• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Interview






Chuck Williams, Public Information
,rida Highway Patrol. I'm interviewing
;ett, retired member of the Patrol.
his home at 5460 SE 24th Street in
n with the Florida Highway Patrol 50th
s. And the Oral History Project of the
1 will be placed in the archives in the
Good morning, Al.
How are you?
get a little of background on you
re you from originally?
generation. I was born here what you
d 11, September the 10th, 1911. I'm
-ation here. My folks came here by
:s do for a living? Farm, or.
e was quite an individual in this
.ime city commissioner in Ocala along
owned and developed Silver Springs.
owner. He owned lots of land out
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DIVISION OF FLORIDA HIGHWAY PATROL 50TH ANNIVERSARY ORAL HISTORY PROJECT INTERVIEW WITH LIEUTENANT ALBERT G. FAUSETT SEPTEMBER 18 and 26, 1989 INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY LIEUTENANT CHARLES WILLIAMS PAGE 1



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Chuck Williams, Public Information ,rida Highway Patrol. I'm interviewing ;ett, retired member of the Patrol. his home at 5460 SE 24th Street in n with the Florida Highway Patrol 50th s. And the Oral History Project of the 1 will be placed in the archives in the Good morning, Al. How are you? get a little of background on you re you from originally? generation. I was born here what you d 11, September the 10th, 1911. I'm -ation here. My folks came here by :s do for a living? Farm, or. e was quite an individual in this .ime city commissioner in Ocala along owned and developed Silver Springs. owner. He owned lots of land out PAGE 2



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CW: This is Lieutenant Chuck Williams, Public Information Officer with the Florida Highway Patrol. I'm interviewing Mr. Albert G. Fausett, retired member of the Patrol. Interviewing him in his home at 5460 SE 24th Street in Ocala, in conjunction with the Florida Highway Patrol 50th Anniversary activities. And the Oral History Project of the Florida Highway Patrol will be placed in the archives in the University of Florida. Good morning, Al. AF: Good morning, Chuck. How are you? CW: Good. I guess I'll get a little of background on you first. Where, Where are you from originally? AF: Ocala is my home. CW: Ocala. AF: In fact I'm a third generation. I was born here what you might say in 9, 10, and 11, September the 10th, 1911. I'm actually a third generation here. My folks came here by means of a stagecoach. CW: What, what did your folks do for a living? Farm, or. AF: No, my grandfather here was quite an individual in this county. He was at one time city commissioner in Ocala along with Ed Carmichael who owned and developed Silver Springs. He was quite a property owner. He owned lots of land out PAGE 2



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west of Ocala between Highway 27 and Highway 40, all the way through there with cattle and sharecropping of vegetables and things like that. And he had a grits mill, a huge mercantile store, Victorian home that he built back during the Spanish-American War. He was still putting the shingles on the roof when the soldiers went by on the train which went right along close to the house. Then my father, he was Chief of Police of Ocala and. CW: What year was that? AF: Oh, that was back in the '20s, the latter '20s, early '30s. And I got the idea then that I would be interested in law enforcement. And by that I meant law enforcement not law tolerance. So much that goes on today or were going on prominently at those times even. CW: I met your lovely wife a while ago. Is she from Ocala also? AF: No, Doleen was born in New York state, a little town of Springwater about 40 miles south of Rochester. She came to Florida with her people back in the '20s over near Crescent City. They lived there for awhile and they moved to Ocala, and that's where I met her. Thirteen months later I asked her to marry me. CW: Any kids? PAGE 3



