Florida Hurricane (1212)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008156/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida Hurricane (1212)
Physical Description: Book
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6646
System ID: UF00008156:00001

Full Text
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-Map showing path of storm
-A graphic account of destruction to life and
-Proclamations of Pres. Coolidge, Mayor Romfh
and Relief Committee
-Work of the Red Cross
-Barometric readings
-Records of wind velocity

Compiled and Published By

Note: The statements and data contained herein while accurate to the best
of the publisher's knowledge and belief, are not guaranteed.

In the tumult and excitement attending any great dis-
aster, there is a natural tendency to over-estimate actual loss.
As the stricken area returns to a semblance of order and sets
itself to the work of rescue and rehabilitation, and toll of
death and property damage, in almost every instance, show
a gradual decline from original reports. This has been true
of almost every great disaster in the nation's history; it is
true to a certain extent in the latest tragic visitation.
As southern Florida takes stock of her losses through
the most disastrous windstorm in her history, it becomes ap-
parent that 'loss of life and the damage to property will not
be as great as first reported. And yet it must be recorded as
one of the unhappiest events in the history of the United
States. Miami and Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale and small-
er towns and villages are today in deepest mourning. Many
who have been bereft of homes are suffering the nangs of
hunger as they silently bury their dead. Here anl there
among the causalties is one from a distant state. And these
from afar are tenderly borne to waiting trains, and with the
same loving care she gave her own. Miami sends them back
with messages of deepest sympathy for those bereaved. Miami
is the nation's playground, and all sections make up this pop-
ulation and its property holdings. For that reason, Miami's
sorrow is a nation's sorrow; Florida's loss is a loss to every
state in the Nation.
The tropical hurricane which visited the lower east coast
of Florida, Saturday, September 18th, was one of the most
disastrous in the history of the world in the matter of lives
and property destroyed. Other disasters have taken a greater
toll of life but none probably have combined the two to such
an enormous figure. The list of causalties will total 1,000
human beings, 5,000 to 7,000 injured, with property loss and
damage well over one hundred million. These are estimates
only, as no accurate figures can or ever will be obtained.
During Friday, September 17th, the U. S. Weather Bureau
issued warnings from time to time of the approach of a West
Indian hurricane. Storm warnings to shipping were posted
along the southeast coast from Key West to, Jupiter. No in-
dication as to the severity of the storm was forecast and resi-
dents of this section went about their affairs as usual with
the possible exception of taking precautions as to awnings, etc.






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Most people went to bed as usual altho a strong wind was
coming out of the northeast. All during the night the storm
grew more and more angry and by 4 o'clock Saturday morning
was literally tearing this beautiful section to shreds. What a
monster! Devouring, devastating, tearing, shrieking, uncon-
trollable. An awful experience. Men praying who knew not
how to pray-hysterical women crying out in fear-white
faced children, weeping, sought protection of their parents.
Cutting a swath 60 miles wide, from Deerfield to Homestead,
extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf coast, then
following north westward up the Gulf coast and finally wearing
itself out over Alabama and Mississippi, leaving death, misery, I
desolation and destruction in its wake.
Roofs blown off; small frame buildings completely de-
molished; trees and shrubbery levelled; plate glass windows
smashed; signs blown down; business blocks in some cases
smashed to the ground; telephone, telegraph and electric light
poles down and service completely gone; roads and streets
blocked by fallen trees or wrecked buildings furnished a
picture horrible to behold, and as an added touch, the ocean,
lashed by the fury of the gale, inundated the land for more
than a mile inland and from one to ten feet deep.
Hundreds were known to be dead a4 several thousand
injured in the Greater Miami area. Property damage is esti-
mated at about $100,000,000. Damage in Hialeah, Coral
Gables, Miami Beach and adjoining communities may raise the
total to $125,000,000.
It will be sometime before the full damage done shipping
on the waterfront will be determined. Many of the smaller
craft were carried into Bay Front Park, and some of the larger
ships were raised out of the water.
Similar conditions prevailed along the banks of the Miami ,
river. Here a backwash from the wild seas in the ocean and
bay carried a wave back up the river, and when it receded left
many ships high and dry and others in wreckage in the river.
Homes suffered principally while the hurricane was rac-
ing through the city. It is estimated that 10,000 of these
were unroofed or otherwise damaged. Glass was blown from
many houses and interior decorations destroyed by water.
Furnishings in homes also were damaged from the heavy
rains that accompanied the storm.

Despite heroic efforts on the part of utilities workers to
gap the breaks the high winds practically cut off all service
during the day.

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Deluge Accompanies Storm
Blinding sheets of rain intermittently cut across the fury
of the wind, aiding in the ravages wrought by the gales and the
swirling waters that cast their spray for blocks inland. Even
when the velocity of the winds decreased towards evening
and the barometer that had sunk to 29:38 at 6:45 Saturday
morning was slowly rising, the swift, furious rains continued.

Pompano to Miami a reach of land desolate from Ravishing
winds. Hollywood and Dania suffer most-Gales play
many freakish tricks.
Death .. injury --untold suffering __ self-sacrifice
bread lineand military lines --- water brigades and water
holes bloo stained bandages -- awful ruins twisted steel
and crumbled stone .. death wagons -- heroism and ether --
a grim resolve that the sun shall shine again.
This was the vista Monday on the lower east coast of
Florida. This was the consequence of a wind which had come
and a wind which had gone, leaving in the wake of its fiendish
fury a region of wreck and ruin more wildly tragic than the
mind of man may readily comprehend.
From Pontpano to Miami was a land of sprains and pains,
limps and groans -- a land of fantastic and horrid debris __
a land of broken, smashed and ravished structures and trees.
Sunday night it was horrible. The whole scene was
clothed in a misty, ghastly moonlight. At intermittent per-
iods there came the shriek of sirens indicating that new victims
had been found there were the dim flashings of hand lan-
terns --- tramp, tramp of sentinels ..-- and once, in Hollywood,
there came a hoarse cry: "Say brother, where do you want
this load of coffins ?"
Hollywood, until Friday, one of the beautiful cities of the
Florida east coast, on Monday was a picture of desolation and
desecration. Its handsome buildings were destroyed or dam-
aged -- their graphic remains groped rakishly toward the
skies or lay flat in jumbled grotesqueness.
Fort Lauderdale, too, had been outraged by the wind, and
with the same result. Its once pretty streets presented a
tangle of wreckage and spoil.
All along the wind-torn area the panorama was much
the same there were also Dania, Hallandale, Pompano and

