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Table of Contents
    Summary
        Page 1
    Interview
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
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SEM 244
Lee Tiger

Lee Tiger was first interviewed for the program in 1977. Here he discusses his mixed
parentage and his interest in strengthening his participation in his Indian heritage
through naming and cultural practices (1-2). Because his mother was non-Indian, he
briefly explains the difficulty in obtaining a name and a clan. The son of Buffalo Tiger,
Lee Tiger tells about his father's role in forming the Miccosukee Tribe and his opinion
about crucial issues in the 1950s (3-4). The Miccosukee are in some ways behind the
Seminoles, but Tiger likens the differences to those between Republicans and
Democrats in the same family (5). Tiger explains that Miccosukee conservatism has
changed some, with the passing of senior generations, although "they still move very
slowly" (6). He sees language as an important part of cultural preservation and
discusses his father and James Billie's attempts to preserve the languages. He notes
that the Miccosukee families retain the language, although projects to write it are not
so far along (7). "That is one of the biggest challenges," Tiger states," to keep the
young people interested in the tradition and culture" (8). A "cultural shock" occurred in
the last generation, with the changes in society and economy; consequently, people are
"still catching up" with the modern world. People who lived in chickees twenty years
ago now live in houses. The changes are good and bad. Like a child near a hot iron,
there is at times a lack of knowledge about how to handle new wealth. But there are
good cultural programs the tribes have initiated. The cultural shock is also in part
responsible for health problems, in that the diet has changed, leading to diabetes, and
that Indians cannot physically process alcohol the way Europeans can (18).

Tiger and his brother developed their musical interests through their environment,
which led to their performing and recording pop music (9-10). Their father asked them
to perform in South Florida to draw non-Indians to the reservations, to "learn more
about the tribe" (11). They did this, and it was the foundation for annual arts and
music festivals that are still held. Tiger discusses some of the Indian elements in their
music, but suggests that is a result of creativity; the genres of music are quite different
(13-14). He has attended Green Corn Dances, and intends to take his Seminole children
to one at Big Cypress, where there is no alcohol (15).

Tiger's main work is in tourism, "trying to get recognition for American Indians in the
arena of enterprise development and tourism" (15). He has been involved with eco-
heritage tourism on Big Cypress and creating networks between Native Americans and
larger government tourist institutions. The Seminoles have taken the lead in working
with this "product," and he hopes his tribe will do more with it (16-17). Tiger has also
been involved with the Florida Department of Transportation in the area of American
Indian Outreach (17-18).









SEM 244
Interviewee: Lee Tiger
Interviewer: R. Howard
29 June 1999

H: This meeting is with Mr. Lee Tiger and we are in a conference room at the

Seminole Tribal Headquarters. Lee, I have just allowed you to refresh your

memory. We did an interview with you back in 1977 for the Oral History Program

but it does not mention in there what clan you belong to. What is your clan?

T: I come from a mixed family. My father was Bird clan and my mother was non-

Indian. So, in that case, when I was born, I was given a baby name in English

and a baby name in Indian language, in Mikasuki.

H: What was that name?

T: Shimioshi.

H: And what does that mean?

T: My grandfather said it was lazy. I was lazy baby. [Laughter.] So, I guess I was

lazy. As I grew up, and when I got into my earlier twenties, I started feeling the

need to come back to my roots, to what is more my blood, because of the

mixture of blood that I had. My father being a Florida Indian, Miccosukee, that

was stronger in me, I guess, than my mother, who was of European descent that

had various different bloodlines. Also, growing up on that side of my family,

because my family split at an early age; we went through a divorce situation, my

mother and father, so we grew up on our Indian side. My father took us. Like I

was saying, in my early twenties we started coming back. Especially being in

music, because that is what my brother and I did for a living back then, only

music, which we still do, but back then it was all we did. We were looking for, I









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Page 3

guess, secrets from our selves that we could talk about, or sing about, or share,

and we started to write more about our Indian culture and, in doing that, seeking

into our own selves. I was trying to go back to the Corn Dance and I had a

problem because I did not know how I was going to get my name changed

because I did not have a clan. So, I talked to my uncle, Jimmy Tiger, and other

Tribal members, and they said, look, you could just try. You just have to go there

and try it and do your best.

H: Go where?

T: To Corn Dance. So, in 1974 I did. I went back to Corn Dance. I had not been

since I was a little child. We used to go all the time when I was a little child.

Then, when I was twenty-four, I believe, that was when I went and got it. I had to

get a clan.