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AF: We have two, a boy and a girl. They're 41 and 40 years of age now. My son lives here in Ocala and my daughter lives in Ft. Lauderdale. CW: What, I'm sure that Ocala was not as populated as it is now. Describe, describe Ocala back in, after you were born when your dad was Chief of Police. AF: Well, Ocala had a lot of black people. I would say it was about 50-50 in population, maybe half black half white. And maybe 5,000 people. I know that when I went to school my grandmother used to take me to school in horse and buggy, pony and buggy with the little fringe on the top and all that sort of thing, and a brown paper sack for lunch, carrying my food like that. It was quite a thing, the school didn't have any window screens. It didn't have any heat inside and the plumbing was the .great outdoors. That's the way it was. And, it's good that the school didn't go year-round because it would have gotten too hot in the school there because there were no fans or anything like that. By the time I was ready to graduate from high school I think that we had our very first school bus. And, from then on why it's just been, the kids didn't have to worry about getting to school. There was always a bus out there to take them. But we either rode a bicycle, walked, or got there the best way we could. CW: How many in your graduating class? PAGE 4



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AF: There was about 64, 64. CW: What, what was the population of Marion County back then. Do you know? AF: Around, yeah, I would say about 7500. CW: 1-75 obviously wasn't through Marion County back then was it? AF: No. CW: How many paved roads did you have? AF: Paved roads were like this, they were, they were lime rock roads smoothed out oil topped. Sometimes you might see a little gravel put on top of it. But that was about it. CW: What did you do after you graduated from high school? Did you stay here? AF: Yes, I stayed here. This was right in the middle of the depression. And people don't know how bad things were unless they lived at that time. A dollar an hour was, oh that was tremendous pay. And I got a job working with a, a store in town as a meat cutter. I had grown up in my grandfather's store and my father, and I learned how to cut meat. So, it helped me to be able to make a living. And at the time why then my father became Chief of Police and I became more and more interested in police work than I was in PAGE 5



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anything else because I felt that there was a need. I had seen so much go on before I got on the Patrol and I saw so much happening by the various counties of the state and what was going on that shouldn't be that way. CW: Did you go to college? AF: I have credits up there from the University of Florida extension division that enabled to me be able to get other jobs at the same time that I made application for the Patrol, and which I turned them down. One was to teach school in Marianna High School and the other one was to be a part of the department there in Atlanta, the federal prison, to counsel and guide prisoners to become better fitted for life when they got out. CW: Obviously back then to apply for the Patrol you had to be 21 years old. AF: Right. CW: What, what did you do. Did you work in a grocery story, just kind of worked your way and took your college courses until you were 21? AF: Yes. CW: Did you apply for the Patrol when you turned 21? PAGE 6



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AF: No, no, I was, I was around 28 I think it was. Because the Patrol started in 1939. And that would have made me 28 years of age when I went to the training school. CW: How did, how did you find out about the Patrol when it was going to be formed? You were in the first class. Did they advertise in the newspapers or. AF: Yes, there was, 'there were publications in the paper about the activity taking place in the legislature and of course we always had a lot of support from the junior chamber of commerce which was one organization that really did push it an awful lot. The, the various editors of the newspapers were behind it. And, they felt the need for some safety out there on the roads. The counties were somewhat coming to the idea that they needed to do more. I know, I'd forgotten to mention that Marion County here had decided to put on a road patrol in the form of motorcycle. And they were only going to put on one. Well, I made an application for that just prior to the FHP application. And I was second pick on that. And there were quite a few applications. I was told that the, that whenever they put on the second motor out there on the road that I would be the one that would fulfill the job. The first one was the Assistant Chief of Police under my father. CW: What was his name? PAGE 7



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AF: Roger Lyles. He was quite a heavy man. He weighed close to 300 lbs. That poor motor just groaned when he sat on it. He was a good motorcycle rider and a good officer. CW: Where did you have to apply? Did you have to call Tallahassee and get them to send you an application down in the mail? AF: I wrote a letter and addressed it to Governor Fred P. Cone. Because that was the instruction that we, to do that. And of course I sent in with it supporting letters from people that could recommend my character and what type of person that I was, my background. They were people of influence. But. CW: Who were they, do you remember? AF: Yes, I sure do. I had numerous letters which I have in my envelope here. I don't know. CW: Just do you recall the names? AF: Yes, I had the Honorable Dr. Therrell who was quite prominent with Governor Cone. There was Mr. Harry Stein who was one of these recognized people here locally. I had, oh numerous ones, I'd have to go in, I have the supporting letters that I could get out of this bag here. CW: Sure. PAGE 8