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In proportion to its size, Hollywood probably suffered
most in property damage. The big Hollywood Beach hotel was
severely damaged; the government post office was demolished;
the Parkview and Great Southern hotels were worsted; the
Hills Inn was damaged; the west half of the Circle Building,
one of the city's finest structures, was torn away; the huge
garage of the Sawyer Motor company had collapsed with a
loss of two lives; the Chevrolet garage was levelled, and so
they went. It is estimated that out of a total of 1,500 dwell-
ings only 68 were left intact, and it appeared that nine out
of every ten were uninhabitable. In one three-room bungalow
eighteen persons were housed. Virtually every mercantile
building in the city had lost its roof or top structure.
To further its wrathful purpose, the wind, it seemed,
drew from the waves of the Atlantic more than a common
share of vengeance. Residents said that so furiously did the
wind whip the sea that the salt waters invaded the mainland
for a distance of more than two miles inland. And there was
evidence of this -- bodies of those who drowned in the heart
of the community, and ships and barges still resting where
they were cast high and dry on solid ground. Survivors of
the tempest asserted that on Saturday the ocean waters were
three feet deep over virtually all of the city.
Indeed, one man declared that while he and 29 others
lashed together Wvith rope, were battling their way through
storm and water, they sighted two sharks swimming in the
overflowing brine.
There has been the grimest kind of tragedy in Hollywood
and Dania. One rescue worker, who was near collapse from
nausea induced by ceaseless work as an amateur embalmer,
told of a battle to retrieve the body of a woman from the
swirling Dania waters. He said that the woman's son had
asked if he would help him search for his mother. Together,
the son and the narrator plunged into the flood a block south
of the Dania hotel. A short distance away they saw the head
of a woman just above the water, but as they neared it, sud-
denly they came upon a diamond rattlesnake coiled on a pile
of debris in their path. Many times they struck the reptile
before they killed him. Then they advanced to the floating
'Oh my mother, my mother," the son shrieked, then fell
prostrate on the body narrowly escaping drowning himself.
This was only one of the tragedies of Hollywood and Dania.
At Fort Lauderdale the loss of life was perhaps not so
extensive in proportion as that of Hollywood and Dania, but
it was as severe to property. Through the streets here also
strode men and women with bandaged heads, legs and feet,

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and here also was a form of martial law set up by decree of
Mayor Tidball, and enforced by army and navy reserve officers
with the aid of police.
It is not to be imagined, however, that this city and its
suburb, Progresso, escaped lightly. Everywhere were ruins.
But Fort Lauderdale, like Hollywood and Dania, already had
caught the spirit of rehabilitation.
The action of the young tidal wave which accompanied
the hurricane also was much in evidence in Fort Lauderdale
and vincinity. United States Coast Guard Base No. 6 was
almost completely wrecked when the base float itself was
adhed upon the shore; the big tender, Moccassin, was beached
aWfd wrecked, and with it went two or three patrol boats. Three
seaplanes also were a mass of twisted wreckage.
Scattered here and there throughout the bayfront side of
the cfty and along the North New river canal other yachts,
tenders and schooners were either sunk, badly broken or cast
high upon the shores.
Many world war veterans have been heard to remark that
places in the devastated area reminded them of the battle
fields of France.

The town of Moorehaven situated on the south shore of
Lake Okeechobee was the heaviest sufferer in loss of life and
property in proportion to. its size.
Clewiston located nearby was less effected owing to the
fact that it is built on a natural ridge running parallel with
the lake. There Was no loss of life at Clewiston while at
Moorehaven out of a population of 2,000 it is .estimated that
300 were lost. Stories of misery, suffering and death here
are appalling. These towns entirely crut off from communica-
tion with the outside world and almost entirely under water
were in a deplorable state. No sooner had the storm passed
than the heroic citizens bent every effort to care for the un-
During Sunday the "Queen ofthe Lake" cruised along the
south shore of the lake around Little Baro beach and Ritta
and rescued a family whose members had sent the night in
the bucket of a huge ditching machine. Altogether during
Sunday and Monday more than 250 refugees, all virtually
destitute, came to Clewiston. They were fed and housed and
on Tuesday some of them were taken away in relief boats to
be sent to a more northern part of the state, but the third
contingent of these, about 38 persons, following the relief boats


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in the "Queen of the Lake" were turned back at Moorhaven
because of the difficulty of getting from there. They were
brought to Clewiston and the following day a boat came in
from Okeechobee City.
Throughout Saturday and Sunday the people were without
news from the outside world. Sometime Sunday morning an
aviator flew over slowly circling higJ in the sky, passing over
and returning toward the north, from which direction he had
come. Those on the ground waved to him.
Sunday afternoon the "Thoroughbred," a small cabin
cruiser, went to Moorehaven. The route taken was along what
is called the "inside channel," close to the shore for about 18
miles along the edge of Disston Island drainage district.
The^proach of the Clewiston boat to Moorehaven was
an unforgettable experience. Even at a distance there was
something ominous and terrible in that view of the town. The
members of the party waded through two streets and found
most of the survivors in and about the main street stricken
and numb after their terrible experience. The Clewiston party
learned that relief parties had already entered Moorehaven
from the north and that refugees were being taken out. A
courier was found who offered to take telegrams to La Belle
and if he could not send them from there to get them out
from Fort Myers. This proved to be a mighty valuable ser-
vice. "We don't know the name of that man but we do know
that he got those telegrams out for us because they were
delivered the following morning," said a survivor.
About 10 o'clock Monday morning two planes came from
the west and circled lower and lower signaling that they
wished to land. In front of.the Clewiston Iai was a fairly
good sized place laid out for a tennis court. It was blocked
with posts to prevent automobiles from encroaching upon it,
but in a remarkably short time, with everyone helping, every
obstruction was removed and Captain Otis Hardin, the road
contractor on the Empire trail, was the first to land. He made
a landing that no one who saw it will ever forget and it was a
wonderful piece of flying in view of the small space available.
This also made the landing of his companion in the other plane
still more remarkable. They brought in some news of what
was going on in the outside world and took out some telegrams
and brief news dispatches, and after that everybody felt hap-
pier. It eased the tension and gave that definite touch with
the outside world that let everyone know they had not been
forgotten and that help, if it was needed, was on the way.
The worst hurricane damage to the west coast was found
in a section forming a triangle, with the west shore of Lake




