eglin Air Force
S in developing nations has been adoptein n a dozen Base to experimentally test relationships between
+n countries. Her research has ranged from the communication techniques and the
S development of natural resource communication implementation of new ecosystem management
O programs in Malaysian parks to the design of a mandates. This research has involved several
biological impact assessment and ecotourism thousand recreationists, neighboring citizens and
program in Costa Rica that combined conservation military leaders in an experimental design testing a
0 education with economic and ecological variables, variety of media, messages and approaches. She
;L4 A book she edited, Conserving Wildlife: Interna- has recently expanded this work in Florida to
tional Education and Communication Approaches, include other military installations.
highlights some of this work and offers innovative
S"Military lands make up the fifth-largest
I public land holdings in the United
S States, so their biological signifi-
W) chance is considerable," Jacobson
Says, noting that more than 220
W) federally protected species have
been identified on military reserves.

Jacobson also is studying the
failure of conservation and
development initiatives in Africa to
achieve natural resource
management objectives. Some of the
practical findings of this recent
work are published in her new
S4 4 book, Communication Skills for
Conservation Professionals.


Jack E. RechcigL, Ph.D.
Professor of Soil and Water Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Jack Rechcigl is recognized internationally industrial by-products as fertilizers. Through the
for his research on the beneficial uses of industrial support of a million-dollar grant, he has evaluated (D
by-products as fertilizers for agricultural crops. the potential of using phosphogypsum (a waste
product of phosphate mining) as a source of Q
The primary focus of Rechcigl's research nutrients for crops. These results have generated -1
has been on evaluation of the fertilizer tremendous interest both in the agricultural and
requirements for pasture grasses and legumes and the environmental regulatory community, as well
determination of the effects of the fertilizer as in international agricultural circles, which has
amendments on surface and groundwater quality, led to invitations for Rechcigl to speak about his
His studies have conclusively shown that there is research findings in a number of countries. Several
no economic advantage from applying phosphorus of these countries are now using phosphogypsum
and potassium fertilizer to bahiagrass. As a result as a fertilizer where, in the past, it was dumped in
of his work, fertilizer recommendations have been the ocean as a waste. He has also been invited to
revised, eliminating the need for phosphorous and give keynote addresses at several prestigious
potassium fertilization on major pasture grasses symposia on the utilization of inorganic and
grown in Florida. These revisions have saved organic wastes in agriculture.
Florida cattle producers millions of dollars in
fertilizer costs. He is currently extending his Rechcigl's research has generated more
studies to other forage grasses, than $3 million in grants. He has authored more
than 200 publications, including contributions to
Rechcigl has also successfully assessed the books, monographs and articles in periodicals in
potential uses of various organic wastes and the fields of soil fertility, environmental quality and
water pollution. He has also initiated
and is currently the editor-in-chief of
Ter the Agriculture and Environment
monograph series and has edited six 0
comprehensive treatises on diverse
agricultural topics.

Rechcigl has received numerous
awards, including the Sigma Xi
Research Award and the University of
the Philippines Research Award, and
he was recently elected a Fellow of the
American Society of Agronomy.


K. Ramesh Reddy, Ph.D.
Graduate Research Professor of Soil and Water Science and Director of the Wetland
Biogeochemistry Laboratory
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

II Ramesh Reddy and his group conduct physical, chemical and biological processes
0 research on biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and functioning in an ecosystem at various spatial and
U) other contaminants in wetlands and aquatic temporal scales.
systems as related to water quality and ecosystem
4 productivity. Biogeochemistry is an interdiscipli- Reddy's research on phosphorous
o nary science that provides a framework to integrate biogeochemistry in wetlands and aquatic systems
of Florida has aided in the development of
management strategies for ecosystem
restoration. His research group developed
Spatial gradient maps (based on data from 400
O sampling stations) for nutrient enrichment in
*r several Florida ecosystems including Lake
0 Apopka, Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades.
Using historical dating techniques, his research
4'.r for the first time has determined the long-term
Sphosphorous storage capacity of soils in the
Everglades. These data played a pivotal role
O -./ in designing stormwater treatment areas to
protect the Everglades.
In order to evaluate nutrient/contaminant
impacts on wetlands and aquatic systems,
Reddy's research has identified several
biogeochemical indicators that serve as
.diagnostic tools to provide early warning
C signals of ecosystem health. Often, observable
changes in plant community structures are too
slow, so that by the time visual changes are
observed, the ecosystem is severely damaged.
S Thus, it is important to identify sensitive
indicators to evaluate adverse impacts of
nutrient loading using easily measurable
indicators. Each indicator adds a piece of
information to the puzzle; in this way,
biogeochemical indicators provide incremental
increases in our understanding of the
ecosystem. Once tested, these indicators can be
used to determine nutrient impacts on
ecosystems or to determine the recovery of
restored ecosystems.



Bruce Schaffer, Ph.D.
Professor of Plant Physiology
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Bruce Schaffer, professor of plant countries. He has served as an editor or member of
physiology at the UF/IFAS Tropical Research and the editorial board of several national and 1
Education Center in Homestead, is internationally international journals including the Journal of the
recognized for his work on whole-plant physiology American Society for Horticultural Science, I(
of subtropical and tropical horticultural crops. His HortScience, Tree Physiology, and the Journal of
research focuses on defining effects and Plant Nutrition. He is also a member of the
interactions of environmental factors such as Technical Review Panel for the Charles A. f
irradiance, flooding, wind stress and drought on Lindbergh Foundation and frequently reviews
plant physiology, growth and productivity to grant proposals for the U.S. Department of
provide a basis for improving agricultural Agriculture, as well as for organizations in other O
production and sustainability. countries, including Australia, Thailand and New
approach in cooperation with horticulturists, soil
scientists, plant pathologists and entomologists to '+
quantify plant responses to stress and investigate
methods to alleviate plant stress. O
A current emphasis of his research is
improving the compatibility of agriculture with
adjacent natural wetlands. In cooperation with .
other scientists, he is developing best.
management practices for tropical fruit and
vegetable crops to increase water- and
fertilizer-use efficiency, thus decreasing the
potential for leaching of agri-chemicals into the
groundwater. 0
His studies aimed at understanding and
improving flood-tolerance of subtropical and
tropical fruit crops may soon lead to the
availability of perennial fruit crop species that are
adapted to periodic flooding. This research
should be invaluable to agricultural production
and sustainability in south Florida because
restoration of the Everglades ecosystem will likely
result in elevated water tables in the area.
Schaffer has been very active in graduate
education and has hosted numerous post-doctoral
associates and visiting scientists. He maintains
strong, active international ties and has several
ongoing research projects with colleagues in other

Frank A. Simmen, Ph.D.
Professor of Molecular Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

A Frank A. Simmen of the Department of Simmen's laboratory has achieved a
Dairy and Poultry Sciences has for the last 14 years number of important insights regarding the role of
O pioneered the application of molecular biology to the uterine IGF system in early embryo
A livestock models. development of pigs and ruminants. Simmen and
) his colleagues have shown that alterations in the
The major focus of this research program is normal timing and/or expression levels of uterine
the role of protein growth factors in growth and IGF system components may be a key contributing
S development of the domestic animal species. These factor to embryo mortality. A second aspect of this
p investigations have focused on the insulin-like research concerns the involvement of the IGF
growth factor (IGF) system, a fundamental system in later stages of development.
C regulatory component for growth of probably all
0 vertebrate cells. As such, this system constitutes an These efforts have primarily concentrated
*rl important target for the application of on the newborn calf and pig models, and results
4.' biotechnology to animal production systems for identified the IGF system as a target for the
feeding the growing population, as well as to application of biotechnology to augment animal
O human medicine. growth in tropical climates. Lastly, the high level of
Suterine IGF gene expression described for the
Domestic species supports the probable
o involvement of these factors in human uterine
L' growth and differentiation. As an extension of the
above, Simmen's laboratory is examining the
involvement of the IGF system in human uterine
Carcinoma cell biology.



Nan-Yao Su, Ph.D.
Professor of Entomology
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Nan-Yao Su, professor of entomology at environmentally sensitive historic sites such as the
the UF/IFAS Fort Lauderdale Research and Statue of Liberty National Monument.
Education Center, is the world authority on the
behavioral ecology and control of subterranean For his contribution to the development of
termites. Subterranean termites cost U.S. this new technology, Su received the U.S. Secretary w
consumers more than $1.5 billion annually to of Agriculture's Honor Award for Individual
control, and are a primary concern for homeowners Achievement in Research in 1996.
in Florida.

Through a mark-recapture
technique Su developed, he
determined that a single colony of .
subterranean termites may contain
several million workers that r ,
forage up to 300 feet for food.
Despite applying a large quantity ,
of insecticide, conventional soil O
treatment only deters termite f
attack, leaving the vast majority of .
subterranean termites unaffected. ..

After discovering that -
an insect growth regulator, ,
hexaflumuron, caused delayed ,,
mortality of termites, Su
developed a monitoring/baiting
procedure to deliver exaflumuron
to field populations of
subterranean termites. With this
technique, he demonstrated that
the entire colony of several million
individuals could be eliminated
using less than 1 gram of
hexaflumuron. The procedure is
now commercially available to the
public, under the tradename
Sentricon, and is expected to
drastically reduce insecticide use
in future termite control.

This non-invasive baiting
procedure is also ideal for


Donald J. Forrester, Ph.D.
Professor of Pathobiology
College of Veterinary Medicine

,) Donald Forrester, a renowned wildlife called "a monumental reference work specific to
S disease specialist at the UF College of Veterinary Florida mammals" and "a veritable warehouse of
0 Medicine, has studied the prevalence, distribution, information." He has served as president of the
transmission and impact of diseases on Wildlife Disease Association, an international
w) free-ranging populations of mammals, birds and society with representatives from more than 50
4. reptiles for more than 30 years. countries, and is a past editor of the Journal of
0 Wildlife Diseases.
0 "Don Forrester has been patient in his
endeavors, studying long-term die-offs and disease Forrester also has collaborated with other
relationships in common loons, wild turkeys, UF researchers in studying various aspects of
S Florida panthers, white-tailed deer and other wildlife diseases. He has worked with state and
O species," said Ellis Greiner, chair of the college's federal agencies to solve problems relating to
*ri Department of Pathobiology, in which Forrester is parasites and diseases of both wildlife and
'C a professor. domestic animals. His research projects under way
t address disease problems affecting wading birds,
Forrester's 1992 book Parasites and double-crested cormorants, sandhill cranes and
Diseases of Wild Mammals in Florida has been Florida black bears. He has been at UF since 1969.



Henry L. Gholz, Ph.D.
Professor of Forest Ecology
School of Forest Resources and Conservation

The main focus of Henry Gholz's research
into the relationships between the structure and M
function of forest ecosystems has (A
been the managed slash pineT TD
plantations and associated wetlands \
of Florida.

Gholz's research on gas and
energy exchange between forest
canopies and the atmosphere seeks
to define fundamental biologic
phenomena that control important
ecological functions in forests while
helping to determine forests'
potential role in absorbing carbon 1,
released through the burning of
fossil fuel and through tropical

Gholz's ability to assemble
and work as a member of
interdisciplinary teams has led to 0
his site being selected as one of 13 in
a North American network called
AmeriFlux. In AmeriFlux,
measurements of carbon dioxide,
water vapor and energy fluxes over 0
forests are made on a continuous, M
long-term basis using state-of-the- (
art micrometeorological techniques.

While on a recent Science
and Engineering Diplomacy
Fellowship sponsored by the
American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Gholz
served as an international forestry
adviser to the U.S. Agency for
International Development, where
he helped define connections
between forest management in
developing countries and the global
carbon cycle.

Robin M. Giblin-Davis, Ph.D.
Professor of Entomology
Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center

CA Robin M. Giblin-Davis' research focuses on for Melaleuca, a weevil from Australia, was
I determining the control potential of different released in Florida.
O cultural, biological and chemical strategies for the
C management of nematode populations in Much of Giblin-Davis' research focuses on
turfgrasses and ornamental plants. understanding pheromones present in some
species of weevils that can be used to control
SWith support from the United States Golf nematode transmission and develop safe, effective
Association, Giblin-Davis has discovered three traps for detecting the movement of the weevils
new species of bacteria that appear to be effective and their associated nematodes from Central and
in controlling nematodes in the golf course South America into Florida.
0 He also has led a UF research group that
+4 is working closely with the U.S. Department of
(C Agriculture on developing biological controls
3 for weeds that threaten the Florida Everglades,
k including the Melaleuca tree and the aterhyacinth.
As a result of this work, the first biological control



Dennis 3. Gray, Ph.D.
Professor of Horticulture
Central Florida Research and Education Center

Dennis Gray uses biotechnology to funding from the Florida Grape Growers
develop more disease-resistant grapes and Association and the owner of several ID
improved seedless varieties of watermelons. The in major wineries.
vitro regeneration systems he has developed for "D
several species of grapes, as well as watermelon "The funding I receive from our very small
and cantaloupe, were the first step to genetic wine industry in Florida is several times larger than
manipulation of these fruits, they have ever provided for research and is a sign
of their
Gray says. 1

research on
development 01
of seedless
aims to reduce
the price of
seeds for this
fruit, which
can cost as 0
much as
$2,000 per
pound. (A

"Dr. Gray's
work with
seedless (A
which has
cultivars in
Gray has since used these systems to insert several years of field trials, has become a model for
Gray has since used these systems to insert
genes for bacterial resistance into the Thompson the integration of in vitro technology
Seedless variety of grape, which accounts for 40 for crop improvement," says Norman C. Leppla,
director of the Central Florida Research and
percent of grape production in the United States.
perceThis and othf grape production in the United States. Education Center. "He also is the central figure in

transformation of grapes has generated long-term grape research in the state of Florida."


Lonnie O'Neil Ingram, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Cell Science
College of Agriculture

CA Lonnie Ingram has spent much of his "There are few individuals who can claim
k distinguished career trying to make the world less to have laid the foundation for an entire industry
0 dependent on fossil fuels. During the past decade, through basic research," writes one colleague. "Dr.
C Ingram has become one of the most highly Ingram can justifiably make such a claim. His
wV regarded and prolific researchers in the field of pioneering work to develop genetically engineered
ethanol development, microbes which can ferment in high yield all the
Ssugars in plant material is an essential portion of
S"The development of technology for the the embryonic biomass conversion industry."
)p_ cost-effective conversion of modern, renewable
biomass into a clean-burning automotive fuel has
the potential to
O free the United
* ,I States and other
nations from
it oil-dependence
0d and to allow a
S redistribution of
wealth based on
o productivity and
FA1 ingenuity rather
than natural
U Ingram says.
W work toward
that end led to
W, the U.S. Patent
and Trademark
Office granting
him the nation's
patent for a
engineered form
of the E. coli
microbe that
allows an
conversion of
plant material
into ethanol.

Suresh Rao, Ph.D.
Graduate Research Professor of Soil and Water Science
and Director of the Center for Natural Resources
College of Agriculture

Suresh Rao's research focuses on promoting the role of science in developing
innovative technologies for remediation of rational environmental policy. He served a
contaminated soils, sediments and aquifers. three-year term as a member of the Water Science
Specifically, he has developed and field tested new and Technology Board of the National Research
techniques for enhanced cleanup of soils and Council.
groundwater at hazardous waste sites. Locating
these source contaminants and predicting their Rao has served on three prestigious
contribution to the groundwater pollution is National Research Council committees addressing
difficult because the disposal history at many sites groundwater contamination that have resulted in
is usually unknown and the site hydrogeology is three important National Academy of Sciences
complex. Also, many variables contribute to how reports on the subject. 0
these chemicals react in the soil. ,,
these chemicals react in the soil. "n arenas ranging from pesticide behavior
By establishing an interdisciplinary in soils to the uncertainty involved in risk
hydrologic sciences graduate program at UF, Rao assessment, to remediation of contaminated water,
has been able to maximize the university's soil and aquifers, Dr. Rao has played a major role
resources to address this problem. The program in putting the University of Florida on the map,"
has received nearly $4 million in grants during the says R. B. Brown, chair of the UF Department of
past four years, and he has worked with several Soil and Water Science.
other UF professors to complete major field studies
at sites throughout the United States.
This "academic ... "%
cluster" also has been
successful in attracting top* 4
graduate students to UF,
including two Ph.D. 0
students who won the
Soil Science Society of
America's annual award for
best dissertation research.

Rao has served as
an editor or associate
editor of several major
international journals .-
and has received major
awards in soil science in
recognition of his research. "
He has traveled extensively .
in Europe, Australia and J
Asia. Rao has been active in


Rosalia C.M. Simmen, Ph.D.
Professor of Animal Science
College of Agriculture

SRosalia Simmen studies pregnancy in large Simmen's lab was the first to clone several
S animal models (pigs and cows), but she gets uterine and embryo genes that can be used as
O special satisfaction from the impact her research markers to determine whether a pregnancy will be
could have on humans. successful. She also has identified and examined
Q novel functions for several enzymes and proteins
I "One aspect of my research that is that help determine pregnancy success.
S particularly
satisfying is the
S potential for
S contribution to
O women's health, -
*el as well as
4I large-animal

SSimmen says.
"The opportunity
to contribute to
O research
;L. directions that
are likely to lead
to applications in
% the areas of
human health
and agriculture
S has been a quite -
w) challenging, but
highly welcomed, .

At the heart of Simmen's research is Because of the cross-species implications,
understanding why some pregnancies succeed and Simmen's work has been supported by both the
others fail. Toward that end, her research has National Institutes of Health and the U.S.
focused on the biological processes that occur Department of Agriculture and has been cited in
during the critical early days of pregnancy, when both human and animal journals. In addition, she
the mother's body must recognize that she is sits on scientific review panels of both federal
pregnant and prepare her uterus for the embryo. granting agencies.
The latter has special significance for Simmen, who
is a mother of two.


William W. Thatcher, Ph.D.
Graduate Research Professor of Dairy and Poultry Sciences
College of Agriculture

William Thatcher is one of the world's maternal-embryonic communication. Thatcher also
leading authorities on bovine reproduction. He has has developed an understanding of the roles
applied his basic research on dairy cattle nutrition and heat stress play in pregnancy.
reproduction to produce breakthrough discoveries
in methods for reproductive management of dairy Thatcher's recent work on ovulation
cattle. control in cattle represents a dramatic advance in
the field. His system for ovulation synchronization t
By adapting his research to address using a variety of hormones eliminates the need for
problems unique to Florida, particularly its estrous detection which is time-consuming and
sub-tropical environment, Thatcher also has made often inefficient. The system also would allow
discoveries that are valuable to many other parts of farmers to inseminate all their cows on the same
the world. day. It is estimated this system could save dairies
$4.6 million the first year it is used in Florida.
Thatcher's research has concentrated
primarily on two windows in the reproductive Thatcher and his colleagues also are
cycle of the cow that are susceptible to disruption studying how an embryo communicates to its
and amenable to control. These windows include mother that she is pregnant. Somehow, very early O
regulation of ovarian follicular development and in pregnancy, the embryo signals a reduction in the
hormone pros-
allowing the
hormone proges-
terone to prepare
the uterus for
implantation. If
C this signal is too
weak, the 0
pregnancy fails.



Cheng-I Wei, Ph.D.
Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Described as an "exceptional researcher," Dr. Wei
Dr. Cheng-i Wei has devoted his research efforts to is also heralded .'
study the safety, toxicology and quality of various nationally and
w food systems. His work on disinfection of seafood internationally for
o products with aqueous chlorine and chlorine his work on the '
C dioxide has led to current understanding of the toxicity of biogenic
C potential hazards of the overuse of chlorine amines, a problem
S disinfectants and provided the impetus for of great significance .
(4 selection of safer alternatives. His recent work on to the seafood
0 lycopene, the naturally occurring carotenoid found industry and
I- in tomatoes that has been shown to prevent and Florida's industry
"4 reverse prostatic hyperplasia, is an example of in particular.
excellent work in a new frontier of science, and yet
is practical and applicable for the Florida tomato
o industry. The goal of this work will be the
,g development of nutraceuticals employing such
(' chemicals as lycopene for cancer prevention.

; George H. Snyder, Ph.D.
O Professor of Soil and Water Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

As a soil science Although an unpopular idea at first, rice now is
QJ specialist at the IFAS grown on about 20,000 acres in south Florida.
Everglades Research
) r and Education Because of Dr. Snyder's efforts to inform
f Center in Belle regulators and industry of ways in which
Glade, Dr. George aquatic-based agriculture could provide
Snyder investigates Everglades restoration benefits, restoration plans
soil-related now include this alternative, and seldom speak of
problems of organic eliminating agriculture. He discovered that rice in
and adjacent south Florida is limited by silicon, and now silicon
mineral soils in fertilization has become commonplace for both rice
south Florida. He and sugarcane, giving rise to a new fertilizer
emphasizes industry. In a completely different avenue of
water-tolerant crops research, Dr. Snyder is studying the environmental
which can be aspects of turfgrass production and maintenance,
produced with little including the mobility and persistence of pesticides
or no loss of organic applied to gold greens, which the United States
soil (soil subsidence) such as growing rice. Golf Association has supported for the past seven

Wendy D. Graham, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Water resources and water quality are evaluated the
issues important to Floridians. Dr. Wendy Graham impacts of
is applying her skills in the areas of subsurface alternative citrus
flow and solute transport modeling, groundwater production methods
resources evaluation, and stochastic hydrology to on groundwater
ensure that Florida's water resources are quality. ()
maintained for the well-being of all citizens. She
has developed software which forecasts W
groundwater levels in the Upper Floridian aquifer
throughout Northeastern Florida which is useful
for monthly resource planning and management
decisions. She has also developed new I
methodologies to predict loading rates and travel O
times of surface applied contaminants to
groundwater when climatic conditions and soil
properties are uncertain. Through both computer 0.
modeling and environmental monitoring she has 1

Peter 3. Hansen, Ph.D.
Professor of Dairy Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

The economic embryonic mortality. His goal is to identify basic
efficiency of molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms
Florida's dairy involved in reproduction, especially establishment
production and maintenance of pregnancy, and to identify how
industry is these processes can be altered by climatic,
severely affected immunological and other factors that affect
by the state's reproductive performance. He has taken a new
relentless summer approach to alleviation of fertility problems caused
heat which by heat stress that involves understanding the cell
drastically reduces biology of stress responses in embryos and
the reproductive application of this knowledge to the field. In
performance of addition, his recognition that many of the
dairy cows. The biological and cellular responses associated with
research career of immune function are linked closely with processes
Dr. Peter Hansen associated with early pregnancy and subsequent
has been devoted survival of the embryo are innovative.
to developing
novel methods for enhancing pregnancy rates in
cattle and reducing heat-stress associated

Donald R. McCarty, Ph.D.
Professor of Horticultural Sciences
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Dr. Donald R. McCarty's research program
has focused on the molecular mechanisms that
control germination and dormancy of plant seed,
using mutations in maize seeds, called viviparous,
O which germinate prematurely on the plant. He has
A also used gene tagging and isolation techniques to
CA identify and clone genes which are involved in
Three key aspects of control of germination and
i44 dormancy in seeds. This work has important
O implications in other fields because the particular
I reaction catalyzed is closely related to the key step
P4 in Vitamin A synthesis that occurs in humans. This
breakthrough will help resolve the still poorly
understood biochemical mechanism of Vitamin A
* synthesis. Ensuring adequate sources of Vitamin A
is a critical issue in human nutrition, particularly
(' for children in developing countries.

S L. Philip Lounibos, Ph.D.
O Professor of Entomology
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

C Since beginning that make mosquitoes blood-thirsty pests and
I i field research on vectors." Dr. Lounibos is currently involved in a
mosquitoes more state-supported project to investigate colonization
Q than 25 years and competition by the invasive Asian tiger
ago, Dr. Philip mosquito in Florida. The research integrates
Lounibos' goal has concepts from the emerging discipline of invasion
been "to tease out biology and has a foreign component in Brazil
and decipher where this introduced species of dengue vector is,
natural phenom- as in Florida, spreading geographically and
S ena that may lead displacing native container-inhabiting mosquitoes.
to the control of He is also principal investigator of an NIH grant on
vector and pest the genetic and ecological differences of important
insects." Toward malaria rectors in South America.
that goal he has
based his research
both on fundamen-
tal principles of
ecology and behavior as well as the "peculiarities


Howard M. Johnson, Ph.D.
Graduate Research Professor in Microbiology and Cell Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Dr. Howard Johnson's work on cytokines
and signal transduction of eukaryotic cells is at the
cutting edge of achievement. His extensive
research program, which involves both scientific
discovery as well as the training of young people (D
for research, is very well funded by the National V)
Institutes of Health, including a 10-year MERIT (D
Award in recognition of superior research. 1







Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Complex Computer Control Systems in not operate properly. The system was run under
Agriculture and Aquaculture varying conditions for approximately 4 months
and tested for failure modes. It responded properly
Significance: Many complex systems are to component failures and showed excellent ability
found in agriculture and aquaculture. These to adjust to the dynamic environmental changes
complex systems often require frequent monitoring that were characteristic of the system.
by highly trained workers to operate reliably and
profitably. Applying computer control systems is
one method of reducing the need for frequent Fl
supervision and at the same time reducing the ID
cost of operation. However, applying computer fe
control to complex biological systems is difficult. M
Computer controls must be inexpensive and at the
same time highly reliable and easy to use.

Rationale: The objective of this project was
to develop a methodology for designing control C
systems for complex biological systems and to test I
the feasibility of the methodology by using it to
develop a microcontrolled aquacultural system. c
A recirculating aquacultural system was designed,
built, and tested in the Structures and Environment
Lab of the Agricultural and Biological Ray Bucklin and Phil Fowler
Engineering Department. The system consisted of
four 10-gallon tanks, filters, pumps, heaters, Impact: This project demonstrated the
sensors, feeders, lights and microcontrollers for practicality of using microcontrolled systems to
system control. The system was designed to run a grow fish. In the past, computer controls have been
complete aquacultural grow-out cycle of llapia. expensive and have not operated reliably when Co
Aquaculture was chosen because of its dynamic used in the damp and electrically noisy environ-
parameters and harsh environment for electronic ments used for aquacultural production. Today
sensors and mechanical equipment. Also, the fish's microcontrollers are used in many applications
environment requires constant monitoring and such as automobiles (ABS braking systems, engine
control to maintain quality. The control system control), home appliances (microwave oven,
consisted of three microcontroller units linked to a refrigerators, televisions, VCRs), auto-focusing (a
PC for operator interaction. The microcontrollers cameras, and environmental control in homes and
controlled water flowrate, air pumps and heaters businesses. The chips used in this study were
and operated a waste removal settling filter. A similar to those used for automotive ABS braking
microcontroller is a complete computer on a chip systems. They are very reliable and because of the
and includes a CPU, memory and input/output, high volume of automotive and other applications,
The microcontrollers operated the system the cost of these microcontrollers has dropped
independently of the PC which was used only as rapidly during the 1990's and will continue to
an operator interface to change operating drop. The combination of reliability and dropping
parameters and monitor system operation. The PC costs makes microcontrolled systems a practical
was connected to the internet and the system could option for control of recirculating aquacultural
be monitored by any PC connected to the internet. systems.
The microcontrollers had the capacity to sound
alarms or to use a modem to call an operator if Phil Fowler who received his PhD degree
system components such as pumps or heaters did on this project is employed by Dynamac CoNASA
subcontractor at the Kennedy Space Center He

works in the Life Support Division of the Space Collaborators: Agricultural and Biological
Shuttle and Space Station Projects and is presently Engineering Researchers Ray Bucklin, Direlle
leading a cooperative effort between NASA, Baird, and Ed Lincoln; Industrial and Systems
Agricultural and Biological Engineering Engineering Researcher Sencer Yeralan and
researchers at the University of Florida and others Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Department
to develop a greenhouse design for use on Mars. Researcher Frank Chapman.

Agricultural Education and Communication

3 Teaching Improvement in Higher Education Impact: Faculty in the Department of
Programs Agricultural Education and Communication have
collaborated with numerous faculty in the College
Significance: Many colleges of of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the
W) agriculture have experienced significant changes University of Florida in conducting this on-going,
in recent years. Enrollments have substantially multistage study which began in 1995. The initial
P increased, innovative curricular modifications stage of the study was to examine the learning
Q have been made, mediated instruction (distance styles of both teaching faculty and students in the
S delivery) has become more prevalent, and many CALS. Learning styles can be classified as being
S more faculty are involved in the teaching either field dependent or field independent.
enterprise. In conjunction with these institutional Since learning style is measured on a continuum,
changes, employers of our graduates are increas- there are degrees of intensity within the two
S ingly confident that technological changes will classifications. Field dependent learners tend to be
continue at a rapid pace requiring our graduates to
(d become lifelong learners. Moreover, employers
(U also believe that the problems of today will
W) become increasingly complex in the future.
However, if faculty are aware of how students
learn and solve problems, then courses can be
P C restructured and instructional methodologies can
@1 be utilized to provide students a transforming
UJ educational experience that will prepare them for
cu future leadership roles in agricultural and natural
resource professions.