H: You had to ask permission?

T: Other people had to ask for me because in the structure of the protocols with

clans, certain people have to do something with certain other people. You

cannot just ask directly. So, it was handled correctly, through the right protocol,

and they allowed me to have my father's clan. So, I did become a Bird Clan,

ever since then. That is what I am now, Bird Clan. The medicine man back then,

who was a good one, I felt was very important to me, Ingraham Billie. I do not

know if you have anything on him.

H: Yes.

T: To me, [he was] one of the stronger ones in the era of my lifetime. I was happy









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that I was able, before his passing, to get accepted through him.

H: Did any of your other brothers or sisters go through that also?

T: My brother, Steve, was trying to do it and he got there too late. He missed it.

That same time, in 1974. I told him, well, you should go back and try again.

Maybe he will. He has not yet.

H: Did you have any sisters?

T: No. From my mother-her name is Ann, Ann Marie-that marriage with my

father, Buffalo Tiger, was just two of us. But he married after that, again, and

had three other children. So, I do have a half-sister and two half-brothers.

H: Are they full Miccosukee?

T: No, they also were [of a] non-Indian mother.

H: Your father, Buffalo Tiger, was he the Tribal Chairman at some time?

T: Yes, he was. He was the person ... he was actually a spokesman back in the

1950s. He was asked by the medicine people to speak for the tribe, the Trail

Indians, because there was a lot of problems back in the 1950s. Indian people

would be cutting palmetto, or hunting, and fishing, the only life they knew, living

off nature, and the state folks would come in and try to give them tickets or tell

them not to do it. But that was the only way they knew it. My father got involved

through trying to remedy some of those problems by going to Tallahassee. I

guess that was his first contact as a spokesman. That was the early 1950s and

the late 1940s, I guess, when they started having problems. That is how he got

started and eventually became an elected official in the early 1960s, as Tribal









SEM 244
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Page 5

Chairman. He served as the Tribal Chairman through, I believe, 1984. He was

the Tribal Chairman that got the Tribe recognized and that brought them out of

what was before just a non-organized system of folks just existing naturally, off

the earth, which they wanted to do. They liked it that way, but as the modern

world started encroaching, there was no way to continue that, because also the

food supply, the water was not clear to drink anymore, the deer, you could not

hunt, and you could not fish too good anymore. So, they had to find a new way

and that is why they had to seek recognition. The other families up in the

northern Fort Lauderdale area and Brighton, they had already moved into that

arrangement with the government and had a constitution. They developed, I

guess around 1957, the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and under that organization

they now have several different land bases throughout Florida. But, the

Miccosukees around in the Trail area, they decided to hold back and be a little bit

more conservative, and so it was not until later that they sought recognition and

finally achieved it.

H: Do you know when that was that they achieved their recognition?

T: I think it was 1962, early 1962, and it was quite difficult to do. The federal

government did not want to recognize the tribe, the lower families, Seminole

families or Creek families. They did not want to recognize them separately.

They said they are all Seminoles. But there was a little bit more, political and

also maybe some traditional [reasons] why the Trail Indians felt that they wanted

a different kind of contract or a different agreement with the federal government.









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I was only a child back then. There are probably some other inside things that I

do not know. Now, as I look back, as years have gone on, and now with the

families the way they are, and the way the things are as of 1999 .... For

example, my family, my children are Seminole Tribal members, I and my uncles

and aunts are Miccosukee. It reminds me almost of a kind of political split, like

Americans have Democrats and Republicans. Republicans have one kind of

thinking, a little bit different than the Democrats, but they are all still families and

even in one house you will have a split like that, with a wife and husband or a

brother and a sister. So, it is kind of similar, and there could have been more

things attached, originally.

H: Was a difference in religious beliefs one of them?

T: No, no. Not at all. The medicine man and what he had was for both, it did not

matter. There were some, like Muskogee Creeks, that were involved in it; a lot of

them went out to Oklahoma, and some of the northern Creeks were also part of

the settlement of the new Seminole in Florida back in 1957. That was separate

from some of the other lower Miccosukee-speaking people who were originally

around in Tallahassee back in the 1700s, 1600s. Right out west of Tallahassee

is a lake called Lake Miccosukee, and that is the original town of a lot of the

Miccosukee-speaking people. In fact, Seminoles and Miccosukee nowadays,

alike, had used that town. Their forefathers were there. Then there were some

other families coming from Georgia and Alabama that were from other areas.