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AF: My letter that I wrote myself is dated June the 28th, 1939, where I wrote it to Governor Fred P. Cone stating my desire to be accepted as applicant to the Patrol. CW: Why don't you, why don't you read it onto the tape, Al. AF: Well, I wish to take this opportunity to present my application as patrolman on the new state Highway Patrol. I'd like to first state that I am married, 27 years of age, and a property owner. I graduated from Ocala High School and have a rating of Corporal in a Reserve Officers Training Corps which I gained at Riverside Military Academy, Gainesville, Georgia. I might just hesitate right there and say that upon my completion of schooling up there they wanted me to come back to that school as a student teacher of military science and tactics. And there would be no tuition whatsoever. Everything would be furnished to me free if I would consider such a thing. Well, I, I kind of liked being back home so I came back home here and shortly thereafter I married. I've had experience riding motorcycles for the past ten years during which time I owned three motorcycles. I did all of my own mechanical repairing and feel that I understand motorcycles sufficiently to be a capable rider as well as being a mechanic when necessary. I've had equal experience with automobiles having driven and repaired many types of cars. I've had access to a library on police work and crime prevention and feel that I've gained much knowledge on it. My father was Chief of Police of Ocala for six years and is now Chief of Police at Camp Roosevelt, Florida's ship canal central base. Having spent PAGE 9



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much of my time with him and his men while on duty, I feel that I've gained a vast experience. Recently Marion County put on a motorcycle patrolman picked from 20 applicants. These men were required to take an examination similar to civil service and I was second high on the list. I was put on, to be put on patrol duty as soon as the county budget would allow a second patrolman. I would like to say that if appointed I would do my very best to be most efficient and competent. You earnest consideration would be deeply appreciated. Yours very truly. CW: You say you have some other letters in there of recommendation? Just to try to get a flavor of some of the people that, that you got to recommend you. AF: Well I have one here dated June the 19th 1939 to Governor Cone. It's from Harry A. Stein who I knew the family very well. Mr. Albert Fausett whom I have known for a number of years, the son of Chief Harry Fausett of the Police Department at Camp Roosevelt, is desirous of obtaining a position on the state Highway Patrol. He is an excellent rider of a motorcycle and young man with good moral habits. And I feel sure would efficiently perform his duties should he be appointed. And this one of course here is from Dr. Therrell who formerly lived in Ocala and was connected with banking circles. He became Superintendent of the Florida State Hospital in Chattahoochee and I kept in touch with him. He wrote a letter to the Governor. Let's see if I can --find -it. Understanding, this is to Governor Cone. It says, understanding that Mr. Albert G. Fausett of Ocala is PAGE 10



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applying for position in the motor Highway Patrol created by the legislature, I would like to say that I have known this gentleman for the past twenty odd years. I have known his father and his grandfather and they come from one of the oldest and best families in the county. His father was for many years the Chief of Police of Ocala and has since been, has been since Camp Roosevelt was built, the Chief of Police for the federal government of the federal reservation at Camp Roosevelt. I believe that if this young man rates among those eligible after examination, which I understand is required, that he would make you a most capable man. Cordially yours, P.H. Therrell, Superintendent. CW: Did you, did you say that you had to take the civil service exam? The written exam? AF: For the County of Marion. CW: But not for the, the state? AF: No, we, we did take IQ exams there of which I was second high at that time. There was one other person. My points then was 128 and there was only one other one ahead of me and that was Jay Wallace Smith. And, it was just a matter of a few points. I don't remember how much it was. CW: How long did it take you from the time that you applied to the Patrol that you got word that you were gonna' be hired? PAGE 11