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Okecdhobee as its apex kand the west gulf coast from Tampa
'to Fort Myers as its base. Included in the list are La Belle,
Moorehaven, Clewiston and Fort Myers along ;the lower line,
and Arcadia and Bradentown along the upper angle. Along
the coast are Sarasota, Boca Grande and Punta Gorda.
The triangle embraces wide stretches of orange groves
and farms. For this reason, reports of conditions in the in-
terior are slow in coming.
Sebring and Avon Park were established as refugee cen-
ters for the section around th& lake. The coast towns took
care of the rescued from nearby sections. Red Cross stations
were established at strategic centers and the work of clean-
ing away the debris progressed rapidly.
Moorehaven, near the southwest curve of the lake was the
heaviest sufferer. The damage will not be known for days.
It was swept by a deluge of water when the dike along the lake
broke. Not a building was left standing. The known dead
number 61 whites. Two hundred persons were missing. Refu-
gees were ing taken out by trains. This is the third time
in five years Moorehaven has been washed away by the lake.
The plight of the population in the devastated area is
described as pitiful. The living have no homes and hundreds
lost their money and goods.
Clewiston, with 500 population, lying southeast of Moore-
hIaven escaped without loss of life, but only one building was
Lakeport, north of Moorehaven, with 200 people, lost six
dead, one missing and four injured. The village was damaged
La Belle, 75 miles west of Moorehaven with 1,000 popu-
lation lost a few houses. Citrus damage was 50 per cent of
the crop.
At Fort Myers, on the gulf, eight were drowned, includ-
ing two women from Punta Gorda. The others were sailors
from a Cuban fishing boat. The captain and a cabin boy were
picked up on the beach anct revived. Property damaged is
estimated at $3,500,000.
Punta Gorda, north of Fort Myers on the gulf, was hard
hit. There was no loss of life, but property damage was heavy,
estimated at $500,000.
Sarasota, farther north, suffered a loss of $1,500,000 to
public utilities and buildings. Two men were reported killed,
but this is unconfirmed.
Venice, between Sarasota and Fort Myers, present ter-
minus of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad along the gulf
coast, was damaged $100,000 by high water. No lives were

Bradentown was also severely damaged but no lives lost.
One hundred and ten bodies have been recovered from the
waters at Moorehaven and at least two hundred more are
rapidly decomposing. Of the number recovered from the flood-
ed plains in and about the devastated city, approximately
eighty per cent have been identified but further effort to
identify later discoveries will be abandoned, due to their state
of decomposition.
Sanitary conditions were serious and the remaining two
hundreds citizens, who have flatly refused to evacuate the city,
will be taken from the region and sent to Sebring and West
Palm Beach as additional refugees.
With the National Red Cross firmly at the helm, the work
of rescue and relief in the storm swept sections of Florida
were moving apace.
Hasty surveys reveal conditions as even worse than first
news had indicated and appeals to the nation for financial as-
sistance and nurses, medicines and supplies went out from
Miami, the center of the district hardest hit by the storm.
As the flood waters receded and the rescue parties were
augmented, additional bodies were found at Miami, Moore-
haven, Hialeah, Fort Lauderdale and other points, with the
certainty still others were buried in wrecked buildings and
held captive by debris covered waters.

Miami unable to Rebuild without outside assistance. Thous-
ands of Homes of poor wrecked in Devastating Hurricane
General appeal to the people of the United States for cash
in large amounts to aid in rebuilding the city and for relief
work here, was issued by the Storm Relief Executive Commit-
tee. The appeal follows:

"The city of Miami is compelled to issue an appeal to the
people of the United States for the relief of Miami and Dade
County. Six days ago this city of 200,000 was one of the
most prosperous and beautiful communities in this country.
Today, as a result of a disastrous tropical hurricane, which
devastated our coast last Saturday, it lies prostrate.
"We have 100 dead and nearly 1,000 patients in the gen-
eral and emergency hospitals, hundreds of whom are griev-
ously injured. While conditions are being rapidly restored by
means of most wonderful and efficient cooperation of its citi-

zens along all important lines, the problems confronting them
are almost insurmountable. Food and other necessary sup-
plies are coming in in great quantities, and we have been
blessed by the arrival of a sufficient number of physicians and
nurses and ample medical supplies for the immediate present.
"But more than 5,000 homes have been either entirely
destroyed or made unfit for human habitation. Twenty-five
thousand people have been rendered homeless. These are
being cared for in thousands of instances by neighbors, who
themselves are suffering. Miami needs money quickly and
in large amounts. It needs it to take care of the poor, sick,
and injured. It needs it to rehabilitate the homes of thousands
who have lost everything in the world and who will die of ex-
posure if assistance does not come promptly and amply.
And so we send out this appeal, believing that the people
of this nation will respond cheerfully and quickly to this
great necessity. On our part, in return, we can only express
our appreciation of the wonderful sympathy and aid which
are being shown to our sufferers throughout the whole land,
and to venture the hope that we will be able someday and in
some way to reciprocate to other suffering communities the
favor we are now asking.
The American Red Cross has been placed in full charge of
the rehabilitation of Miami and all funds sent for relief will
be spent for relief without deductions for administrative costs.

Frank B. Shutts, Chairman.
E. C. Romfh, Mayor.
Ruth Bryan Owen.
F. M. Hudson, formerly president of the Florida Senate.
John W. Watson.
E. B. Douglass, Chairman, Miami chapter of Red Cross.
R. A. Reeder, Chairman of general relief committee.