When, I think, the Seminoles in Florida got recognition in 1957, they took in some









SEM 244
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Page 7

of those people together, too, that were left in Florida from the wars. When the

wars happened, really, all the families, the Indian families, banded together,

worked together, to exist. And even some Black Seminoles were a part of that.

In the 1960s, I think, after the Seminoles did go ahead and coordinate

themselves in 1957, then eventually the Trail Indians decided to get recognition.

In a little bit different way, like I said. They were a little bit more slow moving,

more reserved and conservative.

H: Now that is changing, isn't it? They are getting more into similar types of

activities as the Seminole Tribe, like the gaming and things like that.

T: It is. The elders are passing on, my father's generation and folks that were his

elders; they are gone. The younger people, I think, are now moving forward and

advancing, in a certain way, although still Miccosukee does move, in a way,

slower in certain areas. For example, they are not going to probably be setting

up other areas of gaming or something like that. They move very slowly, and still

I notice that it is very slow that way. But as far as the business, they have gone

ahead and built this new resort that hopefully will be a good investment for the

Tribe.

H: Where is that located?

T: That is out west of Dade County; it is east of the Miccosukee community about

fifteen miles, and it is west of Miami, about ten or fifteen minutes west of the

airport. It is not too bad of a location. I mean, it is not on the beach. But with the

facilities they have it is beautiful. It is modern. It is a pretty progressive gaming









SEM 244
Lee Tiger
Page 8

facility and very nicely done with all the bells and whistles, excluding some of the

class-three gaming, like roulette or things like that are not there. I am sure if the

Tribe has a compact, it would probably be there; but right now it does not have

those things.

H: Is it open now?

T: Yes, it is. In fact, I went to the grand opening on the 14th of this month. It was

very nice; the opening was very well attended and had a lot of activities and a lot

of excitement regarding that hotel.

H: Back in your interview in 1977 you talked about a movement to write down the

Miccosukee language. Is that something that has been ongoing, any kind of

program for cultural preservation among the Miccosukee?

T: I cannot really speak for the programs that are on hand at this time but I can tell

you that one of my father's dreams was to write it down so that it would be there,

would never be lost. Just as [Seminole] Chief Billie has said it is one of the main

things he is proud of here, with the Seminole Tribe, that the language is still here

and intact, it is as well with the Miccosukee families. My father's idea was, of

course, to write it down and to have it forever there. Some of it was written; I

know because I have seen a little dictionary that he used to have, and that may

still be around, with some words and different things, counting, and animals. But

I do not think there has been and alphabet or anything, really, that would be able

to write the language completely, as of yet. I know that he is in the middle of

writing a book on his achievements, his life, and so on, that may talk about that,









SEM 244
Lee Tiger
Page 9

as well. But I do not think that either tribe has written a book that would take in

the whole language. I know that both tribes, though, do put an emphasis on

retaining tradition, culture, and trying to pass it on to the young people. That is

one of the biggest challenges, to keep the young people interested in the

tradition and culture. Of course, nowadays there is so much going on. We are

still in the midst of a cultural shock, I think. We are still in the middle of this

phase and I think it is probably going to take years before we really come out of it

and our young people are accepted [on] both sides, between the two worlds. I

think, right now, we are still catching up with the modern world or catching up

with history, and we are still in the midst of it.

H: Approximately what is the population of the Miccosukees?

T: I think it is somewhere around five hundred.

H: You just mentioned about the Miccosukee being a little behind in some areas,

how about housing? Do some people still live in chickees?

T: There may be a few. It is moving real fast now, in that way. The Tribe, because

of the gaming facilities being so successful, yes, now they are having more

houses. They are building more houses. More people are living in houses.

People that I remember when I was twenty years old that were living in chickees

now have houses. They also have cars. And the modern world is moving real

fast insofar as that, which is good in some ways, but it is also not good in certain

ways.

H: In what ways is that not good.









SEM 244
Lee Tiger
Page 10

T: Just like a child that does not know about what he is doing and gets a hot iron

and, what do you do, you touch it and you get burned. A lot of the people that

never had dollars and never had the responsibilities of what dollars bring, and

also the negative sides of what dollars can do, it is all new and it can be

damaging in certain ways without knowing how to handle things. But the good

thing is, I think, that the tribes are recognizing that and are trying to use the

dollars to come up with programs to help families and help young people to learn

about these things. That is the positive side of it. But it is still, like I said, cultural

shock that I think that we are going through. I think it is going to be a little while

longer before the young people-maybe not the ones now, but maybe the next

ones that will be going through that phase-know the old ways and know the

modern world and found a good common ground to exist.