Rationale: Innumerable differences
among students can be observed and easily
identified such as race, age, and academic ability.
Others, such as the students preferred learning
style, disposition toward critical thinking, and
creative attributes are not as evident. Faculty tend
to structure courses and present information
modeled after their personal experiences as
students. They may have a narrow definition of
the learning process (defined usually by the way
in which they learn). As a result, understanding
and coping with student differences in learning
styles, disposition toward critical thinking, and
differences in creative attributes, can present a Matt Baker and Rick Rudd
challenge for faculty members.

social, have a more global perspective, and learn instructional strategies, which will assist faculty
more effectively in a non-formal environment than when planning courses.
field independent learners. Field independent
learners are better able to discern individual The final stage of this project is to examine
components and learn well in formalized settings. the creative attributes of student and faculty. The
Professors who are field dependent learners tend creative process consists of three distinct phases:
to teach in ways that facilitate field dependent (1) an initial catalyst; (2) a gestation period; and (3)
learners and teachers who are field independent a problem solution and verification phase. An
tend to teach in ways that facilitate field initial catalyst initiates and stimulates the creative
independent learners, process. In one's reality, any problem experienced
in his/her livelihood system or expressive creative
As a group, both students and faculty were "seed" could serve as an initial catalyst. After the
field independent learners. Marked differences initial catalyst, there is a gestation period where CD
were found between majors. Students in one begins to delineate the problem that he/ she (
Agronomy, Entomology and Nematology, Dairy wishes to solve. It is in this gestation period that
and Poultry Sciences, and Agricultural Education four broad sets of variables influence the process MD
and Communication were identified as field (interpersonal, biological, cultural, and educa- C6
dependent learners while students in the School of tional). These four sets consist of forces and factors
Forest Resources and Conservation, Microbiology, that can serve either as catalysts or inhibitors in the PO
Plant Pathology, Soil and Water Science, and Food creative gestation process. The creative attributes CA
Science and Human Nutrition were predominately that the researchers will examine include fluency, (
field independent learners. Faculty in Animal flexibility, originality, elaboration, abstractness of
Science, Environmental Horticulture, Horticultural the title, resistance to closure, emotional expres-
Sciences, and Agronomy were field dependent siveness, articulateness, movement or action, .
learners, while most other department faculty expressiveness, synthesis or combination, unusual
were field independent learners, visualization, internal visualization, extending or
breaking boundaries, humor, richness of imagery, r
Perhaps the most significant impact that colorfulness of imagery, and fantasy. O
these findings can have is a personal cognizance
of one's individual learning style, and faculty Hopefully this model will allow us to
awareness and appreciation of differing learning begin to look more closely at how creative thinking
styles. This prompts faculty to restructure learning correlates with one's ability to develop creative i*
activities and instructional strategies in a course in solutions to complex problems in the problem
an effort to appeal to a variety of learning styles. solving and critical thinking processes.
Thus, opening the door for all students to learn.
These findings have been disseminated widely Collaborators: Tracy Hoover and Ricky
through scholarly publications, papers and pro- Telg, Agricultural Education and Communication;
ceedings at regional and national research confer- Tim Marshall and Bryan Reiling, Animal Science;
ences, and on-campus workshops and seminars. Janaki Alavalapati, School of Forest Resources and
Conservation; Jennifer Bradley, Environmental
The second stage of this project is currently Horticulture; Rebecca Darnell, Horticultural
in progress. Preliminary research has revealed that Sciences; George Fitzpatrick and Kimerbly
CALS students did not possess a strong disposition Klock-Moore, Ft. Lauderdale REC; Debbie Miller
toward critical thinking. Students were particularly and Rick Schoelhorn, West Florida REC; Lynn
deficient in their ability to be organized, orderly, Sollenberger and Ken Buhr, Agronomy; Suzanne
and focused in inquiry and in their pursuit of truth Thornsbury and Ferdinand Wirth, Indian River
contrary to personal interests or preconceived REC; Elaine Turner, Food Science and Human
opinions. To obtain more information, the project Nutrition; Al Wysocki and Rick Weldon, Food and
was awarded a USDA Higher Education Challenge Resource, EconomicJohn Zenger, Entomology and
Grant to restructure courses in the CALS. This two- Nematology; and Agricultural Education and
year project should yield information regarding the Communication Graduate Students Austin Gregg
potency of certain curricular interventions and and Carl Pomeroy.



Breeding to Improve Annual Ryegrass ryegrass breeding programs. However, cultivars
from these programs have encountered problems
Significance: Florida farmers and with adaptation and disease resistance in the
ranchers grow several hundred thousand acres of Southeast.
annual ryegrass and in the Southeast over 6,000,000
acres are planted annually. Annual ryegrass (Lolium The environment at Gainesville allows
multiflorum) is grown mainly for grazing but also selection of plants for adaptation and resistance
C) makes high quality hay and silage. In South to diseases, especially crown rust. Crown rust
Florida, ryegrass is grown primarily on newly (Puccinia coronata) is usually the most prevalent
S prepared seedbeds. In North Florida ryegrass is and damaging disease on annual ryegrass but in
t 1999 gray leaf spot (Pyricularia grisea) disease
caused considerable damage in North Florida. The
Seed industry and growers are demanding new
l and improved annual ryegrass cultivars and the
-0 UF/IFAS ryegrass breeding program is responding
Sto that demand.

o Rationale: Ryegrass breeding is directed
a toward developing the best early, medium and late
W e maturing, diploid and tetraploid annual ryegrass
cultivars possible. The natural crown rust
epiphytotics at Gainesville makes selection for
W crown rust resistance under field conditions
relatively easy. Ryegrass is a self-sterile,
Gordon Prine cross-pollinated plant that requires a broad genetic
base to allow adaption to the many environments
often overseeded on perennial summer forage of Florida and the Southeast. In the ryegrass
ofFlorida and theSoutheast. Inptherdcora

rasses. Overseeding works best where winters are breeding program, the best plants are selected in a
colder and summer grasses are more dormant. grid arrangement of over 6,000 to 10,000 plants in a
Annual ryegrass seed is inexpensive and when the spaced plant nursery. Disease susceptible plants are
U crop is well fertilized produces more forage than rogued from nurseries every 7 to 14 days over the
- small grains. It is quite common to plant annual growing season. After several cycles of
41 ryegrass in mixture with one of the small grains. selection in Gainesville, the seed of selected plants
The small grain improves early forage production are grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon
and the ryegrass enhances late season production. usually in collaboration with seed companies
Annual ryegrass is also the cool-season turf grass who may desire the ryegrass population as a
of choice in Florida being over-seeded on warm new cultivar. In Oregon, stem rust (P. graminis)
season grass lawns. Ryegrass provides quick cover susceptible and low seed yielding plants are
on bare soil or dormant summer grass and is rogued. The end result is a ryegrass adapted to
widely used along highways and city streets, the environment and disease pressures of the
Southeast and also to the seed production area
Except for the UF/IFAS ryegrass breeding of Oregon.
program and a very small program at Texas A&M,
there are no other ryegrass breeding programs in Impact: 'Florida 80' and 'Surrey are older
the South. Seed companies have not continued diploid ryegrass cultivars released from the
annual ryegrass breeding because the low price of UF/IFAS ryegrass breeding program. In the early
seed provides limited opportunity for profit. 1990's cooperative research with Willamette Valley
European seed companies have maintained some Plant Breeders in Oregon resulted in the tetraploid

ryegrass, 'Big Daddy', which has good forage Collaborations: The success of the
and seed production and wide adaptation. UF/IFAS ryegrass breeding program is due to
An advanced generation population from Surrey excellent local conditions for the breeding nurser-
become the diploid cultivar 'Stampede'. In 1993- ies including dependable natural disease pressure
95, a seed company in Germany doubled the and the excellent cooperation of numerous
chromosomes of an elite Surrey population under investigators in Florida, the Southeast and in
a Memorandum of Understanding with UF/IFAS. Oregon. Paul Mislevy at the Range Cattle REC,
The 343 doubled plants received from Germany Leonard Dunavin at West Florida REC and Bob
were further selected and the IFAS Cultivar Stanley and Ann Blount at the North Florida REC
Release Committee has recently approved this test all Florida ryegrass genotypes for forage
tetraploid annual ryegrass as 'Jumbo'. The high production, quality and disease resistance. A
seed production of Big Daddy and Jumbo network of scientists in other southeastern states
promises to make tetraploids less expensive to tests annualryegrasses and provides data to seed
plant and should increase the market share of companies and growers. A part of the ryegrass D
tetraploids. The IFAS Cultivar Release Committee breeding program is the crown rust nursery
also recently approved release of the diploid located at Gainesville where most ryegrass culti- CD
cultivar 'Florlina' jointly with North Carolina State vars sold in the U.S. are evaluated. Seed companies
University. A crown rust susceptible, cold-tolerant and ryegrass breeders from Europe also test their
ecotype from a North Carolina mountain valley cultivars for crown rust resistance. Since (D
was intercrossed with the best crown rust resistant, cold tolerance cannot be selected for in Florida, C
adapted Florida population. The result was a excellent cooperative efforts have been developed M
cold-tolerant, crown rust resistant diploid cultivar over the years with researchers in North Carolina,
adapted to the entire Southeast ryegrass belt, Oklahoma, Nebraska and Oregon.
especially the northern portion. Several
other ryegrass cultivars are presently under
development with seed companies in Oregon.


Animal Science

Providing Micromineral Supplements for in combination with other feeds such as molasses
Animal Production or as a separate mineral mixture offered on a ()
free-choice basis. Thus it becomes important to
Situation: Efficient production of livestock know the degree of utilization by the animal of r
and poultry requires that all essential nutrients be the various compounds which can be obtained C
provided to the animal in proper amounts and in commercially as sources of the critically needed
forms which are biologically available. Diets for supplemental mineral elements. Bioavailability is
animals consisting of natural feed ingredients the term generally used to indicate "utilization"
are frequently deficient in one or more mineral of a nutrient by the animal. For our purposes
elements. The beef cattle industry in Florida, for bioavailabilityy" is defined as the degree to which
example, is based primarily on forage production an ingested mineral is absorbed in a form that can
and forages grown in the state are frequently be utilized in metabolism by the normal animal.
deficient in dietary essential nutrients including
the micromineral elements copper, cobalt, selenium Rationale: Traditionally, the bioavailability
and zinc. One or more of these minerals may be in of mineral elements for animals has been estimated
short supply in any particular area of the state. by feeding concentrations of the element below the
These elements must be provided to the grazing animal's dietary requirement. This allowed the use
animal as a supplement to the grazed forage either of measurements such as growth or metabolically


which have been used in this way are hemoglobin The use of elevated dietary concentrations
formation in response to available iron and serum allows formulation of diets with natural ingredients
glutathione peroxidase activity in response to which are less expensive and, in general, more
available selenium. Unfortunately, from the palatable to the animal than diets containing
standpoint of measuring bioavailability, the purified ingredients. Also, contamination of either
response of growth and many of the metabolically diet or tissue samples with the micromineral being
essential compounds plateaus at the dietary tested is of less consequence when high dietary
requirement for the particular mineral element, levels of the element are being fed as opposed to
Thus, mineral intakes below the animal's require- having the diet as completely free as possible of the
ment are necessary for this type of assay to be mineral. In studies of this kind, slope ratios are
successful. This frequently means that diets used to compare tissue accumulation from test
4- consisting of highly purified, unpalatable sources with those from a standard source. Another
f ingredients which are quite expensive must be fed. advantage is that fewer animals are required to
An detect statistically significant differences between
SAn alternative to the use of purified diets standard and unknown or test compounds, when
S in bioavailability assays was suggested in earlier greater dietary concentrations are fed.
studies. Observations in the 1960's with rats and
S swine showed that liver accumulation of iron and
a copper continued to increase at dietary intakes
well above their established requirements and -
that responses varied with different sources of
JU supplemental iron and copper. Studies in our own
U laboratory in the 1970's demonstrated that bone
manganese in the chick responded linearly to
S graded dietary concentrations of the element.
uWt The results of these studies suggested that
accumulation of mineral elements in appropriate
target organs could serve as the response criterion
e for bioavailability assays for several of the essential
(U micromineral elements.

In our laboratory during the past 15 years, Clarence Ammerman
Pa the bioavailability of several micromineral
gD Impact: The use of tissue accumulation
elements for ruminants and poultry has been following high dietary intake of the mineral source
S estimated using tissue uptake of the element as a bioavailability assay procedure for the
following high-level, short-term supplementation. microminerals has increased greatly theinforma-
IV Studies using plethoric dosing suggested that tion relating to the utilization of many commercial
U) concentrations of the mineral element can be fed sources of the microminerals necessary for efficient
which may approach toxic intakes, but also may livestock production. The assay allows for the
provide wider response intervals. It is important, relatively quick evaluation of new mineral sources
however, that significant reductions in feed intake which may be introduced on the market. A specific
and weight gain do not occur. In research with example of a product developed and marketed very
manganese, for example, dietary levels of the recently is tribasic cupric chloride which has been
element from supplemental sources were fed at demonstrated to be an excellent source of copper.
concentrations in excess of 3,000 ppm to day-old Many organic complexes and chelates of the
chicks or some 50 times the normal requirement for microminerals have also been introduced over the
this element. Chicks were fed these excessive levels past several years.
until approximately three weeks of age with no
influence on total feed intake or body weight gain. The research with this assay procedure in
Deposition of manganese in bone and kidney our laboratory has involved lambs as a ruminant
continued in a linear manner throughout the full model and day-old chicks as a nonruminant model
range of dietary manganese supplementation. Where comparisons have been made with the same.

I;M~ r t (I zI iKIIA)I S

Dairy and Poultry Sciences

Accomplishing Florida FIRST Initiatives grams of protein, 500 milligrams of cholesterol/
Through Value-Added Poultry Products 100grams and 2 grams of saturated fat per 70-gram
serving. The total saturated fatty acid content of
Situation: The utilization of spent hen approximately 20% suggested an unsaturated fatty
meat as an ingredient or as the sole source in acid content of approximately 80% for the chicken
poultry products will provide a viable solution to sausage. The National Live Stock and Meat Board
Florida's spent hen problem. Presently, Florida reported that a 70-gram serving of fresh pork
Poultry producers are faced with a major problem sausage contained 263 calories which is 149 calories C/
of disposing of spent hens after their laying cycle more than determined for the chicken sausage. The (D
is complete. The number of laying hens on chicken sausage could qualify for the label 'Light' (D
egg producing farms in the United States is since it contained at least one-third fewer calories ft
approximately 400 million. A substantial and at least 50% less fat than a comparable pork D
proportion of these hens will complete the laying sausage product. An approved product label
cycle within 1 yr. These hens are referred to as has also been acquired from the United States
"spent hens". Presently, the bulk of spent hens are Department of Agriculture for retail sale of the
euthanized and buried in pits. Laying operations chicken sausage in the University of Florida's (
must pay to have the birds removed from their Meat Retail store. (D
facilities. Approximately 6 million spent hens are P1
available annually in the state of Florida with '
limited or no marketability as poultry meat or in
further processed poultry products. This accounts
for an annual loss of over one million pounds of
edible poultry meat in the State of Florida.

Rationale: Research has been completed
and is currently being conducted in the Animal
Science Department under the direction of Dr. Sally
K. Williams investigating the development of t
value-added poultry products utilizing whole
muscle broiler meat and mechanically separated
spent hen meat as a means of enhancing Florida's
poultry industry. A chicken sausage product
has been successfully developed utilizing a '
combination of mechanically separated spent hen L
meat and whole muscle, hand-deboned broiler Sally Williams
thigh meat. The product can be manufactured as
patties or as breakfast links. In order to retard Impact: The next phase of this project will
oxidative rancidity (i.e., preserve freshness) in the be to introduce the chicken sausage and other
product, a natural rosemary spice extract was processed poultry products to the Hotel, Restaurant
utilized instead of the synthetic antioxidants and Institution (HRI) system, Florida's Penal
butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated (Prison) system, and similar mass feeding
hydroxyanisole (BHA) that are commonly used. institutions for consumption in their facilities. The
Compositional profile of the chicken sausage challenge faced in creating a profitable market for
compared well to that of Cuddy Family Farms chicken based processed products in the State of
Turkey Breakfast Sausage (Cuddy Farms Inc., Food Florida is that the raw materials (spent hen meat)
Division, Marshville, NC 28103) which contained must be processed in Florida or in neighboring
120 calories, 8 grams of fat, 70 calories from fat, 11 states to ensure feasibility of producing the
products. In addition, the ground chicken meat,
and further processed poultry products must be 31

comparable to ground turkey and further products. It is with this technology that
processed turkey products. Presently, turkey meat value-added chicken products comparable to
is being consumed at an escalating rate in products turkey products will be developed and successfully
such as ground turkey; turkey pastrami, ham, and marketed. In conclusion, utilization of spent hen
salami; and oven roasted and smoked turkey meat and broiler thigh meat in value-added
portions. Chicken is not utilized in products at the poultry and meat products will have significant
same rate due to a characteristically inherent softer economic impact on Florida's Poultry Industry as
texture when compared to turkey. However, well as the consuming public. In addition to the
Williams is currently conducting research wherein institutions previously mentioned, poultry
United States Food and Drug Administration products could also be used to supplement the
approved food functional ingredients are being diets of low income families, as well as community
J evaluated to enhance the textural properties of and national food banks. The problem of spent hen
Ei ground chicken and further processed chicken utilization is not unique to Florida, it is a national
G problem.

C Entomology and Nematology

Non-repellent Termiticides for Protection construction. In many cases, houses less than 5
U of Homes and Structures from years old suffered $5,000 to $20,000 in termite
U Subterranean Termites damage.

Situation: Termites cost Floridians more Rationale: The pyrethroid termiticides that
than $500 million per year in damages and cost of replaced the chlorinated hydrocarbons are 20 to 50
Control. Pest control operators usually apply a times more toxic than chlordane. So everyone
S soil barrier underneath and around the house to expected the pyrethroids to provide superior
c prevent subterranean termites from causing termite protection; not the high rate of failure that
S damage. In fact, 97% of U. S. pest control resulted. Because termites are cryptic, it was
companies primarily use liquid termiticides. difficult to determine the causes of the failure.
r Termiticides are usually applied as a We developed a foraging arena that allowed
4W preconstruction treatment to the soil before observation of termite behavior. We proved that
the house is built, and after termite infestation pyrethroid termiticides were repellent; rarely
w is noticed within the structure. killing termites. Surviving termites avoided
cu contact with treated soil, and located gaps in
r0 Before 1988, chlorinated hydrocarbon treatment to attack wood beyond the termiticide
termiticides like chlordane, heptachlor, and aldrin barrier. Other termiticides, like chlorpyrifos,
were used, and barriers lasted approximately 35
yrs. After 1988, new chemicals replaced the chlori-
nated hydrocarbons and were required to last
approximately 5 years. By 1997, the pyrethroid
termiticides, like Demon TC, Dragnet, and Biflex,
had captured 51% of the $147 million liquid
termiticide market. Other insecticides like
chlorpyrifos (Dursban) had 38% of the market and
imidacloprid (Premise) had 11%.

Recently, homeowners and pest control
operators have experienced wide-spread failure of *
termiticides within 2-3 years of treatment. A St. -
John's County survey indicated that 67% of homes Phil Koehler
32 had termite infestations within 5 years of

imidacloprid, fipronil, and chlorfenapyr, were prompted industry to develop new technologies
non-repellent and killed termites, even in the for non-repellent termiticides. As a result, two new
presence of gaps in treatment. non-repellent termiticides, fipronil (Termidore) and
chlorfenapyr (Phantom) have been tested and will
Impact: Communication of this research to be registered soon. These new termiticides will kill
the industry resulted in a widespread shift from termites as they try to tunnel through treated soil
repellent termiticides to non-repellent termiticides. and provide long-term protection of houses with a
Within 2 years (1997 to 1999) of presenting the low failure rate.
research to the industry, non-repellent termiticide
(Premise and Dursban) use had grown from 49% Collaborators: Jeryl Gahlhoff and Thomas
to 87% of the termiticide market nationwide and Powell, Masters students, Dept of Entomology and
the repellent pyrethroid share had dropped from Nematology, University of Florida. Dr. Richard
51% to 13%. Companies using non-repellent Brenner and Dr. Faith Oi, Research Scientists,
termiticides claim to have failures for less than CMAVRL, USDA, Gainesville, Florida. (D
1% of houses. The research on repellency has

Environmental Horticulture


Coping with the Effects of Stress: Do Rationale: Research related to the mental
Botanic Gardens Make a Difference? health impacts of botanic gardens is limited;
however, existing research seems to indicate that
Significance: Since the 1920s, over 200 botanic gardens do affect stress. The purpose of
botanic gardens have been founded in the United this research study was to identify the relevance of
States. Worldwide there are approximately 1400 a visit to a botanic garden in a realistic stress model O
botanic gardens and arboreta. Also, it is estimated and to provide information to the limited pool of
that 40-60 percent of tourists travel to enjoy and research that currently exists.
appreciate nature. Studies show that people of all .
ages prefer destinations involving nature or Botanic gardens provide opportunities for *
cultural attractions, people to be exposed to nature, explore their
horticultural interests, and provide recreation and
Botanic gardens play an important role in leisure. The literature suggests that all these
society; whether for leisure, education, activities are effective coping strategies against D
conservation, or research. With government stress. This study explores the effectiveness of
funding being allocated more toward societal botanic garden visits as a coping strategy. A 0
needs, botanic gardens are facing decreased theoretical model was developed that placed the
funding. Increased competition for funding botanic garden visit in the context of other
demands that the gardens market their social important coping strategies and stress factors, so
benefits. As such, there is a need to explore the that the effect of the visit is not overstated.
human dimension of botanic gardens. As effects
of stress are better understood and interest in A survey was constructed to measure
well-being increases, botanic gardens may offer a stress levels, individual factors, stressors, stress
unique experience that reinvigorates visitors, mediators, and stress. The main variable of interest
Botanic gardens can improve a community's was stress difference before and after visiting a
quality of life by providing an escape from botanic garden because it reflects the effects of the
everyday life, improving mental and physical visit as a coping strategy. Key informant
health, and beautifying the community. interviews of five Florida botanic directors were
conducted in early January 1999 to help define the
range and dimensions of survey questions. A


panel of experts consisting of University of Florida nature. It has long been thought that nature can
faculty and botanic garden directors established reduce stress and research has shown this to be
instrument face validity. Three botanic gardens in true. This study adds to this body of knowledge
Florida agreed to participate in this research: Bok because it also shows that spending time in nature
Tower Gardens, Fairchild Tropical Garden, and at a botanic garden can reduce the effects of stress.
Mounts Botanical Garden. Participants in the
study were visitors to these gardens. Three The findings of this study suggest that
hundred twelve surveys were completed with a botanic gardens, as leisure and nature resources,
62.3% response rate. This produces a sample could be a place for coping with the effects of
reliability of approximately +/-5%. As visitors stress. This information could be used by botanic
exited the garden, they were asked to complete a garden management as a way of increasing
a survey. The questionnaire generally took 10-15 visitation and membership. The need for escape
d minutes to complete. and relaxation has been shown to be motives for
) leisure activities. Nature is also thought to be a
Impact: The findings suggest that a visit to refuge providing escape, rest, and peace. Botanic
a botanic garden is important in the context of the gardens could be marketed as a refuge from day to
stress process model as a coping strategy. day stress to draw visitors, since many visitors and
*O Although it is a real factor in the model (b=-0.014), potential visitors may not realize this possible
it is not as important as self-esteem (b=-0.266) and benefit. By providing a refuge from the effects of
health (b=-0.158). It would be unrealistic to expect stress, gardens justify their existence and potential
S stress difference to have a greater impact on stress contributors may be more easily convinced of their
than the factors of self-esteem and health, but it is importance.
U surprisingly more important than many of the
individual factors, such as race, income, and
education. The results also showed that visitors
U receiving the most benefit of stress reduction from
a visit to a botanic garden were those most needing
S a coping strategy because they had higher
W) depression index scores.
The results of this study could be very
important to botanic gardens, public officials, and
S communities. Currently, botanic gardens are
considered places for recreation, education, and
U research. A visit to a botanic garden is a leisure
activity, and as such, the findings from this study
a, further the area of leisure research. Leisure is
Cv thought to have stress mediating functions.
Studies have also found that people participate in
leisure for stress reduction. This study showed that
stress reduction actually occurred during a leisure
activity, a visit to a botanic garden.

Leisure has been found to reduce feelings
of depression. Although this study did not assess
the ability of a visit to a botanic garden to reduce
depression, it did find that visitors who had the
most symptoms of depression experienced the
highest levels of perceived stress reduction. Since
depression is an outcome of stress, a reduction in
stress levels should ultimately lead to a reduction
in depression. Botanic gardens are oriented toward Jennifer Bradley


Public officials and communities benefit from the specifically park-like settings. Botanic gardens are a
fact that a visit to a botanic garden can be used as a space for people, especially urban residents, to
coping strategy. Botanic gardens are community view nature.
assets that contribute to overall well-being of
individuals. As diagnoses of mental illness and the Botanic gardens are a place for people to
money spent on its treatment continues to increase, visit to enjoy a leisure activity or nature, which is
any low cost method to help alleviate this problem inexpensive and sometimes free, to help cope with
would be beneficial. Mental and physical health the effects of stress. As finding from this research
problems can be improved by leisure activities, show visiting a botanic garden influences visitors
Leisure can provide relief from physical and perceived stress levels. Implications indicate that
mental exertion by reducing stress. As a leisure botanic gardens may help improve quality of life
activity, which has been shown to reduce stress, a in communities. They may ultimately provide an
visit to a botanic garden could improve physical escape from everyday life and improve mental
and mental health, and physical health, while providing beauty to a (D
community and society as a whole.
Contact with nature is important for all
humans especially urban residents. Natural areas Collaborators: Dr. Jennifer Bradley,
are aesthetically pleasing. Individuals prefer Tammy Kohlleppel, Dr. Steve Jacob.
naturalistic settings to non-natural settings,

Family, Youth and Community Sciences

Violence Prevention Among Young Children parental supervision and social and cognitive ft
processing skills deficits. Epidemiologists have
Situation: Juvenile violent crime arrest detailed models of the growth of violent behavior 0
rates have retreated slightly over the past years in children that suggest that programs designed to
after reaching historically high levels from 1988- prevent violent behavior will be most effective if
1994. During that period, violent crime arrests they begin to reach children in the preschool and *
among males ages 10-17 rose 60% and nearly early elementary school years.
doubled among same-age girls. Currently, juvenile
violent crime rates remain as much as 21% higher
than the averages of the previous decade. Homi-
cide ranks as the second leading cause of death
among youth and the leading cause of death r+
among black men ages 17-25. The recent school
shootings in Littleton, CO and Conyers, GA have
highlighted the troubling trend of children at-
tempting to solve problems through violence.
School administrators, community leaders, and
health officials are increasingly turning their
attention to preventing violence among children as
an important public health initiative.

Rationale: Researchers have identified a
number of risk factors for violence among children.
Significant among these are a history of behavior
problems in early childhood, violence in the home,
poor family stability and communication, poor
Garret Evans

improving the quality of their daycare and home nearing its conclusion. Preliminary results
environments. Specifically, the program examines suggests that the program effectively reduces the
two treatments: a) child care enrichment education amount of harsh physical punishment used by
programs that teaches child care professionals parents, improves nurturing behaviors in the
strategies for reducing conflict in the child care home, limits behavioral problems in the childcare
setting, increasing pro-social communication setting, and reduces abnormally high levels of
among children, and applying effective and parenting stress. Reductions in each of these factors
developmentally appropriate child management are critical to reducing the risk status for children
strategies; and b) home visitation which focuses on engaging in violent behavior in later childhood and
improving parents' nurturing behaviors, use of adolescence.
effective discipline, communication with their
children, and acknowledgment of developmental Collaborators: Centers for Disease Control
expectations for their children's behavior, and Injury Prevention; Jacksonville Children's
4 Commission; Jacksonville Exchange Club and
Impact: The "First and Best Teacher" Family Center.
program is a three year longitudinal study that is

Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences


The Causes and Consequences of Algal tropical biotic of the region, which include coral
S Blooms reefs and sport fish, are directly related to the
viability of the multi-billion dollar tourist industry
W Situation: The explosion of human of the Florida Keys and Everglades. By contrast,
development in Florida over the past half-century the potential of impact of algal blooms in the
~ represents a myriad of new threats and demands Suwannee River estuary is closely tied to the future
Q) on Florida's aquatic resources. Among the most success and survival of a growing commercial clam
0p pervasive of these threats is the trend toward and oyster industry, as well as the multi-million
o increasing nutrient loading that support the dollar sport fishing business. In an even more basic
43 development of potentially harmful algal blooms, sense, the presence of noxious and potentially toxic
.g The problem of 'cultural eutrophication', as the algal blooms in Lake Okeechobee jeopardize the
U latter phenomenon is often referred to, is of course use of water from the lake for human
-.a not restricted to Florida, but is a growing global
43 crisis. The past few decades have seen dramatic
Increases in the frequency and intensity of harmful
algal blooms in many areas of the world subject to
intense human development. These blooms pose a
threat to the well-being of ecosystems, as well as .
human health. Recognition of these threats have I
led to a world-wide initiative to determine the
causes and consequences of harmful algal blooms.