Although Miami and southern Florida were cut off from
the world, with all wires down, the newspapers of the country
carried brief Associated Press dispatches of the hurricane
Sunday Morning. The world was first informed of the disaster
through radio messages sent out by a makeshift transmitting
plant to the-nearest vessel, the American steamship Siboney.
These were picked up by the Tropical Radio Telegraph Com-
pany station at Mobile, Ala., and relayed to New Orleans. From
there they went by wire to all parts of the nation.

The meager reports were obtained late Saturday night and
early Sunday morning after more than 12 hours of futile ef-
fort to communicate with this section.
A University of Florida student at Jacksonville also in-
tercepted a wireless message from an unknown steamer at sea
telling of the storm. The message received at New Orleans
was as follows:
"Miami is in ruins after worst hurricane in history of
country. Seventy-five known dead. Property damage
$100,000,000. More than 2,000 buildings destroyed, in-
cluding bank buildings and Miami Tribune." City's docks
completely destroyed and all boats in harbor sunk, includ-
ing steamship Nabob, formerly owned by the ex-kaiser of
Germany. Food, medical, supplies and troops needed."
A portion of the news was erroneous, but it is the first
that the outside world gained of the catastrophe. Passengers
on trains from West Palm Beach also carried news of the
terrible destruction.

President Coolidge appealed to the American people to
come to the assistance of sufferers in the Florida disaster.
The President's proclamation follows:
"An overwhelming disaster has come to the people of
Miami, Hollywood and surrounding communities in South-
ern Florida. Such assistance as is within the means of
the executive department of the Government will be ren-
dered, but, realizing the great suffering which now needs
relief and will need relief for days to come, I am prompted
to appeal urgently to the American people, whose sym-
pathies have always been so comprehensive, to contribute
generously in aiding the sufferers of this disaster.
"That the utmost co-ordination and effectiveness
in the administration of the relief funds may be obtained,
I urge that all contributions for this purpose be sent to
the American National Red Cross at Washington or to the
local Red Cross chapters."

Organized search of all ruins in the principal points of
destruction was delayed; instead every effort was being made
to keep the injured alive and prevent illness.
There were no official estimates except in smaller com-
munities. New cases were being brought into emergency
hospitals and cursory searching parties were uncovering

bodies hourly. Six were found beneath Progresso wreckage
at Fort Lauderdale. They were not identified.
In Miami the McAllister hotel and Jackson Memorial Hos-
pital were utilized for the most dangerous injury cases. More
than half a dozen other dressing stations and first aid posts
for treating slightly wounded were established in various sec-
tions of the city.
Three large hotels and school houses at Hollywood were
transformed into hospitals. They were all slightly damaged
and dampened by sea water and rain, but with all but nec-
essary furnishings removed they were surprisingly sanitary
and bore the usual air of hospital efficiency.
The Parkview hotel early was a refuge for those in the
eastern section of the city but as soon as surgical and emer-
gency case headquarters could be established in the Great
Southern those in a critical condition were transferred.
As soon as equipment could be set up the medical organi-
zation began to function. Untrained volunteers handled
routine work with dispatch, leaving trained nurses free to
treat the injured. Heroically they labored for 36 hours and
more without rest. To them scores owe their lives.
In extreme western section of the city the Hills Inn was
crowded with injured and many whose homes were submerged
when the sea water backed up through the canal to the lower
The only intact building at Fort Lauderdale; the Masonic
Temple, was sufficient to care for the score or more in need of
attention. Dania's quota of stricken was removed to Holly-
wood in commercial trucks floored with mattresses. The
Methodist Church there was used as a morgue for the nine
bodies recovered Sunday.
From every side came tales of horrible death. At Sea-
board Park west of Fulford several men hastily dug trenches
for protection against flying missiles. Covering themselves
with sand and turf in their fright, they were suffocated ... bur-
ied alive in their self-dug graves.
Coast guardsmen at Lauderdale found two mothers each
with a child in arms --all dead. They had been struck down
and maimed so that they were unable to escape the rising
tide of salt water. The bodies were carried far inland.

Henry M. Baker reaches Miami to direct relief.
National Director Designated to handle all funds received.
Henry M. Baker, National Director of disaster relief for

Path of Hurricane as I

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Path of the tropical hurricane which left destruction
in its wake as it swept northwesterly through Florida,
crossed the tip of the Gulf of Mexico and struck land again
at Pensacola, Mobile, and nearby localities, is shown in
the sketch above. The main cities in its path are indi-
cated on the map.

the American Red Cross, came to Miami and took over the
direction of all relief work in the state.
Mr. Baker placed a large staff of experienced workers
in the Miami area and gave every possible aid.
Designation of Mr. Baker as director of relief work for
the entire state followed the appeal from President Coolidge,
in which he named the Red Cross as the agency to handle
contributions from the entire nation.
A shipment of Vaccine, Creolin and surgical supplies went
forward by airplane from Jacksonville. Lieut. Bissell, who
carried a quantity of tetanus anti-toxin from Richmond to the
storm area by airplane returned to Jacksonville and prepared
to hop off with another relief cargo which was donated by
surgical and medical supply dealers of that city.

Red Cross Request for Funds and Supplies Met by Nation
Into the storm-stricken portion of Florida is pouring re-
lief of all kinds -.. the gifts of a nation bowed with grief and
mercy towards its less fortunate countrymen.
Out of that region are streaming refugees --to be met
with the same spirit of kindness that had accentuated the
speeding of succor to those in the stricken lands of what was
once for the most part the showlands of the "Sunshine State."
With the protecting arm of the American Red Cross
thrown about the storm regions, the people were relieved
relieved because they realized that the rest of America was
bearing with them in their misfortune. The Red Cross has
broadcast that between $4,000,000 and $5,000,000 is needed in
the region. Into the east coast region have gone by train,
automobile, plane and boat, relief experts and supplies-much
needed supplies.
Down into the interior of the state -- The Everglade sec-
tion overridden by the murky waters of Lake Okeechobee,
swept into a frenzied turmoil by hurricane winds __have been
rushed rescue workers, food and medical supplies.
What confusion had appeared as relief measures pro-
gressed was soon dissipated by prompt official action-.
Out of the darkened area, railroads took refugees free
of transportation charges. At Fort Myers, Avon Park, Se-
bring, Lakeland and Jacksonville, these refugees were care for.
Gov. John W. Martin rushed into the east coast area to

