Title: Daisi Jumper
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Title: Daisi Jumper
Series Title: Daisi Jumper
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SEM 241
Interviewee: Daisi Jumper
Interviewer: R. Howard
27 June 1999

H: I am talking today with Daisi Jumper, who has been my research assistant during

this project. Today is June 27, 1999. We are at the Big Cypress Billy Swamp

Safari guesthouse. Daisi, can you tell me your full name?

J: Daisi Jumper.

H: To what clan do you belong?

J: Panther.

H: When and where were you born?

J: I was born in Broward County, probably a little bit more than forty years ago.

H: Tell me that story about your birth date, how it is different.

J: It is different. I was not born in a hospital, and my mom did not know the months

in English. My birthday was never recorded. She told me that I was born after

Christmas. Somehow the white people have written January 6 as my birthday.

H: What is your Mikasuki name?

J: Ahpetee.

H: What does that mean?

J: Shadow, or I was born on an overcast day, so that is what that named me. It

means cloudy or shadowy or overcast, something like that.

H: Sometimes you go by the name Shadow Jumper?

J: Oh yes, Ahpetee means shadow.

H: Who named you that?

J: My father.

H: How do you feel about having both an English name and an Indian name?

J: I guess it is all right, if they have to have it in English.

H: Do you have preference for one or the other names?

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J: I grew up with my Indian name so I feel more comfortable with my Indian name,

but everybody calls me Daisi.

H: Have you always lived on the reservation?

J: Yes.

H: You grew up here? Tell me a little bit about growing up here on the reservation.

J: I thought it was great. I had freedom to go where I wanted to go, when I wanted

to go, and there were not very many outsiders here so I thought it was good.

H: When did the outsiders start coming here more?

J: Probably when the roads were made, this Snake Road and 1-75, Alligator Alley,

probably about twenty years ago, twenty or thirty.

H: So, you have seen Big Cypress change a lot since then?

J: Yes. It has probably changed in the last thirty years.

H: Tell me about some of the changes.

J: There are more people and people have more cars. Everything has changed.

H: They have more material wealth now because of the different business

enterprises that the tribe is involved in?

J: Yes.

H: Do you know when the tribe's gaming activities started?

J: I am not real sure. I just noticed it more in the last ten years, five or ten years. I

am not sure.

H: What do you think about people who live on the reservation and work in the city?

J: I do not know too many people that do that. To me, people will not hire you in

the city.

H: Will not hire Indians?

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J: Yes. That is the way I feel. You cannot find a job easily in the city like you would

on the reservation.

H: Have you ever worked in the city?

J: No.

H: But you have worked here. What kind of occupations have you had here on the


J: My first job-I have been working since I was fourteen-I worked in the small

clinic that we had out here. I helped out as a receptionist and also I helped the

doctor with interpreting for the old people. I just helped in the clinic. That is

probably where I worked the most, in the clinic.

H: For how long?

J: I am not sure. I do not keep up with how many years; I do not keep up with time,

so I do not know. If I really thought about it, I would know, but right now [I would

say] for a few years, probably, and then I was married and had children.

H: How many children?

J: I had three sons. My husband was going to go into ministry so we lived in

Graceville for a short time, going to Baptist Bible Institute.1

H: Graceville?

J: Graceville, Florida.

H: So, did he go into the ministry?

J: Yes. He did.

H: Tell me more about what other kinds of jobs you have had.

1 Florida Baptist Theological College, Graceville, Florida, in Jackson County, near the Alabama border.
The college is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools to award associate and baccalaureate degrees.

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J: I was a language teacher, a culture preservation teacher, for about ten years,

also for the reservation. I taught children and whoever else wanted to learn the

Seminole language. That is what I did. I studied the history of the Seminoles

and taught that to the children in Big Cypress.

H: When you say you studied it, did you access books or did you learn history from

the elders of the tribe?

J: Yes, I would utilize the elders, and I read some of the books.

H: Some of the stories about your culture that you learned about from these elders,

were any of these stories that you had been taught as a child? Was that oral

history a part of your upbringing?

J: Oh yes. I heard it all my life, what they remembered, and it was not very much.

H: Tell me why the history was kind of disjointed because of how they got


J: The Seminoles were always on the run and Seminoles were scattered all over

South Florida, so there was no time to sit and teach anything. That was how we

lost most of our traditions and culture, like art, pottery making was lost, and

making arrow heads was lost, and a lot of other things were lost, and the

language. My ancestors are Creek, but I speak the Mikasuki language. So,

even that was lost. People still speak Creek today, but they are all in Brighton.