H: You mentioned earlier about music and you and your brother performing. What

kind of music did you play and what instruments?

T: We were kind of a product of our environment-just as Indian families have

always done, adapted their ways. We grew up with, when we were little kids, our

cousins playing guitars in the villages. We heard it and we got inspired. So, by

the time we got to be teenagers, the music that was out when we were

teenagers, a lot of music was coming in from England, like the Beatles, or the

Rolling Stones, and all of those groups that we really liked, and they inspired us.

We also, as time went on, really liked the rhythm and blues and soul music, so

we kind of merged all of that with what our own feelings were and developed our









SEM 244
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Page 11

own songs starting from the late 1960s. We recorded music in Woodstock, New

York, the town of Woodstock, back in 1968, I guess, when the Woodstock

[concert] was actually going on. In fact, we knew about it. We were about twenty

miles away from it, but we did not go because we had families, then, too. People

would come back and say, do not bring your kids there, it is dirty, you cannot

take showers, there are no bathrooms, there is no food, you have to park twenty

miles away. So we said, no, we do not want to go. We did not go, but we were

actually there and recording our first record.

H: What was your group's name?

T: Back then we were called Sun Country. We worked out of Miami Beach at [what

were] back then all the major concert [facilities], back then they were like dance

halls and teenage night club things, but they were quite big. I remember in the

late 1960s there was one place called The Image. It was on Miami Beach and

they had Led Zeppelin, and Tiny Tim, and Lovin' Spoonful. Every major band

you could think of back in the 1960s probably went through there: the Yardbirds,

Ten Years After, gosh, so many. We used to be house band there, that is where

we got picked up by a record company in New York that we went up and signed

with. From there we went to California, to Los Angeles, to seek that area,

because that is where the really big music area was besides New York, so we

went there and lived, probably about two years. [We] played places like the

Whiskey-a-Go-Go. Our manager back then owned a club called The Experience,

right on Sunset Strip, so we played there and had people from the Rolling









SEM 244
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Page 12

Stones, to Eric Burton and The Animals, to Big Mama Thornton, that would come

into the club, and we were just a local band then. It was a nice time for our

musical career and we liked it; we liked doing it. But finally my father asked me,

why don't you come back and help your people; do your music out in the

reservation and maybe people could come out and learn more about the tribe.

So, it was the beginnings of creating a community relations program through

concerts, through Indian benefit concerts. We then got in touch with Rick Shaw's

old radio, Tiger Radio, WQAM. I met a couple of the DJs and they said, nobody

knows about you, so if you guys do a concert, we will put public service

announcements on our radio station and send you people out there. And they

did, and a lot of people came out to our little concerts at Jimmy Tiger's Indian

Village, out back on a little platform stage. For a few years we did that and then

later it turned into what is now called the Indian Arts Festival, and Music Festival.

That was the beginnings of what they have now. In fact, they still have those

events going on and people still go out to visit the Miccosukee Tribe out there to

go to those events.

H: These are held annually?

T: Yes. They are still held.

H: Is there a particular time?

T: Yes. The annual Indian Arts Festival is December 26 through the January 1, and

the Music and Crafts Festival is held in the third week in July, I believe they do it.

And now there is a new one that Billy Cypress, since he has been in there, put









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Page 13

together, and that is the Freedom Fest, the fourth of July. So, now they have

three.

H: This is Billy Cypress who is now the Chairman of the Tribe?

T: Chairman of the Miccosukee Tribe. There is also a Billy Cypress who is with the

Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum.

H: Are you still performing?

T: In the last few years we signed a record contract with an American Indian record

label called Sound of America Records, [with] a guy by the name of Tom Bee,

who we heard about back years ago. He was originally with the company

Motown, out of Detroit; he was signed with his group called Exit, and we

remembered him. Anyway, he went on after his group did pretty well with

Motown, he later became and A and R producer at Motown, working with all of

the different acts there. Eventually he opened his own American Indian record

company, probably about ten years ago. He worked at it and developed his

company and helped develop a Native American category in music stores.

There never was one; for many years there has been gospel, or jazz, or

international, rock, country. Well, there is now a Native American classification in

most record stores-in America, anyway, I do not know about other countries.