t Tore Through Florida

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",Mumma amma

make a personal survey of the region and lend what aid he
might to relief work.
From all sections of the state, reports poured in of sup-
plies being rushed into the devastated area. Similar reports
were received from practically every section of the United
States. The following statement was made by one in charge
of Red Cross Work:
"The Red Cross in its Florida relief work, is not only to
relieve as quickly as possible the suffering of the injured
and the homeless, but, in addition, it will remain on duty
all winter, if necessary in the various sections, assisting
in knitting back together into well co-ordinated commun-
ities all those sections torn asunder by the tropical hurri-
"We will see that every family now homeless is re-
stored to its former status, and we expect to remain in
every community, sparing no pains or expense in help-
ing to rebuild a greater Florida."
Supplies being sent into the damaged regions include
building materials, foods and provisions, clothing and drinking
From off the crippled telegraph wires comes a steady
stream of sympathetic messages and pledges of assistance,
many of the telegrams being addressed to the Mayor of Miami,
some to the Chamber of Commerce and others to different or-
ganizations and officials.
They came from the smallest hamlets as well as the
largest cities --from the executives of great cities and states
and others prominent in every walk of life.

With ingenuity inspired by sympathy, Chicago took a
leading part in the relief of storm-stricken Florida.
A special train bringing doctors and nurses and medical
supplies thundered toward the ravaged region in command of
Dr. Herman Bundeson, the City's health officer, while Chicago
dipped into her purse for the hurricane victims and planned
for the methodical assistance of relief units working in the
stricken state.
The relief train left at one o'clock Monday carrying also
X-ray, drugs and supplies. It was equipped and made up by
the Illinois Central railroad, the Pullman company, the Her-

aid-Examiner, Cook County, and the city of Chicago. Many
private hospitals, firms and individuals helped to supply it.
The Pullman company placed all its facilities at the com-
mand of the governor of Florida and suggested- that Pullman
cars would be made available on demand for the housing and
treatment of disaster victims.
The benevolent and protective order of Elks, directed a
$25,000 currency shipment from Philadelphia to Miami by air-
plane, and promised more funds if they can be used.
Swift and company, packers, directed and turned over to
the state of Florida $10,000 worth of food stuffs in storage
at their Miami depot.
The Chicago Red Cross announced plans for a campaign
for relief funds, fixing the minimum at $500,000.
On his way to Florida was Colonel Hugh F. Miller of
Chicago Association of Commerce, director of the relief work
in the San Francisco earthquake.
San Francisco board of supervisors appropriated $24,000
toward the Red Cross Florida relief fund.
At New Haven, Conn., the supreme council of Knights of
Columbus has appropriated $35,000 for relief work.

A quick and whole-hearted response to the disaster call
of the storm swept district of Florida came from the Nation's
President Coolidge led the move for relief by formally
asking the American people to contribute to a fund to aid
those who had gone through "an overwhelming disaster."
The Red Cross was active early and the first response
to the President's call was a contribution of $100,000 from
the National headquarters of the organization.
A coast guard fleet was sent to Florida waters to 'partic-
ipate in the rescue work. It carried a detachment of Marines
and a quantity of supplies.
Secretary Wilbur called Florida Naval reservists to active
duty for work in the devastated area and promised whatever
other assistance the navy could give. Postmaster General
New ordered post office workers to co-operate, especially in
identifying dead and injured and locating the missing. Post
office department transportation also was offered.
President Coolidge had several conferences with members
of his cabinet who went over the situation with him. It is ex-

pected that from these conferences a co-ordinated plan of
action by the government will soon come into being.

New York State was quick to respond to the plight of
hurricane-swept Florida.
Governor Smith called on the people of the state to give
unstintingly for the relief of the stricken people of Florida.
He appointed a relief committee and telegraphed Governor
Martin of Florida a message of sympathy and promise of aid.
Mayor Walker also telegraphed Governor Martin declaring
that New York City "stood ready to render every aid humanly
The local headquarters of the Salvation Army, Red Cross
and kindred organizations entered into the relief work, as-
sembling and shipping funds, food, clothing and medical sup-
plies. The Down Town League, composed of business men,
laid plans for the collection of funds for the relief of the
stricken area.

Moist heated air expansion is cause given by weather expert
Expansion of moist-heated air formed over the Carib-
bean Sea, attended by abnormal atmospheric conditions, de-
veloped a hurricane over the Gulf of Mexico and Southern
Florida, according to the scientific explanation of the storm
given by C. A. Donnel, assistant forecaster at the Chicago
weather bureau.
The hurricane, it is explained, is a mighty swirl of wind
in a circle from a hundred miles to 500 miles or more across.
This is similar to the mid-western tornado except that the
circular area of disturbance is many times larger than that
of the tornado. The circling hurricane, as a whole, moves
slowly, but the wind traveling in the circle attains a velocity
of 100 miles and sometimes as much as 150 miles an hour.
"The usual course of the West Indian hurricane --there
being customarily three or four annually is west-northwest-
ward toward the United States as far as the Bahama Islands."
But in this storm an area of high barometric pressure,
which resists hurricanes, existed -- had existed for several
days .. and caused it to sweep into the abnormally low pres-
sure on the gulf and in Florida.
When a hurricane strikes land it is quickly dissolved by

buildings, forests, mountains and other obstacles. At sea
the hurricanes often develop intensity rather than abates.
The formation of a hurricane is causedd when the moist
air over tropic waters becomes heated and expands rapidly.
Then a whirling starts in the :pot in the heated area, and
soon it begins to move, gathering intensity the while.