So, that is how they were lost. We had to survive; that is the thing that we

learned most, how to survive. It was like a whole new way of life out here in the

swamps, in the everglades. We were too busy trying to survive so we lost most

everything. Each family and clan-like I said, families were scattered and clans

were scattered all throughout south Florida-what little they still kept, that is what

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we learn. Each clan and family still remembered a little something about the

history, the culture, and so after they got together, around in 1957, when the tribe

was organized, we started sharing what little we still had left, and that is what we

have today.

H: One of the things about your culture that you mentioned was lost was the clan

system. Can you speak a little bit about that?

J: The clans. We had a lot more than what we have today. We have only eight.

H: What are those?

J: Panther, Bird, Otter, Deer, Bear, the Wind, Big Town, and Snake.

H: Do you know the ones that are no longer in existence? Do you know anything

about those?

J: They had Alligator, and Eagle, and probably Turtle and Wolves.

H: Tell me what you know about Seminole history. I know that since you have been

a culture and history specialist you have a better knowledge of it than probably

anybody on the reservation.

J: Seminole history?

H: Like the Seminole wars and the principal people involved.

J: It would take a long time. Seminoles originally were known as Creek Indians and

life for the Creek was in Georgia and Alabama and places like that. When the

government, the United States government, when the Europeans came into this

country and wanted the land here in the United States, they took over a lot of the

Indian lands and they wanted to, the United States government wanted to, put

the Indians onto reservations. A lot of the Creeks, a lot of my ancestors, were

forced to give up their lands and move to Oklahoma, but there were some that

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resisted the removal. They did not want to give up their lands and they tried to

fight for it, but there were just too many enemies. So, they were forced back and

kept being forced back and eventually the Seminoles ended up out here, in the

swamps in the everglades, because this was a land that nobody really wanted. It

was very swampy and [there was] a lot of water here in South Florida, and they

did not think that they could use the land. It was a good place to hide, for the

Seminoles, and the enemies could not make it through the swamps and fight

mosquitoes and alligators. They left us alone. That is how we survived. Only a

few Seminoles made it here and today we are a little over two thousand. That is

most of the history I know of. We had three Seminole wars, three major wars

with the United States and it was all because they wanted to put all the Indians

onto reservations. But the Seminoles fought back. In the Second Seminole War

my great grandfather was one of the chiefs that resisted the removal.

H: What was his name?

J: Chief Jumper was what he was called and that is why I have the name Jumper.

He was pronouncing it-it was a Creek word but the white people spelled it

Jumper. So that is what we have today.

H: Do you know what that Creek word was?

J: I am not going to say. I do but I am not going to say.

H: In the history that you learned, that was passed down to you, was there any

mention of the Africans who fought with the Seminoles?

J: Yes. Back in Georgia and Alabama the plantation owners had slaves and I

guess they would run off, the blacks, the slaves, would run off and the Seminoles

would take them in. The slaves found out that the Seminoles treated them better

SEM 241
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than the plantation owners so they stayed with them and lived with them,

intermarried I guess, so a lot of the Seminoles do have Negro blood in them.

That is one of the reasons we were called Seminoles, from what I was told. They

were referring to the blacks as Simanole because Simanole means wild or

runaway. When they ran off the plantations and the Creeks took them in, they

had them in their villages and they lived with them and worked with them in their

fields and taking care of cattle. They just lived with them and soon they started

calling the whole village Simanole. So, they started calling us Seminoles.

H: That is interesting because I have heard lots of different stories about how the

word Seminole came about, but I never heard that one. I heard that the Indians

got the name Seminole, the Creeks got the name Seminole, because they, the

group that came to Florida, were actually runaways from the Creeks in Alabama

and Georgia.2 So, that is very interesting, the other version of that. I had never

heard that. Tell me about your education. Did you go to public schools, boarding


J: I went to the schools on the reservation until I was in the fifth grade and then I

went to Clewiston school. I went to Clewiston school until the eleventh grade

and then I did not go anymore because it was a long ride and I did not feel like

going anymore. I just chose to get married so I would not have to go to school.

H: Was it just the long ride that you did not like about the Clewiston school, or were

you not treated well there by the teachers or the students?