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AF: To give you an exact time on that I can turn to a letter from Fred P. Cone, Governor, addressed to me the 29th of June. Enclosed are the necessary papers to be executed by you as a prerequisite for a position with the proposed state road patrol. They told me to answer the questions in my own handwriting and execute it before a notary public. Return with my photograph and a health certificate completed by a physician. Return all the papers in one envelope. All right, I did that. And then on, let's see, the 30th of October, 1939, Bill Reid, who we, as we call him, W.F. Reid who was the appointed Director of the Florida Highway Patrol, he sent me a letter on the 30th of October and said, in connection with your application for a position on the Highway Patrol, Florida Highway Patrol, you're advised that this department will conduct a training school at Bradenton. Well, it just goes on to say that I had been accepted for the school. And of course it would be up to me to pass it. And it tells that you're further advised that your board and lodging will be paid while you are attending this school. Laundry, pressing, etc. will be the expense of the individual. You will be paid on a basis of $75 per month during the time that you attend the school. And before you travel to Bradenton by bus or train, secure receipts in duplicate covering the cost of your transportation in order for reimbursement. In the event you report for duty at the training school it will be necessary for you to report to Patrol headquarters, Manavista Hotel, Bradenton, between the hours of 10:00 AM and 6:00 PM, Sunday, November the 5th, 1939. And of course they wanted a prompt reply. And as I have mentioned to you previously PAGE 12



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there, I couldn't quite make up my mind just what to do, but I got a telegram from Director Reid to make up my mind, that they needed to know something. So I sent him word right away that I was accepting an application and would be there. CW: So you went to Bradenton. How many people reported in the Patrol school? Do you recall? AF: Yes, 44. CW: Forty-four. AF: And 10 of them washed out. CW: Well, what did they, how did they wash out? AF: They couldn't take it. CW: Was discipline pretty heavy? AF: Discipline was nothing new to me, having been in military school. I accepted discipline with respect for what its purpose was. But a lot of the fellows thought it was just going to be something you'd just go there because I've done this or I've done that I can go right on through. It would be no problem. But this getting up at daylight, being out there and taking your physical exercises and taking your drilling and going through your first aid training school, PAGE 13



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they couldn't quite see the necessity of all these things. But later on the benefits of that proved their worth, I'll tell you. CW: The letter mentioned the Manavista Hotel. AF: Yes. CW: Is that where they housed you? AF: Yes. CW: Or is that where the whole school was? AF: That's where they housed us and the school was there in the dining room. CW: Was it, was it an old resort hotel that had been, did they still use it as a hotel from time to time or was it strictly just for that purpose? AF: Oh yeah, it was used but the Patrol had access to it completely. I think they probably made arrangements that it would just close its doors during that time I don't think there was anybody else there because we had our dining room there and we had our classrooms at the municipal pier. There, we did on one occasion go to a theater. I remember that. I think it was the time when the Attorney General came there to address us. PAGE 14



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CW: How long was your, how long was the school? AF: A month. CW: A month. AF: Yes. CW: Was Bradenton a very, very populated town back during that time? AF: Bradenton was a small little town. Water conditions there were terrible. The drinking water was something else for people to have to drink, I'll tell you. But it was a nice little town, quiet as most of them over there on the west coast of Florida were. But not too much activity. CW: Give me a typical, a typical day in recruit school back then. AF: Okay, a typical day was up first thing in the morning. You got into your coveralls and we were right down on the, I would say, I can't call it parade grounds, but it's on the street where we were like a parking lot and we immediately started our exercises. And it was done through proper conducting and each one had to do it. I mean you just, you got sweated out, that was just something else. You don't, you had to participate if you expected to make it. After that we would usually go back to our rooms and briefly to clean up, go downstairs, have breakfast. And, then we would PAGE 15