Usually torrential downpours accompany the high. winds.
Eight-year-old Girl Lies Broken In Hospital
Waiting for Word of Kin
An unusually touching case of a storm victim was that
of a little girl, whose injuries include three broken ribs, both
arms broken and a possible fracture of the left leg. She did
not remember where she lived or where her relatives were if
alive. She was confined in a Hospital at Coral Gables.
"We came here on a train and went to a house and it
blew down," is all she can say. "My mother is all right. She's
staying with friends."
H. N. Baker, high official of the American Red Cross,
who came to Miami Wednesday to direct relief work, was him-
self almost a causalty of the storm. While rushing to the
storm area by airplane, the ship carrying Mr. Baker crashed
in Alabama and was demolished. He and the pilot were un-
hurt. They commandeered an automobile and reached Atlanta,
from which point Mr. Baker came to Miami by train.
An old man, 70 years old, his feet wet, clothing grimy, and
a growth of stubble on his hollow cheeks, made his way pain-
fully into the Red Cross station at the McAllister hotel Tues-
day afternoon.
"Is this the Red Cross place ?" he asked a nurse.
"Yes sir. What can we do for you ?" replied the one he
had addressed, certain that another patient had come.
"Fer gosh sakes, give me a chew of tobacco. I ain't had
one since Saturday!"
A messenger boy was dispatched for the needed "plug."

One body found in Schooner
Diving equipment from Key West and from coast guard
ships will be used in an effort to recover bodies believed to be
imprisoned in vessels sunk in Miami harbor.

The Ocean-Drive, stretching fifty miles from Palm Beach
to Fort Lauderdale, .one..of the three most beautiful in the
world is almost entirely destroyed. The ocean lashed by hur-
ricane winds tore away great gaps in the roadway. It will
take time and great expense before repairs can be made. But
Florida's Ocean Drive will be rebuilt more substantial and
beautiful than before.

With their ship burning and slowly sinking under them
in the midst of the tropical storm the crew of the schooner
F. A. St. Pierre was rescued early Saturday morning by the
freighter Westerwald, 250 miles east of Nassau in the open
The Floranada Club, advertised two years ago as an
American Biaritz, and sponsored by some of the nation's soc-
ially prominent, resembled the outhouses of an abandoned
farm. The administration building, club house and supply
buildings were demolished.

One of the beauty spots of the Florida east coast fell in
the wrath of the hurricane, when the Australian pine boule-
vard at Hypoluxo was wrecked by the force of the gale, the
falling trees rendering the highway impassible.
For many years the brief stretch of overhanging Aus-
tralian pines, affording a beautiful cool stretch of roadway,
had been one of the show spots of the Dixie highway. Tree
after tree succumbed to the winds and was flung uprooted
across the roadway.

The Red Cross, the American Legion and other organi-
zations and scores of volunteer workers who have been en-
gaged in relief work, have done their work well but genuine
appreciation is due the officials of the Seaboard Air Line rail-
way for its splendid part in the caring for storm sufferers.
The Seaboard lost little time following the storm in getting
plans underway for the handling of stranded families and
assisting them to homes of relatives where they might have
the proper care and attention.

The Florida East Coast railway company was not slow
to offer every possible assistance. Ticket agents from both
roads worked hard and long so that all of the thousand or
more refugees from the stricken area, who waited to be taken
to temporary homes in the north might be handled with dis-

Evacuation completed against will of people on health orders

Home ties that once held out promises of high reward
to Moorehaven's pioneers were broken for an indefinite per-
iod as the rear guard, about 200 strong, trailed out following
in the footsteps of the 800 fellow townsmen, women and chil-
dren, who left to find refuge elsewhere when the storm and
floods of Saturday laid waste the community.

The militia ordered a complete evacuation of Moorehaven.
Every transportation facility was taxed to its utmost to make
room for the exiles and their personal belongings salvaged
from the wreckage.
Handicapped by inundated streets and roadways, and
limited boat accommodations on Lake Okeechobee the outbound
movement was slow. The militia officers and their commands
assisted the storm victims in their departure.

None of the 200 wanted to go. They protested the evac-
uation and appealed to Governor Martin to have the orders
cancelled. They argued that they should be left, despite the
danger of disease, the filth and foul smell of the place.

Colonel S. L. Lowry, Jr., in charge of the National Guard
troops in the Moorehaven district and his aides, heard the
appeals but insisted the evacuation had to be carried out as
recommended by state health officers. The militia promised
that every bit of property would bd carefully guarded while
the owners were away, that every foot of the town searched
thoroughly for bodies of the dead still uncovered, that im-
mediate and effective sanitation measures would be applied to
make Moorehaven safe for habitation and as soon as possible,
probably in two or three weeks, the military bans would be
lifted. Search for additional dead was virtually suspended
as the evacuation proceeded. Some 150 bodies were believed
still to be concealed in and about Moorehaven but authori-
ties agree it will be impossible, except in rare circumstances,
to identify any that may be found in the future, even to tell
whether they are black or white.

No longer an attraction
Here comes an ambulance __ its siren blowing at full
blast. *People turn their heads for it's no longer a curiosity
but another mangled body from a gutted building. Besides
ambulance sirens have been shrieking since early Saturday.
Automobiles are being commandeered, loaded with food,
water and medical supplies and make off from headquarters at
full speed to the rescue of another isolated colony.
Hammers pound day and night. Temporary roofs go up
every few minutes. Carpenters jump from one job to another.
Miamians each morning looked for a black cloud. A rain storm
would add greatly to the suffering.
Rumors fly __ another tidal wave is due to-night. People
become hysterical __-- the newspapers are besieged and author-
ities take drastic measures to stamp out the reports. Another
rumor is that the Miami Daily News tower is leaning at an
angle of 20 degrees.
The tower suffered only slight damages and is acting like
a sentinel over Miami's devastated harbor. It bore the brunt
of thd storm well. All night Saturday a small group in the
tower worked feverishly at telephones warning Miamians of
the approaching hurricane.
The building plunged into darkness before the telephones
failed. They later snapped at 4:30 a. m., just as the weather
man gave a barometer reading, the lowest ever recorded. The
storm raged. The dredge Savannah played a searchlight on
the hundreds of boats in distress and silently the newspaper-
men watched from the tower the great disaster.
The lull in the storm at daybreak brought new horrors.
A reporter struggled into the tower from the weather bureau.
IHe reported the barometer at 27:62. The streets were filled
with people. They thought the storm was over. Newspaper-
men attempted to warn them but they were laughed at.