J: For me, it was riding that bus and being enclosed. We did not get the best of

treatment in the outside world but that was not the reason that I quit. I really do

2 See this discussion of the origin of the term in J. Leitch Wright, Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction
and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986, 4-5.

SEM 241
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not care. I had to be there and I was there. If they did not like me, so what. I did

not really care. That was not the reason. I guess I just got too lazy riding that


H: How long of a ride was it?

J: Back then, thirty years ago, it was over an hour and a half.

H: One way?

J: One way. Because we had an old, raggedy school bus that did not make it half

the time. It was always breaking down and I think that was when we were still

under the government, I guess, because we had an old gray bus that the

government supplied and we had to ride that thing and it was not a very good

bus. In the winter, it was cold, and then it was hot, and it was always breaking

down, and it was slow. I guess I did not like the traveling part.

H: That is understandable considering the conditions you were under. Did you get

your high school equivalency though?

J: Yes.

H: And when did you decide to do that? And why?

J: I guess it was like ten years later. We started having these people working with

education and I guess they-I guess I should be saying it was important. It was

important, but I was talked into getting it.

H: So, there were people who came on the reservation trying to encourage people

to do their high school equivalency, or other kinds of educational opportunities?

J: Yes, we always had people doing that.

H: Were these people from the US government, or missionaries?

J: No, now they work for the tribe.

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H: But back then?

J: Back then, I am not sure. I do not know when we got away from the government,

but we have always tried to keep away from the government. So, I do not know

when we got away from that. But I was encouraged, I guess, to get my GED,

and I did.

H: What about your husband, what kind of education background did he have?

J: About the same as me. We went to the school here on the reservation and then

like most everybody did when they got to fifth grade, we did not have high school,

or higher grades, so we had to go public school in Clewiston.

H: Your husband's name is Paul Buster?

J: Yes. We are divorced now.

H: What about your parents, your father and your mother, what were their

educational backgrounds?

J: They did not go to school. They had no education, just Seminole.

H: What did they do for a living?

J: My mothers never worked. My daddy worked with the government, building

roads, when they were building roads back a long time ago.

H: They were never farmers?

J: Well, my daddy had cattle back when I was about ten years old, so that was a

while back, and he sold all his cattle herd. During his last years he did not have

any cows.

H: He did not pass it along to his children?

J: No, there were too many of us.

H: How many were there?

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J: About ten.

H: How many brothers and sisters?

J: About five and five, five girls and five boys. There were too many of us so in

order to be fair we just sold the cattle herd and divided the money up.

H: You said that you had attended the reservation school. Were your parents in

favor of school for you and your brothers and sisters?

J: Yes, I remember they had taken us over there. [Laughter.]

H: You still sound a little resentful.

J: They even walked us a couple of miles to school.

H: What did you think about the reservation school?

J: It was good.

H: What kinds of things did you learn there?

J: English, and I guess important things, how to write your name and how to read.

It seemed almost about the same as other schools.

H: When you got to the Clewiston school, were you behind the other kids your age,

or were you on the same grade level?

J: I do not remember. Probably about the same. I do not know. I was very shy, so

I did not really mix with the kids in the public school. I was kind of backward and

I was not really very into it, so I really do not know.

H: When you were doing your cultural teaching here with the children, did you ever

do it at the Ahfachkee School?

J: Yes, for a little while I did, not too long. I taught over there for a little while.

H: What aspects of traditional culture do they teach at Ahfachkee School?

J: I do not know. You would have to ask somebody else. I do not go to Ahfachkee

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School very much.

H: When you did, what kinds of things did you teach there?

J: The same things that I taught on the reservation, the language and some culture,


H: Did any members of your family attend a boarding school?

J: Yes, I think my older brothers and sisters did.

H: Do you know which schools they attended?

J: No I do not, maybe Cherokee, in North Carolina. I think one or two or three of

them went to Cherokee, North Carolina, and a couple of them, or three of them,

went to Sequoia in Oklahoma.

H: Where do you fall in your family? Are you the youngest, or one of the youngest?

J: I am one of the youngest.

H: So, by the time you got ready for school, had they pretty much stopped sending

Indian children to the boarding schools?

J: No, they are still going today, even today.

H: But they were kind of being forced in the past and they changed it so today it is

voluntary, right?

J: I guess. Nobody forced me to do anything. Nobody tried to force me to go, I just

did not want to go.

H: We just attended church this morning. Tell me the name of the church, exactly.

J: Big Cypress First Baptist Church.