The potential impacts of algal blooms on
the health of aquatic ecosystems and the economy
of Florida are so diverse and pervasive that it .(
almost precludes synoptic description. In addition
these impacts vary from system to system. For
example, the threats that algal blooms in Florida
Bay represent to water clarity and the unique Edward Philips

consumption. Water is the single most precious different challenge placed on the natural
commodity in the state of Florida, therefore environment by human activity.
major threats to the quality of this resource are
accompanied by serious health and economic Impact: In Florida Bay, intense algal
risks. Recent years have seen no shortage of costly blooms, in this normally pristine environment
environmental catastrophes related to algal characterized by azure blue tropical waters,
blooms throughout the world. Close to home, precipitated widespread concern from local, state
the severe problems associated with toxic and federal levels of government, as well as the
dinoflagellate blooms in North Carolina and private sector. Mass mortalities of seagrass and
the recurrent red tide outbreaks around Florida sponge communities associated with the blooms
serve as clear reminders of the severity of these further heightened the concern, as did the threat to
issues. The critical need to supply accurate and the health of coral reef communities. In 1993 Dr.
meaningful scientific information on which to base Phlips began a five-year Sea Grant funded study of
water management decisions is a priority that the nature and causes of algal blooms in the bay. D
should be self-evident to every citizen of the State He found that low water turnover rates in the bay,
of Florida. related to human diversion of water flow to the (D
bay, may be as much, or more, responsible for the
Rationale: The problem of algal blooms in magnitude and persistence of blooms as cultural
Florida is geographically widespread and eutrophication. This observation provides support D
encompasses both freshwater and marine habitats. for the current multi-billion dollar effort by the (A
In many cases the efforts of water management federal government to 're-plumb' South Florida. CD
agencies to control blooms have been hampered A1
by the lack of sufficient scientific information on In the Indian River Lagoon and the St. I
which to base management decisions. In 1988 Johns River the sources of concern for water
Dr. Edward Phlips, a researcher in the Department quality encompass both rural and urban
of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, was funded by development. The watersheds of both ecosystems
the South Florida Water Management District to are centers for some of the fastest urban growth in
evaluate the ecology of Lake Okeechobee in the United States. This growth is layered on top of
response to a series of massive algal blooms during areas where intensive agriculture activities have
the mid-1980s. This $3.5 million multidisciplinary been in place for decades, i.e., row crops in the St.
study, entitled the 'Lake Okeechobee Ecosystems Johns watershed and the citrus industry in the
Study' (i.e., LOES), was one of the most watershed of the Indian River Lagoon. In the St. CA
comprehensive studies of a major aquatic Johns River high nutrient loading from a variety of
ecosystem that had been carried out in Florida. The sources represent a potential for intense algal
results of the study have helped to guide the blooms. Despite this, the frequency and intensity of (D
management efforts of the district through the blooms in the river have been very unpredictable.
1990s and have provided new insights into the In an effort to develop better models of the rela- r+
relative roles of nutrients, light and food web tionship between nutrient loading and algae
interactions in the control of algal blooms in large blooms in the river St. Johns River Water Manage-
subtropical lakes. Since LOES Dr. Phlips has ment District funded Dr. Phlips for a seven-year
continued to investigate the causes and study of plankton dynamics. The results of this
consequences of algal blooms in other major work to date show that low light penetration in the
aquatic ecosystems in Florida identified as regions St. Johns River, caused by high levels of organic
experiencing special water quality problems, stain (i.e., color), suppress the formation of blooms
including: 1) Florida Bay, the largest bay in Florida by limiting the light needed for photosynthesis.
located west of the Florida Keys, 2) The St. Johns Unfortunately, color levels in the river periodically
River, Florida's largest river, 3) The Indian River drop, particularly during the summer and drought
Lagoon, a restricted lagoon stretching from periods, leading to intense algal blooms. Of equal
Daytona to Port St. Lucie on the east coast of importance is the fact that the blooms observed by
Florida and 4) The Suwannee River and Estuary, Dr. Phlips over the past five years have included
located on the west coast of Florida, in the Big several known toxin-producing species, i.e.,
Bend. Each of these ecosystems represent a

Cylindrospermopsis, Anabaena and Prorocentrum In the Suwannee River and estuary the
minimum. The toxins produced by these algae core environmental issue is again nutrient loading,
represent a health risk for both aquatic biota and but unlike the previous two ecosystems it is not
humans. surface water runoff that presents the greatest
threat, but groundwater contamination. Recent
The Indian River Lagoon presents a trends in land use within the Suwannee River
number of special problems for researchers, watershed have resulted in elevated nitrogen
ecosystems modelers and ultimately water concentrations in groundwater. This increase is
managers. The specific impact of nutrient loading related to the porous sediments that characterize
on phytoplankton growth and standing crops in the watershed, which allow nitrates to leach into
coastal ecosystems is strongly dependent on both the aquifer. These nitrates ultimately enter the river
nutrient loading and the degree of hydraulic via the hundreds of springs along its banks. One of
g flushing. The physical complexity and size of the the central questions emerging from this trend has
S Indian River Lagoon result in existence of a range been the potential ecological consequences for the
of unique micro-habitats with differing flushing Suwannee River estuary. In 1997 Dr. Phlips re-
and nutrient loading characteristics. Relatively ceived funding from the Suwannee River Water
CA restricted estuarine environments, as exist in parts Management District to investigate the impact of
* of the lagoon, often develop higher phytoplankton increasing nitrogen loading from the river on algal
p standing crops than more open estuaries that blooms in the coastal environment. The initial
receive similar nutrient inputs. In restricted estuar- results of this ongoing study show that nutrients
S ies with elevated nutrient levels severe algal from the river do fuel significant algal blooms in
C blooms can be common and persistent, sometimes the estuary and that nitrogen is currently the
U leading to problems with hypoxia, toxins and/or primary nutrient of concern for the
4 changes in the structure of biological communities. management of the watershed.
In 1997 Dr. Phlips joined a large multi-disciplinary
U research effort headed by Dr. Peter Sheng of While the specific ecological concerns
Coastal Engineering to provide critical information addressed in the afore mentioned research efforts
(w concerning nutrient limitation of planktonic differ the fundamental goals of all are the same,
U) productivity. The general picture of phytoplankton namely: 1) To provide critical and accurate
(D dynamics in the Indian River Lagoon emerging information to water management agencies so that
P from this study is one of a nutrient-rich they can make sound decisions and 2) To further
p environment where phytoplankton standing crops our basic understanding of the causes and
a4 are frequently held below their potential by several consequences of algal blooms. Because of the
4- key loss functions, including hydraulic flushing tremendous diversity and extent of aquatic habitats
as and grazing. The specific potential for algal blooms found around the state of Florida and the unique
is dictated by the latter factors, as well as, spatial geographical location of the state in the subtropical
W and temporal patterns of external and internal belt, the outcome of this research has broad global
loading of bioavailable nutrients. While nitrogen ramifications. Many of the results generated in
appears to be the most widely limiting nutrient in these studies and others being carried out in the
the lagoon, phosphorus appears to play a relatively Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences and
important role in the northern half of the lagoon. other departments at the University of Florida,
This information is being used to improve the have filled important gaps in our understanding of
quality of the overall ecosystem model of the ecological processes in warm water environments,
lagoon. which have historically been under investigated
relative to temperate ecosystems.


Food and Resource Economics

Evaluating Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Rationale: Significant research has been
completed since 1995 for evaluating yield and costs
Situation: Methyl bromide is a broad impacts with alternatives to methyl bromide. This
spectrum pesticide that has been identified as research has resulted in more reliable data on
critical for the production and marketing of many existing alternatives and development of new
fruit and vegetable crops. Parties to the Montreal alternatives which could lower the impact on
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone producers and consumers. The objective of this
Layer (the international agreement which monitors C)
ozone depleting substances and provides IP
international regulations on their production and o
use, commonly referred to as the Montreal Proto-
col) declared at their November 1992 meeting that
methyl bromide had an ozone depletion potential of
(ODP) of 0.7, well above the 0.2 ODP required to be
classified as a Class I ozone depleting substance.
The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1992 required that all
Class I ozone depleting substances be banned from IC
use within 7 years of being classified. The schedule
adopted by U.S. regulators was a complete ban
on all use of methyl bromide by January 1, 2001,
5 years ahead of the schedule adopted by the
Montreal Protocol.

Research completed in 1995 indicated that o
the Florida economy would lose more than $1 John VanSickle and Tom Spreen
billiongiven existing alternatives for use in the research program is to evaluate the impacts of
vegetable and citrus industries. Mexican
vegetable eand citrusindustrie. Mexan methyl bromide alternatives on U.S. producers of
producers were expected to gain the most from this fresh vegetables. This was accomplished by
ban because of less reliance on it as a pesticide and feh velng table. This a accomlihed b
because they could continue to use it as a pesticide developing a North American vegetable model that
accounts for a large majority of the methyl bromide
until 2015. Mexico is classified as an Article 5(1) accounts for a large majority of the methyl bromide
used for soil fumigation purposes for fresh
country in the Montreal Protocol which gives them vegetables and strawberries. Tis odel ws then
authority to use the product an additional 10 years vegetables and strawberries. This model was then
a orit to ue te run ol used to estimate the impact of a methyl bromide
beyond the time allowed for developed countries ban on producers of fresh vegetables and
who are party to the Montreal Protocol. strawberries who supply those products to

The U.S. Clean Air Act was amended in North American markets.
1998 to extend the phase out period for methyl Impact: The results of this research have
bromide use in the U.S. to 2005. The new schedule recee we ssemato thuh ubia
is synchronous with the schedule for developed of more than 10 reports and presentation at
countries who are parties to the Montreal Protocol. of more than 10 reports throughout the world. The
professional meetings throughout the world. The
The schedule outlined by the Montreal Protocol results have been presented to U.S. Administrative
calls for a 25% reduction in use of methyl bromide Advisors responsible for establishing U.S. policy
in 1999 from 1991 base levels and another 25% Advisors responsible for establishing U.S. policy
reduction in use in 2001. A 20% reduction in use is on methyl bromide and for establishing the
research agenda for identifying better alternatives.
scheduled for 2003 with a complete phase out The modeling effort was also used by the United
scheduled for 2005.
scheduled or 2 Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Economic Options Committee in their assessment

of methyl bromide and policies implemented by 35 percent. Total shipping point revenues are
the Montreal Protocol. expected to decline $192.8 million.

The results of this research demonstrate Florida and California stand to suffer
that significant effects may be expected if methyl similar total losses when a ban on methyl bromide
bromide is banned and no better alternatives are is imposed if better alternatives are not developed
developed than are known today. Total production than are known today. Florida shippers stand to
is not expected to change for most crops, but lose $218.4 million in shipping point revenues
changes in comparative advantage are expected to across all crops while California shippers stand to
change the allocation of production across lose $218.1 million. Those impacts could increase
producing areas for all crops. Tomato production to $349.3 million for Florida and $291.0 million for
C in Dade and Palm Beach Counties in Florida is California if yield impacts are higher than those
g expected to cease under all of the scenarios for the currently anticipated by scientists.
w methyl bromide ban. Southwest Florida and
Mexico are expected to increase production, The results indicate that the challenges
offsetting most of the loss in Dade and Palm Beach facing the scientific community in developing
S Counties. The impacts are more significant for better alternatives are significant. New
*F4 peppers. Acreage of bell peppers in Florida is technologies that reduce yield impacts and control
expected to decline 65 percent given existing costs will be significant in mitigating these impacts.
alternatives. Acreages in Texas and Mexico are This study identified targets that will need to be
expected to increase significantly, offsetting the loss met in order to experience a seamless transition
Experienced in Florida. Eggplant production will where producers are able to use alternatives
U suffer similar changes. Planted acres of eggplant in without losing significant market share to other
Florida are expected to decline 64 percent with producers from a loss of comparative advantage.
4 existing technologies, but acreage in Mexico is A multi-disciplinary approach to studying
W expected to increase 73 percent, offsetting most of alternatives for methyl bromide has been pursued
W the loss in Florida. to assess their potential for providing a seamless
d transition.
V) Total impacts are largest for strawberries.
) The impacts on California are significant because of Collaborators: John VanSickle, Charlene
S the high cost and high productivity of current Brewster and Tom Spreen, Food and Resource
production systems in California. Strawberry Economics Department, Gainesville; Joe Noling,
w production in Northern California is expected to Citrus REC, Lake Alfred; Florida Fruit and Veg-
S cease. Production in the Southern California etable Association; U.S. Department of Agriculture,
jU growing areas is expected to decline slightly. Economic Research Service.
Total strawberry production is expected to decline

Food Science and Human Nutrition

Health Benefits of Moderate Red Wine including wine. Moreover, wine has recently been
Consumption publicized as having beneficial effects on health.
This research was aimed at identifying the health
Significance: Muscadine grapes are benefits of the muscadine wine relative to a
widely distributed in Florida and grow well. traditional California wine. Because the muscadine
Products made from this grape have the potential has a unique antioxidant profile, we could derive
to contribute to the economy of the industry, unique benefits from consumption of the product.
however more research is needed to realize the Knowing the health benefits of the muscadine
commodity's full potential. The muscadine grape could increase the use of a crop in Florida.
has many potential uses in consumer products,

Rationale: The research was initiated specifically to our immunity. Furthermore, wine
through conversations with the Viticulture Advi- consumption is associated with higher blood
sory Council. The Council had set health benefits antioxidant levels.
as one of several priorities of the industry.

Impact: Two wines, Muscadine (cv. Noble)
and Cabernet Sauvignon were produced at the
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department.
Animals drank the wine over an eight-week
period. Based on total calories, the mice drank the
human equivalent of two 5-ounce glasses per day,
a moderate amount of wine. im

Because alcohol has been associated with a g
a detrimental effect on immunity, this study
examined whether wine affected the immune Ir
system. White blood cell numbers, as well as their
response to a stimulus, was lower in the animals
that drank straight ethyl alcohol compared to the
animals that consumed water or either of the ("
wines. Ethanol, even at this moderate level, (D
affected immunity. However, if the same quantity
of alcohol is consumed in the form of wine, we
found no detrimental affect on immunity.

Consumption of both wines had a positive pop
effect on antioxidant levels in the blood. Cancer e%
and heart disease are thought to originate because
of the harmful action of free radicals. Antioxidants
protect the body by stopping the chain reaction of
free radical damage. Moderate consumption of red
wine raised the level of antioxidants in the blood, I*
potentially protecting one from free radical damage P
and as a result, possibly reducing the risk of heart Susan Percival
disease or cancer. The muscadine wine contributed Collaborators: Dr. Charlie Sims, FSHN;
as much antioxidant capacity as the cabernet Undergraduate Honors Thesis of Leeann Gordon;
sauvignon. Independent research projects of Norman

The results of this study show that wine, in Nematullah and Melissa Shirley.
contrast to alcohol, is not detrimental to health,

Forest Resources and Conservation

Molecular Approaches to Improving Forest wood and wood products continues to increase,
Tree Disease Resistance the land base available for timber production
continues to decrease. To meet increasing demand
Situation: The producers of raw material on a reduced land base, tree growth rates must be
from the forest for the processing industry in the improved. Genetic improvement and cultural
U.S. face a difficult challenge. As demand for


treatments have, and will continue to play a major sustainable manner while the forest land base
role in increasing tree growth rates, shrinks. By meeting wood demand on fewer acres,
the forest industry can shift harvesting pressure
Molecular approaches can help accelerate away from environmentally sensitive forested
the rate of tree genetic improvement. Gene transfer areas that are required to meet other societal needs.
by genetic engineering is a good example. Genetic Furthermore, by producing trees with natural
engineering is more predictable and precise than defense mechanisms, DGIFT research will reduce
sexual hybridization, and takes substantially less the need for applications of chemical pesticides in
time than the 5- to 15-year interval required for a nurseries.
breeding cycle in trees. Unfortunately, in the vast
majority of cases, the genes that regulate traits of
W commercial interest have not been identified in
trees. Consequently the enormous promise of
q) genetic engineering to help accelerate tree
improvement has not been realized. A major
emphasis on the identification and functional
FA testing of genes would create new options for the
4*4 forest products industry to manipulate tree
S genomes and develop new tree varieties.

Rationale: To help fill the critical need
o for fundamental gene discovery research coupled
U with functional analysis of transgenic trees, the
S University of Florida, U.S. Forest Service and forest
industry recently formed the Defense Genes In
Forest Trees cooperative (DGIFT). The research
W specifically targets disease resistance and related
cd traits in order to leverage SFRC faculty expertise in
forest biotechnology and forest pathology. The
mission of DGIFT is complementary to that of the John Davis
multidisciplinary Forest Biology Research Collaborators: The UF-ICBR Core
Cooperative (focused on optimizing forest Laboratories assist in conducting the molecular
productivity, health and sustainability), and the analyses of the DGIFT cooperative. UF-SFRC
.A Cooperative Forest Genetics Research Program faculty collaborators include George Blakeslee,
U (focused on tree improvement through breeding Robert Schmidt and Tim White. U.S. Forest Service
and selection). collaborators include Alex Diner, Rob Doudrick,
SeSteve Eshita, Charles Michler, Paula Pijut and
f) Impact: The initial thrust of DGIFT
arch has bn to e function nomi Patricia Tomlinson. DGIFT is supported by USPS
research has been to use functional genomics technical help funded through UF-FAS, and by
Technical help funded through UF-IFAS, and by
approaches to identify candidate genes for genetic direct funding from forest products companies:
direct funding from forest products companies:
engineering to improve disease resistance. These International Paper, Rayonier, (formerly) Union
candidate genes will ultimately be tested in
Camp, and Westvaco. Specific DGIFT projects
transgenic trees in field trials. Benefits of improved receive funding from the U.S. Forest Service -
disease resistance will be both economic and receive funding from the U.S. Forest Service -
North Central Station, and the U.S. Forest Service
environmental. Forest industry already contributes
Southern Research Station. Competitive grant
over $9 billion annually to Florida's economy funding to augment DGIFT research projects has
through wages and value-added manufacturing, been obtained from the Consortium for Plant
and DGIFT research to reduce disease losses will
Biotechnology Research, Inc.
enable industry to increase this contribution in a


Horticulture Sciences

Agriculture in Space become possible to engineer plant growth systems
that minimize the negative effects encountered by
Situation: Early in the next millennium, plants in space. Or, it may be that the plants
human kind will undertake the colonization of themselves will need to be engineered so as to
space, the moon and Mars. And just as agriculture withstand better the rigors of space flight. In either
followed us during the colonization of distant case, these studies enhance scientific insight into
comers of the Earth, agriculture will follow us as plant growth, development and stress responses
we leave this planet. Plants will provide and will lead to increased capacity for growing
completely regenerative life support systems by plants in extreme environments both in space and
delivering oxygen and food while recycling carbon on Earth.
dioxide and nutrient wastes. The direct challenge D

extraterrestrial environments. (D

Rationale: In order to meet the nutrient
delivery and recycling needs of human colonists
away from Earth, it is essential to understand the
difficulties of growing plants in space in closed r
environmental systems. Orbital spacecraft, as well
as moon and Mars habitats, present extremely
challenging environments for the cultivation of
plants, and plants react to these environments in
unique ways. IFAS researchers have created
genetically engineered plants that serve as
biological monitors of the stresses that plants r
encounter in difficult environments. In the Robert J. Ferl
summer of 1999 these engineered plants went into
orbit on the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-93. Collaborators: Anna-Lisa Paul, Betsy Bihn
During the 5 day mission, astronauts monitored and Chris Daugherty in the Horticultural Sciences
the growth and development of the plants, and Department at the University of Florida. Dave
harvested plants for analysis by IFAS researchers. Chapman and Kelly Norwood from Kennedy
Space Center. Catherine Coleman, Mission
Impact: As the understanding of plant Specialist, Johnson Space Center. Funding is
growth in orbital space flight deepens, it will provided in part by NASA.

Microbiology and Cell Science

Biocontrol of Nematodes root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria race
1) by endospores of P. penetrans resulted in
A team effort to develop the potential amplification of endospores in the soil and a
of Pasteuria penetrans for the biocontrol of suppression of subsequent infection of susceptible
phytopathogenic nematodes started in the Fall of plants by the nematodes. This work provided the
1993. By that time, Don Dickson's research group basis for seriously considering the use of P.
had obtained convincing evidence that infection of penetrans for biocontrol of root-knot nematodes.


Robin Giblin-Davis, Ft. Lauderdale The formation of this recognition structure
Experiment Station, joined with Dickson and and its distribution within the endospore has been
Preston in an endeavor to describe a new Pasteuria studied by J. Brito as part of her dissertation
sp. on sting nematodes, an important pathogen of research. She has established the developmental
turfgrass throughout the southeastern United time frame in which the structure appears, and has
States. Through our collaborative efforts, we have thus linked its formation to events that occur
demonstrated that the sting Pasteuria isolate is during the transition from vegetative growth to
suppressive to the nematode on golf course greens, sporulation. Immunogold techniques have been
The morphological details of the sting isolate were used to localize the structure as a function of its
worked out in the laboratory of Henry Aldrich. formation, and has provided evidence that it is
With Aldrich's valuable assistance, we have some broadly distributed, suggesting overproduction to
j3 of the best photomicrographs of the development enhance the probability of attachment to soil-borne
" of Pasteuria in the world. nematodes. This work has been done in
) collaboration with H. C. Aldrich and D. Williams.
One main collaborative objective was to Ms. Brito, also, is extending her studies to other
define the biochemical basis by which endospores economically important nematodes.
S of different lines of P. penetrans recognize and
.l attach to different species of root-knot nematodes,
p e.g. M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita, which
E affect many different crop species.

S p By raising polyclonal antibodies to
fL endospores from different strains of P. penetrans,
we obtained antibody preparations that recognize
complements of polypeptides extracted from the
spores of different strains. These antibodies have
S been used to compare endospores from different
strains of P. penetrans.

SMouse monoclonal antibodies were then
selected in a search for unique structures on the
surfaces of endospores which could be used to
S determine the molecular basis of attachment of Jim Preston
endospores of different strains of P. penetrans to The absence of this structure on the
mThe absence of this structure ont the
U different Meloidogyne species. One particularly
p n mendospores of different Bacillus species has led to
Potent monoclonal antibody was obtained which
S t its use as a probe for Pasteuria spores in the soil. As
S recognizes a structure found on all of the strains action chid
CA examined. Further characterization indicated that part of her dissertation research, L. M. Schmidt has
d is developed an ELISA assay using the monoclonal
it recognized a glycan structure that includes a developed an ELSA assay using the monoclonal
$-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue. The potent antibody to determine the levels of Pasteuria
ability of this antibody to block attachment of endospores in the soil. This assay should be very
ability of this antibody to block attachment of useful in determining the suppressive potential of
spores to the nematode cuticle has led to its use endospore containing sols with ressive potential of
in the molecular characterization of this structure
root-knot nematode infection, and thereby decrease
and its role in attachment of endospores to the root-knot nemato ion, and thereby decrease
nematode cuticle. The further definition of the the need for application of chemical nematicides.
distribution of this structure on specific polypep- J. M. Anderson, a M.S. graduate student in
tides is in progress, and has benefitted from studies ENY under the direction of J. E. Maruniak, has
conducted in collaboration with M. C. Chow and determined the sequences of the genes encoding
N. C. Denslow in the Protein Core of the Interdisci- 16S rRNA from two strains of P. penetrans, each
plinary Center for Biotechnology Research. demonstrating a different host preference. These
Further molecular definition will be the subject
of the dissertation research of L. M. Schmidt.



genes had identical sequences, indicating that host parasitic to phytopathogenic nematodes, and
preference is not a phenotype that can be the basis allowed a phylogenetic comparison to be made
for species assignment. This was the first sequence with Pasteuria ramosa (a parasite of Daphnia spp.)
of a 16S rRNA gene from a species of Pasteuria and other endospore forming bacteria.

Plant Pathology

A Systematic Approach for Studying was observed and several new races have been
Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper and identified in the past few years. Furthermore, the
Tomato bacterium was determined to be very ID
heterogeneous based on various biochemical tests
Significance: The pepper and tomato and molecular techniques. A third research (D
industries are major components of the agricultural approach has been to develop alternative strategies O
industry in Florida. Both industries supply for disease control. Conventional chemical control
significant fresh market fruit throughout much of strategies for reducing bacterial diseases have been
the United States. Bacterial spot disease, which is a less than effective; therefore, alternative control
problem on pepper and tomato, continues to be a strategies have been studied. One alternative (D
major limiting factor in production fields causing strategy was to use biological control agents such
significant disease losses through defoliating the as bacteriophages and antagonistic bacteria.
plants and reducing fruit yields. Control of this
disease has been extremely difficult. Bactericides
such as antibiotics and copper compounds have
been used in the past to protect plants; however,
the bacterial strains have developed resistance to
these compounds, reducing their efficacy.

Rationale: As a result of bacterial diseases 'J
being extremely difficult to control, a multifaceted A
approach was initiated in an effort to reduce losses
associated with the bacterial spot disease. The first
approach has focused on identifying plant
resistance genes in tomato and pepper genotypes.
Plant resistance, in which resistance genes are
incorporated into commercially acceptable
varieties, can be an effective disease control
strategy. Therefore, for many years pepper and
tomato germplasm has been screened for resistance
to the bacterial spot pathogen. At least five
resistance genes have been identified and
characterized. Several of these resistance genes
show promise for use in commercial varieties. A
second area of research that has been important
when considering control strategies has involved
studying variation that exists within the pathogen.
Bacterial strains from Florida, Mexico, the
Caribbean, Central America, and other locations
were characterized as to pathogenic race and
phenotypic variation. Significant race diversity Jeff Jones

Bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and Impact. The researchers have identified
kill bacteria, were selected and used to control the resistance genes in these crops and are either
bacterial spot disease in the greenhouse and field, transferring this resistance to horticulturally more
Bacteriophages were selected which attacked advanced material or have provided the resistance
diverse strains of the bacterium and which sources to commercial seed companies. By using
specifically attacked the bacterial spot pathogen, several resistance genes, it is quite possible to
but not beneficial microorganisms. In several develop varieties that will be resistant to the major
seasons of testing, bacteriophage applications bacterial pathogens that cause problems in Florida.
performed significantly better than the standard The researchers have also determined that there is
bactericide applications for controlling disease in tremendous diversity within the organisms
the greenhouse and field, and for increasing yield. associated with bacterial spot disease of pepper
+j A second biological control strategy involved using and tomato. Their research has also shown that at
" bacterial antagonists. Bacteria were selected which least three different bacterial species are associated
4) were common inhabitants of the tomato with this disease and that it is important to
4 phyllosphere and antagonistic to the bacterial spot develop control strategies for all three species.
Fg pathogen. Other bacteria were selected which Furthermore, the use of novel control strategies
CA were found to induce in the plant a systemic such as applying bacteriophages to kill the
.3 acquired resistance to the bacterial spot pathogen. bacterium has been shown to reduce disease
$g In field experiments several bacterial antagonists severity and result in increased yields.
were identified which significantly reduced
O bacterial spot disease severity. Minsavage, Plant Pathology Department;
SBrent K. Harbaugh and J. W. Scott, Gulf Coast
U Research and Education Center; L. E. Jackson,
AgriPhi, Inc.

| Soil and Water Sciences

Biosolids: Molybdenosis Risk

a Significance: Land application is the most
J beneficial use of biosolids (sewage sludge) today,
U) and pastures/rangelands represent attractive
4) application sites. Biosolids, however, contain trace
C) elements (metals) whose risk to soils/plants/
animals must be accurately assessed. One trace
element, molybdenum (Mo), is of special concern
because cattle grazing forage raised on
biosolids-amended land can develop a Mo-induced
copper (Cu) deficiency known as molybdenosis.
Insufficient data fully characterizing the risk forced
USEPA to delay setting a standard for Mo pending
additional field data utilizing nationally
representative biosolids.
Rationale: Our three year study addressed
the need for such field data, and included yearling
cattle grazed under field conditions. We measured
uptake of Mo, and other trace metals, by forage
(bahiagrass) grown in an acid, sandy soil amended
46 George O'Connor

LMM'o-r *7 I LI O16IV

with 3 "exceptional quality" biosolids varying deficiencies in animals in biosolids treatments were
primarily in total Mo concentration. Biosolids exacerbated by excessive forage sulfur (S)
were applied at agronomicc" rates and increasing concentrations, rather than being Mo-induced
multiples thereof to develop varying soil Mo loads. (molybdenosis). Special attention to adequate Cu
Transfer of trace elements to animals was evaluated supplementation of animals grazing forages grown
by periodic sampling of cattle plasma and liver on biosolids amended land is recommended to
biopsies, counteract high forage S effects on Cu nutrition.
Animal effects of Cu deficiency were apparent each
Our ultimate objective was to assess the year from reduced plasma Cu concentrations and
protection offered by the soil/forage/animal depletion of liver Cu stores, but effects on animal
pathway analysis USEPA used to set Mo standards performance (weight gain) were minor. Normal
for "exceptional quality" biosolids. Another mineral supplementation of cattle with Cu is
objective was to characterize Mo reactions in soils recommended for biosolids amendment of
and the extent to which biosolids constituents Cu-deficient conditions such as experienced here. (D
might affect soil Mo retention/mobility/ Copper supplementation in the third year of the "
phytoavailability. study largely ameliorated Cu deficiencies. (D

Impact: Transfer of biosolid-trace elements Despite the complexities involved with
to forage was minimal in all cases, confirming the its development, the danger of molybdenosis
safety of "exceptional quality" biosolids applied at associated with biosolids-Mo seems small.
reasonable rates to pasture forage. Forage Mo Modem biosolids with normal (20-30 mg/kg) Mo CD
concentrations never exceeded 3 mg Mo/kg (well concentrations, applied at reasonable rates to
below the 10 mg Mo/kg considered excessive), and ranching and dairy operations following good
the critical forage Cu:Mo ratio of 2:1 was never management practices, are not likely to cause
breached. Forage Cu was largely unresponsive to lasting problems for beef cattle or dairy cows.
biosolids-Cu loads, and rarely exceeded the
recommended 10 mg Cu/kg diet value for cattle. Collborators: L.E. McDowell, Animal
Accordingly, Cu deficiency in cattle was indicated Science Dept., and Hai Nguyen, Soil and Water
each year because Cu was omitted from mineral Science Dept.
supplements offered to the animals. Copper


A Statistical Design and Mixture Model
Analysis of a Fertilizer-Rate Experiment
Involving Young (<3 years old) Citrus Trees

Situation: Citrus growers are interested in
making money. So, a common strategy among
growers is to push young trees into early
production by the application of high amounts of
fertilizer. This practice can have at least four
harmful effects on the trees: (i) approximately 25%
of the trees develop canopies with poor shapes, (ii)
the flushing of new leaves and of flowering are
asynchronous among trees and among branches on
the same tree, (iii) trees are much more variable in
size and growth, and (iv) the incidence of the stress John A. Corell
problem of decline is increased.

Rationale: When the applied fertilizer Impact: Early results of data analysis by
approaches both the optimum rate and the fitting specialized statistical mixture models
optimum N-P-K ratio for citrus, then the trees are surprised even Professor Richard D. Berger of the
more uniform in size and with compact canopies, Department of Plant Pathology in IFAS. Trunk
the flushes of new leaves and of flowering are diameters and heights of the young citrus trees
synchronous, and the incidence of decline is less. receiving certain N-P-K blends fertilized at the low
Determining the optimum rate and N-P-K blend rate surpassed comparably-aged trees fertilized at
requires the performance of a statistically designed the medium and high rates. The increase in trunk
mixture-amount experiment. Cordieropolis station diameter and height at the low rate relative to the
in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is the site of a large high rate was as much as 25% and 20%, respec-
N-P20s-K20 by 3-rates fertilizer experiment on tively, in a single year of growth. It is estimated
-#I young citrus trees. The rates chosen were low=1/3 that within a 5-year period of time, citrus trees
^ of normal, medium = 2 times low, and high = 4 fertilized at the low rate will far surpass the
S times low. At each rate of fertilization, the same high-rate trees not only in appearance but more
nine different N-P2,O-KO blends were applied importantly in fruit yields.
three of which were 30-14-56, 60-4-36, and 43-17-40.
C) The particular fertilizer blends were selected Collaborators: John A. Corell,
W from a constrained mixture design provided by Department of Statistics, and Richard D. Berger,
as researchers in the Department of Statistics in the Department of Plant Pathology, University of
a Agricultural Experiment Station at the University Florida.
a of Florida.

,. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

C4 A Model Ecosystem Management Education influence future policy directions, and the decision
D) Program on Department of Defense Lands in makers who plan actions that impact natural
S Florida resources. An ecosystem education program for
rEglin Air Force Base in the Florida panhandle was
U) Significance: For ecosystem management planned, implemented, and evaluated using a
UI- efforts to succeed on Florida's public lands, systematic and adaptive approach to public
di effective and ongoing communications must reach outreach. The program targeted recreational users,
recreational consumers, other audiences who neighboring citizens, and military leaders and
4f planners, using methods ranging from printed
materials and interpretive signs to video and mass
media. This research specifically demonstrated the
value of education programs that are targeted to
specific audiences and developed with data from
baseline surveys, input from key stakeholders, and
a review of ecosystem management needs. This
study serves as a model program for education
about ecosystem management on military reserves
and other multiple-use public lands involved with
shifting management objectives.