More than thousand women and children taken home by road
The big white busses that three years ago began rolling
into Hollywood-by-the-Sea filled with an expectant gradually
growing new population went back to Hollywood Wednesday
night empty, after having carried storm refugees to West
Palm Beach whence they were sent by train to friends in the
North. Some of the drivers were weeping. Many of the





people who had come here in the busses were in tears when
they alighted from the busses to call upon charity for their
tickets for their return to homes in the north, east and west.
They were going home. But they were leaving their newer
homes which had been more fair than any others until the
hurricane destroyed them.
A huge throng of more than a thousand refugee women
and children from Hollywood finally was congregated around
the Seaboard Air Line railway depot. The few men in the
crowd were aged or wounded. Weary and worn women, many
of them with babies hugged to their breasts, were packed in
the crowd milling around the ticket window for transportation
home. They did not have money. No one needed it.

The Seaboard Air Line was giving transportation to their
homes wherever they might be without charge. Tickets were
given to those who were destitute and had proved their plight
to officials who examined them. Four men were kept busy
filling out the necessary papers that would carry the stricken
people to their homes. Police had to rope off the lines finally
to maintain order.
Boy Scouts, Red Cross nurses and Legionnaires mingled
in the crowd handing out ice water, milk, milk to babies, and
It was hot there on the tracks in the long line of eleven
day coaches that would take the refugees to Jacksonville from
whence they were to be sent to their destination. Nurses car-
ried powder around and sprinkled the coolness on tiny bodies.
Exhausted mothers were cared for by the staff of doctors.
The Palm Beach band played lively tunes all day. When
the band struck up "Dixie" that stirring tune of their adopted
southland, there was hardly a dry eye to be seen.
It was growing late. The Florida sun was beginning to
sink. To many it was the passing of all Florida brightness
that had been enjoyed for three years.
Sandwiches were being served while the throng around
the ticket window seemed not to have been diminished at all.
More babies began to cry.
Doleful news that only six hundred could be handled in
the first load brought more crying. Nine o'clock was a long
time off. But a whole day to wait was worse. Many of the
weary refugees settled themselves for the night on the pave-
ment. Others asked directions toward Bacon Park where
those who could not take the train were to be cared for.





The crowd grew quiet as the sun went down. An old
man, sitting by himself on a baggage truck began lightly
praying to himself. The band was playing "Valencia". Two
young girls started to "Charleston" but soon stopped. It was
too much like dancing on the closed casket of a loved one.

A train whistled down the track. Those who had
stretched themselves on the grass outside of the train, began
to stir their storm worn bodies. They clambered into the
waiting coaches.
Nurses and doctors standing on the railroad platform did
not speak. There was nothing to say. It was nine o'clock.
The whistle blew and the long train pulled away from West
Palm Beach. Its parting was as awesome as a funeral train
bearing a dead president.

Muster all of your words and you will not find one that
will completely picture the grief, pain, anxiety and piteous-
ness that hung over the Seaboard Air Line railroad station
Wednesday afternoon while thinly clad mothers clamored in
line to exchange their Hollywood relief committee passes for
railroad tickets to their northern destinations where loved
ones and a home might shelter them.
The sight presented was more striking than that of war.
Mothers with new-born babies clamoring for a seat aboard
the relief train, while men who pitied their condition stood
in line and got their tickets.
Women with three and four uncontrollable children and
Red Cross helpers assisting them the best they could. Mothers
who had but few clothes on their children and less on their
own backs wending their way to the train had received their
tickets and were happy now. Home soon. New clothes. Clean
beds and sunshine for the kiddies.
Others about to become mothers, who had withstood the
tortures of that terrible night and day, trying frantically to
get tickets home; some with several children pulling at their
They were going to loved ones. They were out of that
stricken area where scores had been left behind under the
sands of the land they loved.



Sheltered instruments at the weather bureau gave the
velocity of the wind at its peak at 79 miles an hour at 6 a. m.
Saturday. C. B. Mosely, assistant to Mr. Gray, meteorologist
in charge, said that the wind rate probably mounted as high
as 125 miles an hour in Miami Beach and 120 miles an hour
in Miami.
The apparent difference in the direction of the wind and
the lull that occurred about 6 a. m. Saturday was explained
as due to the hurricane changing its direction.
The wind velocity at 9 p. m. Friday was 20 miles an hour;
at midnight it had mounted to 36 miles an hour; 2 a. m. it
was 48 miles an hour; 2:30 a. m. 55 miles an hour; 3 a. m. 42
miles an hour; 3:30 a. m. 48 miles an hour; 4 a. m. 70 miles
an hour and 6 a. m. 79 miles an hour. These observations
were made on the sheltered government instruments. Up to
that time it was explained, Miami was receiving the hurricane
which was coming in from the northeast.
From 6 until 7 a. m. Saturday the wind velocity was be-
tween 10 and 15 miles an hour. At 7:30 a. m. the returning
storm, this time from the south carrying a steady wind as
compared with the heavy jerky gusts of the earlier passage,
had reached 35 miles an hour. This rose to 55 miles an hour at
9 a. m. and from that time on the hurricane was subsiding, the
sheltered instrument showed.

Visitors will find city enjoyable as ever, Mayor Romfh assures
To give the entire nation an accurate statement of the
hurricane's effects on the Miami district, Mayor E. C. Romfh
has made public an official report on the situation. National
distribution is to be given the statement which follows:
"From the thousands of telegrams pouring into Miami
hundreds of which are addressed to the mayor of the city,
I am convinced a very much exaggerated idea of Miami's real
condition has been created. I regard it as a duty to the public
at large to set forth as briefly as possible the situation as it
now exists and its relation to the future of this city.
"The West Indian Hurricane which swept over an area of
60 miles on the Atlantic coast of September 18th, extending
30 miles north and 30 miles south of Miami, was by far the
most severe and destructive storm that ever touched the main-
land of the United States. Miami in her 30 years of existence
has never been materially damaged before. There was a great