H: I wanted to ask you some questions about the Christian religion among

Seminoles. Since the Baptist ministers came to convert Seminole Indians, do

you feel that people's values have changed, and if so, how?

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J: People's values. I do not know what you mean.

H: What I am trying to get at is, the traditional culture of Seminoles was not

Christianity, Christian beliefs, and within the traditional culture there was

emphasis placed on different aspects of life. What I am trying to get at is

whether the change to Christianity affected those belief systems.

J: I do not really know, it depends on the individual, I guess. I do not know about

anybody else, but to me, being a Christian was the same thing. We believed in a

creator, one who made life, one who made all things, and it is the same thing, the

way I see it, being a Christian. We believe in God. Of course there is Jesus, and

they say you have to accept him, believe in him to be saved. It is the same thing

to me; we just have a different name for it. Instead of a nice, beautiful church, we

had the Green Corn Dance, and that was mainly to thank the creator for all the

blessings of the year. That was a time to get together, and it was like having a

church, thanking God, and forgiving people, doing away with the bad things of

the year and starting a whole new year. To me, there is not much difference,

only it has an English name and there is a church to go to, to pray. We prayed

wherever we wanted to. When we did not have churches we could go in the

swamps and sit down at a cypress tree and pray, or you could pray wherever you

were. Being a Christian just means there is a place to go and pray, a church.

You worship the same creator, so to me there is not much difference. But then

there are some people, they have been told that their religion was not accepted,

and so they were kind of brainwashed, I think.

H: Brainwashed into thinking that traditional Seminole religion-or it was not really a

religion, it was just a way of practicing life, right? [End of Tape Side A.] Some

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people were taught that the traditional Seminole culture was wrong and that only

the Christian way was right? Is that what you mean?

J: Yes. And it is like they do anywhere else, they try to say that this religion is the

only religion that will get you to heaven or to be saved. I think that is what some

did. Some people, a lot of the people, kind of heard it wrong, I guess.

H: The ones who were brainwashed into thinking that their culture was wrong, they

do not attend the Green Corn Dance?

J: No. A lot of them put it down.

H: How about you? Do you attend it?

J: Yes.

H: What is the purpose? You mentioned before that it was like a time of church, a

time for getting together to thank the creator. Were there other purposes for the

Green Corn Dance?

J: Yes, there were. But the Green Corn Dance is very sacred and it is only for the

people of the tribe. Even our dances are very sacred, they are not for the public,

and so I do not usually say too much about the Green Corn Dance, only that it is

very sacred to the Seminoles.

H: You mentioned that all of your traditional dances are sacred? Are there any that

are performed for the public like the ones that the Lakota perform a lot at different


J: Most of our dances are sacred. It is like medicinal, so we can [only] do a little bit.

There is probably a couple that we demonstrate for the public, but most of them

are sacred.

H: Do you know medicine men or medicine women who continue to practice today?

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J: Yes.

H: Is it possible for people to be medicine men or women and also be Christians?

J: Yes, I think so, because it comes from the creator, the knowledge, and without

God you would not be able to help anybody; you would not be able to heal. It is

done through prayers.

H: During the last thirty years there have been really a lot of economic changes

among the Seminole tribe. What do you think are the most important economic

activities of the tribe and how are these different than thirty years ago?

J: Economic? That means like the casinos and stuff like that? Yes, we have those

and other things like the safari. There are more tourist attraction places, and

there is a casino, and smoke shops, and then they have all these heavy

equipment, construction businesses, I guess. They are always doing something.

There is always some kind of machine operating out here. There is a lot a

Germans and white people walking around out here. That is different.

H: Since your dad sold the cattle that he had, did you ever buy cattle and have you

ever been involved in the cattle industry yourself, or you and your husband, when

you were married?

J: My father had cattle and Paul's father had cattle, so we worked in cattle. We

worked with the cattle for a while. My father-in-law died and he left his cattle

herd to his son, but we got divorced and he ended up with the cattle. I have

never owned any cattle. I have been around them all my life but I have just never

owned any cattle.

H: Do you know many women that do own cattle?

J: Yes, there is quite a few.

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H: What kind of roles do they play in the cattle industry, what kinds of jobs do they

perform? Do they do the same kinds of things as men?

J: If they are able, they do. They ride horses and round up cows. If they are not

able, they provide the lunch and the refreshments and drinks for the people that

work on their cattle. If they want to go ride a horse, they do.