He pioneered that area, and we signed with him about three years ago. We are

working now on our third CD with him. In fact, I was doing some bass work for

James Billie a couple of years ago. A few years back I was working with him and









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Page 14

his music. I thought that if he had a harder beat, like a stronger bass and drums,

then some of his songs could be, to me, even stronger. I did some work with him

for about a year, my drummer and myself, and he had another guitar player. We

did that for a while, and he did some recording. So, I sent it over to that record

company, to Tom Bee, with Sound of America, and he wrote me back and let me

know he would be interested, that it still needed to evolve a little bit more sound.

About a year ago his new producer got in touch and they sent him new stuff, and

he decided to work together with him. So, now in Florida there are two American

Indian artists signed to this Native American record company, and that is James

Billie, and the other is Tiger Tiger, which is me and my brother. Of course, there

are all kinds of other artists on that label, from Indian reggae groups, to traditional

flutist, to powwow singers, to guys like Marion Brando, or folks that do Indian

type work. I believe that he signed with it, too.

H: Is your music of the traditional vein?

T: No, it is not. Traditional Florida Indian music is songs and kind of like prayers,

and they use shakers, like rattles-turtle shells or [made] out of cans-and you

put them on your legs and during Corn Dance you do the songs and sing. But

that kind of music would not be used for contemporary, although we use the

turtle shell shakers in some of it. And every once in a while we will use some

chants or some Indian words in our album.

H: Is it more like a country-rock?









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Page 15

T: Yes, like a rock, country, blues .... It has some R & B. Like I said, it is a merger

of all of our past, of when we were growing up and the music that really inspired

us. Over the years we also have put [in] some other instruments, like drums.

We try to be creative and put in some other instruments: bells, drums, flutes, and

we have used even bagpipes. We try to be creative and use whatever we feel

would be unique for the song, to make it.

H: You mentioned a couple of times the Green Corn Dance, with getting your name

changed and with the music that is performed there. Do you attend the Green

Corn Dance?

T: I have attended it. I might take my children back next year. I was going to go

this year out in Big Cypress, there is one out there that I was going to go to and I

got too late, like my brother. [Laughs.] I have to go next year-it is once a year-

and I will take my children. My children will want to go; they really want to go,

and I am glad that they do. I am glad that they are compelled to go and see what

it is all about. That is good. That is the way I was when I came back.

H: Why would you take them to the one in Big Cypress versus the one in ...

T: The one out on Tamiami Trail? I think I would take them here [at Big Cypress]

because, for one thing, I know some of the people there that are involved, and I

think with my kids never going I would be more comfortable there, at this

particular time. I would eventually take them to the other ones out on the Trail,

as time goes on, but I would break them in from some of the Seminole people up

here, because they are Seminole, too.









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H: One of the things I have heard about being a big difference with the one at Big

Cypress is that they do not have alcohol. Is that one of the considerations?

T: Yes, I prefer that. There would be fasting there, to where people would be, I do

not know if you would call it high, but just that your mind opens up that way, but

as far as alcohol, no, there would not be [any]. To me, I think that might be

better, especially for children, if they are around. My son is only ten, so I think it

would be better. Although, when they get older, I think they should go ahead and

go to another one, too, and compare them.

H: You are playing music, but that is not your primary occupation.

T: No. My primary occupation is, I guess, continuing the plight of trying to get

recognition for American Indians in the arena of enterprise development and

tourism. Florida is a big tourism industry state and there is so much that Indian

people can offer in that arena. The industry does not know what the Tribe has to

offer, or they are just now learning. I have been getting involved in that as the

Seminole Tribe has taken a lead in developing eco-heritage tourism out in Big

Cypress.

H: Can you tell me what is eco-heritage tourism?

T: Yes. Ecology tours; that is learning about the nature of the surroundings: plant

life, wildlife, and human life. The heritage side of the tourism is the heritage of

the Florida Indian people, who have been here and have adapted to the

Everglades and found a way to exist and the lifestyle of what they went through

many years ago. So, what has basically been created in Big Cypress is an









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opportunity for people to experience, for a day and overnight, or multi-day

arrangement, an eco-heritage experience. They have hiking, they have swamp

buggy tours, and they also have air boating, which people love to do. It is not

real ecology-minded because it is machines doing it, but it was a way of people

moving around, and it caught on and people love to ride on them. It was a way

of transportation, actually, to get from one area to another with the saw grass,

many years ago. People still like to do that. And then we have, at night, folklore,

around the campfire, story telling, beadwork, woodcarving, and various different

activities that one could observe and be a part of. Not only that, at the new

museum ...