Rationale: A public ecosystem education
program was designed for the half-million-acre
Eglin Air Force Base targeting audience needs and
Susan K. Jacobson natural resource management goals. A baseline

survey was used to measure knowledge, attitudes, assigned to treatment and control groups to test the
and interests of various Eglin audiences, including effectiveness of the educational interventions.
1,700 recreational users and neighboring citizens,
and 160 military leaders and planners, before and Impact: Post-treatment surveys conducted
after an experimental education treatment. after one year revealed that educational
Educational materials designed for the program approaches significantly increased overall
focused on four content areas revealed through knowledge scores among all audiences. Mass
factor analysis of the survey: (1) native and media approaches accounted for significant
endangered species; (2) fire ecology; (3) forest positive shifts in attitudes. Inexpensive targeted
resources and habitats; and (4) ecosystem publications and mass media techniques are
management. Educational techniques tested recommended for ecosystem education programs
included (a) targeted materials posters, on public lands. C
brochures, and youth activity booklets; and (b) Collaborators: Eglin Air Force Base,
Collaborators: Eglin Air Force Base, 4
mass media approaches newspaper, radio,
s m aro n r, ra Natural Resource Branch; The Nature Conservancy. fl
television, and a public display. Baseline survey V=
respondents and new subjects were randomly nt

College of Veterinary Medicine

Ensuring Food Safety: The Food Animal (1-888-US FARAD), and NRSP-7 helps ensure that W
Residue Avoidance Databank and the Minor all animals used in food production not just the
Species Drug Program major species favored by pharmaceutical l
companies in terms of drug development and f
Situation: Many drugs are, of necessity, approval effort can be raised under conditions
used in food animal production in the United where disease and suffering can be treated by
States. It is imperative for public safety that drugs that meet U.S. Food and Drug Administra-
residues from these drugs be kept out of the tion standards for safety and effectiveness. This
human food supply. Two related programs, the program also serves as an "equalizer," increasing V
Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank the productivity of minor-species industries fish,
(FARAD), established in 1982, and the Minor sheep, goats, deer and gamebirds that are so
Species Drug Program (technically known as often bypassed by the "big industry" focus on D
NRSP-7) aid veterinarians and food animal major species such as cattle, swine and poultry.
producers in understanding the proper use r+
of drugs in various food animal species.

Rationale: Veterinarians and food animal
producers are limited in terms of their access to
drug information information which is provided
more readily to specialty scientists who are
conducting research. This is a hindrance to
producers, particularly in the event of a crisis. For
example, if a problem arises involving the possible
misuse of drugs in animal production, farmers
need to do what to do NOW to resolve the issue,
rather than wade through bureaucratic paperwork
to determine a course of action. FARAD provides
expert-mediated advice through a toll-free hotline Alistair I. Webb


Impact: The fact that there are so few Collaborators: Drs. Arthur Craigmill,
cases of violative drug residues detected in the University of California-Davis, and Dr. Jim Riviere,
U.S. animal-based food supply speaks to the North Carolina State University, were the original
efficacy of the FARAD system. When earlier in collaborators, along with Dr. Steven Sundlof,
this decade Congress failed to appropriate formerly a professor in UF's College of Veterinary
sufficient funds maintain the FARAD service, an Medicine. Dr. Alistair Webb, professor in UF's
outpouring of consumer and producer concern College of Veterinary Medicine, subsequently
convinced Congress that this was an essential replaced Dr. Sundlof as UF's FARAD leader and
service. Over the last 10 years, nearly half of the the southeast regional coordinator for NRSP-7.
drugs approved for minor species by FDA were Sundlof left UF in 1995 to become director of the
the subjects of NRSP-7 projects. The cost of these FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine, the federal
projects was usually about 10 percent of that agency that regulates all animal drug use in the
typically expended by commercial pharmaceutical U.S. Other NRSP-7 regional drug coordinators are
S firms on drugs they targeted for approval, sited at Cornell University, Michigan State
SUniversity and the University of California-Davis.
: A team of administrative advisors from the
CA Agricultural Experimental Station Network and a
3 liaison from FDA round out the group.

W Citrus REC

U Better Citrus Tree Management Through Rationale: Physical environmental factors
r Understanding Environmental Stress are not always negative. For example, although
) Physiology hurricane force winds can damage citrus trees and
C fruit, moderate breezes can cool leaves, refresh
) Situation: Citrus growers strive to their CO2 supply and make twigs stronger than
minimize the negative impacts of environmental those grown in still air. Studies on environmental
P0 limitations on tree growth and yield through good stress interactions can reveal how one stress can
U) management practices. The environment is a predispose the tree to be more tolerant of succes-
S complex of many factors that not only interact with sive stresses. Other examples are low temperatures
Q) the tree, but also interact among themselves. Thus, and salinity stress. Freezes can kill citrus trees but
it is not possible to modify one environmental cool winter temperatures and moderate salt stress
S factor without affecting other aspects of the can increase cold hardiness and even increase
environment. Growers also strive to optimize
environmental conditions to allow the
development of high quality fruit.

To effectively manage environmental
factors, we must understand the functional
environment and how it interacts with citrus trees.
The environment can artificially be divided into its .
physical components light, wind, heat, water,
nitrogen, etc., and its biological components pests
and diseases. Since all factors are never at
optimum levels at the same time, citrus trees are
always enduring some environmental stress.
By definition, plant stresses must be limiting to
growth and/or yield. James Syvertsen

flower induction. Good irrigation management rootstocks will respond to environmental
practices with good quality water help avoid conditions in the field. All citrus roots are
drought stress but moderate winter time drought inhabited by beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal
stress can also increase cold hardiness. fungi that facilitate the absorption of phosphorus.
Because these fungi, in turn, utilize sugars from the
Good management practices seek the plant, there is a need to assess the cost vs. benefit of
proper balance between negative and beneficial this relationship for the tree. By growing citrus
levels of environmental factors. Too much water or seedlings at elevated CO2 under greenhouse
poor drainage can lead to flooding stress which can conditions, we can increase the photosynthetic
be as detrimental as prolonged drought stress. production of sugars and then manipulate the
Proper fertilization can alleviate mineral nutrient supply and demand of sugars in the plant.
deficiencies but too much fertilizer can result in salt Understanding this internal balance is the key to
stress, nutrient imbalances and NO, leaching losses controlling fundamental aspects of plant growth
to groundwater. With support of the FDACS -Best and physiological responses to the environment.
Management Practices program, we are fertigating
bearing citrus trees in closed-bottom lysimeter High temperatures can be detrimental to CD
tanks to measure how much N trees can take up leaves and fruit, especially under conditions of low
and also, how much NO3-N can get past the root relative humidity and high evaporative demand.
zone to potentially contaminate groundwater. We Drought stress can occur from high evaporative
have shown that fertigating with very frequent but demand in dry climates even when soil moisture is
low concentration applications of N can lead to less optimum. We are investigating the interaction CD
leaching below the root zone than fewer, more between high leaf temperature stress and drought
concentrated applications. stress. With support from the US-Israel BARD
program, we are using special shade material to
An alternative to soil-applied fertilizer is reduce leaf temperatures, which can actually
spray application of nutrients directly onto leaves, result in higher stomatal conductances, higher
One of our major thrusts is to understand the photosynthetic rates and higher water use
ability of foliar-applied nutrients to penetrate citrus efficiency. The use of tree shading during critical 0
leaves. With support from the Florida Citrus developmental periods may also have beneficial
Production Research Advisory Council, we are effects on rind and juice color development.
studying how environmental factors influence the
safe uptake of urea-N into citrus leaves. Although The biological environment of a citrus tree
the thick waxy cuticle of citrus leaves is an is composed of weeds, insects, fungi and other U)
important barrier to water loss, several materials citrus trees. Competition with weeds for water and
can penetrate the cuticle and enter the leaf. We can nutrients can be minimized using good water and
precisely measure the rate of foliar penetration nutrient management practices. Future studies
of materials through isolated cuticles while will be aimed at understanding the role of
controlling environmental conditions. Foliar- nitrogen-fixing cover crops in supplementing
applied urea N not only can rapidly increase leaf fertilizer N, increasing soil organic matter and
N concentration, but urea can also interact with repelling insects and soil pests. The key is to
spray adjuvants and tank mixes to affect citrus develop management practices which strike the
leaves in many ways. In these studies, we use the right balance of environmental factors to maximize
photosynthetic uptake of CO, by citrus leaves to good quality fruit yields with minimum impact on
study physiological responses, the environment.

As new varieties emerge from our variety Impact: Our goal is to understand how
improvement program, we need to evaluate the citrus tree physiology responds to environmental
ability of potential rootstocks to exclude chlorides stresses. We know that healthy, well-watered,
from high salinity irrigation water. With an well-nourished and pest-free trees are better
understanding of the interactions between prepared to withstand physical stresses and
irrigation water quality and the ability of the root disease pressures than trees weakened by previous
system to take up nutrients, we can predict how stresses. Much of crop management balances


positive and negative aspects of stress using an Collaborators: This research program is a
understanding of how environmental factors team effort of post-doctoral associates, other
operate in an integrated crop management system. UF/IFAS scientists, Extension Agents and
Insights into physiological responses of citrus trees cooperating scientists from Israel. Support for this
to environmental factors will undoubtedly lead research came in part from the US-Israel BARD
towards better crop management while preserving program, the Florida Citrus Production Research
environmental quality. Advisory Council and the Florida DACS -BMP
program as supplements to UF base support.

.w Everglades REC Belle Glade

Evaluation of Pest Control Strategies for initiated with Dr. Brian Scully, Everglades Research
n Florida Sweet Corn and Education Center, to identify potential sources
*-I of insect resistance in sweet, field, and flint corns.
QN Situation: Sweet corn in Florida is host Lines with resistant characters were selected for
S to at least 44 species of insect pests, four of which suitability for Florida growing conditions. A
are serious enough to prevent its growth or multiyear breeding program began to introduce
u marketability if left untreated. Implementation of and magnify the expression of naturally occurring
V the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has the insecticidal biochemicals into sweet corns.
potential of dramatically changing the availability Comparison trials against standard and Bt sweet
of pesticides used in Florida's $100 million sweet corns were conducted to evaluate resistance to
U corn industry. Many of the insecticides are army and ear-worms, as well as to the corn silk fly,
k important for control of primary corn root, stalk, one member of an important otitid pest complex
leaf and ear pests. While new chemical control attacking tropical and subtropical corns throughout
compounds have entered the marketplace, there the Americas.
Q are concerns that they do not address all the pests
S and conditions covered by the insecticides under
review. Progress in the field of biotechnology
t has advanced new sweet corn varieties resistant
S to a few of the most important insect pests.
S Additionally, other insect-resistance traits relevant
to sweet corn (available through more traditional
breeding methods) have yet to be fully realized.
These resistant varieties have the potential of
greatly reducing the dependence on insecticides
for sweet corn production. However, control
strategies will need to evolve around these
resistant varieties in order to maintain control of
the remaining key pests and others that may e
emerge as pests once the overall use of insecticide Greg Nuessly
Impact: The insecticide evaluation trials
Rationale: Serious economic losses due to hold mixed results for Florida growers. While
insect traditional breeding techniques. Such a many of the newer pesticides effectively control
strategy is an effective way of protecting the crop most of the leaf and ear feeding corn pests, control
and reducing the need and expense of insecticides of soil-based insects, such as wireworms and lesser
required to produce marketable crops. With the cornstalk borers, would be greatly reduced should
same goal in mind, a cooperative program was they lose access to a select group of carbamate or

organophosphate insecticides. However, reducing other key insect pests. Growers and researchers
the number of pesticides available for rotation from throughout the southeastern United States
during a season will put increased pressure for have frequently asked for information on the
resistance development on the remaining and new biology and control of the region's corn pests. To
materials. The Bt sweet corns show great potential make such information readily available, results of
for reducing costs and pesticide use, while studies of Florida's corn pests were incorporated
increasing yields to Florida growers during into a world wide website to provide up to date
seasons with traditionally high army- and information on the identification, biology and
ear- worm population pressure. Population control of sweet and field copests.
monitoring of other major pests, particularly the
corn silk fly, and minor pests traditionally Collaborators: Brian Scully, Associate
repressed by treatments for army- and ear- worms Professor of Horticultural Sciences, Ken Pernezny,
needs to continue or increase to prevent damaging Professor of Plant Pathology, and Richard Lentini, (
populations from undermining the economic Senior Biologist, all of Everglades Research and ED
incentives for this pest control strategy. Following Education Center; Bill Bussey, Product Develop-
several years of crosses and selection the breeding ment, Novartis Seeds, Inc. Funding has been M
program for insect resistance will soon release a provided in part by Novartis Seeds, Inc., FMC,
new variety of sweet corn with very high resistance Rohm and Haas Co., Ecogen, American Cyanamid
to fall armyworm and corn earworm. Additional Co. and Zeneca Ag Products. ID
tests continue to evaluate its effectiveness against (C

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory

New Biocontrol Methods for Insect Pests Unfortunately, many chemical and f
biocontrol pesticides are becoming increasingly 0
Significance: Insect pests cause millions of ineffective due to the development of resistance to
dollars of damage each year in Florida and many the pesticide in the target insect population, and to ba
other regions throughout the world. Insect limitations on pesticide use to protect the environ-
damage to crops has enormous economic impact, ment. It is essential that new, more efficient and
and insect transmitted pathogens are a major cause effective insect control strategies be developed.
of human and animal disease. Mosquito The optimal pesticide should be specific for the
transmitted pathogens like malaria, and viruses pest insect, should not injure the environment, (D
like dengue, and St. Louis encephalitis, remain a
major problem in many parts of the world. r

Reducing insect populations is the primary
strategy towards reducing their impact on crops,
reducing their impact as annoyance pests for
humans and animals and for reducing the spread
of insect-borne pathogens. Florida vector control,
through the Florida Mosquito Control Districts, has
been instrumental in freeing large portions of the
state from mosquitoes and other biting flies, and in
reducing the impact and spread of insect
transmitted diseases. Approximately $80 million is
spent annually in Florida on mosquito and vector
control. Florida mosquito control relies on source
reduction techniques and the judicious application
of chemical and biological pesticides. Dov Borovsky

should not evoke resistance in pest populations, be and yeast cells that can be used to feed the TMOF
applicable to a variety of insect disease vectors and recombinant peptide to mosquito larvae. The
other insect pests, and be cost effective compared FMEL research has shown that analogues or altered
to current chemical pesticides. TMOF peptides can be made that mimic the effects
of TMOF.
Rationale: A new class of biorational
pesticides is under development at the FMEL for Impact: TMOF presents an opportunity to
application in the control of mosquito vectors of develop a biorational, biochemical insecticide for
disease. The approach uses a mosquito hormone, field applications against mosquito larvae. Its use
Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF), that in the field would overcome the environmental,
regulates blood digestion. The hormone, when toxicological and resistance problems associated
3 applied after blood feeding, stops blood digestion with current mosquito insecticides.
r in adults and literally starves mosquito larvae to
3 death. A similar strategy may prove useful to Since other agricultural pest insects, e.g.,
C control a variety of other insect pests. the tobacco bud worm, Heliothis virescens, also
use trypsin as their main digestive enzyme, it will
TMOF is a decapeptide hormone that is the be possible to use TMOF and TMOF-like com-
*. physiological signal that stops the synthesis of the pounds to affect the digestion of these insects and
S enzyme trypsin in the midgut of female mosqui- interfere with their growth and development.
toes. The hormone can pass through the mosquito These new biorational insecticides could be applied
midgut when orally fed to mosquitoes. Since to many agricultural pests. They are naturally
S trypsin synthesis ceases when TMOF is present in occurring insect-based hormones or mimics of
j the blood of the mosquito (its hemolymph), these hormones. The TMOF-like hormones or their
4 mosquito digestion is halted. In addition, the mimics will not harm the environment and will be
development of eggs by female mosquitoes stop readily broken down in the environment because
since they lack the essential amino acids to make they are natural peptides. Genetic engineering of
egg yolk. Mosquito larvae also produce plants to produce these insect hormones for
r trypsin-like enzymes in their guts that are the delivery to insect pests of crops might also prove to
S major enzymes they use in digestion, be a feasible alternative for controlling insect pests
CA that feed on specific crops. The power of using
) Studies by Professor Borovsky and biotechnology to develop this new cadre of
coworkers at the FMEL discovered the effects of insecticides will be essential to continuing
' TMOF and showed that TMOF and its mimics are successful insect control in the event of the
effective mosquito larvicides. When orally fed to development of insect resistance to any particular
U mosquito larvae, the larvae literally starve to death TMOF or TMOF-like peptide. New altered
S because they can no longer digest food. Research peptides can be developed through molecular
q is underway to develop means to deliver TMOF biological methods that will continue to be
Cf to mosquito larvae under field conditions that effective. The use of insect hormones and peptides
will be efficient, and environmentally friendly, as biorational insecticides will have great impact
Biotechnology is being employed that will enable on human ability to reduce the damage that insects
the use of TMOF for commercial development and inflict on society.
Collaborators: A. De Loof and P. Verhaert,
Preliminary studies developed a Catholic University of Leuvan Zoological Institute;
recombinant Tobacco Mosaic Virus that expressed A. Zaritsky, Ben Gurion University of the Negev;
the TMOF hormone on its outer coat. This C. Powell, Indian River REC, Ft. Pierce; W. Dawson
recombinant was used in tests that demonstrated Citrus REC, Lake Alfred. Financial support has
the killing ability of the TMOF recombinant been received in part from Insect Biotechnology,
peptide on mosquito larvae. New recombinants Bayer A. G., U. S. Israel BARD, NIH, and NATO.
developed at the FMEL express TMOF in Chlorella


Ft. Lauderdale REC

Improvement of Production Practices for evaluating the efficacy of compost materials made
the Ornamental Industry from urban waste products to grow woody and
herbaceous ornamental plants has been very
Situation: A survey conducted by the valuable. Compost materials are readily available
Florida Nurseryman and Growers Association particularly in large urban settings and can be an
(FNGA) reported that in 1997 wholesale nursery excellent source of micronutrients and organic
growers generated $1.464 billion in plant sales, matter. By developing guidelines for using
retail ornamental operations generated $1.751 compost in the ornamental industry we can reduce
billion in sales, and the landscape industry the amount of urban waste materials that are m
generated $2.704 billion in sales. Estimated frequently put into landfills or are incinerated as
wholesale nursery sales were greatest for well as reducing nutrient leaching into I
southeastern Florida (St. Lucie, Martin, Palm groundwater and reducing the amounts of .
Beach, Broward, and Dade counties) with $603 fertilizer utilized for plant production. ID
million in sales in 1997. Florida nurseries and Recommendations have also been developed for
landscape firms also employed an estimated the fertilization of palms and other tropical
120,000 people in 1997. The economic value added ornamentals in container production as well as in
from the wholesale, retail, and landscape sectors of urban landscapes. This research has resulted in WI
the environmental horticulture industry totaled improved plant growth and quality and reduced I
$5.351 billion. It is obvious that the environmental fertilizer waste by using more efficient fertilization .
horticulture industry is an important part of materials and application methods. Research work fe
southeastern Florida's economy and lifestyle. In on techniques to transplant large specimen palms
fact, environmental horticulture is one the fastest
growing segments of American agriculture.
Rationale: Because of the importance of
the nursery industry in southeastern Florida,
several research projects have been initiated to
develop production techniques and practices to
increase plant production and, yet, are environ- ec
mentally and economically viable. On-going
projects at the Fort Lauderdale Research and
Education Center are focused on reducing fertilizer
runoff into the environment, utilizing urban waste
materials as composts to grow plants, optimizing rl
fertilization and transplanting techniques for CA
ornamental crops, and investigating insect-plant
interactions to reduce pesticide use. These studies
are extremely important to sustain an economically
important industry in Florida while minimizing
environmental impacts to natural resource areas Klock-Moore, Fitzpatrick, Broschat and Weissling
and the large urban areas.
Impact: Fertilization and growing into urban landscape areas has greatly improved
substrate recommendations have been developed palm transplant survival rates. Other work is
for growers using subirrigation to grow bedding investigating host plant resistance to several insect
for growers using subirrigationplants. The use of a closed pests in addition to cultural practices for control-
plants and foliage plants. The use of a closed ling infestations. The identification of host plant
recirculating subirrigation system has eliminated resistance of ornamentals will reduce the use of
fertilizer resistance of ornamentals will reduce the use of
fertilizer runoff in the greenhouse and reduced pesticides while providing quality products for the
the potential for groundwater pollution. Work

greenhouse, nursery, and landscape industries. Timothy K. Broschat, and Thomas J. Weissling.
The work being conducted in Fort Lauderdale has Research has been supported by the Florida
benefits to the nursery industry but also benefits Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
the public by assisting the industry to produce Palm Beach County Solid Waste Authority,
high quality plants using environmentally sound University of Florida Center for Natural Resources,
practices. Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association,
UF/IFAS, Department of Environmental
Collaborators: This team effort includes Horticulture, and the Department of Entomology.
Kimberly A. Klock-Moore, George E. Fitzpatrick,

S Gulf Coast REC

Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl The catastrophic impact of TYLCV-Is on
CA Virus in Florida tomato production is well documented in the
Mediterranean and the Caribbean. Dominican
Situation: Until recently, geminiviruses Republic growers reported yield losses of up to
transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, were 95% in the 1993-1994 production season.
o considered problems for agricultural producers in Management of TYLCV-Is is difficult, often
U the tropics. However, over the last 10 years, this requiring significant changes in production
U group of viruses has become a serious concern practices and yield expectations. Recently,
for bean and tomato producers in Florida, and significant losses in bean and pepper due to
have increased production costs of these crops as TYLCV-Is have been reported from Spain.
well as caused crop losses and failures. A new
geminivirus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus In addition to vegetable crops, TYLCV-Is is
S (TYLCV-Is) appeared in Florida in 1997. The a threat to the ornamentals and transplant
CA appearance of TYLCV-Is in the eastern Caribbean
V) and Florida is related to a widespread explosion of
54 geminiviruses in the Western Hemisphere. This
S expansion was due in large part to the transport of
a the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B
4- (also known as B. argentifolii, the silverleaf white-
a fly) from the Old World to the New World on
- cuttings of ornamental plants in the mid 1980's.
This whitefly biotype, unlike the others present in
most areas of the New World, can feed and
reproduce on tomato and many other crop and :
weed plants. The whitefly rapidly dispersed
through the New World and within two to three
years of its presence in a new economically
significant losses in tomato. This virus is known to
infect 17 species including vegetable, ornamental
and weeds. Like other geminiviruses, TYLCV-Is is
most often acquired by adult whiteflies which feed
on infected plants, and within hours the whitefly is .
able to transmit the virus to healthy plants for the
rest of its life (up to 2 months). Whiteflies are
highly mobile, and high population densities can
develop quickly, so incidences of TYLCV-Is
infected plants can readily reach 100%. Jane Polston

industries in Florida. TYLCV-Is is able to infect and placed in and around homes, acted as sources
tobacco and lisianthus, as well as tomato. Like of TYLCV-Is for nearby commercial nurseries and
tomato, these plants are produced as transplants production fields. Again transplants appeared to
for export as well as for use in the state. If play an important role in the movement of
transplants become infected and are shipped TYLCV-Is.
out-of-state, this virus could establish in other
locations, including greenhouses in northern states, Immediately after the identification of
where there is year-round production and the TYLCV-Is, efforts were made to minimize the
whitefly vector is a problem. Concerns about this impact of the virus on the agricultural industries.
virus by out-of-state customers could reduce the Several changes in regulatory procedures were
marketability of Florida transplants. made to minimize the risk of producing
virus-infected transplants which would be C
TYLCV-Is was first seen in the Western exported out of state. Growers were informed
Hemisphere in Cuba about 1990. It was later within weeks of the presence of the virus in the (D
identified in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica state and were instructed on its recognition.
(1994), and the Bahamas, Florida and Mexico in Recommendations for management were D
1997. Circumstantial evidence suggests that disseminated and these were rapidly adopted by
TYLCV-Is was imported into the eastern Caribbean growers.
on tomato transplants that originated in Israel.
Since the virus was a threat to Florida and was TYLCV-Is is very difficult to manage.
found in nearby countries, studies of TYLCV-Is Management strategies can be divided into short M
were conducted in 1993 and 1994 in the Dominican and long term. Short term solutions include
Republic. This was part of a greater effort to chemical and cultural practices, such as optimal
respond to the explosion of geminiviruses by selection and timing of insecticides, sanitation,
establishing cooperative work with researchers in timing of crops, location of crops, and rouging of
the Caribbean. This would allow us to develop infected plants. Knowledge of the particular
appropriate assays to detect and distinguish the biology of the target virus is required in order
different viruses, to characterize their biology to develop effective management practices O
(symptoms, effects on yield, hosts they infect), and appropriate to Florida agriculture. In contrast,
to identify and prepare for those that pose the the use of virus-resistant cultivars is a long term
greatest threats to Florida industries. Assays for solution which is highly desirable due to its
rapid and sensitive detection of TYLCV-Is were effectiveness, lack of dependence on chemicals, CA
developed and studies were conducted on the host and cost.
range to determine if plant species imported into Studies were conducted to optimize the
., Studies were conducted to optimize the
Florida from the Dominican Republic could serve management of TYLCV-Is and minimize its impact D
management of TYLCV-Is and minimize its impact
as a means of introduction. Though several newn Fri i Vis i e in
on Florida in the short term. Virus incidence in
weed hosts were found, no plants imported from ad dn a g t f
there were identified as hosts of TYLCV-Is. and distribution among tomato fields were
monitored beginning in fall 1998. These studies
In 1997, TYLCV-Is was identified for the were designed to improve our understanding of
first time in Florida. In the weeks following initial the spread of TYLCV-Is, and ultimately identify
detection, TYLCV-Is was detected in tomato plants ways to interfere with spread. Incidences as high
from many locations throughout Florida in tomato as 100% were observed in several tomato
plants collected from retail outlets and home production districts in 1998. TYLCV-Is has been
gardeners, who had purchased plants from retail found to spread over fairly long distances (10
outlets. All infected plants were traced to miles) in Florida. Old tomato fields, especially
production facilities in Dade Co. where it appears U-picks or abandoned fields, play a crucial role as
that TYLCV-Is entered the U.S. in late 1996 or early reservoirs between production seasons. Use of
1997. Subsequently, infected tomato transplants imidacloprid has played a key role in reducing the
produced at two Dade Co. facilities, were rapidly impact of this virus. However, proximity to a large
distributed via retail garden centers throughout the source of TYLCV-Is can overwhelm any
state. Infected plants purchased by homeowners management techniques.

Besides the fresh-market tomato industry, Based on successful experiences using a similar
the needs of the transplant and ornamentals approach against tomato mottle virus, resistant
industries must be addressed. More than 100 lines with high yields could be available within
species of ornamental and vegetable plants are 4 years.
produced in Florida, many of these are shipped out
of state. Most have never been tested for Impact: The goal of this program is to
susceptibility to TYLCV-Is. A study to determine minimize losses to Florida agricultural industries
their susceptibility to TYLCV-Is was begun in 1998. caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. The
To date, approximately 35 species have been tested tomato industry has been the most recent focus,
and petunia, groundcherry, and tomatillo were since this is the first industry directly impacted by
found to be new hosts of TYLCV-Is. TYLCV-Is. The early detection and previous
) experience with TYLCV-Is, garnered from work in
In Florida we have found that at least four the Caribbean, were critical to minimizing the
qD species produced as transplants for out-of-state impact of this virus on the tomato industry.
shipment can be hosts of TYLCV-Is (tomato, Multiple and timely meetings with growers and
tobacco, lisianthus, and petunia). Transplants rapid dissemination of management strategies
e, appear to play an important role in the long allowed growers some control of virus incidence
*r distance movement of TYLCV-Is. In order to since its appearance in Florida. In 1999, grower
P1 minimize the movement within and out of the compliance with all recommendations was over
state, and to produce high quality transplants, 85%, and 100% for at least some of the
S transplants should be free of virus. However, recommendations. Monitoring the incidence and
S transplant producers have few options for spread of TYLCV-Is has permitted the fine-tuning
U management of TYLCV-Is. Studies to address this of management practices, thereby increasing their
problem were begun in 1999. New approaches effectiveness, and has provided a model for the
which induce resistance in plants, or which inter- development of approaches needed to respond to
S fere with whitefly feeding and virus transmission other introduced pathogens. This multifaceted
Wi will be evaluated for use in Florida. approach helped to minimize the damage from
STYLCV-Is. However, additional control measures
W The use of resistant cultivars is a long term need to be developed since the geographic range
S approach which may be the best approach to and incidence of TYLCV-Is is continuing to expand.
S manage TYLCV-Is. Several tomato lines with some The recognition of new plant hosts will be an aid to
tolerance to TYLCV-Is have been developed for use the identification of virus reservoirs, and may
in Europe and elsewhere. The usefulness of these provide an explanation for the increase in the
cultivars for Florida is not certain. Six advanced virus's geographic range. It may be possible to
U lines will be evaluated for yield and virus tolerance slow dissemination of TYLCV-Is through new
S in the 1999-2000 tomato production season at four approaches being developed to manage the virus
a sites around the state (Homestead, Immokalee, in transplant production houses and ornamental
c West Palm Beach, Ruskin/Bradenton). production greenhouses.

A program to develop TYLCV-resistant Collaborators: County Vegetable
tomato plants with horticultural backgrounds Extension Agents (P. Gilreath, M. Lamberts,
suitable for Florida, was initiated in 1998. Genetic G. McAvoy, K. Shuler), Dept. Plant Pathology
engineering offers a real possibility for the rapid (E. Hiebert, D. Purcifull, R. Berger), GCREC (R. J.
development of TYLCV-resistant plants. Inbred McGovern, J. W. Scott, D. J. Schuster), SWFREC
breeding lines of tomato, which have highly (P. A. Stansly), TREC (M. Davis), FDACS/DPI (T.
desirable horticultural characteristics, were Schubert, L. Brown). Support for this research
transformed with selected genes from TYLCV-Is. came in part from the Florida Tomato Committee,
These will be screened initially for TYLCV-Is USDA-T/STAR, and USDA-CSREES Critical Issues
resistance in the greenhouse in 1999 and 2000. Program.
Later generations will be evaluated in the field.