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have our classes afterwards. We'd have lectures, we'd have FBI and jujitsu. We took a lot of that. And they taught us how to disarm people with guns in our stomach and our back. And to, how to use our firearms. We were out on the pistol range. The ways of squeezing off a pistol, or jerking it so that you don't get it. The proper use of shotguns, the proper uses of self defense. As we went into first aid we learned that. And of course I had no problem there with that because I was an instructor, I have cards here for two years, two cards that I had received already before that from the American Red Cross. And then of course I got an additional card when I was at Bradenton and I also received another card from Lt. Lauderdale in Broward County. I became active in it. In fact, prior to the Patrol I'd taught convict guards first aid as to how to take of incidents that occur out there on the right-of-ways wherever they were. CW: What time of the morning did you get up? Like before daylight? AF: At the crack of dawn we were out there on the pavement ready for exercise, yeah. CW: How long did you go to class? AF: The-amount of hours in a class is something I couldn't tell you exactly this except it was just like any other military thing, ten o'clock was lights out time. PAGE 16



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CW: Were you allowed to leave the hotel at all at night? AF: I never had the occasion to do it. I don't know of any others that were granted that. CW: How was the food? AF: Excellent. CW: Really? AF: The amazing thing there that tickled me, I'm glad you asked that, was one time when Ted Reilly who was one of the cadets there, he was a Catholic boy and he knew that they were serving fish that day. And of course he said on Friday you're supposed to have fish. But he took the menu and he held it up to the waitress there and he pointed to a nice steak there. He said I want this flounder right here. CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. AF: This one right here. I want it medium well. CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. Did you have a menu back then? AF: Yes. CW: You could order pretty much anything you'd want? PAGE 17



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AF: Yes, as long as you stayed with whatever the menu called for. CW: Who were, who were some of the instructors that you can recall? AF: Oh yes, that's, one of my favorites was George Mingle from Ohio. He was Captain of the Highway Patrol in Ohio. CW: Where did he teach? AF: He taught general Patrol work. The things that you're confronted with out there on the highways. He taught you how that you should have your information gathered properly, particularly on the scenes of an accident. How you can be negligent or how you can come out with a good report and get convictions whenever you made an arrest. He set an example in first class appearance. He was always neat. He was always sharp. I have pictures of him. And I suppose you have seen his pictures. But there's one of him right there on the. And that was George Mingle. CW: He also taught firearms? AF: He taught firearms a lot and we had others to assist him on that, but he was what I would call the number one instructor of the school.I felt very honored because you see on the wall up there where I have, the second one down there, the certificate of honorary commission to the state of Ohio PAGE 18



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issued to me. And I have a letter verifying that. He later became not only Captain of the state of Ohio, but he became the Director. CW: Who were, who were some of the other instructors that? AF: Well, you had in addition to him there was was, let me see just a moment, I, I have, Sheriff Hutches, C.J. Hutches of Manatee County. He was there constantly, and I have his picture too where he was there, and that's him right here. That hat, that black hat. He was there to inform us of the various laws of the state of Florida as far as he knew about traffic as best he could and to just to be part of the instruction for us. And Jay T. Lowe was loaned to us by the city of Jacksonville for the instruction of riding motorcycles. Now Jay T. Lowe's not in this picture here but I have a picture of him. CW: Did everyone have to learn how to ride motorcycles? AF: This is Jay T. Lowe right there with the dark glasses on in uniform and that Hutches right beside him. CW: Did everyone have to learn how to ride motorcycles or just those who were going to be assigned to the, to the motor squad. PAGE 19



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AF: Well, no one knew who was going to get a car and who was going to get a bike. And so the, the course was rugged for those particularly that were afraid of these things. I don't know of anybody that went to that school that didn't have to know how to ride a bike. And that was me of course there in that white coveralls. CW: Who were some of the other instructors that you can recall? AF: Well we had an officer there from the city of Bradenton that was connected with the radio department. He taught us about the things that we'd have to know about radio and so on which I got a certificate there to operate. Of course back in those days you were on 2440 KHz if we happened to have radio. But we started out with nothing. No radio. Which I later on was able to get a one-way receiving radio on my motorcycle to operate off of Ft. Lauderdale WAKO and city of Miami police WPFZ. I could receive them, of course they didn't know whether I got it or not. So I had to be chained to that thing at all times and they knew when I was in service and when I wasn't. CW: Who was the commandant of the Academy? Who was the first commander who kind of oversaw the training? AF: Well that would be Captain Neil Kirkman. CW: So this is during the time that Bill Reid and. PAGE 20