H: Where is this new museum?

T: Everything that I am talking about, insofar as the eco-heritage tourism

developments that I have been mainly focusing on the last few years, is on Big

Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, where the Billie Swamp Safari is and also

the [Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki] museum. In our packages that we encourage folks to take is

first the visit to the museum, where one would see the film. I do not know if you

saw the film. If you have not, you should see it. It gives one a kind of a sitting

tour through history, and development, and adaptation, where we came from,

where we are now, and where we are going. I always try to get people to see

that first, to realize where they are. Then after that we take them to all the fun

stuff. That is what I have been mainly doing, trying, first of all, to partner the

Tribe with the unique eco-heritage tourism products that it has with the tourism









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people in greater Fort Lauderdale [to] create a relationship, which we have done,

with the Convention Visitor's Bureau. Not only that, we have also now partnered

with the State of Florida, the new tourism department, it is called FLAUSA, or

Visit Florida, and I also have a seat on the tourist board. I was invited to serve

on that, and I am still serving on it, for the last three years. My main reason for

being on that is so Native American people have board participation. I have

been serving on that under Florida Seminole Tourism because Seminole Tourism

has been developing these packages on Big Cypress and they are, first of all, in

need of having the products recognized by the state, and the county, and also

the world. They have taken a leading role in doing that and deserve to have the

product out there because it is the best. It is a very fine product. I wish my tribe,

Miccosukee, had also wanted to do that, and maybe they will, eventually. But at

this point, the Seminole Tribe has taken a leading role in that development, and I

am happy to assist in working to get those products out to the state, to the

county, and then out to the world, so that people who are visiting can have a real,

true ecology-heritage adventure, or safari, by an Indian tribe.

H: You work as a consultant to the Tribe?

T: Yes. I am a subcontracting consultant. I do also some subcontracting for the

FDOT-The Florida Department of Transportation. The American Indian

Outreach Program, I have been working with them for a couple of years now to

help them reach out and get onto reservations and let tribal members know of the

opportunities that the FDOT has for them. Folks that are working in construction,









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if they want to get assistance from the disadvantaged business enterprise

category, we can help them get that help so that they can get the work they want

and start up. We have already had a couple of tribal members from Seminole

become certified and get on that program. My main work has been in tourism

development and communications, trying to be a liaison between Indian and non-

Indian in the tourism arena.

H: Tell me about what you think are some of the biggest health issues that Indian

people face today. On Big Cypress, I have been told, it is diabetes and

alcoholism. Is it the same at the Miccosukee reservation?

T: I think so. I think it is probably the same. I think, again, that is still part of our

cultural shock, and not only cultural but physical shock of adaptation. We are still

in that phase because our food was a lot different before we met the non-Indian

and started eating his food, and sugar, and different things that we did not have

before. Adapting to those things is a slow process and so we have a lot of

overweight people with diabetes problems and whatever [being] overweight

brings to you. With alcohol, the same thing. I guess we are also like Asian

people, that it has not been in our blood for a long time so it is more pure. The

alcohol will probably hurt us quicker than it would a non-Indian or somebody

maybe from Europe, who has had alcohol in their blood for centuries. I think

those two probably hit it right on top, as far as the major health problems that I

could see. I think it must be that, diet.

H: If you were to give a general characterization of the Miccosukee reservation









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versus Big Cypress versus Brighton, could you give me an overview of how you

see the differences and similarities.

T: I do not know that much about Brighton, although I have been there for a few of

the festivals, and then I went up there for an FDOT workshop that we put

together. As far as I could see, the difference [is that] Miccosukee, of course, is

out on Tamiami Trail and it is not close to any cities. It is in its own little world, in

a way just like Big Cypress, but then in Big Cypress you have new developments

with the tourism, which is good because a lot of people can work at it. I think,

probably, Brighton is a little bit more remote than Big Cypress, but I think they

may be pretty much parallel with the lifestyle and all of what may be offered. I

think they all have a police station, health, and they may have schools; I think

that Brighton may have schools, I know Big Cypress does. I do not really think

there would be anything so drastically [different]. I think they all have their same

problems with alcohol or drug abuse. [End of Tape Side A]

H: I want to thank you for your time and all of the information that you have given

me, Lee, on June 29, 1999. Is there anything else that you would like to add that

I have not asked you about, that you think we ought to know?

T: I think we covered pretty much. I will just wait until the next twenty years and

maybe something new will come along to talk about then.

H: Okay. Thank you, again.




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