Hastings REC

n of W s b S C crop was greatly reduced following a full summer
Suppression of Weeds by Summer Cover crop of sorghum sudangrass compared to disease
Crop of Sorghum Sudangrass Reduces incidence following summer weed fallow or green
Bacterial Wilt in Spring Potato Crops manured sorghum sudangrass (i.e. disked after
30d). Bacterial wilt in potato following sorghum
Significance: Bacterial wilt or tuber brown sudangrass grown for the entire summer was
rot caused by the soil borne bacterium Ralstonia 2.9 percent compared to 89.7 percent following
solanacearum can cause serious losses in the north green manure and 20.4 percent following a weed
Florida potato crop. Infected plants wilt and tubers fallow treatment. Although a healthy sorghum g
develop soft rot following invasion by secondary sudangrass cover crop appeared to be an excellent *
pathogens. Severity of bacterial wilt can be way to reduce bacterial wilt in potato, the reasons
enhanced by root-knot nematodes. Preplant soil for the reduction were not fully understood. r+
fumigants reduce but do not eliminate the impact ID
of the disease. Impact: Research during the past two M
seasons has demonstrated that part of the reason
Rationale: Previous studies demonstrated for reduced bacterial wilt in potato following a P
that incidence of bacterial wilt in the spring potato summer cover crop of sorghum sudangrass is C)
suppression of weeds. Incidence of bacterial wilt MD
in potato following sorghum sudangrass was 0.0
percent compared to 14.5 percent following weed
fallow, 14.8 percent following green manured
sorghum sudangrass, 4.3 percent following weed-
free fallow, and 2.8 percent following weed free
green manured sorghum sudangrass. The results
from these studies suggest that other crops besides
sorghum sudangrass which are not hosts for R.
solanacearum and which crowd out weeds may also
be beneficial in reducing incidence of bacterial wilt.
Collaborators: UF/IFAS funding for
Hatch Project HAS03623 was used to support this
Pete Weingartner research.
Indian River REC

Controlltting Cropload in Citrus: More Profit
for Florida Growers are similar regardless of yield in bearing trees,
profitability is compromised by modest yields. In
Situation: Several Florida citrus varieties many groves, 'Ambersweet' yields have been so
flower very heavily but produce rather small crops. low that growers are giving up on this variety and
This occurs regularly in 'Navel' orange, 'Minneola' budding trees to different types of citrus, even
tangelo, and 'Valencia' orange, but is especially though the trees should now be at peak bearing.
evident in a new orange variety called Other citrus varieties, especially tangerines, tend to
'Ambersweet'. Since fertilizers, pest control produce too many fruit, resulting in branch
materials, and other grove management expenses breakage, many fruit too small to sell, and a very

light crop in the following year. This unfortunate
cropping pattern also reduces grower profits and
frequently shortens the life expectancy of tangerine
groves. Managing these groves to produce more
desirable cropping behavior should significantly
increase grower profits and make high quality
citrus products more abundant for consumers.

Rationale: It appears that heavy flowering
varieties waste so much energy on flowering that .
they cannot successfully carry a large crop of fruit
CA to harvest. Reducing flowering in these varieties
should provide more resources for flower and fruit
w development and increase crop production. For
tangerines, reducing the number of fruit produced
should reduce tree stress and competition between
fruits produced, resulting in a more manageable
*m number of larger and more desirable fruit.

Impact: We have found that a single winter
application of the naturally occurring plant hor-
mone gibberellic acid (GA) can reduce flowering in
varieties that flower excessively and increase both
the number of fruit and total yield. In 'Navel'
orange we increased cropping by 22% in 1998,
while yield in 'Ambersweet' was increased by 49%.
5.4 In 1999, the untreated 'Ambersweet' had only 25
| ( fruit per tree while trees sprayed with GA had 275 Ed Stover
fruit per tree. Our results have been so positive expe s e on g to de p
experiments are ongoing to develop reliable
that the manufacturers of GA have applied for reco nations da c s g er
S registration so that growers can use GA for this
purpose. This should enhance cropping and may Collaborators: The Florida Citrus Produc-
S prevent the loss of many 'Ambersweet' groves, tion Research Advisory Council has provided
+J Use of another hormone to reduce fruit per tree in partial funding for this project, Dr. Gene Albrigo of
CJ tangerines has also been very promising, providing CREC is co-PI, and many Florida citrus growers
increased profits up to $3400 / acre. Further have helped us conduct experiments in their

Mid-Florida REC Apopka

Management of fern anthracnose Plantings are maintained for many years. Ferns
grow all year long and mature leaves are harvested
Situation: In 1997, Florida produced throughout the year in response to market
approximately 1,738 ha of leatherleaf fern; the demand. In 1993, a new fern disease appeared in
estimated annual wholesale value of the harvested Florida. The disease, called fern anthracnose, was
product was over $57 million. About two-thirds of caused by a fungus which was soon identified as a
leatherleaf fern production is artificially shaded new pathotype of Colletotrichum acutatum.
and the remainder is naturally shaded by trees. Anthracnose severely damages leatherleaf fern


leaves and, as harvested leaves must be supports a large agribusiness component.
blemish-free for use in floral arrangements, the Leatherleaf fern production is, by far, the largest
disease has caused large economic losses and commodity produced by this industry. The cut
greatly complicated leatherleaf fern production. green foliage industry is comprised of several
By early 1994, severe damage and losses occurred large producers and a few hundred smaller ones.
in only a few ferneries, but by June 1995,42 Generally, production units are small and the
companies (60%) that responded to our survey horticultural enterprises are interspersed, and
indicated that fern anthracnose had been positively largely compatible with, the semi-urbanized
identified in their ferneries. Cultural and landscape of central Florida. For Florida's fern
harvesting activities were found to be responsible growers to maintain markets and profitability in
for the rapid spread of anthracnose within and the international floral industry, high product
between ferneries, and it is now estimated that quality and a reliable supply are essential
over one-half of the land area devoted to attributes. In 1994 and 1995, these attributes were
leatherleaf fern production in Florida has been seriously threatened by the fern anthracnose
infested. Fern leaves are susceptible to infection disease. Through research conducted at
from emergence until fully-expanded and Mid-Florida REC, fern anthracnose is now mostly 0
beginning to mature. They must be protected under control, but the costs are high and long-term
during this critical interval by appropriate and use of fungicides at amounts and frequencies
frequent applications of fungicides. needed for rehabilitation of ferneries and routine 0
control of anthracnose are neither in the best
Rationale: Florida's cut green foliage interest of fern production, nor are they 0
industry employs thousands of workers and environmentally acceptable over the long term,
particularly in regard to issues of soil and ground f
water contamination by fungicides. In the future, :3
fern anthracnose management should not rely on, I
nor plan for the continued use of fungicide n
programs of the intensity presently employed. f
Impact: Research at Mid-Florida REC has
provided critical solutions for the fern anthracnose g
problem by following a disease management
approach. Presently-available fungicides with Ca
demonstrated potential for fern anthracnose
control have now been evaluated in the field, and
Federal or State labels for all products feasible for 0D
use on leatherleaf fern have been obtained.
Fungicide application methods have also been e
investigated, particularly the chemigation process,
where uniformity of fungicide delivery, application
efficiency and effects of fungicide re-distribution
and wash-off when irrigation water applied in
excess of that needed to apply the fungicide were
determined. A preliminary model describing
leatherleaf fern growth and development was
developed. Based upon rates of leaf initiation and
development in response to the environment,
seasonal variations in rates of leaf initiation, and
growth and development of leatherleaf fern, the
model has provided a firm foundation for
developing disease control strategies based on fern
growth and leaf initiation. Beneficial cultural
James O. Strandberg procedures have also been developed and

evaluated. Scouting methods were developed Force was appointed by the Commissioner of
to monitor the effects of fungicides, disease Agriculture to serve as an advisory board to review
management, and cultural practices on fern results and set research goals. This board was
anthracnose; these methods are now routinely used comprised of researchers, Division of Plant
by many growers. Survivability and persistence Industry representatives, Extension agents,
capabilities of the fungus were also extensively growers, and persons representing agribusiness.
investigated. Survivability in retention ponds, rain Over the past 4 years, most ferneries have been
puddles and irrigation ponds was not a significant rehabilitated in regard to anthracnose damage by
factor in spreading the disease, but survival in combining the best combinations of appropriate
diseased leaf debris and on diseased fern petioles cultural procedures with the most effective
was a very important factor. Spores were found to fungicides and application methods. Fern
,J survive for over 5 weeks on clothing of workers; anthracnose no longer threatens fern production,
0 this was shown to be the most important but the costs of controlling this disease are high
Q) mechanism of disease spread between ferneries. and these costs have reduced profits. Future
Inoculation tests demonstrated that the fungus research will focus on more cost-effective and
was also able to incite disease on several species environmentally-acceptable control and
W of wild and cultivated ferns. Wild ferns can serve management methods. Despite initial predictions,
W- as sources of inoculum. The susceptibility of the leatherleaf fern industry remains a profitable
Pl numerous cultivated fern species to anthracnose and significant agricultural industry in central
identified potential disease hazards during Florida.
a production or in the landscape.
UCollaborators: The fern anthracnose
U Knowledge obtained through cooperative research team included Drs. Robert H. Stamps and
research has enabled the development of David J. Norman. We worked closely with our
anthracnose management strategies that have colleagues in Extension: Linda Landrum, Volusia
combined pathogen avoidance, sanitation, and County, Austin Tilton, Putnam County, and Dianne
S beneficial cultural procedures with effective Dilger, Lake County. This research was performed
*w fungicide application programs. A comprehensive under University of Florida, Agricultural Research
U) publication was prepared to educate growers about Station, IFAS Research Project: APO 3606 Disease
U) fern anthracnose and to and provide them with management during cut green foliage production.
9 appropriate approaches to managing the disease. The research was supported, in part, with funds
p Numerous Extension meetings were held to inform provided by the Florida Legislature and
w) and educate growers; these meetings also allowed administered by The Florida Department of
+ researchers to interact with and obtain suggestions Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of
from growers and to more directly address their Plant Industry.
P needs and concerns. A Fern Anthracnose Task

North Florida REC Quincy

Growing Tomatoes in Pasture Sod: An The use of methyl bromide allows tomato growers
Alternative Production System Without to produce tomatoes year after year without crop
Methyl Bromide rotation necessary to minimize soil-borne diseases
that occur when their reproductive growth is not
Significance: Fresh market tomato suppressed during the cropping season. However,
production in North Florida contributes more than in pasture sod and how long it would take for the
$30 million annually to the state economy. The pasture to regain full forage production. Effects of
pesticide, methyl bromide, is used in the popular mowing the sod, killing a strip and tilling,
raised bed film mulch tomato production system. suppressing sod growth with non-residual

S' herbicides, fertilizer rates, and fertilizer scheduling
were studied.

Sa Impact: Soil-borne diseases and nema-
S .. todes were not a problem in bahiagrass sod during
S a three-year test. Roots from pasture sod growing
between rows invaded the tilled strips and offered
S --.. strong competition for fertilizer elements supplied
S. for the tomato crop. Competition from live sod for
fertilizer appeared to be the factor most limiting
tomato yield. Suppressing sod growth with non-
residual herbicides was most effective in eliminat-
ing competition for fertilizer. When sod growth
was adequately suppressed fertilizer rates recom- tD
n mended for the current production system were
adequate for strip-till tomato in pasture sod. Ig
Compared to the raised bed film mulch system, soil
*erosion was negligible with tomato grown in
pasture sod. Furthermore, pasture forage growth
recovered within three weeks after tomato stakes
and residue were removed from plots. The strip-
till in sod production system allows the use of
highly erodible soils for proper crop rotation and
provides an alternative production system for fresh
S market tomatoes in North Florida without methyl


Fred Rhoads

Range Cattle REC Ona U)

Obtaining Seed Needed to Reconstruct totaling about 6000 ha where reconstruction of
Native Plant Communities native plant communities are planned. Mitigation,
a negotiated trade-off over permitting for develop-
Significance: In central Florida, there are ment of protected land, is an additional driving
about 109,000 ha that have been mined for force for reconstruction of native plant communi-
phosphate and mining continues at about 2000 ties. The first and biggest problem is where do we
ha/year. Much of the mined land was pasture, obtain the variety and quantities of the different
citrus, or forest, and restoration has focused on plants needed to restore these native areas?
returning the land to those uses. Land supporting
native upland plant communities has been mined, Rationale: To date, the source of seed for
but restoration of those communities has been very restoration of Florida native plant communities has
limited. Also, Florida's Water Management followed a traditional agronomic approach:
Districts have purchased land for water identify seed production capabilities in selected
conservation and preservation of ecological values. plants, manage or propagate them to produce seed,
Within the Southwest Florida Water Management harvest seed, and use the seed on sites to be
District there are currently 100 distinct sites restored. This has been done with four grasses that

are fairly reliable seed producers, but a healthy litter/soil compared with soil from cores. For
flatwoods plant community will contain over 100 example, 1 kg of litter/soil contained at least 1 seed
species, many of which produce little or no seed. of 19 to 22 species. Some species were very abun-
Native plants flower at different times of the year, dant, such as a diamond cluster-flower (.96 and
and their seed often shatters easily. A second 180/kg soil andvacuumed litter/soil, respectively),
possibility involves using the seed contained in the rushes and sedges (.51 and 117/ kg, respectively)
soil. Native communities have been restored on and low Panicum grasses (.34 and 16/kg, respec-
small-scale projects by removing the upper 5 to 10 tively). About 15 to 20 species would require 10 to
cm of soil from a donor site and spreading this 20 kg of collected material to obtain 1 seed of each.
material out onto the area to be restored. Rela- A few species were rare and would require 100 kg
tively great diversity in species was obtained, but of collected material to obtain a single seed.
4 the technique was costly, destructive, and difficult
S because large amounts of soil had to be moved, The advantages of obtaining seed by
I meaning the donor site must be close to the vacuuming are the relatively great plant diversity
restored site. A third and yet untried method for that may be obtained by collecting after seed has
obtaining seed is to vacuum and collect litter and shattered at the end of the year. The technique is
CA loose soil. non-destructive, so the same areas could be
Of repeatedly used. Litter is easier to transport than
P0 Impact: Along a 550-m transect on a 16.2 soil, and vacuumed litter may be dried and stored
ha flatwoods site at the Range Cattle REC, eight like seed. Litter from several areas could be
S soil cores (20-cm diameter x 2-cm depth) were blended or enhanced with harvested seed of one
S collected from each of 50, 1-m2 quadrats before and or more species. Machinery would have to be
U after a January 1999 bur. In an adjacent 1-m2 developed to vacuum large areas, but it is possible
quadrat, the soil surface was vacuumed after to do so.
y, burning (vacuuming was not possible before
S burning). The vacuumed litter/soil and the
composite soil cores from each quadrat were
S spread on flats containing sand (each quadrat
A separately) in the greenhouse. Flats were kept
S moist by misting, and number and identity of
seedlings resulting from the germination of seed
were determined over the past 9 months.

Soil obtained before burning contained 70
U herbaceous species compared with 62 species in
soil after burning. Vacuumed litter/soil contained
W 54 species. The number of seed per unit of sample
Cf collected was about the same in vacuumed
Robert Kalmbacher

Southwest Florida REC Immokatee

Biorational Control of SilverLeaf Whitefly in tomato and other fruiting vegetables throughout
Vegetables the state. Crops were covered by sooty mold from
the insect's sugary excretions. New disorders
Situation: In a scenario to be repeated appeared such as irregular ripening of tomato and
with variations throughout the world, an explosion silver leaf of squash from whence the name
of silverleaff whitefly" first seen on poinsettias in silverleaff" whitefly. However, the worst was yet
west-central Florida, soon became the major pest of to come with plant virus diseases such as tomato

mottle virus (ToMoV) and the even more It remained to test soaps and detergents on
devastating tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) natural enemies of whiteflies such as ladybeetles,
introduced accidentally from the Middle East via lacewings and parasitic wasps. We obtained the
the Caribbean. To save their crops, growers were following results: Fresh oil residues killed as many
obliged to intensify spray programs with more adult wasps as did the bifenthrin but again,
applications of more powerful insecticide mixtures, toxicity of oils depended greatly on coverage.
provoking commensurate increases in production Soaps were relatively non toxic to all stages of
costs and elimination of beneficial insects that parasitic wasps, but killed young ladybeetle
foster biological control. larvae.All stages of lacewing were relatively
unaffected by soaps and oils in contrast to
Rationale: In unsprayed weeds and bifenthrin, which killed all stages except the
isolatorganic vegetables, predators and parasitic protected "trash bugs".
wasps were seen to control whiteflies to low levels.
The problem then became how to integrate Insect growth regulators were tested with ID
biological control with conventional pest similar results: some negative effects to some
management systems based on chemical control. stages of some beneficial insects. I would appear ID
We proposed replacement of broad-spectrum that no insecticide is totally "biorational".
insecticides with "biorational" (selective) Beneficial populations always pay some price no
insecticides such as oils and soaps that could matter what is sprayed. On the other hand, impact
control whiteflies but were compatible with on beneficial insects from biorationals is
beneficial insects. But were such materials really considerably less than from broad-spectrum (D
effective and really compatible? These were insecticides that kill all insects indiscriminately.
questions that needed answering. ..... .

Impact: We started by testing spray oil
and insecticidal soap in the laboratory and
greenhouse against all whitefly stages. We found
the following: Insecticidal soap worked on whitefly O
nymphs better than on adults, but only while wet.
Household detergent liquids worked at half or less
the concentration of soap, were inexpensive and
did not precipitate in hard water, but (like soap)
caused plant injury at higher concentrations Oil
killed all stages of whitefly and had longer residual
activity than soap. Oil was as effective as the \
best synthetic insecticide (bifenthrin) tested but
required much better coverage of the lower leaf :
surface where whiteflies reside. Oil was repellent
as well as toxic to whitefly adults.

We then tested detergent and oil in
the field with the following results: Frequent
applications of detergent (2/week) at
concentrations as low as 0.25% worked as well
as stronger but less frequent chemical sprays.
Oil reduced spread of ToMoV as well as chemical
sprays, probably through combined effects of
repellency and toxicity to the whitefly vector.
"Airblast" sprayers that gave better coverage of
the underside of tomato foliage also gave better
whitefly control.
Phil Stansly

Growers were quick to see the economic insecticides (endodulfan and chlorpyrifos) was
advantage of detergents that they could buy for applied in 1994 compared to 2.3 lb/acre in 1996, a
less thanl0% cost of synthetic insecticides, decrease of 300%. During the same period, use of
Representatives of detergent manufacturers sent to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis that
investigate sky-rocketing demand in southwest only affects caterpillars has increased 91%, from
Florida made the surprising discovery that tanker 46% to 88% of tomato acreage. Sales of
loads were being used on tomatoes, not dishes! broad-spectrum insecticides for vegetables in the
This was perfectly legal since dish detergent can be Immokalee area decreased 1700% according to one
used on foods, although it could not be sold for distributor. "Growers that sprayed all the time are
pest control without a specific label. This uncertain no longer with us" he observed, "whereas those
status of put a damper on commercialization of that adapted an IPM approach have survived. It
,4 detergents as insecticides. would seem that, although there is now less need
Sfor soaps, oils or even hard chemicals to control
) Although clean fallow periods and (since whiteflies in our system, the lessons learned in the
1995) the systemic insecticide imidacloprid has struggle with that pest have aided in the
Greatly reduced the need to spray chemical development of more sophisticated "biorational"
CA insecticides on tomato for whitefly control in pest management systems in Florida vegetables.
*o southwest Florida, TYLCV has greatly increased
P potential damage. While insecticide costs have not Collaborators: Philip A. Stansly,
decreased, the types of insecticides used in Southwest Florida Research and Education Center,
vegetables have changed to more specifically Immokalee, David J. Schuster, Gulf Coast Research
% targeted materials compatible with biological and Education Center, Bradenton, and T. X. Liu,
JU control. For instance, an average 6.8 lbi/acre active Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Wesloco
41 ingredient of the two most frequently used TX. Research partially funded by USDA Southern
P9 Regional IPM Grant # 93-34103-8433.

g Subtropical Agricultural Research Station Brooksville

'* Searching for Tender Brahman Sires Rationale: In 1994, we began a five-year
W progeny test of Brahman sires at the Subtropical
Situation: Consistent carcass quality and Agricultural Research Station (STARS) in
a, adequate meat tenderness are among the most Brooksville, Florida to determine the correlation
-0 significant problems facing the beef cattle industry between tenderness and associated genetic
and are of particular concern to producers of markers. Potentially, results from a single blood
Brahman-influenced cattle. Improving the test could be used to predict genetic merit of
quality/consistency of beef has been identified as Brahman sires. Each year five registered Brahman
the number one priority for improving bulls from producer herds or from the STARS herd
competitiveness of beef. Previous studies have were used in natural service single-sire breeding
indicated that, in general, Bos indicus breeds herds on about 30 Brahman cows per breeding
consistently have lower marbling scores than herd. One bull each year was also used a second
British breeds, and less desirable shear force (a year to tie data between years. Thus, over a
mechanical measure of meat tenderness) and five-year period 21 different bulls could be
sensory panel tenderness scores than Bos taurus evaluated. The breeding season began about
breeds. Although carcasses from 1/4,3/8, and March 20 each year and lasted for 105 days. All
perhaps 1/2 Brahman cattle can be acceptable, calves were weaned in September, and all but the
more information is needed to determine if certain very lightest of the steer and heifer calves were
lines within the Brahman breed may be more placed on feed in October. Blood was obtained
tender than others and to clearly identify both from each sire, dam, and calf and white blood cells
tender and tough Brahman sires.

stored for later DNA extraction. Calves were compared to the carcass and tenderness data and
slaughtered by pen when fat over the loin should lead to an evaluation of the feasibility of
determined by ultrasound averaged .4 in for the using those markers for marker-assisted selection.
pen. Carcasses were graded for USDA quality and
yield factors after which a strip loin was removed Collaborators: Agricultural Research
and steaks cut for Warer-Bratzler shear (a me- Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; and
chanical method of testing tenderness) and sensory T. A. Olson, R. L West, and D. D. Johnson,
panel evaluation. To date, feedlot performance and Animal Science, University of Florida.
carcass data have been collected from the calves
from the first four years of the study and the calves
from the fifth year are currently in the feedlot.

Impact: Feedlot performance and carcass
data from Brahman steer and heifer calves from 14 i
Brahman sires have been analyzed during three
years of a five year study. Preliminary analyses I
revealed significant sire effects on feedlot
performance and USDA quality grade. Three sires
were ranked the highest for both marbling score
and USDA quality grade. Sire effects on
Warner-Bratzler shear, a mechanical measure of D
tenderness, were only significant in year 2 of the I
study. One sire was ranked the lowest (tender) for
Warner-Bratzler shear and the highest (tender) for
taste panel tenderness score. These data suggest
that there is genetic variation in Brahman sires for
feedlot performance and carcass quality traits -
including tenderness and that this variation may be
exploited using traditional beef cattle breeding
schemes. Additionally, cooperators are beginning
the DNA-based genetic marker evaluation part of
this study. Specific genetic markers that have
previously been identified for marbling and
tenderness traits are being emphasized. Results
from the genetic markers will then be directly
Chad Chase

Tropical REC Homestead

Maximizing Lychee Yields through Improved annual yields. Lychee trees bear irregularly in
Flowering and Fruit Set Florida primarily because of (a) inconsistent
flowering during winter months, (b) poor fruit
Significance: Despite the increasing set in trees or branches which produce primarily
popularity in American markets of the fruit of the non-bearing, male inflorescences, and (c) loss of
illustrious lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), Florida developing fruitlets. Cool night temperatures
growers have been frustrated in meeting the stimulate flowering during winter; however,
demand because of often poor and inconsistent flowering is inhibited in branches bearing young


vegetative flushes. Growers habitually apply high of maturation of the last flushes for flowering to
levels of nitrogen fertilizer in the naturally wet occur under these same conditions. Timng and
environment of South Florida. Consequently rates of applications of nitrogen fertilizer
multiple vegetative flushes of growth occur at the significantly affected concentrations of soil and leaf
expense of flowering throughout the spring, nitrogen. High nitrogen levels in the leaves
summer, fall and winter months. The recent series induced more vegetative flushes and less
of warm winters has increased the problem of poor flowering, and consequently less fruit yield. Thus
flowering. by restricting the application of nitrogen late in
summer or early fall, fruit yields in the subsequent
Rationale: Although growers have no spring and summer were increased significantly
control over the weather, they need to be able to and reliably. We have disseminated these research
manage the growth, vigor and reproduction of findings to lychee growers through workshops and
trees through practices which optimize flowering publications.
Q even during warm winters. When adequately
5 watered and fertilized, lychee trees grow
4g vigorously with frequent vegetative flushes every
O) two to three months. Under these conditions,
* F portions of trees, or entire trees, typically produce
g, vegetative flushes as late as November or
2 December. The lack of maturity of these late
S vegetative flushes, prevents mild temperatures in
U January and February from stimulating flowering
U under conditions when flowering typically occurs
on trees which have not experienced vegetative
flushes in the late fall or early winter. Thus by
S adopting management practices, which operate
against fall vegetative flushes, growers should be
w) able to induce abundant flowering even in mild
SO winters. We felt that vegetative flushes in the late
W fall may be prevented by reducing the levels of leaf
9 nitrogen during the fall months.

VImpact: Our results demonstrated that the
4,a ages of the last vegetative flushes on individual Yuncong Li and Thomas L. Davenport
U branches in the fall were correlated with
subsequent flowering of those branches during Collaborators: Department of Agricultural
V their winter flush. 'Mauritius' stems with Consumer Services, Tropical Fruit Growers of
S vegetative flushes less than fifteen weeks old failed South Florida, Inc., Lychee and Longan Research
to flower. In contrast, when such stems were 20 to Committee, Miami-Dade County Extension
25 weeks old, about 60% of them flowered. Service, Senior Biologist, Dr. Qi Zheng, Chemist,
'Brewster' tended to require an even longer period Dr. Renuka Rao, and Lychee growers.

West Florida REC Jay

Turfgrass Science at the West FLorida state's economy. Florida's unique year-round
Research and Education Center growing conditions provides many challenges to
growing, maintaining, and producing high quality
Situation: The turfgrass industry in turf. One of these challenges is the pervasive weed
Florida contributes over $7.6 billion annually to the populations that exist under these

tropical/sub-tropical conditions. Weeds are major alternatives evaluated, metam sodium co-applied
problems not only in established turfgrass but also with chloropicrin under a plastic tarpaulin showed
pose a serious risk during establishment. some promise but must be further studied. Of
additional concern: methyl bromide is effective
Rationale: Over $90 million is spent on under most conditions (i.e., soil type, pH, etc.).
herbicides for weed control in turfgrass annually in This, however, is not the case with the alternatives,
Florida. Weed management accounts for 12% of all therefore, numerous studies under many different
golf course management expenses and is conditions must be conducted to provide site
considered as the most difficult problem specific recommendations.
encountered by managers of residential turfgrass.
In addition to management of weeds in established Impact: Quinclorac will provide effective
turfgrass, weeds are an important consideration in control of torpedograss, a serious weed problem in
turf establishment. This includes control of turfgrass throughout Florida. Use of multiple
contaminant "off-type" plants of the turf species applications will enhance the level of control over a
that is to be established. Fumigation with methyl single application with the same total amount of
bromide is the current standard treatment to chemical applied. This will allow turfgrass
eliminate such "weeds" as common bermudagrass managers to realize maximum return for the weed
where a hybrid bermudagrass cultivar is about to management investment.
be established. Methyl bromide is scheduled for
phase out over the next few years and alternative Thus far some potential methyl bromide
management systems need to be developed, replacements have been identified. Though none is
as effective as methyl bromide, used in concert 1W
Results: A cooperative program was with other alternatives in an integrated system, .
developed to address these issues. Field studies these alternatives may allow continued production
were initiated to evaluate a wide range of weed of quality turfgrass in Florida. Further research is
management systems in established turfgrass. needed to refine application technology for
In addition to standard herbicide efficacy studies, maximum benefit from the alternative fumigants.
the impact of cultural practices such as mowing O
interval prior to herbicide application and nitrogen Collaborators: This has been a cooperative
fertility on the level of herbicide effectiveness was effort between, J. Bryan Unruh and Barry Brecke,
also measured. The recently registered herbicide West Florida REC Jay; Joan Dusky, Everglades
quinclorac was provides good control of REC, Belle Glade and Steve Godbehere, Hendrix
torpedograss in bermudagrass. Best control is and Dail Inc., Tifton, GA.
achieved when three applications of one-third the -
total use rate are applied compared to a single 7 : -- -
application at the full rate. Allowing additional
foliar growth of the weed or applying nitrogen --- -.
fertilizer prior to herbicide application did not .
improve herbicide effectiveness. Apparently a
significant portion of herbicide absorption is
through the root system and, thus, additional foliar
surface did not enhance activity. ,: "

The alternative fumigants that have been
evaluated to date will not provide a "drop-in" sh
replacement for methyl bromide. Of the
Barry Brecke and Bryan Unruh



Florida FIRST reaffirms the IFAS mission of
developing knowledge in agricultural, human, and
natural resources and the life sciences and making that
knowledge accessible to people to sustain and enhance the
quality of human life.

Florida FIRST provides IFAS with a broad course and direction
for helping shape Florida's evolution over the next several decades.

Through Florida FIRST, IFAS has a role to harness the forces for
change to help Florida expand domestic and international business,
enhance natural resources, provide consumers with a wide variety of
safe and affordable foods, support community development, provide
enhanced environments for homes, work places and vacations, maintain
a sustainable food and fiber system, and improve the quality of life.