@ @ @5118 V""~t'li <.it-i




14 1

amount of damage to buildings through their unroofing, the
breaking of windows and the blowing down of poorly con-
structed buildings in the outlying districts. The larger busi-
nes buildings, the better constructed homes, hotels and apart-
ments were mostly damaged by the breaking of glass and in
some instances the covering of roofs were loosened or blown
off and thus the heavy rain created the most damage. There
was great destruction to the tropical palms and foliage."
"The electric light plant, water and gas systems were
put out of commission. The water and gas service now is
normal. The electric system has been restored in the central
business district and service to large residential areas is being
added daily.
"The most regrettable part of the storm was the number
of deaths, which totals 106 to date in Dade county. There
were 854 injured placed in regular and temporary hospitals,
450 of whom have been discharged. The citizen's committee
did heroic work the first few days in caring for the injured.
However, this work has now been taken over by the Red Cross
and this organization is handling the situation with the ut-
most efficiency.
"Small buildings in outlying districts, cheaply constructed,
were blown down. It was in these and in houseboats that
the greatest number of deaths occurred. There was great
damage done to yachts and pleasure boats, but most of these
will be put in shipshape order for the coming season.
"Of the 150 hotels in Miami, Miami Beach and Coral
Gables, 75 per cent were not damaged to any great extent.
The year around, hotels are operating as usual. Of the 1,200
apartment houses, 70 per cent received little damage. All
hotels and apartment houses will be completely repaired and
put in first class condition within 60 days.
"There are thousands who have lost all and are destitute
and who must have financial aid in order to get back upon a
self supporting basis. There are the small home owners,
smaller tradesmen, workers and people of very moderate
means. It is to aid these people that the citizens relief com-
mittee and the Red Cross issue their appeal for assistance.
That need is acute and genuine.
"But there are other thousands who have the finances
or can make satisfactory arrangements to restore their own
homes and replace effects damaged or destroyed. These are
contributing to the aid of their destitute neighbors, but finan-
cing their own losses makes it impossible for them to con-
tribute in sufficient amounts to supply all the urgent needs.
Miami greatly appreciates the spontaneous sympathy which

has been shown by the American people as expressed by
President Coolidge.
"In the six days that have passed since the storm, this
city has come back with a speed, that is absolutely amazing.
No one who has not been on the ground, checking up the
progress, can realize the tremendous recovery a united,
courageous, indefatigable citizenship has made.
"Day and night, with little sleep, tens of thousands of
men and women have co-operatively labored, not only to re-
lieve the suffering, to feed the hungry, to house the homeless,
but to repair, to rebuild and to remove the debris left in the
wake of the storm.
"I want to give positive assurance that our friends will
find Miami this winter the same enjoyable, hospitable, com-
fortable vacation city it has always been.
"I predict that Miami will make a world come-back. The
people here have the enthusiasm, the will to do, an unshakable
faith in the future of this great city. It is the same people
who have created the fastest growing city in America who
are now turning their energies and enthusiasm to the work
of reconstruction in Miami.
E. C. Romfh, Mayor.

In the midst of misery and heart-breaking despair, left
in the wake of the hurricane, a New Florida is born.
A new commonwealth, founded upon a common ground
which Floridians previously had not known, is rising today
from the ruin and devastation which tore at the very soul of
its people and left its ugly scar.
At home her people for the first time are bound together
by ties of blood. Everywhere there is sympathetic reaction
which could have been brought about only by a common grief
or great sorrow.
A year ago Florida was forced to stand as a unit for
selfish reasons. Her's was the task of combatting adverse
propaganda hurled at her from every quarter. That atti-
tude of the outside world, now long subsided, has been swept
away forever. Today, from every state in the union, there is
pouring into Florida all manner of aid. Apparently cities,
states and individuals who formerly were among Florida's

most severe critics and bitter enemies will not be able to do
enough to bring her back to where she can catch a ray of
hope from the silver lining of clouds which seem so black.
It is the real test, an ordeal which seems unfair, but
Florida is making good. Already she has started rebuilding
the crumbling remains of the now desolate cities in which
she once took so much pride. It is a heart-rending task but
it will not be left undone, for the new Florida may proudly
boast of that rare essential known as "morale."

This great health-giving empire, blessed with its sun-
shine and fertility, as well as bedeviled with its tropical storms,
as the north is with its cyclones, will display that resiliency
of spirit and courage which is typical of our modern settle-
ments. Florida is beloved by those who live there and have
been there. It is in close contact with the West Indies and
South America. Miami is just off the great Atlantic traffic
lane. A good harbor is being transformed into an excellent
one, and the inexorable law of trade and commerce has decreed
for it a great future. A city, like an individual, never ap-
preciates inherent strength until the test comes. Wreckage
quickly disappears in the face of human industry and cour-
ageous purpose.
Where many people were disposed to treat Miami and
south Florida particularly with ridicule because of the col-
lapse of an unnatural real estate boom, they will turn now
in sympathy to the permanent population. This will be fol-
lowed in brief time with an admiration, nationwide, of the
indomitable pluck which will not only bring restoration, but
prepare the way for a development which was not even ap-
parent before the disaster fell.

People are giving throughout America to help Florida
storm sufferers. Benefit performances are being presented
in many places for the purpose of raising funds. Men are
even risking their lives in exhibitions, and in one instance an
airplane acrobat was only saved from death through the hero-
ism of another.
With such sacrifices, an additional responsibility is placed
upon the dispensers of the money in Florida. Every pre-
caution must be taken to see that none is wasted, that all goes
directly to those in actual need. Where immediate emergency
demands provisions, clothing, shelter, these should be furn-
ished without delay or future obligation.

On the other hand, it is not well to pauperize nor en-
courage idleness. Thousands of thrifty folks have seen their
property, which they saved and worked to create, destroyed
through no fault of their own. With their pressing wants
supplied, they will be ready to repair or rebuild, and will do
so if the funds are forthcoming. The Greater Miami depends
upon this class. It is up to the city, the state, the relief or-
ganizations, financial agencies, to see that they are cared for
at once. They cannot go on without financial assistance. It is
suggested that adequate loans be extended to these sufferers
in order that they may rebuild-the loans at reasonable rates,
with little or no interest.
This will promote construction, as well as relief, and this
means increased demands for labor of all kinds. Thus em-
ployment will be provided for which payment will be made,
and the need for free rations will be eliminated.
Practical aid calls for helping those who help themselves
the worthy, thrifty families.




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