H: Have any people in your family been involved with medicine, traditional


J: My family? Most everyone knows some medicine. Some might not be a full

medicine man, but a Seminole always knows some kind of medicine.

H: Some kind of herbs or roots to use?

J: Yes.

H: Can you tell me about any of those?

J: Yes, I could, but it would take a long time. The herbs, you mean? Most of the

native plants are used for medicine.

H: Can you tell me the names of any of those, the native plants?

J: Willow Bay and grape. Most of the names that we know are in our language, and

as you can tell I am not very good in English. I get by and that is all that matters

to me.

H: The Okalee and the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki museums have been established to promote

and perpetuate Seminole culture. Since you have been really involved in

preserving Seminole culture yourself, through your teaching, I wonder what you

think of these museums. Have you been involved with them at all?

J: No, I have not been involved with them. What I think of them is, I guess it is


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H: Do you know whether many Seminole people visit these museums?

J: I do not know.

H: Do you visit them?

J: A few times.

H: You mentioned that tourism has increased a lot and I wonder whether you think

that tourism can play a part in preserving Seminole traditional culture?

J: Probably, because we have to know what we are talking about to tell the tourists.

So, we have to find out more about what we are telling them and that makes us

go to our elders and learn. And the younger people that do not really know too

much about Seminole history or culture, it gives them a chance to hear about it

while the others are telling the tourists. They care about it and then they learn

also. So, I guess that is one way that it plays a role.

H: What are some of the problems you might encounter in trying to present

Seminole culture to non-Indian audiences?

J: What are the problems I encounter? I have not run into any problems.

H: What I am trying to get at is, we had a conversation once where you were telling

me about some of the questions you get from people, they make up so many

assumptions about Seminole being seen as other Indians and having the same

kind of traditions as far as tepees. I think you mentioned to me once that people

said, where are your tepees?, and they were very disappointed. That is what I

was trying to get at. What are some of the things that you are faced with when

you are doing your presentations, challenges or problems that you might


J: I guess they just do not know. They do not have very much knowledge of the

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H: So, there is a real benefit to what you do in enlightening people about your


J: Yes, [with] most of the lectures that I have given I [have] found that people did

not know anything about the Seminoles, so yes, I think it is a good thing.

H: I think you mentioned to me once that you feel like this is your life's work, to

preserve and promote the Seminole culture.

J: I guess, because I am a Seminole and that is who I am. I have always been a


H: Not just a Seminole. Tell me how you describe yourself.

J: I am a full-blood red-stick Creek Seminole and I cannot change that, that is who I

am, and that is my life. It is not just something that I tried to do [or] tried to be.

That is who I am and when I am doing these lectures I am just talking about my

life, the way I live, and my experiences. It is like just telling people about myself.

That is what I do.

H: As far as you growing up here, you have told me many times how different it is

now. The physical environment is different than when you were growing up.

Can you talk a little bit about that, how it was, and how it has changed?

J: The land was very wet and there was a lot of water. You could find fish

anywhere. You never starved. You could just go out there and get alligator or

turtle or deer and you never starved. The water, sometimes we had to walk

around in the water, even under our chickees. That was all right. That was our

life. But then they made these canals and that is where all the water went. So,

the land got to be very dry. I guess it was good but it was not how we lived, it

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was different. And also the fish, we did not have very many fish anymore. We

ate birds and all that too, but then we could not do that anymore. There was a lot

of birds that got endangered and they said that we could not eat them anymore.

There became more roads and more people coming in and coming through and

this place got busier and busier. It used to be very peaceful and there were not

very many cars around, and then even our houses changed. I grew up living in a

chickee and even after we were married we lived in a chickee. My oldest son

grew up in a chickee and then we had to start to living in houses. That was


H: How was that different, as far as how it affected your family life? Or did it affect

your family life?

J: I guess living in a house was much better because there were bathrooms and

you had hot water for showers. Everything was under one roof. Before that we

had separate chickees, one for sleeping, one for cooking, one for sitting during

eating. It was good [to have houses] but that was not how we grew up. It was

different. We had to get used to it. It was like being closed up because our

chickees were open and we did not need air-conditioning and we did not need

electricity. But then we had to keep up with the rest of the world. The world was

changing and we had to keep up with them, so that is what we did.

H: The concern that you are showing for the environment, is that common among

more people on the reservation?

J: More so of my generation and on up. The younger people, my sons, their

generation too, know how good it was.