Florida FIRST
Focusing IFAS Resources on Solutions for Tomorrow
http://floridafirst. ufl. edu

Putting Florida FIRS T tion growth on natural diversification, productiv-
resource systems and coastal irt, pest resistance and qual-
M ao Pa I peratives resources. ir of plant and animal
Major Program Imperatives products.
Global Competitiveness of
Current and Emerging Food Technologies: Safety,
Water Management, Qual- genic microorganisms pose Agricultural and Natural Nutrition and Product
ity and Allocation-Cur- threats to the Florida food Resource Products -The Development -Changing
rently, on a statewide basis, and agricultural industry. future competitiveness and socio-economic factors, in-
the available supply of afterr Imperatlves for addressing survival of Florida's agricul- cluding shifts in urban-
exceeds demand. Still. sc Floridas pct problems will ture and natural resource ization, aging and ethnic-
eral regions of the stare tace likely develop the capability industries will be heavily ity, propel IFAS to modify
one or more critical water- to quickly identify poten- influenced by general researchand education pro-
related issues. IFAS research tial problem organisms; economic conditions, the grams to meet evolving con-
and education programs improve and implement growth and change of pop- summer needs and farm-to-
must develop and provide early detection. develop pre- ulation, the global nature of table assessment of various
scientific and policy infor- icntion and public educa- agriculture and trade, gov- plant and animal systems
nation to the public regard- tion strategies: and develop ernmental policies and reg- to assure wholesomeness of
ing the interaction of land integrated pest manage- ulations, natural resource foods. Research and educa-
water, air and natural ws- ment protocols for major and environmental issues, tion programsmustconcen-
tems. plant and animal pests. and technology develop- trate on food safety, nutri-
Plant, Animal and Human Managing Urban, Rural ment. IFAS research and tion and health, particularly
Protection from Pests- and Human Impacts on education programs
A climate extremely favor- Natural and Coastal Eco- must develop the
able to plant, animal and systems and Resources- means for manag-
human pests; a continuous The increasing human pop- ing and conserving
invasion o exotic pc,,et and ulation in Florida is the Florida's soil, water
a loss of some existing pest single most important and air resources for
control agents underscore factor in placing Florida's a stable, productive
the need for a research and natural resource %\ytems at and globally com-
extcnsion imperative in pro- risk. "The infrastructure petitive agriculture
reciting plants, animals and needed to support Florida's and for harmonious
humans from existing and increasing human popula- coexistence of ag-
invasive pests (insects, di,- tion will favor a conversion riculture and natu-
eases and %\eeds). Over of natural and rural areas for ral terrestrial and
the past 20 'ear period, developmental uses. Such marine ecosystems
an average of greater than conversion is often in direct while maximizing
one insect pest per month conflict with the mainte- crop and animal
has successfully established nance of biodi.cr- Kr
itself in Florida. Several sirv and health eco-
plant species growing, or systems. IFAS must
.thought to be, in Florida continue to empha-
are invasive and may prove size research. exten-
i to be \'er% disruptme to the sion and teaching
: tive environment and imperatives that will
.I"l*ultural crops and to effectively man-age
:. he. calth and economic the urban/rural
el-being of our citizens. interface and help
L,.ikewise, existing and mitigate the impact
'. etially invasive patho- of human popula-

the efficacy of new food through communiirt part-
products and supplements nerships and volunteerism
relative to the needs of the to address these problems.
elderly, youth and cultur- Producing Society-Ready
ally diverse populations. College Graduates in the
Human Resource Devel- Agricultural and Life Sci-
opment: Families. Chil- ences and Natural and
dren and Communities Renewable Resources-
-Maior demographic and M lajor forces that will influ-
ocial trends pertaining ,to L-nl I ~.c academic pro- ..,
families. children and grams ril. r rt funding,
southh art deep-rooted in e nrollmeilr and admissions
I nduqrrial ia oln and urban- po licic, de. \loplcnt of
iation., '.g.. lmaller family ,tateIC e. i CataIhlni pro-
sizc. Increased life expec- gram a.I Research and Fdu- .nd food distribution.
tancie,. Recent social and cation l enter iR .I. dis- II AS must advance the
economic chjiLanges espe- ranc duc.,n ,o student t capacity to help people un-
cialh technolggx. have frag- recruling. d,.'hpln-'l of derstand the public p0ol- O
mented the sItal Fabric of professional graduate pro- It' environment, just as
y-outh. tanilie, and com- grams and thI tapaclirs for rhey strive to understand
muntlles. nilc hatin aitd response i c the natural environment in
From a labor stand- change. IILA. academic which they live.
point, a number of exter- l t rthcr d -
nal factor, that could alter elohp the undergraduate Special Initiatives
the future of Florida's labor Vind graduate programs at Fo special initiatives impacts to the people of
rk lu l and R and -nd reaching are critical for achieving Florida.
m.Sr. ionmldIc treng. programs u htilizng multiple ILFA goals and those of the
'. cn ic rneans delivering formal clientele served in the 21" Assessment of State Work
immigranont pcolie. ghlbal- initrUClion througLl ut the Century. These initiatives Situation and Outook-
neizsivn the n c* dahc[ state. arc economic analyses and IFAS clientele have a need
Sned achnolv h -l dicl- aes labor information dear- for information on labor.
opcd. and thI availabilir% Public Polics Issues-IFA s Inwhouse. IFAS must develop an ana-
oar-nsto eIFAS must develop an ania-
of housing and public lr- mu se h the capacr io u o lytical database to include
aces for migrant \vrkers. anals ze and deCelop the Economic Impact Analy- an inventory oflabor needs
lorida communies information required for sis-l IA, must conduct
are challenged meet he found public policy dcci- and public economic needs and levels of inen-
r challenged meet theeds and levels of inen-
growing and varied needs _hiolns based (n science and impact anahlses for those sity of training required,
-'\n, ,,d truth. IFAS must nor adio- cientell e and industries how to deal with nder or
ofan increasing and diverse how to deal with under or
population. Communities catr public police Hos\- served throughout the state oversupplies oflabor, anda
are Facing a ,ide range of ti eer. ItFA should help to describe the impact of varietyofwork-basedneeds
problems. includingafford- decision makers under- ood. agriculture, and naru- related to the viewpoint of
able housing: orcrcOwded trand the impllcatlons of ral and renesable resource both employers and labor.
school: care o children, public police dciion on a systems. cludngecotour-
-elders and iht-income. varletr ot arca-s Such a, land Ism. on the state of Flor- Organizational
le adhi and water use. eniron- ida. The economic anal- Conzmitments
fam ilies. leadership d e-al- .
mental qualirs, urban/rural sis efforts include both IFAS must also be
Opment and .nvironmnen-c m
cal pRinterface competition the drcelopment of impact committed to making those
and education. nIUsdt- in trade. human resource inftorniation and the internal adjustment that
and duclUaiunl tiurt de-
dedlopmcrn.t. and hunger communication of tho-s can maximize the poten-
velop collaborative efforts

Extension Delivery Meth- Institutional Marketing
ods-Intead of exclusively -It is imperative that the
relying on the traditional public be made aware of
model for technology and who IFAS is and the impor-
information delivery, IFAS ance of the people that
should d\eelop and employ IFAS serves. IFAS must
new models particularly as expand its efforts in public
related to utilizanon o ine\t awareness, external rela-
technologies. IFaAS must tions, and internal and
...t r...also explore nc\ part- external communications.
ral fr accomplishing nerships and opportunities IFA S must therefore de-
misnson goal and d r for collaborating with con- svelop and implement an
objective. Those ad- sultants and other aten- analytically sound insti-
justments include re-
ducing administrative and/or vertical integration, cies n proJding intorma- tutional marketing plan,
costs, deeingve pro losses of market share, con- tion products and services. the objectives of which
costs, developing new pro- Thv i ad i ndc r rne
gram partnerships, explor- summer demands, land use, Thes conulrant, and agn- include creating awareness,
ing n ew extension method- and regulatory restrictions cies in turn ill repackage developing preferences and
ologies and implementing have dramatically altered information for final dceit- scoring supportt commit-
an institutional marketing the level of required ser- eryto ed users. In moving ments.
an institutional marketing to ne u nimodel. IF-kS nmu-c
plan. vices in many program- to neConcr dsion
matic areas. IFAS must develop ways t maintain Florida FIRT reaf-
Efficiency and Effective- determine the level of ser- its identity a the original irthe lIad-grant
ness-Administrative costs vice to be provided and seek source of the information in f te F -nt
mandate for wen ing the
within IFAS generally are programmatic partnerships conc-ert w\h counr part- apple oJ Fehrida. he
relatively low, less than 10 with clientele, industry ners. p e of Fr
percent. However, the groups and other regional Accountabiliny easures- W\Orking vith stake-
mission of IFAS is to or national land-grant uni- Local. scare and federal holders. 1A haI engaged
develop knowledge and versities. Areas of high funding entities are incrcas- individual, groups and
make that knowledge avail- potential for such efforts ingly requiring the deae- orgaFnizaion, to articulate
able to increase the quality include animal research and opment of accontability its vision tr rhe 21 Cen-
of life. Thus, continuous extension programs, engi- measures that demonstrated tur. That \ision cim-
efforts must ensure that the neering research programs the value of public Cxpen- bind with the land-grant
maximum amount of that require a minimum diture. uch efforts are mandate for ,service. drives
resources are devoted to of site-specific characteris- requiring a re, olu( mn in the IFAS research, exten-
the programmatic areas of tics, and distance educa- the management and ine- sion and teaching imper-
teaching, research and tion. USDA funding re- gration rof administrative atives for putting Florida
extension in support of this quirements for regionaliza- andprogrannatic inorma- FIRS .
mission. These efforts re- tion of programs is also a tion. lhe efficienc% hbne- For Florida FIRST
quire that opportunities for driver for developing new fits of .uch effort, include base papers and summaries
administrative cost-savings collaborative partnerships. evaluation ofadmliniirtatile of trends. \isit the Florida
and general increases in effi- In short, IFAS must find requirements. consolidation FIRS 1 \Seb page at htIp://
ciency, both at central and ways to leverage its re- of datab.i,,, more efficient floridafirst.tfl.fedtu.
unit levels, be continuously sources with other organi- data prn''cesing. increased
analyzed. zations, groups, individu- on-line proceving at the
Program Partnerships- als, universities and finan- user ecl. better man- s. UNIVERSITY OF
Changes in the nature of cial institutions to max- agement and program- FLORID
agriculture and natural imize program effective- matic dlcislons. and "O ..A .I
resource industries created ness. savings in portrng I F
by industry consolidations efforts.

Retirements John Robert Duval, Assistant Professor, Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center, Dover
James L. App, Assistant Dean and Professor Nat B. Frazer, Chairman and Professor, Wildlife
Emeritus, Extension Administration Ecology and Conservation
David W. Buchanan, Center Director and Professor Jason C. Grabosky, Assistant Professor,
Emeritus, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Environmental Horticulture
Center Chad Michael Hutchinson, Assistant Professor,
Robert C. Bullock, Associate Professor, Indian River Research and Education Center, Hastings
Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce Peter Epeh Kima, Assistant Professor, Microbiology
Chin-Shu Chen, Professor, Citrus Research and and Cell Science
Education Center Jane E. Luzar, Assistant Dean, Academic Programs
Marion L. Clarke, Assistant Dean & Professor, Sea Karen Moore, Assistant Professor, Dairy and
Grant Poultry Sciences
Dennis E. Duggan, Associate Professor, Daryle Charles Parkyn, Research Assistant
Microbiology and Cell Science Professor, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Robert A. Dunn, Professor, Entomology and Cynthia R. Rutledge, Assistant Professor, Florida
Nematology Medical Entomology Laboratory
Richard W. Henley, Assistant Center Director and Wen-Yuan Song, Assistant Professor, Plant
Professor, Mid-Florida Research & Education Pathology 0"
Center Andrew Todd Storfer, Assistant Professor, Wildlife
John Holt, Professor, Food and Resource Ecology and Conservation
Economics Walter J. Tabachnick, Center Director and (
Dan E. Purcifull, Professor, Plant Pathology Professor, Florida Medical Entomology
Robert R. Schmidt, Graduate Research Professor, Laboratory -.
Microbiology and Cell Science Joyce Allison Tredaway, Assistant Professor,
Lawrence N. Shaw, Professor, Agricultural and Agronomy
Biological Engineering Laurie E. Trenholm, Assistant Professor, 0
Donald E. Short, Professor, Entomology and Environmental Horticulture
Nematology Lois Schertz Willett, Professor, Indian River
Robert L. Stanley, Jr., Associate Professor, North Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce
Florida Research and Education Center, Anita Christine Wright, Assistant Professor, Food
Quincy Science and Human Nutrition
Indra K. Vasil, Graduate Research Professor,
Horticultural Sciences

Deceased Faculty Ashok K. Alva, Professor, Citrus Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred
David L. Anderson, Professor, Everglades Research Ivonne Audirac-Zazueta, Assistant Professor,
and Education Center, Belle Glade Family, Youth and Community Science
Edwin C. French, III, Professor, Agronomy Michelle Lannette Bell, Assistant Professor, Gulf
Allen G. Smajstrla, Professor, Agricultural and Coast Research and Education Center,
Biological Engineering Bradenton
Michael A. Delorenzo, Professor, Dairy and Poultry
New Faculty Michael D. Fanning, Assistant Professor, Southwest
Florida Research and Education Center,
Byron J. Adams, Assistant Professor, Entomology Immokalee
and Nematology Joseph E. Flaherty, Assistant-In, Gulf Coast
Shirley M. Baker, Assistant Professor, Fisheries and Research and Education Center, Bradenton
Aquatic Sciences Harold C. Kistler, Professor, Plant Pathology


Alan W. Meerow, Professor, Environmental Frederick M. Shokes, Professor, North Florida
Horticulture Research and Education Center, Quincy
Sean F. O'Keefe, Associate Professor, Food Science Brian E. Smith, Assistant-In, Center for Aquatic and
and Human Nutrition Invasive Plants
Daniel F. Perkins, Assistant Professor, Family, Mark Lewis Tamplin, Professor, Family, Youth and
Youth and Community Sciences Community Sciences
David Ian Shapiro, Assistant-In, Citrus Research
and Education Center, Lake Alfred




The University of Florida REA03745 T-STAR Management Grant for
Institute of Food and Tropical and Subtropical
Agriculture (Caribbean Basin)
Agricultural Sciences D. FDavis

1 CHARLES E. YOUNG Interim President REA03783 Multistate Research Coordination,
& Prof. Southern Region
1,2,3 MICHAEL V. MARTIN Vice President for R. L. Jones E. R. Emino
Agr. & Nat. Resources & Prof. W. F Brown

Florida Agricultural Experiment Research Grants:
Davis, D. F T-STAR Management Grant for ""
Office of the Dean for Research and Tropical & Subtropical Agriculture Caribbean.
USDA-CSRS. 02/01/96-06/3/00. $144,280.
Director Emino, E. R. Florida Tomato Committee Research
1022 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110200 Projects. FL Tomato Comm. 11/01/95-
Gainesville, FL 32611-0200 10/31/03. $207,000.
Telephone: (352) 392-1784 Emino, E. R. Turfgrass Research. Florida Turfgrass
Research Foundation. 11/10/95- 10/31/05. O
FAX: (352) 392-4965 $240,488. -h
Jones, R. L. Southern Association of Agricultural
2 RICHARD L. JONES Dean for Research and Experiment Station Executive Director.
Director, FAES, Prof. Mississippi State University. 04/01/96-
2 EVERETT R. EMINO Asst. Dean, Prof. 06/30/99. $324,197.
2 WILLIAM F BROWN Asst. Dean, Prof. Jones, R. L. To Study and Help Make Available to
4 JUDY F. KITE Coord., Admin. Services the Farmers of Florida, New & Improved
1,2,3 RUSTY OKONIEWSKI Acting Director, IFAS Varieties of Crop Seed & Other Plant Materials
Sponsored Programs to Adequate Quantities & Reasonable Prices.
2 THOMAS D. STADSKLEV Manager, FL FL Foundation Seed Producers. 07/01/97- P-4
Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. 06/30/00. $112,234. "
Jones, R. L. and Browning, H. W. Partnership in >
IFAS Plant Genetic Improvement Research &0
UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research Enhancement. Florida Department of
Projects: Agriculture & Consumer Services. 08/04/99-
09/30/00. $60,000.
EA0472 Biogicl C ro Wrkin Gro Jones, R. L. College Return of Royalties to the
REA03472 Biological Control Working Group llege of AS. UF Research Foundation Inc.
Activities College of IFAS. UF Research Foundation Inc.
11/16/98-12/31/00. $4,920.
R. L. Jones Jones, R. L. Cooperative Support Agreement
REA3511 CBAG Mat G t fr Tpicl Travel. USDA Cooperative State Research
REA03511 CBAG Management Grant for Tropical Service. 10/01/98-09/30/00. $137,000.
Service. 10/01/98-09/30/00. $137,000.
and Subtropical Agriculture Jones, R. L. Support of Agricultural Research of
D. F. Davis Mutual Interest. USDA-ARS (* Research
Support Agreement). 10/01/98-09/30/99.
REA03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and $269,352. 10/01/9809/30/99
Subtropical Agricultural Research $269,352.
Jones, R. L. Research in Support of Plant Variety
(T-STAR) Development. FL Foundation Seed Producers.
R. L. Jones J. T. Neilson 04/01/96-06/30/03. $100,000.

1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency 77

fvf.:i1 tfd .W Tli titi 1Litti Ril

Center for Cooperative Center for Natural Resource Programs
Agricultural Programs FAMU 1051 McCarty Hall / PO Box 110230
215 Perry Paige Building Gainesville, FL 32611-0230
Tallahassee, FL 32307 Telephone: (352) 392-7622
Telephone: (352) 599-3546
T : (352) 59-3546 1,2,3 JOSEPH M. SCHAEFER Acting Dir. & Prof.
FAX: (352) 561-2151

2,3 LAWRENCE CARTER Asst. Dean & Assoc.
2 P3 LA, 10 FAMU Dean &As. Center for Natural Resource Programs
Prof., 1890 FAMU Programs (Biomass Programs)
(Biomass Programs)
C3 129 Newins-Ziegler Hall / PO Box 110415
S Center for Aquatic Plants Gainesville, FL 32611-0415
4 7922 NW 71 Street / PO Box110610 Telephone: (352) 392-1511
Gainesville, FL 32606-0610 FAX: (352) 392-2389
I Telephone: (352) 392-9613
( FAX: (352) 392-3462 1,2,3 WAYNE H. SMITH Dir. & Prof.
*Il 1,2 RANDALL K. STOCKER Dir. & Prof.




78 1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency

Agricultural and Biological 1,2 SUN-FU SHIH, Prof., Hydrology
1,2 GLEN H. SMERAGE, Assoc. Prof.,
Engineering Biological & Ecological Systems
1 Frazier Rogers Hall/P.O. Box 110570 2,3 MICHAEL T. TALBOT, Assoc. Prof., Grain
Gainesville, FL 32611-0570 Drying & Energy
Telephone: (352) 392-1864 1,2 ARTHUR A. TEIXEIRA, Prof., Food
Telephone: (352) 392-1864 Engineering
Fax: (352) 392-4092 1,2,3 FEDRO S. ZAZUETA, Director of
Information Technology, & Prof., Water
1,2 C. DIRELLE BAIRD, Chair & Prof., Energy & Management =
Ag Proc.
1,2 LARRY O. BAGNALL, Prof., Ag. Proc &
Aquatic Weeds UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research S+
2,3 HOWARD W. BECK, Assoc. Prof., Projects:
Information Technology *
1,3 KENNETH R. BERGER, Asst. Prof.,
Packaging AGE02882 Remote Sensing Application to
PackagingAbandoned Well Assessment in
1,2,3 RAY A. BUCKLIN, Prof., Farm Structures & Abandoned Well Assessment in
Waste Management Florida
1,2 KENNETH L. CAMPBELL, Prof., Water S. F. Shih
1,2 KHE V. CHAU, Prof., Energy & Proc. AGE03087 Processing, Handling, Packaging and
1,2 DAVID P. CHYNOWETH, Prof., Anaerobic Storage of Fruits and Vegetables
Digestion K. V. Chau C. D. Baird
1,3 BYRON T. FRENCH, Assoc. Prof., M. T. Talbot O
1,2 WENDY D. GRAHAM, Assoc. Prof., AGE03096 Lower St. Johns and Lake George
Groundwater Hydrologist Agriculture Inventory
1,2,3 DOROTA Z. HAMAN, Prof., Water S. F. Shih
1,2 JAMES W JONES, Dist. Prof., Plant AGE03191 Intelligent Information Retrieval
Modeling & Systems Analysis Technology for Electronic Dissemina-
1,2,3 PIERCE H. JONES, Asst. Director. Energy tion of Agricultural Information
Extension & Prof., Environment H. W. Beck I
2 JONATHAN JORDAN, Asst. In., Remote
Sensing AGE03258 Energy Analysis and Measurement of
1,3 JAMES D. LEARY, Asst. Sci., Energy, Agricultural Systems
Environ. Control R. C. Fluck C. D. Baird 1M
1,3 CAROL J. LEHTOLA, Asst. Prof., Safety D. R. Price
2 EDWARD P. LINCOLN, Assoc. Prof., Algae
Production AGE03285 Anaerobid Decomposition of Energy
1,2 JOHN W. MISHOE, Prof., Crop Modeling Crops, Wastes, and Metals
Instrumentation Systems D. P. Chynoweth
1,2,3 ROGER A. NORDSTEDT, Prof., Waste
Management AGE03385 Simulation Models for Forage
1,2 ALLEN R. OVERMAN, Prof., Water Production
Management & Pollution Control A. R. Overman
3 WENDELL PORTER, Asst. In., Energy &
Electric Motors AGE03456 Improvement of Thermal Processes for
1,2,3 DONALD R. PRICE, Prof., Systems Foods
Engineering A. A. Teixeira G. H. Smerage

1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency 79

AGE03491 Parameter Sensing and Control AGE03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and
Systems for Drying Agricultural Subtropical Agricultural Research
Commodities (T-STAR)
M. T. Talbot C. D. Baird J. W. Jones
K. V. Chau

n AGE03492 Microirrigation of Horticultural Crops Publications:
Sin Humid Regions
D.Z.Haman F.S.Zazueta Berger, K. R. 1999. Presentation Online Introduc-
D. tion to the Packaging Industry and the New
AGE03508 Interior Environment and Energy Use Packaging Science Program at the University of
Sin Poultry and Livestock Facilities Florida. Florida Postharvest Institute. March 8.
* R. A. Bucklin P. H. Jones Bottcher, A. B., Tremwel, T. K. and Campbell, K. L.
O 1999. Phosphorus Management in Flatwood
AGE03569 A Markets Development Program for (Spodosols) Soils. pp. 405-423. In K. R. Reddy,
Composts in Florida G. A. O Connor and C. L.Schelske (eds.).
R. C. Fluck Phosphorus Biogeochemistry in Subtropical
AGE03593 Development and Application of Ecosystems. Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL.
AGE03593 Development and Application of
Comprehensive Agricultural Bucklin, R. A., Jacob, J. P., Mather, E B., Leary, J. D.
Q Ecosystems Models and Naas, I. A. 1999. Tunnel Ventilation of
O K. L. Campbell W. D. Graham Broiler Houses. PS-46 of the Dairy and Poultry
- Sciences Department, University of Florida.
0 AGE03596 Animal Manure and Waste Utilization, Bucklin, R. A., acob, J. P., Wilson, H. and Leary,
Treatment, and Nuisance Avoidance J. D. 1999. Construction, Insulation and
Sfor a Sustainable Agriculture Ventilation of Game Bird Facilities. PS-45 of
R. A. Nordstedt L. 0. Bagnall the Dairy and Poultry Sciences Department,
E. P. Lincoln University of Florida.
AGE03680 Using Remote Sensing Techniques to Calmon, M. A., Jones, J. W., Shinde, D. and Specht,
Assess Stress Conditions in Wetland J. E. 1999. Estimating Parameters for Soil Water
r and Upland Vegetation Balance Models Using Adaptive Simulated
S. F. Shih Annealing. Applied Engineering
S.E h in Agriculture. 15(6):703-713.
+0 AGE03682 Beneficial Reuse of Reclaimed Water in Calmon, M. A., Batchelor, W. D., Jones, J. W.,
Florida Ritchie, J. T., Boote, K. J. and Hammond, L. C.
A. R. Overman 1999. Simulating Soybean Root Growth and
SISoil Water Extraction Using a Functional Crop
AGE03687 Development of a Precision Agricul- Model. Transactions of the ASAE.
t< ture System to Manage Florida Citrus
J. K. Schueller Campbell, K. L. and Capece, J. C. 1999. Hydrologic
Processes Influencing Phosphorus Transport.
AGE03689 Agro-Ecosystem Indicators of pp. 343-354. In K. R. Reddy, G. A. O Connor
Sustainability as Affected by Cattle and C. L. Schelske (eds.). Phosphorus Bio-
Density in Ranch Management geochemistry in Subtropical Ecosystems. Lewis
Systems Publishers: Boca Raton, FL.
K. L. Campbell Campbell, K. L. 1999. Management Models to
Evaluate Phosphorus Transport From Water-
AGE03704 A Multimedia Instruction and sheds. pp. 565-584. In K. R. Reddy, G. A. O
Learning System for Higher Education Connor and C. L. Schelske (eds.). Phosphorus
G. H. Smerage H. W. Beck Biogeochemistry in Subtropical Ecosystems.
T. A. Bewick J. W. Mishoe Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL.

Chugh, S., Chynoweth, D. P., Clarke, W., Hansen, J. W. and Jones, J. W. 1999. Scaling-Up
Pullammanappallil, P. and Rudolph, V. 1999. Crop Models for Climate Prediction
Degradation of Unsorted Municipal Solid Applications. Proceedings of a Workshop.
Waste by a Leach-Bed Process. Bioresource
Waste by a Leah-Bed Pce. Be Hansen, J. W., Beinroth, F. H. and Jones, J. W.
Technology, 69(2):103-115.
S1998. Systems-Based Land Use Evaluation
Chynoweth, D. P., Wilkie, A. C. and Owens, A.C. at the South Coast of Puerto Rico. Applied
1999. Anaerobic Treatment of Piggery Slurry. Engineering in Agriculture. 14:191-200.
Asian-Aus. J. Anim Sci. 12(4):607-628. ,
Asian-Aus. Anim Sci. 12(4):607-628. Hansen, J. W, Jones, J. W., Irmak, A. and Royce,
Demmy, G., Berglund, S. and Graham, W. D. 1999. F S. 1999. ENSO Impacts on Crop Production
Injection Mode Implications for Solute Trans- in the Southeast US. Impact of Climate
port in Porous Media: Analysis in a Stochastic Variability on Agriculture. American Society
Lagrangian Framework. Water Resources of Agronomy Special Publication. Ir
Research. 35(7):1965-1974.
Research. 35(7):1965-1974. Hansen, J. W., Messina, C. M. and Hall, A. J. 1999.
Donham, K. J., Osterberg, D., Myers, M. and Land Allocation Conditioned on ENSO Phases
Lehtola, C. J. 1999. Tractor Risk Abatement and in the Pampas of Argentina. Agricultural
Control: The Policy Conference. University of Systems.
Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Hansen, J. W., Jones, J. W., Kiker, C. F. and Hodges,
Foussereau, X., Graham, W. D. and Rao, P. S. 1999. A. W. 1999. El Nino-Southern
Stochastic Analysis of Transient Flow in Oscillation Impacts on Winter Vegetable
Unsaturated Hetergeneous Soils. Water Production in Florida. J. Climate 12:92-102. W
Resources Research.
Hansen, J. W., Irmak, A. and Jones, J. W. 1999. O
Foussereau, X., Graham, W. D., Akpoji, G. A., El Nino-Southern Oscillation Influences on
Destouni, G. and Rao, P. S. 1999. Stochastic Florida Crop Yields. Soil and Crop Science
Analysis of Transport in Unsaturated Hetero- Society of Florida Proceedings 58: 1.
generous Soils Under Transient Flow Regimes.
geneous Sos Under Transient Flow Regimes. Harrison, C. B., Graham, W. D. and Lamb, S. T.
Water Resources Research. 1999. Evaluating the Impact of Alternative
Haman, D. Z., Palacios, M. P., Del-Nero, E., Pardo, Nitrogen Management Practices on Ground-
A. and Pavon, N. 1999. Banana Production water Beneath Central Florida Citrus Groves. 2.
Irrigated with Treated Effluent in Canary Computer Modeling. Transactions of the
Islands. Transactions of American Society of ASAE. (.
Agricultural Engineers. j
Agricultural Engineers. Hatch, U., Jagtap, S. D., Jones, J. W. and Lamb, M.
Haman, D. Z., Palacios, M. P., Zazueta, F. S. and 1999. Potential Effects of Climate Change on
Del-Nero, E. 1999. Watermark Soil Moisture Agricultural Water Use in the Southeast U.S. M
Sensor Response to Temperature and Water Am. J. Water Res.
Potential Variation. Applied Engineering in Irmak, and Jones, W 1999. Use of Cro
Agriculture-ASAE Irmak, A. and Jones, J. W. 1999. Use of Crop
Agriculture- SAE. Simulation to Evaluate Antitranspirant Effects
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H. and Irmak, S. 1999. on Tomato Growth and Yield. Transactions of L.
Multi-Pot Box System for Increased Efficiency the ASAE.
of Irrigation in Ornamental Plant Production.
of Irrigation in Orname l P t Production. Irmak, A., Jones, J. W., Mavromatis, T., Welch,
Proceedings of the Irrigation Association's
Technical Conference International S. M., Boote, K. J. and Wilkerson, G. G. 1999.
Technical Conference International
iUation se of Cross Validation to Evaluate Methods
SS for Simulating Soybean Cultivars Responses.
Haman, D. Z., Yeager, T. H., Irmak, S., Beeson, R. Agronomy Journal.
C., Jr. and Knox, G. W. 1999. Multipot Box and
Jr. and Knox, G. W. 19. Mltipot Bx and Irmak, A., Jones, J. W., Stanley, C. D., Hansen,
Funneled Containers in Container Nursery. J. W. and rmak S. 1999. The Effects of
Florida State Horticultural Society Proceedings. A tansprant on Tmato Gr th ad Ye.
Antitranspirant on Tomato Growth and Yield.
Soil & Crop Science Society of Florida. 58:

Irmak, S., Haman, D. Z. and Smajstrla, A. G. 1999. Lamb, S. T., Graham, W. D. and Harrison, C. B.
Continuous Water Content Measurements with 1999. Evaluating the Impact of Alternative
Time-Domain Reflectometry for Florida Sandy Nitrogen Management Practices on Ground-
Soils. Soil & Crop Science Society of Florida. water Beneath Central Florida Citrus Groves.
Irmak, S., Haman, D. Z., Smajstrla, A. G. and 1. Monitoring Data. Transactions of the ASAE.
Bastug R. 1999. Measurement of Soil Water Li, L. and Graham, W. D. 1999. Stochastic Analysis
Potential Using Dew Point Soil Hygrometer for of Solute Transport in Heterogeneous Aquifers
pI Irrigation Timing of Corn. Transactions of the Subject to Spatiotemporal Random Recharge.
$ ASAE. Water Resources Research. 35(4):935-971.
cu Irmak S., Haman, D. Z. and Smajstrla, A. G. 1999. Lincoln, E. P. and Wilkie, A. C. 1999. Growth of
Calibration of Time-Domain Reflectometry for Spirulina on Dairy Lagoon Effluent.
Florida Sandy Soils. Soil and Crop Science LoCurto, G. J., Bucklin R A., Hanes, D. M.,
Society of Florida Proceedings. Teixeira, A. A., Walton, O.R. and West, S. H.
V Irmak S., Haman, D. Z. and Bastug, R. 1999. 1999. Chute Flow of Soybeans. Transactions
S Determination of Crop Water Stress Index for of the ASAE, 42(5):1429-1435.
Irrigation Timing and Yield Estimation of Corn. Messina, C. M., Hansen, J. W., and Hall, A. J. 1999.
Agronomy Journal. Land Allocation Conditioned on ENSO Phases
* James, A. I. and Graham, W. D. 1999. Numerical in the Pampas of Argentina. Agricultural
t Approximation of Head and Flux Covariances Systems 60:1-16.
Smin Three Dimensions Using Mixed Finite
o in Three Dimensions Using Mixed Finite O'Keefe, D. M., Brigmon, R. L. and Chynoweth,
..4 Elements. Advances in Water Resources.
t. A i Wt711-r R. D. P. 1999. Influence of Methane Enrichment by
o Aeration of Recirculated Supernatant on
Q James, A. I., Graham, W. D., Hatfield, K., Rao, P. S. Microbial Activities During Anaerobic
C. and Annable, M. D. 1999. Estimation of Digestion. Bioresource Technology, 71(3), 2000,
o Spatially Variable Residual Non-Aqueous 217-224.
SPhase Temporal Moments From Partitioning Overman, A. R. 1999. Model for Accumulation of
t Tracer Tests: Implications for Test Design. Dry Matter and Plant Nutrients by Tobacco.
Contaminated Site Remediation Conference, J. Plant Nutrition 22:81-92.
J. Plant Nutrition 22:81-92.
Ct Fremantle, Western Australia. March, 8 pp.
t, Overman, A. R. and Scholtz, R. V. 1999. Model
S Jones, J. W., Kenig, A. and Vallejos, C. E. 1999. for Accumulation of Dry Matter and Plant
S Reduced State-Variable Tomato Growth Model. Nutrients b Corn. o n S S an
T si oNutrients by Corn. Commun. Soil Sci and
Transactions of the ASAE 42(1):255-265. Plant Anal. 30:2059-2081.
Plant Anal. 30:2059-2081.
Jones, J. W., 1999. DSSAT: A Decision Support
SOverman, A. R. and Scholtz, R. V 1999. Langmuir-
.I System for Use in Agronomic Research. In Hinshelwood Model of Soil Phosphorus
Pisante, M. (ed.), Atti Corso di Formazione Kinetcs. Co Soil Si. ad Plt A l.
tti ion delle Pac Agronom e Kinetics. Commun. Soil Sci. and Plant Anal.
tj "Ottimizzazione delle Pratiche Agronomiche 30:109-119.
4 in Agricoltura di Precisione". Foggia, (ITALY).
26-29 gennaio 1999. pp. Overman, A. R. and Wilson, D. M. 1999. Physi-
ological Control of Forage Grass Yield and
Jones, J. W., Jagtap, S. S. and Boote, K. J. 1999. Growth. In: Crop Yield: Physiology and
Climate Change: Ims fr SGrowth. In: Crop Yield: Physiology and
Climate Change: Implications for Soybean Processes. D.L. Smith and C. Hamel (eds).
Yield and Management in the USA. In Proc. Srerer. w Y N.
World Soybean Research Conference VI,
Chicago, Illinois, Aug. 4-7, 1999. Paramasivam. S., Alva, A. K. and Graham, W. D.
Kiric P Z, H D a S S W 1999. Transport of Bromide in an Entisol and its
Kirpich P. Z., Haman, D. Z. and Styles, S. W. S Auf. o
1999. Problems of Irrigation in Developing Dissipation in Surficial Aquifer. Journal of
1999. Problems of Irrigation in Developing Environmental Science and Health, Part A, Vol.
Countries. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 34(3):585-604.
Engineering, Vol.1:1-6.


Powers, W. J., Van Horn, H. H., White, A. C., Xin, J., Beck, H. W. Halsey, L. A., Fletcher, J. H. and
Wilcox, C. J. and Nordstedt, R. A. 1999. Effects Zazueta, F. S. 1999. Development of a Distance
of Anaerobic Digestion and Additives to Diagnostic and Identification System for
Effluent or Cattle Feed on Odor and Odorant Plant Insect and Disease Problems. Applied
Concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1412-1421. Engineering in Agriculture.
Rosenweig, C., Iglesias, A., Fischer, G., Liu, Y.,
Baethgen, W. and Jones, J. W. 1999. Wheat Yield La
Functions for Analysis of Land Use Change in Research Grants: 1
China. Environmental Modeling *I
and Assessment. 4:115-132. Annable, M. and Graham, W. D. Innovative Tracer
Shih, S. F. and Melesse, A. M. 1999. Geomorphic Techniques for DNAPL Source Delineation and
GIS Database for Runoff Coefficient Determi- In-Situ Flushing for Enhanced Source Removal: r+
nation. Proceedings of the 2nd International Pilot Scale Demonstrations at the GRFL Dover
Conference on Geospatial Information in AFB. US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory.
Agriculture and Forestry. 07/97- 06/00. $100,000.
Smajstrla, A. G. and Rosa, J. A. 1999. A Simple Baird, C. D. Professorship Award Program. UF
Device for Determining Saturated Hydraulic Research Foundation Inc. 07/02/97- 07/01/00.
Conductivity in High Water Table Soils. Soil & $5,415.
Crop Science of Florida Proceedings. Baird, C. D. Acoustical and Electronic Detection of
Smajstrla, A. G., Locascio, S. J., Weingartner, D. P. Stored Product Insects. USDA Agricultural W
and Hensel, D. R. 1999. Subsurface Drip Research Service. 09/15/95-09/14/00. $50,000. g*
Irrigation for Water Table Control and Beck, H. W. and Poucher, D. W. An Integrated Pest
Potato Production. Applied Engineering in Management Information System Based on 0
Agriculture. Object-Oriented Database Technology. USDA La
Smajstrla, A. G. and Haman, D. Z. 1999. Irrigated Extension Service. 09/15/97- 09/30/99. e
Acreage in Florida. Agricultural and Biological $166,028.
Engineering Extension Report. 99-1. Beck, H. W. Southern Trees. USDA. 1998-1999.
Smajstrla A. G., Haman, D. Z. and Zazueta, F. S. $1000. L'
1999. Statistical Characteristic of Penman Bucklin, R. A. Transport & Handling. National
Reference Evapotranspiration in Florida. Science Foundation. 09/01/94- 08/31/00. (C
Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida $30,000.
Bucklin, R. A. Mars Deployable Greenhouse. CD
Teixeira, A. A., Balaban, M. O., Germer, S.P. M., Dynamac Corporation. 08/23/99- 12/31/00.
Sadahira, M. S., Teixeira-Neto, R. O. and Vitali, $19,000.
A. A. 1999. Heat Transfer Model Performance I
in Simulation of Process Deviations. J. Food Campbell, K. L., Capece, J. C. and Mullahey, J. J.
Science. 64(3):488-493. Agro-Ecosystem Indicators of Sustainability as
Affected by Cattle Density in Ranch Manage-
Thompson, S. A., Molenda, M., Ross, I. J. and ment Systems. USDA- CSRS. 12/01/97-
Bucklin, R. A. 1999. Wall Loads Caused by 04/24/00. $249,476.
Flumes in a Model Grain Bin. International
Agrophysics. 13(1): 141-147. Campbell, K. L., Graetz, D. A. and Portier, K. M.
Optimization of Best Management Practices for
Van Horn, H. H., Sherman, J. J. and Nordstedt, Beef Cattle Ranching in the Lake Okeechobee
R. A. 1999. Use of Flocculants in Dairy Basin Phase 1. Florida Department of Envi-
Wastewaters to Remove Phosphorus. Applied ronmental Protection (EPA Sec. 319). 02/20/98-
Engineering in Agriculture. 05/19/00. $150,000.


Chynoweth, D. P. Improvement of Biological Jones, P. H., and West, M. K. Energy Efficient Air
Engineering Courses. National Science Conditioning for a Standard Commercial Steel
Foundation. 02/10/99-08/31/99. $3,600. Building Requiring 100% Fresh Air. Florida
Department of Community Affairs. 12/05/95-
Chynoweth, D. P. Co-Composting of Organic Waste 06/30/99D $151 000
Blends. Environmental Protection Agency.
0) 08/21/98-12/31/99. $49,997. Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Demonstration and
DeBusk, W. and Graham, W. D. SERDP Determina- Performance Montorig ofa Residential Solar
rl =Air Conditioning and Heating System Using
tion of Indicators of Ecological Change. US Air Conditioning and Heating System Using
SArmy Corps of Engineers CERL. 06/99- Commercial Technologies. Florida Department
wAry 06/05. $10,000. Engiof Community Affairs. 08/06/97-06/30/99.
0} 0"/05* 06/05. $10,000.
G Graham, W. D. Evaluation of the Impacts of
Alternative Citrus Production Practices on Jones, P. H., Porter, W. A. and Wilkie, A. C. Energy
Alternative Citrus Production Practices on
Groundwater Quality. Florida Department of Efficient Air Conditioning for a Standard
Groundwater Quality. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 07/01/92- Commercial Steel Building Requiring 100%
12/31/00. $193,280. Fresh Air. Florida Department of Community
Affairs. 12/05/95-06/30/99. $30,000.

SAJones, P. H. Development and Delivery of a
Graham, W. D. Ridge Citrus Nitrate/Groundwater Jones, P. H. Development and Delivery of a
Monitoring Project. Southwest Florida Water
SContinuing Education Module on Windows
,_3 .Management District. 03/04/93-01/01/99.
anag D 00 0101 for Licensed Building Contractors. Alliance to
$10,000. Save Energy. 04/19/99-12/31/99. $28,000.
O Graham, W. D. National Needs Fellowships in
S.Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Sensor Upgrade for
O Water Sciences. US Department of Agriculture. Building Products Test Facility. Certainteed
Building Products Test Facility. Certainteed
12/99-12/04. $207,000. Corporation. 08/01/99-07/31/00. $12,715.
SGratz, D. and Graham, W. D. Evaluating the
Gratz, D. and Graham, W. D. Eluating the Jones, P. H. Technical Assistance and Support
rEffectiveness of BMPs for Reducing Nutrient Services. Florida A& M University. 01/22/99-
Inputs to Groundwater in the Suwanee River 01/31/00.$12
Basin. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
cc 319 Program. 12/99-12/02. $200,000. Jones, P. H. and Miller, C. Florida Energy Efficiency
SEducation Program Phase II. Florida
r_ Haman, D. Z., Kidder, G. and Brinen, G. Sustain- Edu n P m P e .
e Fd Pro ion Thr h R ing of Department of Community Affairs. 01/03/96-
) able Food Production Through Recycling of 12/31/99. $250,000.
Food and Food-Processing Waste Using
4J Anaerobic Digestion and Fertigation Proposal Jones, P. H. Energy and Water Efficiency Project for
Submitted with Full Circle Solutions to SARA Selected Rural Water/ Wastewater Treatment
two year project starting in 1998. $124,014. Plants. Florida Department of Community
V~ Affairs. 02/04/97- 12/31/99. $20,000.
*NI Hatfield, K. and Graham, W. D. An In-Situ Tracer
SMethod for Establishing the Presence and Jones, P. H. Industry Support Through the National
Predicting the Activity of Heavy Metal- Food Safety Database. Food Research Institute
Reducing Microbes in the Subsurface. U.S. Foundation. 09/01/98-08/31/99. $3,750.
Department of Energy. 06/97-06/00.
Department of Energy. 06/97-06/00. Jones, P. H. Home Energy Raters Equipment Loan
Co-Principal Investigator. $10,000. .
SI Program. Florida Department of Community
Hochmuth, G. J., Locascio, S., Haman, D. Z., Affairs. 07/14/99-07/31/00. $38,000.
Nordstedt, R., Hochmuth, R. C. Monitoring
Nordstedt, R., Hochmuth, R. C. Monitoring Jones, P. H. and Porter, W. A. Submetering and
Nitrogen Beneath Intensive Crop Production in Motor Database Demon ion Proect. Ree
,1 Mid ^ T n Florida Motor Database Demonstration Project. Reedy
the Middle Suwanee River Basin. Florida
SMid S Rivr i. Creek Improvement District. 10/01/98-
Department of Agriculture and Consumer 0
Services. 1997. $349,889.


Jones, P. H., White, C. and Wichman, T. Trees Alive Lehtola, C. Subcontract From University of
Preventing Tree Damage in the Urban Forest. Kentucky (Center for Agricultural Disease
Florida Department of Agriculture & Con- Control and Prevention). University of
summer Services. 05/28/99- 09/30/00. $14,995. Kentucky. 06/01/98-09/29/99. $5,000.
Jones, J. W. Comparative Assessment of Agricul- Lehtola, C. Farm Safety. USDA. 1999-2000. $18,000.
tural Uses of INSO-Based Climate Forecasts in Nr A a S r r
M .io an Cst R n -Am Nordstedt, R. A. and Sowerby, M. E. Demonstra-
Argentina, Mexico and Costa Rica. Inter-Am tion of On-Site, In-Vessel Dairy Manure
tion of On-Site, In-Vessel Dairy Manure
Inst for Coop on Ag. 06/01/98-05/31/99. o o n. D Ma
t f C o Digestion. Florida Department of Environmen- 1
tal Protection. 02/10/99- 08/09/01. $170,000.
Jones, J. W. Integrated Crop Management Informa- ,
Nordstedt, R. A. and Sowerby, M. E. Demonstra- .
tion System (ICM). USDA Foreign Agricultural tion of Vegetated Treatment and Overland
Service. 05/15/97-05/15/00. $111,354. tion of Vegetated Treatment and Overland
Flow Systems for Nutrient Removal. Florida
Jones, J. W. Florida Subcontract-National Assess- Department of Environmental Protection.
ment on Climate Variability and Change: 05/12/97-11/11/99. $68,811.
Agriculture Sector Studies. Columbia A
University. 05/01/99-10/31/99. $20,000. Overman, A. R. Southeast Farm Research. City of
University 05/01/99-10/31/99. $20,000. Tallahassee. 06/01/98-05/30/00. $30,000.
Jones, J. W. and Hansen, J. W. Southeast Regional Biogeocheical
Reddy, R. and Graham, W. D. Biogeochemical
Earth Science Application Center: UF-NASA
Earthcience A location Center: UNASA Indicators of Watershed Integrity and Wetland
Cooperative Agreement. National Aeronautic
& SCooperative Agreement.dmin. 10/21/98- 10/20/03. $90,000. Eutrophication. U.S. Environmental Protection
& Space Admin. 10/21/98- 10/20/03. $90,000. Agency. 10/99-09/02. Co- Principal
Agency. 10/99-09/02. Co- Principal i
Jones, J. W. and Boote, K. J. Integrating Genetics Investigator. $78,000. 0
and Precision Farming Information into
Decision Sport Systems. Smith, Buck & Schaffer, B. A. and Campbell, K. L. Agro-Hydrol- O
Decision Support Systems. Smith, Bucklin & i in
Associates (United Soybean Board). 10/29/98- Research Studies in the C- Basin.
12/31/00. $740,000. USDA-ARS Cooperative Agreement. Ii.
04/13/98-03/31/03. $50,000.
Jones, J. W. Using Climate Forecasts to Improve
Tomato Production in Florida and Puerto Rico. Shih, S. F. Training Program on Applications of
USDA-CSRS. 09/15/99-09/14/00. $40,000. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information
System. 05/16/97-05/15/00. $15,800.
Jones, J. W. and Kiker, C. F. Regional Application of Sis in R Tci .
ENSO-Based Climate Forecasts to Agriculture Shih, S. F. Using Remote Sensing Techniques to 10
ENSO-Based Climate Forecasts to Agriculture Assess Stress Conditions in Wetland and Ida
in the Americas. University of Miami. r
11/01/97-10/31/99. $331,389. Upland Vegetation in the Southeastern Coastal
Region. National Aeronautic & Space Admin. (
Jones, J. W. Regional Assessment of the Effects of 08/01/97-07/31/00. $44,000.
Enso-Related Climate Variability on the .
Agricultural Sector of Argentina and Uruguay: Shih, S. Remote Sensing & Geographic Informa-
Implication for Adoption of Climate Forecasts. tion System i Runoff Coefficient Estimation
National Science Foundation. 10/01/97- for Irrigated Regions. Tsao Jiin Memorial
09/30/99. $26,300. Foundation for R&D for Agriculture &
Irrigation. 01/01/99-12/31/01. $178,570.
Leary, J. D. and Shaw, L. N. LP Gas for Weed and Smajstrla, A. G. Evaluation of SJRWMD Citrus
Nemtode Contro. Texas A&MUniversiSmajstrla, A. G. Evaluation of SJRWMD Citrus
Nematode Control. Texas A&M University.
Nematode Control. Texas A&M University. Benchmark Farm Database. St. Johns River
05/15/99-05/14/00. $62,955.
Water Management District. 06/14/99-
Lehtola, C. J. Deep South Center for Agricultural 12/14/99. $1,000.
Safety and Health. University of South Florida. S G H A M
04/15/99-09/29/99. $54,000. Smerage, G. H. and Beck, H. W. A Multimedia
Instruction and Learning System for Higher
Education. USDA Cooperative State Research
Service. 08/01/96-07/31/00. $79,989.


Teixeira, A. A. and Bagnall, L. O. Comprehensive 2,3 GLENN ISRAEL Prof., Program
Voluntary Student Portfolio System for Development and Evaluation
Agricultural and Biological Engineering 3 STEVE JACOB Asst. Prof., Program
Design Courses. National Science Foundation. Development and Evaluation
09/01/98-08/31/99. $2,500. 3 MILT MORRIS Director, Government
S Wheaton, A. and Graham, W. D. Spatial and Relations
Sr N 1,3 JIM NEHILEY Assoc. Prof., Communication
STemporal Distribution of Groundwater Nitrate 1,3 NICK PLACE Asst. Prof., Extension
in Relation to Land Use. Florida Department 1,3 RICK RUDD Asst. Prof., Education
of Agricultural and Consumer Services. 1 WILLIAM SUMMERHILL Prof. Emeritus
*rl 04/01/97-03/31/99. $30,000.
4/01/9 3/3/9 1 RICKY TELG Asst. Prof., Communication
Yeager, T. H. and Haman, D.Z. Workshops for 3 PETE VERGOT Assoc. Prof. And District
Improving Irrigation Application Efficiency. Extension Director
Southwest Florida Water management District.
j 1998. $29,000.
o Zazueta, F. S. Deficit Irrigation of Turfgrass. Tampa
Bay Water. 11/05/96-09/30/99. $11,809.
Bay Water. 11/05/96-09/30/99.$11,809. Adams, C., Jacob, S. and Smith, S. 1999. After the
Net Ban. Florida Sea Grant Program, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of
5 Agricultural Education & Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
I -Florida.
Communication Flo
305 RoIfs Halt P.O. Box 110540 Cheek, J. G., Arrington, L. R., Rudd, R. D. and
o McGhee, M. E. 1999. Effective Oral Communi-
SrI Gainesville, FL 32611-0540 cation. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers Inc.
-I Telephone: (352) 392-0502
: (3) 3 5 Dyer, J. E. and Osborne, E. W. 1999. Effects of
Fax: (352) 392-9585 Student Learning Styles on Short and Long
STerm Retention of Subject Matter Using
F0 1,3 ED OSBORNE Chair and Prof., Education Various Teaching Approaches. Journal of
; 1 RAY ANDREW Agricultural Education. 40(2):11-18.
3 JIM APP Asst. Dean, Extension
3 LARRY ARRINGTONAssoc. Dean, Dyer, J. E. and Osborne, E. W. 1999. The Influence
Extension of Science Applications in Agriculture Courses
1,2 MAT BAKER Assoc. Prof., Agricultural on Attitudes of Illinois Guidance Counselors in
S E c P ctiol Model Student Teaching Sites. Journal of
2 ROSE BARNETT Visting Asst. Agricultural Education. 40(4):57-66.
1,3 CARL BEEMAN Prof. Emeritus Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Citrus Cold
, 1,3 MARSHALL BREEZE Assoc. Prof., Protection and Related Management Practices.
Agricultural Communication Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS,
S3 CHERI BRODEUR Coordinator University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. 284
Information/Publications Services pages. Cir 1131.
1 JIMMY CHEEK Dean, Academic Programs ,
1,3 MARTA HARTMANN Asst. Director for Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Computer
IFAS Office of Personnel Affairs Use by Florida Citrus Growers. Cooperative
1,3 THOMAS HINTZ Assoc. Director of Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida.
Network Systems Gainesville, FL. March. 4 pages. HS744
Network Systems
1,3 TRACY HOOVER Assoc. Prof., Agricultural Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Size, Location,
Education and Management of Florida Citrus Groves: A
1,2 TRACY IRANI Asst. Prof., Agricultural 1996 Survey. Cooperative Extension Service,
Communication IFAS, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL.
April. 5 pages. HS748.
86 1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency

Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Citrus Cold Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R. D., Westrom, L., Bull,
Protection Practices: A 1996 Survey. Coopera- A. M., Mohr, C. E. and Pollok, J. 1999. Introduc-
tive Extension Service, IFAS, University of tion to Livestock and Companion Animals.
Florida. Gainesville, FL. HS745. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers Inc. 422
Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Management pages.
Decisions Affecting Citrus Cold Protection Smith, S., Jacob, S., Adams, C., Evans, G. and Israel, (Q
Practices: A 1996 Survey. Cooperative G. 1999. Technical Report: The Impacts of the
Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida. Florida Net Ban on Commercial Fishing
Gainesville, FL. April. 5 pages. HS747. Families. Florida Sea Grant Program
R/LR-E-17, NA76RG0120.
Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Citrus Irriga- R/ ,
tion Methods and Water Sources: A 1996 Telg, R. W. and Raulerson, R. 1999. Firefighter
Survey. Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Public Information Officers Communication P4
University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. April. 4 Effectiveness With the Media During the
pages. HS746. 1998 Florida Wildfires. Journal of Applied
Communications, 83(2), 34-47. kr
Ferguson, J. J. and Israel, G. D. 1999. Florida Citrus Communications, 83(2),34-47.
Management Practices. HortTechnology. Telg, R. W. 1999. Video-Based Distance Education.
9(3):455-458. University of Florida Cooperative Extension
T. ad Te, R. 19 U f Service Publication Series AEC EXT 99-04.
Irani, T. and Telg, R. W. 1999. University of Gainesville, FL.
Florida's Distance Education Resources. Gai
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Telg, R. W. 1999. Instructional Methods for Il*
Service Publication Series AEC EXT 99-06. Distance Education. University of Florida 0
Gainesville, FL. Cooperative Extension Service Publication
Series AEC EXT 99-03. Gainesville, FL.
Israel, G. D., Easton, J. 0. and Knox, G. W. 1999. Series AEC EXT 99-03. Gainesville, FL.
Adoption of Landscape Management Practices Telg, R. W. 1999. Introduction to Distance
by Florida Citizens. HortTechnology. Education. University of Florida Cooperative
9(2):262-266. Extension Service Publication Series AEC EXT
99-02. Gainesville, FL. ("
Jacob, S., Summerhill, W. R. and Arrington, L. R. 99-02. Gainesville, FL.
1999. Florida Citizens Viewpoint 1999 Survey: 0
Preliminary Results: Self-Identified Educa-
tional Needs of Florida Citizens. Program Research Grants:
Development and Evaluation Center, Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Baker, M. T. and Rudd, R. D. Course Restructuring
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University for the Teaching of Critical Thinking. USDA
of Florida. Cooperative State Research Service. 09/01/99- I*
Jacob, S., Arrington, L. and Rodgers, J. 1999. 08/31/01. $100,000.
Tentative County Programming Priorities Breeze, M. H. A Survey of the Attitudes of Florida rI
Summary Report: June-July 1999. Program Residents About Agriculture Issues in the O
Development and Evaluation Center, Florida State. Fl Farm Bureau Fed. 06/25/99-12/31/99.
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of $550.
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida. Breeze, M. H. A Survey of Broward and Dade
County Residents About Citrus Canker. Florida
Jacob, S. 1999. Situation Data Book Supporting Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Program Planning 2000-2003: Excellence in Services. 10/15/99-12/31/99. $3150.
Florida Extension Programs. Program Devel-
opment and Evaluation Center, Florida Coop- Israel, G. Hillsborough County Human Services
erative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Group Performances Audit. Valiente
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Hemandez Co. 09/20/99-02/28/00. $6,000.


Israel, G. D. Florida State Learning Environment 1,2 KENNETH H. QUESENBERRY Prof.,
Data Project. Florida A&M University. Genetics & Breeding
04/01/99-12/30/00. $211,821. 1,2 REX L. SMITH Prof., Molecular Genetics &
Israel, G. D. and Knox, G. W. Addressing Resident- Breeding
Generated Sources of Nitrate Pollution through 1,2 LYNN E. SOLLENBERGER Prof., Forage
the "Florida Yards and Neighborhoods" Crop Mgt.
the "Florida Yards and Neighborhoods" 2,3 RANDALL K. STOCKER Dir. and Prof.,
Program. Florida Department of Agriculture Plant Ecolog
& Consumer Services. 08/18/98-08/17/01. 2,3 JOYCE A. TREDAWAY Asst. Prof.,
2,3 JOYCE A. TREDAWAY Asst. Prof.,
Weed Science
Jacob, S. and Smith, S. Defining and Identifying 2,3 ELMO B. WHITTY Prof., Field Crop Mgt.
Fishing Dependent Communities: Develop- 1,2 DAVID S. WOFFORD Prof., Genetics &
ment and Confirmation of a Protocol. United Breeding
States Department of Commerce. 10/01/98- 1,2 E. T. YORK, JR. Distinguished Serv. Prof.,
09/20/00. $171,945. Plant Breeding
Jacob, S. The Rural Sociological Society. The Rural
Sociological Society. 08/20/98- 09/30/99. U, F S U A-C S R ar
$4,900. UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research

0 AGR03269 Environmentally Friendly Growth
o Agronomy Regulants for More Efficient Crop
304 Newell Hall/PO Box 110500 Production
O Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 M. Wilcox
Telephone: (352) 392-1811
Fax: (352) 392-1840 AGR03310 Genetic Improvement of Forage
Legume Species
1,2,3 JERRY M. BENNETT Chair & Prof., Crop D. S. Wofford K H Quesenberry
Physiology AGR03374 Genetic Improvement of Forage
1,2 KENNETH J. BOOTE Prof., Crop Physiology Grass Species
1 KENNETH L. BUHR Asst. Prof., Plant D.S. Wofford G.M. Pine
D. S. Wofford G. M. Prine
Breeding K. H. Quesenberry
2,3 CAROL G. CHAMBLISS Assoc. Prof.,
Forage Crop Mgt. AGR03427 Recyclable Organic Solids in
1,2 ALISON M. FOX Asst. Prof., Weed Ecology Conservation Tillage Multiple
1,2 RAYMOND N. GALLAHER Prof., Multiple Cropping Systems
Cropping Sys. R.N. Gallaher
Molecular Genetics & Breeding AGR03446 Productivity and Profitability of
1,2 WILLIAM T. HALLER Prof. Aquatic Dairy Systems Based on Grazed
Plant Mgt. Tropical Forages
1,2 CLIFTON K. HIEBSCH Assoc. Prof.,E. Solenberger
L. E. Sollenberger
Crop Ecology
2,3 KENNETH A. LANGELAND Prof., Aquatic AGR03450 Utilization of Dairy Manure Effluent in
Plant Mgt. a Rhizoma Based Cropping System for
1,2 GREGORY E. MACDONALD Asst. Prof., Nutrient Recovery and Water Quality
Weed Science Enhancement
1,2 PAUL L. PFAHLER Prof., Genetics & E.C.French G.M.Prine
2 GORDON M. PRINE Prof., Crop Ecology

88 1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency

AGR03533 Breeding and Genetic Engineering for AGR03692 Biology, Ecology, and Management of
Forage Yield, Quality and Persistence Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Lygodium
R. L. Smith D. S. Wofford Microphyllum, and Sapium sebiferum
A. M. Fox W. T. Haller
AGR03589 Management of Invasive, Non-Indig-
enous Plants in Florida AGR03706 Reproductive Biology and Gameto-
A. M. Fox W. T. Haller phytic Selection in Higher Plants
R. K. Stocker K. A. Langeland P. L. Pfahler

AGR03594 Formation, Sprouting and Longevity of AGR03707 Genetic Improvement of Small Grains
Hydrilla Tubers P. L. Pfahler
W. T. Haller A. M. Fox
K. A. Langeland R. K. Stocker AGR03713 Plant Genetic Resources Conservation
and Utilization
AGR03596 Animal Manure and Waste Utilization, K. H. Quesenberry G. M. Prine
Treatment, and Nuisance Avoidance
for a Sustainable Agriculture AGR03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and Subtropi-
E. C. French cal Agricultural Research (T-STAR)
L. E. Sollenberger
AGR03621 Drought Tolerance of N2 Fixation in
Relationship to Yield, Genetic Diver- AGR03743 Breeding and Genetic Engineering for
sity, and Germplasm Development Forage Yield, Quality and Persistence
J. M. Bennett R. L. Smith D. S. Wofford

AGR03661 Production Research to Increase AGR03797 Genetic Engineering to Improve
Soybean Yields Tropical Forage Grasses
K. J. Boote R. L. Smith D. S. Wofford

AGR03667 Molecular Improvement of Peanut APR03649 Biological Control of Hydrilla
and Sugarcane Verticillata, Solanum spp., and
M. Gallo-Meagher Sesbania Punicea
R. K. Stocker
AGR03677 Testing Field Crop Cultivars
E. B. Whitty J. A. Tredaway APR03692 Biology, Ecology, and Management of
Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Lygodium
AGR03681 Crop Performance in Cropping Microphyllum, and Sapium Sebiferum
Systems with Multiple Cultivars, R. K. Stocker
Species and/or Durations
C. K. Hiebsch

AGR03684 Best Management Practices for Publications:
Nitrogen Fertilization on High Quality
Forage Grass Allen, Jr., L. H. 1999. Evapotranspiration Responses
E. C. French of Plants and Crops to Carbon Dioxide and
AGR03690 Genetic ImprovTemperature. Journal of Crop Production.
AGR03690 Genetic Improvement of Peanut R07150.
(Arachis hypogaea L.)
E. B. Whitty J. A. Tredaway