H: Do they have a concern about trying to maintain the goodness that is left in the

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J: Concern? Who, the younger generation? I think most of them do.

H: Do many people rely directly on the environment for a living, like hunting and


J: For a living? You do not mean to make money? No, I do not think there are

many people who do.

H: Is that because the economy of the tribe has changed so much and there is no

longer the need to rely on hunting and fishing?

J: Right. We get it from Winn-Dixie. Why do you need to kill anymore when you

can get it from Winn-Dixie and Publix?

H: Has the overall status of Seminole women changed in the last thirty years as a

result of these new economic developments?

J: I do not think so. Women were considered very important in the tribe and the

village and women were more like a head of household, but maybe it has

because women did most of the work back in the old days and the men did not

have to. But then the white man came and changed it, so now we let our men do

most of the work and we let them open doors for us and give us their paycheck

so I guess in that way it has changed.

H: When you say that women did all of the work back in the old days, what kinds of

things did they do, versus the things did the men did?

J: Well, men were just good for hunting. They hunted and they brought the food in,

and they were warriors. The women had to take good care of them because of

those two things. So, when they were not hunting or out fighting, they sat and

maybe they made an arrowhead, made a bow, or something, and the women did

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the farming. They had gardens and they did the whole process of gardening.

They worked in the fields all day and then they also had the job of cleaning the

animal and cutting it up and cooking it, and they washed, and they made pottery,

they fixed the skins of the animals to use for blankets and clothing. What other

work that had to be done, the women did. The men ate first; we gave them the

best. Women gave the men the best to eat and then the children and then the

women ate last because the men needed all the strength to fight and take care of

them. There were other things, I guess, that the women did for the men. Men

never had to do very much work except bringing in meat and for wars. But

women, there was a head woman in the village. The women owned the house,

the chickees that they lived in. Everything there belonged to the women because

the village, when a man marries, he has to move into his wife's clan, the village,

so the whole village would be like that. If I got married, when I got married and I

brought my husband back, he made the chickee, but the chickee would be mine,

and he would have no say-so. Everything that we got after that would belong to

me, because he was from a different clan. In case we ever got divorced, then

everything would stay because everything belonged to my clan and he would

have to leave with nothing. So, women had a lot of authority.

H: It sounds like they had a lot of power in many ways. And since the men are

bringing in the money, in many cases now, and you say when the white man

came the roles started changing, that has eroded or taken away some of the

authority and power of the women?

J: No, but it changed for the men. That is what I was referring to when I said that

the white man changed it. Men did not have to do a lot of work, but now they do.

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H: Speaking of Seminole cultural activities, things like the making of the Seminole

clothing, is that an art that is being passed down to younger generations?

J: Yes, if they want to learn. They do not make anybody do anything. If they want

to learn, then they learn. If they do not, they do not.

H: So, there is no active program trying to promote this to the younger generation,

that they keep this art form going? It is just if someone happens to have an

interest, they are taught?

J: Yes, I think they are teaching it, though, now, in the schools. I think we are

trying to do just that now, trying to preserve things.

H: Do you wear traditional Seminole clothing?

J: Yes.

H: Is there any particular time when you wear it?

J: I wear it not all the time, but I wear it a lot.

H: Tell me about how the economic changes, the educational changes, the different

business activities that the tribe has become involved in, how have these

changes affected your life?

J: I travel a lot.

H: On tribal business?

J: Mostly pleasure. I got a Mustang. I got a nice car and a lot of clothes to wear.

You can eat out more. It has not really changed me. I can do these things but I

am still me. I like being me. It has not really changed me, only that [I have] what

I need-I do need a car to run around in and I want to go out and eat once in a

while. It has not really changed me.

H: But it has changed the things you have access to?

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J: Yes, I never went to town when I was growing up and I ate what was out here. I

did not need to go to town.

H: What kinds of things did you eat out here? You told me about the animals and

the birds.

J: I ate guavas and wild oranges and then we had swamp apples-they call it

custard apple but they were called swamp apples-there were acorns, and there

was a lot more that my grandmother used to fix that are not very abundant any

more. There were lots of wild grapes of different kinds that you could pick and

eat. The coontie plant, they used to get that and make that into a drink or bread,

and pumpkin grew everywhere, people grew pumpkin also. Those were the

kinds of things that I ate. Plus I went fishing all of the time, every day.

H: What do you think about ecotourism, which is somewhat what they are engaged

in here at the Safari.

[End of Interview]

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