Allen, Jr., L. H. and Boote, K. J. 1999. Climate Fritschi, F. B., Boote, K. J., Sollenberger, L. E. and
Change and Global Crop Productivity: Soy- Allen, Jr., L. H. 1999. Carbon Dioxide and
bean. In: K.R. Reddy and H.F. Hodges (ed.) Temperature Effects on Forage Crops: Tissue
Climate Change and Global Crop Composition and Nutritive Value. Global
Productivity. CAB International, Change Biology 5:743-753.
Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge University Press. Fritschi, F. B., Boote, K. J., Sollenberger, L. E., Allen,
Allen, Jr., L. H. and Boote, K. J. Soybean Responses Jr., L. H. and Sinclair, T. R. 1999. Carbon
to Global Climatic Change. Book Title: Climatic Dioxide and Temperature Effects on Forage
Change and Global Crop Productivity. Establishment: Photosynthesis and Biomass
Production. Global Change Biology. 5:441-453.
Allen, Jr., L. H and Boote, K. J. 1999. Crop Ecosys-
tem Responses to Global Climate Change: Gallo-Meagher, M., English, R. J. and Abouzid, A.
Soybean. In: K.R. Reddy and H. Hodges (ed). 2000 Thidiazuron Simulates Shoot Regenera-
Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity. tion of Sugarcane Embryogenic Callus. In Vitro
CAB International, Oxon, UK. Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant.
Allen, Jr., L. H., Baker, J. T., Boote, K. J. and Gesch, R. W., Boote, K. J., Vu, J. C., Allen, Jr., L. H.
Pickering, N. B. Whole Canopy Respiratory and Bowes, G. 1998. Changes in Growth C02
Responses of Rice to Daytime Carbon Dioxide Result in Rapid Adjustments of Ribulose-1,5-
SEnrichment, Temperature and Drought. The Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Small
S World Resource Review. Subunit Gene Expression in Expanding and
Mature Leaves of Rice. Plant Physiology.
O Allen, Jr., L. H., Baker, J. T., Hartwell, L., Boote, K. J. 118:521-529.
Sand Pickering, N. B. Direct Effects of Atmo-
o spheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Gesch, R. W., Boote, K. J., Vu, J. C., Allen, Jr., L. H.
s Whole Canopy Dark Respiration of Rice. and Bowes, G. Subambient Growth C02 Leads
S Global Change Biology. to Increased Rubisco Small Gene Expression in
n< Rice Leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany.
Allen, Jr., L. H., Sotomayor, D., Chen, Z., Dickson,
D. W. and Hewlett, T. Anaerobic Soil Manage- Gorbet, D. W., Dunavin, L. S., Whitty, B., Wood,
ment Practices and Solarization for Nematode H. C. and Shokes, F M. Florida Peanut Variety
Control in Florida. Nematropics. Trials 1993-98. Marianna NFREC Research
Control in Florida. Nematropics. Report 99-1.
Report 99-1.
Barnett, R. D., Blount, A. R. and Pfahler, P. L. G h ., .
Benefits of the UF/IFAS Small Grain Breeding o, W. ad Whiy, E. B. C-99R A Ne
Program to Florida and the Southeastern Todd J E BC-99RANew
Program to Florida and the Southeastern Multiple Disease Resistant Peanut Cultivar.
United States. Proceedings of the Soil & Crop Maiple ease Resstant Peanut Cultivar.
Science Society of Florida. Mariana NFREC Research Report 99-2.
Hussain, M. W., Allen, Jr., L. H. and Bowes, G.
Fox, A. M. and Haller, W. T. Influence of Water 1 Up-Regulation of Sucrose Phoshate
h n e R o E o 1999. Up-Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate
Depth on the Rate of Expansion of Giant Sythase in Rice Grown Under Elevated CO2
CutgrassSynthase in Rice Grown Under Elevated C02
Cutgrass Populations and Management and Temperature. Photosynethesis Research.
Implications. Publication of Research and 60:199-208.
Management Issues for Biologists and Aquatic
Plant Managers. Kamuru, F., Albrecht, S. L., Shanmugam, K. T. and
Allen, Jr., L. H. 1998. Dry Matter and Nitrogen
Fox, A. M. and Haller, W. T. Production and Accumulation in Rice Inoculated With a
Survivorship of the Functional Stolons of Giant Nitrogenase-Depressed Mutant of Anabaena
Cutgrass, Zizaniopsis Miliacea (Gramineae). Variabilis. Agronomy Journal. 90:529-535.
American Journal of Botany.
Lima, G. F. da, Sollenberger, L. E., Kunkle, W. E.,
Fox, A. M. and Haller, W. T. Influences of Water Moore, J. E. and Hammond, A. C. 1999. Nitro-
Regime and Plant Crowding on Resource gen Fertilization and Supplementation Effects
Allocation in Giant Cutgrass, Zizaniopsis on Performance of Beef Heifers Grazing
Miliacea (Poacea). American Journal of Botany. Limpograss. Crop Sci.

Mathews, B. W., Tritschler, J. P., Gaston, L. A. and Sollenberger, L. E., Pedreira, C. G. and Mislevy, P.
Sollenberger, L. E. 1999. Soil Macronutrient Botanical Composition, Light Interception, and
Distribution in Rotationally Stocked Organic Reserve Status of Grazed Florakirk
Kikuyugrass Paddocks. Commun. Soil Sci. Bermudagrass. Agronomy Journal.
Plant Anal. 30:557-571.
Plant Anal. 30:557-571. Sotomayor, D. R., Allen, Jr., L. H., Chen, Z.,
Mislevy, P. and Quesenberry, K. H. Development Dickson, D. W., and Hewlett, T. 1999. Anaero-
and Release of UF-IFAS Grass Cultivars (1892- bic Soil Management Practices and Solarization
1995) for Florida and the Tropical World. for Nematode Control in Florida. Nematropica.
Proceedings of the Soil & Crop Science Society Stocker, R. K. and Haller, W. T. Residual Effects of
of Florida.
Chemically Treated Eichhornia Crassipes Used
Pedreira, C. G. S., Sollenberger, L. E. and Mislevy, P. as a Soil Amendment. Hydrobiologia.
Productivity and Nutritive Value of 'Florakirk',, ,
Bermudagrass as Affected by Grazing Manage- Valenca, E., Williams, M. J. C. C.,
ment. Agron. J. Sollenberger, L. E., Hammond, A. C.,
SA J Kalmbacher, R. S. and Kunkle, W. E. 1999.
Piper, E. L. and Boote, K. J. 1999. Temperature and Management Effects on Herbage Yield and
Cultivar Effects on Soybean Seed Oil and Botanical Composition of Rhizoma Peanut-
Protein Concentrations. Journal of American Mixed Grass Associations. Agron. J. 91:431-438.
Oil Chemists Society 76:1233-1241.
Vu, J. C., Gesch, Pennanen, R. W., Allen, Jr, L. H.,
Prine, G. M. and Reith, P. E. Crown Rust Resistance Boote, K. J. and Bowes, G. Soybean Photosyn-
and Forage Yield of Annual Ryegrass Cultivars thesis, Rubisco, and Carbohydrate Enzymes
at Gainesville, FL. Proceedings of the Soil & Function at Supraoptimal Temperatures in
Crop Science Society of Florida. Elevated C02. Journal of Plant Physiology.
Quesenberry, K. H. Benefit of UF/IFAS Forage Vu, J. C., Pennanen, A. H., Baker, J. T., Allen, Jr,
Legume Cultivars to Florida Livestock Produc- L. H., Bowes, G. and Boote, K. J. 1998. Elevated
tion. Proceedings of the Soil & Crop Science C02 and Water Deficit Effects on Photosynthe-
Society of Florida. sis, Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase-
Rich, J. R. and Whitty, E. B. Efficacy of Chloropicrin oxygenase, and Carbobydrate Metabolism in
and Ditera to Manage Meloidogyne Javanica in Rice. Physiologia Plantarum. 103:327-339.
Florida Flue-Cured Tobacco. Tobacco Science. Vu, J. C., Gesch, R. W., Allen, L. H., Jr., Boote, K. J.
Schrope, M., Chanton, J. P., Allen, Jr., L. H. and and Bowes, G. 1999. CO2 Enrichment Delays a
Baker, J. T. 1999. Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Rapid, Drough-Induced Decrease in Rubisco
Elevated Temperature on Methane Emission of Small Subunit Transcript Abundance. Journal
Rice, Oryza Sativa. Global Change Biology. of Plant Physiology. 155:139-142.
Schrope, M. K., Chanton, J. P., Allen, Jr., L. H. and Vu, J. C. 1999. Photosynthetic Responses of Citrus
Baker, J. T. 1999. Effect of C02 Enrichment and to Environmental Changes. In: M. Pessarakli
Elevated Temperature on Methane Emissions (ed.), Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress,
From Rice, Oryza S"ativa. Global Change Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp. 947-961.
Biology. 5:587-599
Serraj, R., Allen, Jr., L. H. and Sinclair, T. R. 1999.
Soybean Leaf Growth and Gas Exchange Research Grants:
Response to Drought Under Carbon Dioxide
Enrichment. Global Change Biology. 5:283-291 Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida Soybean
Sollenberger, L. E., da Lima, G. F., Kunkle, W. E., Production. Florida Department of Agriculture
Moore, J. E. and Hammond, A. C. Nitrogen & Consumer Services. 06/01/98-09/30/99.
Fertilization and Supplementation Effects on $23,075.
Performance of Beef Heifers Grazing
Limpograss. Crop Science.

Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida French, E. C. and Sollenberger, L. E. Best Manage-
Flue-Cured Tobacco. Florida Department of ment Practices for Nitrogen Fertilization on
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 06/01/98- High Quality Forage Grass in the Middle
09/30/99. $24,900. Suwannee River Area. Florida Department of
Agriculture & Consumer Services. 08/06/97-
Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida Peanut Agriculture & Consumer Services. 08/06/97-
A08/05/00. $302,247.
Production. Florida Department of Agriculture 08/05/00. $302,247.
& Consumer Services. 05/14/98-06/30/00. Gallaher, R. N. Cover Crops, Weed Management,
$192,543. Cultivars, and Nitrogen Rates for Conservation
T. Tillage Cotton in North Florida. Cotton Inc.
Bennett, J. M. Research Projects in Florida Tobacco Tilage Cotton in North Florida. Cotton Inc.
Production. Florida Department of Agriculture 01/01/99-12/31/99. $3,800.
& Consumer Services. 05/14/99-06/30/00. Gallo-Meagher, M. In Vitro Conservation of
$18,772. Arachis spp. (Leguminosae) Germplasm.
USDA Office International Cooperation &
Bennett, J. M. Drought Tolerant Nitrogen Fixation: USDA Oe international Con
Germplasm Development, Mapping & Yield.
University of Arkansas. 02/15/98-02/14/00. Gallo-Meagher, M. Molecular Breeding:Developing
$150,000. Sugarcane Varieties Resistant to Sugarcane
Mosaic Virus (SCMV) Strain E Through
Bennett, J. M. Control of Fire Ants Through Plant- Mosaic Virus (SCMV) Strain E Through
Ant Interactions. USDA Agricultural Research Genetic Engineering. FL Sugarcane League,
B Service. 09/15/96-09/30/00. $15,000. 03/10/97-03/09/00. $100,000.
0 Boote, K. J a J J W S o P Haller, W. T. and Fox, A. M. Optimizing Aquatic
Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. Simulation of Peanut .
Cropping Systems to Improve Production Herbicide Dose and Application Techniques
C System t mprov Prto Minimize Non-Target Effects. U. S Army.
Efficiency and Enhance Natural Resource t M N E U S
, 10/01/94-09/30/99. $181,961.
Management. University of Georgia. 08/01/96- 1//4 //. 1,9.
*1 07/31/01. $33,919. Joyce, J. C. and Ramey, V. A. Task 1/Nationwide
Support for the Aquatic Plant Information
Boote, K. J. and Jones, J. W. Production Research to Support for the Aquatic Plant Information
Retrieval System (APIRS). U.S Army.
Increase Soybean Yields. Iowa State University. Retrieval System (APIRS). U. S Army.
04/01/97-03/31/00. $170,993. 10/01/94-09/30/99. $133,628.
Boote, K. J. Increasing Rice Yields: How to Cope Joyce, J. C. Using Conferences as a Tool to
With Heat. International Rice Research Insti- Disseminate Information. Florida Leadership
tute. 06/01/98-09/30/99. $15,500. and Education Foundation, Inc. 01/01/99-
tute. 06/01/98-09/30/99. $15,500.
12/31/99. $90,600.
Fox, A. M. and Stocker, R. K. Evaluation of the K A A ic i
Efforts of Herbivory on Pontederia Cordata Langeland, K. A. Aquatic & Natural Areas Pesti-
L.Effo rts of H erbivory on Pnteervia Cocide Applicator Continuing Education Train-
L. USDA Agricultural Research Service. ing. Florida Department of Transportation.
02/18/97-02/28/00. $100,057. ing. Flonrida Department of Transportation.
2/18/902/28/00. $0,7. 08/12/99-12/31/99. $10,000.
Fox, A. M. Assessment of Aquatic Soda Apple
Fox, A. M. Assessment of Aquatic Soda Apple Langeland, K. A. Preliminary Evaluation of Meth-
(Selenium Tampicense) Eradication in Florida. ods to Manage Napier Grass (Pennisetum
S. ods to Manage Napier Grass (Pennisetum
Florida Department of Environmental Protec- P m S. S h D
Ption. 01/08/99-06/30/99. $27,281. urpureum Schumach). South Dade Soil
and Water Conservation District. 07/30/99-
French, E. C. and Graetz, D. A. Utilization of Dairy 07/29/00. $3,875.
Manure Effluent in a Rhizoma (Perennial
Manure Effluent in a Rhizoma (Perennial Langeland, K. A. and Nesheim, O. N. Updating
Peanut) Based Cropping System for Nutrient on an Internet Web Site the
Re y d Wate Q lit E and Installing on an Internet Web Site the
Recovery and Water Quality Enhancement. .
STraining Manual for Aquatic Herbicide Appli-
Florida Department of Environmental Protec- cators in the Southeastern United States. USDA
tion. 06/01/98-03/31/99. $99,999. Extension Service. 09/01/97-08/31/99.


Quesenberry, K. H. Red Clover Core Evaluation. Stocker, R. K. Exotic Species BMP Development.
USDA Agricultural Research Service. South Florida Water Management District.
01/30/98-01/30/99. $5,000. 09/04/97-09/30/99. $9,100.
Quesenberry, K. H. Nutrient Uptake by Forages Stocker, R. K. and Langeland, K. A. Assesment of
Database. USDA Natural Resources Conserva- Aquatic Plant Management Methodologies.
tion Service. 09/10/98-06/30/99. $5,000. St. Johns River Water Management District.
08/12/98-12/11/99. $80,000.
Ramey, V. A. Task 1/Nationwide Support for the 08/12/98-12/11/99. $80,000.
Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System Stocker, R. K. and Langeland, K. A. Ecosystem
(APIRS). U. S Army. 10/01/94-09/30/99. Management Research: Best Management
$45,000. Practices for Control of Paederia Foetida L.
Ramey, A. Cooperative Aquatic Plant Education (Skunk-Vine). Southwest Florida Water Man-
ProgRamey, V. A. Cooperative am (Aquatic Plant InforEducation Retrieval agement District. 02/10/98-12/31/99. $31,824.
Program (Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval
System). Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. 07/01/98- 06/30/99. $50,000.
Shilling, D. G. Integrated Management of Exotic Animal Science
Invasive Plants in Southeastern Pine Ecosys- Building 459, Shealy Drive
tems-Cogongrass as a Model System. USDA PO Box 110910 I.A
Forest Service. 01/01/97- 12/24/99. $6,000. Gainesville, FL 32611-0910
Smith, R. L. Genetic Engineering and Breeding to Telephone: (352) 392-1911
Improve Tropical Forage Grasses. USDA-CSRS. Fax: (352) 392-7652
09/15/99-09/14/00. $35,000.
Smith, R. L. and Wofford, D. S. Breeding and 1,2,3 F. GLEN HEMBRY Chm. & Prof., Nutrition
Genetic Engineering for Forage Yield, Quality, 1,2 CLARENCE B. AMMERMAN Prof., Animal
and Persistence. USDA-CSRS. 09/01/98- Nutrition, Minerals
08/31/00. $71,706. 1,2 DOUGLAS B. BATES Assoc. Prof., Animal
Nutrition, Ruminant
Sollenberger, L. E., Graetz, D. A., Spreen, T. H. and Nutrition, Ruminan
Staples, C. R. Productivity and Profitability of2 OEL H. BRENDEMHL Prof., Animal
Nutrition, Swine
Dairy Systems Based on Grazed Tropical 2 WILLAM BROWN Asst. Dean for
Forages. USDA-CSRS. 08/01/95-07/31/99. Resea R na
$400 nnResearch & Prof., Ruminant Animal
Nutrition, Forage Evaluation
Sollenberger, L. E., Delorenzo, M. A. and Staples, 1,2 MAURICIO A. ELZO Prof., Animal Breeding
C. R. Economic Analysis of Pasture- Based and and Genetics, Beef
Confined Housing Dairy Production Systems. 1,2 MICHAEL J. FIELDS Prof., Animal
USDA-CSRS. 09/15/99- 09/14/02. $60,000. Reproductive Physiology, Beef
1,2 DWAIN D. JOHNSON Prof., Meat Science
Stocker, R. K. Phenology and Fire Ecology Study of 1,2 DWAIN D. JOHNSON Prof., Meat Science
an Invasive Florida Schrub Known as Downy 2,3 WILLIAM E. KUNKLE Prof., Extension Beef
an Invasive Florida Schrub Known as Downy
Rose Myrtle. Florida Department of Environ- Specialist, Ruminant Nutrition
mental Protection. 06/16/99-12/01/99. 1,2 SANDI LIEB Assoc. Prof., Animal Nutrition,
$20,328. Equine
1,2 LEE R. McDOWELL Prof., Animal Nutrition,
Stocker, R. K. and Langeland, K. A. Long-Term Minerals & Vitamins
Monitoring of Vegetation Trends at the Frog 1,2 TIMOTHY A. OLSON Assoc. Prof., Animal
Pond, Homestead, FL. South Florida Water Breeding and Genetics, Beef
Management District. 08/12/99- 09/30/00. 1,2 EDGAR A. OTT Prof., Animal Nutrition,
$20,000. Equine
1,2 BRYAN A. REILING Asst. Prof., Beef
Management, Ruminant Nutrition

1 Resident Instruction 2 Research 3 Extension 4 Other UF or Cooperating Agency 93

2,3 ROBERT S. SAND Assoc. Prof., Extension ANS03552 The Use of DNA Microsatellite Mark-
Beef Specialist, Reproductive Physiology ers to Predict Bovine Calpastatin
1,2 DANIEL C. SHARP, m Prof., Animal Gene Activity
Reproductive Physiology, Equine C. E. White
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ANS03557 Methods of Improving Meat
1,2 ROGER L. WEST Prof., Meat Science Tenderness Through Genetic
1,2 CALVIN E. WHITE Assoc. Prof., Molecular Means
Biology T. A. Olson R. L. West
1,2 SALLY K. WILLIAMS Assoc. Prof., Meat & D. D. Johnson
Poultry Science
1,2 JOEL YELICH Asst. Prof., Animal ANS03573 Influence of Nutrition on the Skeletal
Reproductive Physiology, Beef Development of Growing Horses
E. A. Ott

UF/IFAS, FAES USDA-CRIS Research ANS03576 Molecular Cloning, Structure and
Q Pr : Expression of an Endometrial
U Projects: DNA-Binding Protein
SR. C. Simmen
S ANS03149 Uteroferrin Gene Expression During
p( Development ANS03651 Breeding to Optimize Maternal Perfor-
U R. C. Simmen mance and Reproduction of Beef Cows
Sin the Southern Region
S ANS03178 Bioavailability of Mineral Elements for T. A. Olson
ti Ruminants and Nonruminants
C. B. Ammerman L. R. McDowell ANS03695 Use of Molasses Mixtures in Cow-Calf
SpProduction Systems
ANS03247 Improvement of Beef Cattle in Small W. E. Kunkle D. B. Bates
and Large Multibreed Populations B. A. Reiling
M. A. Elzo R. L. West
L. R. McDowell D. L. Wakeman ANS03721 Caribbean Basin Tropical and Subtropi-
cal Agricultural Research (T-STAR)
ANS03279 Management Stress Influence on T. A. Olson
Behavioral, Reproductive and
Productive Traits in Equine ANS03768 Nutritional Systems for Swine to
S. Lieb Increase Reproductive Efficiency
J. H. Brendemuhl
ANS03325 Computer Programs for Optional H. Brendemuh
Supplementation of Cattle Grazing ANS03774 Uteroferrin Gene Expression During
Tropical Pastures Development
J. E. Moore W. E. Kunkle R. C. Simmen

ANS03339 Food Additives Effect on Microbial ANS03792 Mineral and Vitamin Supplementation
Contamination, Acceptability and of Ruminants
Storage of Meat and Poultry Products L. R. McDowell
S. K. Williams J. H. Brendemuhl
R. L. West D. D. Johnson

ANS03384 Significance of Oxytocin and Oxytocin
Receptros in Bovine Pregnancy
M. J. Fields


Publications: Humidicola Pastures in Marajo Island, Brazil.
International Journal of Animal Science. 14:1-7.
Ammerman, C. B., Cao, J., Guo, R., Henry, P R., Fields, P. A., Lee, V. H., Jetten, A., Chang, S-M.T.
Toth, J. P. and Holwerds, R. A. Organic Zinc and Fields, M. J. 1999. B-Chain Sequence and in
Supplements for Animals. 1. Chemical Situ Hybridization of the Rabbit Placental
Characteristics of Zinc Sources. Journal of Relaxin-Like Gene Product. Biol Reprod
Animal Science. 61:527-532.
Ammerman, C. B., Cao, J., Henry, P. R., Guo, R., Fuchs, A. R., Rust, W. and Fields, M. J. 1999.
Cousins, R. J. and Miles, R. D. Organic Zinc Accumulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene
Supplements for Animals. 2. Relative Transcripts in Uterine Tissues of Pregnant and
Bioavailability of Organic Sources for Chicks Parturient Cows: Stimulation of Transcription
and Lambs. Journal of Animal Science. by Oxytocin. Biology of Reproduction.
Ammerman, C. B., Cao, J., Henry, P. R., Littell, R. C. 60:341-348.
and Miles, R. D. Relative Bioavailability of Kuchinski, K. K., Harms, R. H., Wilson, H. R.,
Basic Zinc Sulfate and Basic Zinc Chloride for Russell, G. B. and McDowell, L. R. 1999.
Chicks. Applied Poultry Research. Re-Evaluation of Sodium Requirement of
Commercial Laying Hen. J. Appl. Anim. Res. r
Badinga, L., Michel, F. J. and Simmen, R. C. 1999. commercial Laying Hen. J. Appl. Anim. Res.
Uterine-Associated Serine Protease Inhibitors 15:25-34.
Stimulate Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Lemester, J. W., Yelich, J. V., Kempfer, J. R. and
Porcine Endometrial Glandular Epithelial Schrick, F. N. 1999. Ovulation and Estrus
Cells of Pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction. Characteristics in Crossbred Brahman Heifers
61:380-387. Treated with an Intravaginal Progesterone-
Badinga, L., Song, S., Simmen, R. C., Abbitt, B., Releasing Insert in Combination With Prostag-
Clemmons, D. R d Simmen, A. C x landin F2a and Estradiol Benzoate. Journal of
Clemmons, D. R. and Simmen, F. A. Complex Animal Science. 77:1860-1868.
Animal Science. 77:1860-1868.
Mediation by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-II
(IGF-II) and IGF-Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-2) Moore, J. E., Brant, M. H., Kunkle, W. E. and
of Uterine Endometrial Epithelial Cell Growth. Hopkins, D. I. 1999. Effects of Supplementation (
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. on Voluntary Forage Intake, Diet Digestibility,
and Animal Performance. J. Anim. Sci.
Balbuena, O., McDowell, L. R. and Stahringer, R. C. a A P -
1999. Suplementaci6n con Cobre Injectable en
Terneros y Vacas con Hipocupremia. Vet. Arg,. Myer, R. O., Brendemuhl, J. H. and Johnson, D. D.
16(154):272-280. 1999. Evaluation of Dehydrated Restaurant
Food Waste Products as Feedstuffs for Finish-
Bathgate R., Monia, N., Barlick, B., Schumacher, M., Food Waste Products as Feedstuffs for Finish-
Fields, M. and Ivell, R. 1999. Expression and ing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:685-692.
Regulation of Relaxin-Like Factor Gene Tran- Ott, E. A., Kivipelto, J. and McQuagge, J. Feeding
scripts in the Bovine Ovary: Differentiation- of Complete, Extruded Feed to Mares. Journal
Dependent Expression in Theca Cell Cultures. of Equine Veterinary Science. 19:459-462.
Biol Reprod 61:1090-1098.
Biol Reprod 61:1090-1098. Ott, E. A. and Kivipelto, J. 1999. Influence of
Cao, J., Denis, S. R., Cousins, R. J., Henry, P. R., Chromium Tripicolinate on Growth and
Miles, R. D. and Ammerman, C. B. Glucose Metabolism in Yealing Horses. J.
Metallothionein Gene Expression in the Chick Anim. Sci. 77:3022-3030.
Influenced by Dietary Zinc Sources. Journal
fu d b D Z u Peltier, M. R., Robinson, G. and Sharp, D. C. 1998.
of Nutrition.
Effects of Melatonin Implants in Pony Mares 1.
Cardoso, E. C., Valle, W. G., Veiga, J. B., Neto, S. Acute Effects. Theriogenology. 49:1113-1123.
and McDowell, L. R. 1999. Mineral Status of
Buffaloes and Cattle Grazing Brachiaria


Peltier, M. R., Robinson, G. and Sharp, D. C. 1998. Soler-Valasquez, M. P., Brendemuhl, J. H.,
Effects of Melatonin Implants in Pony McDowell, L. R., Sheepard, K. A., Johnson,
Mares 2. Long Term Effects. Theriogenology. D. D. and Williams, S. N. 1998. Effects of
49:1125-1142. Supplemental Vitamin E and Canola Oil on
Pott, E. B., Henry, P. R., Zanetti, M. A., Rao, P. V., Tissue Tocopherol, and Liver Fatty Acid Profile
Hinderberger Jr., E. J. and Ammerman, C. B. of Finishing Pigs. J. of Anim. Sci. 76:110-117.
1999. Effects of High Dietary Molybdenum Tiffany, M. E., McDowell, L. R., O'Connor, G. A.,
Concentration and Duration of Feeding Time Martin, F. G. and Wilkinson, N. S. Comparison
on Molybdenum and Copper Metabolism in of Collection Methods for Determination of
Sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 79:93. Forage Nutritive Status. Communications in
Pott, E. B., Henry, P. R., Rao, P. V., Hinderberger Jr., Soil Science and Plant Analysis.
E. J. and Ammerman, C. B. 1999. Estimated Vargas, C. A., Olson Jr., C. C., Hammond, A. C. and
Relative Bioavailability of Supplemental Elzo, M. A. 1999. Influence of Frame Size and
Inorganic Molybdenum Sources and Their Body Condition Score on Performance of
Effect on Tissue Molybdenum and Copper Brahman Cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 77.
fl Concentrations in Lambs. Anim. Feed Sci.
CoTechnol. 79:107. Vargas, C. A., Olson, T. A., Chase, Jr., C. C.,
S7 Chenoweth, P. J. and Elzo, M. A. 1998. Estima-
Sandoval, M., Henry, P. R., Littell, R. C., Miles, tion of Genetic Parameters for Scrotal Circum-
S R. D., Butcher, G. D. and Ammerman, C. B. ference, Age at Puberty in Heifers, and Hip
1999. Effect of Dietary Zinc Source and Method Height in Brahman Cattle. Journal of Animal
of Oral Administration on Performance and Science. 76:2536-2541.
Tissue Trace Mineral Concentration of Broiler
Chicks. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1788-1799. Velasquez-Pereira, J., Risco, C A., McDowell, L. R.,
SStaples, C. R., Prichard, D., Chenoweth, P. J.,
SMSandoval, M., Henry, P R., Luo, X. G., Littell, R. C., Martin, F. G., Williams, S. N., Rojas, L. X. and
Miles, R. D. and Ammerman, C. B. 1998. Wilkinson, N. S. 1999. Long-Term Effects of
M t Performance and Tissue Zinc and Feeding Gossypol From Cottonseed Meal and
SMetallothionein Accumulation in Chicks Fed a Vitamin E to Dairy Calves. J. Dairy Sci.
High Dietary Level of Zinc. Poultry Science. 82:1240-1251.
F A., T, G M. L a Wang, Y., Michel, F. J., Wing, A., Simmen, F. A. and
Simmen, F. A., Modc, T, Green, M. L. and Simmen, R. C. 1997. Cell-Type Expression,
Simmen, R. C. 1999. Pregnancy- Dependent Immunolocalization, and Deoxyribonucleic
Expression of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) Acid-Binding Activity of Basic Transcription
LIF Receptor-B and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Element Binding Transciption Factor, and Sp-
Ribonucleic Acids in the Porcine Female Related Famil Endometrium of Pregnancy.
Reproductive Tract: Local Control of the Biology of Reproduction. 57:707-714.
Beta-2-Microglobulin Gene. Biology of
Reproduction. 1:1-2. White, C. E., Wettermann, R. P. and McDowell, L.
R. 1998. Use of Concreate Wallows and Water
Simmen, R. C., Chung, T. E., Imataka, H., Michel, R. 1 e of Core Walows and Water
F. J., Badinga, L. and Simmen, F. A. 1999. Trans- Spriners to Improve Reporductive Fertility of
Boars in a Warm Humit Climate. Inter. J. Anim.
Activation Functions of the Sp-Related Nuclear ci. 13:149-156.
Factor, Basic Transcription Element Binding
Protein, and Progesterone Receptor in White, C. E., Campbell, D. R. and McDowell, L. R.
Endomterial Epithelial Cells. Endocrinology. Effects of Dry Matter Content on Trypsin
140:2517-2525. Inhibitors and Urease Activity in Heat Treated
Sollenberger, L. E., Da Lima, G. F, Kunkle, W. E., Soybeans Fed to Weaned Pigs. Animal Feed
Moore, J. E. and Hammond, A. C. Nitrogen Science and Technology.
Fertilization and Supplementation Effects on
Performance of Beef Heifers Grazing
Limpograss. Crop Science.