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AF: Bill Reid was the Director. CW: How long did he remain Director? AF: This was the situation. You had to know Fred P. Cone to understand the politics of those days. The training school was one that was overseen by executive administrators of which the governor was the chairman of the commission and under him was Arthur B. Hale, chairman of the State Road Department. And next also in line was D.W. Finley who was the commissioner of the Motor Vehicle Department. That was your governing board of the Florida Highway Patrol. You had no civil service or anything else at that time. And it was at that time to when the Patrol did get out on the road that we had what we called the Broken Spoke Club. I don't know whether that's still in effect or not. CW: Yeah. AF: But I was one of the charter members of the Broken Spoke Club. And that was formed and I have my old original Broken Spoke Club card somewhere here. CW: What were the dues back then? AF: Whenever, yeah, there's my original card. As you can see who the officers were. And this was a picture, you asked about the dues, the dues were, the only thing that we had to PAGE 21



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worry about in those times were ten dollars a person for anytime there was a fatality. CW: Like an assessment? AF: Yes. And see there's old Governor Cone. And this is Arthur Hale. And this is Finley. This is Captain Kirkman who was a Major in the Army. And that was Bill Reid, the Director. That's the way the cookie crumbled in those days. CW: So actually you worked for the State Road Department for the most part, didn't you? AF: Well, like I say, there were 33 that went on the Patrol but there was a 34th one by the name of Tony Maseda that got behind of the wheel of the Cadillac that Arthur Hale rode around in. So he was assigned to him all the time. CW: Did he go to Patrol school with you? AF: Yes. CW: When you, you graduated from Patrol school you said it was four weeks long, is that when you got your assignment to where you were going as far as an assignment in the state? AF: Yes, I have a clipping here that tells and their first stations. This is so old the paper is hard to handle but it tells you there where each patrolman went to and it mentions, too, I think on that sheet that two of the PAGE 22



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personnel were made what they call Acting Sergeants. One was of the north zone and one was of the south zone. Now, Tobe Bass was made Acting Sergeant of the south and this was George Watts was Acting Sergeant of Section Two. What they called Section One and Section Two. It was a very short time after the Patrol went into effect that the name that you do see on there suddenly became a Lieutenant on the Highway Patrol. And that was W.M. Green, known to all of us as Pig Green. CW: Why did they call him that? AF: Well, the picture that I have here of him might show you. CW: I want to copy this down before I leave. AF: Yes, okay. I can get this stuff photostated for you. Pig Green was a heavyset boy from Pinellas County. He'd been in law enforcement over there and the report that I have is that he was the Governor's nephew. So the front door was wide open apparently and he walked right in as a Lieutenant. And it was shortly thereafter he was second in command. Rated second in command directly under Kirkman. This wasn't a very comfortable position but the American Legion and the Jaycees that I mentioned awhile ago, they were the ones that really pushed the Highway Patrol back in those days, and of course we had other civic clubs. But, Pig Green before 1940 got underway very well, he became the Captain commander in place of Kirkman. This was on June the PAGE 23



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17th, 1940 that W.M. Green was elevated from Lieutenant as second in command to Captain succeeding H.N. Kirkman who was discharged. CW: From the Patrol? AF: From the Patrol. Period. CW: What, what motivated his discharge? Was it somebody with more political clout? AF:. Nothing else. Nothing else. There wasn't performance. There wasn't character. I'm your nephew. You owe me. And if you knew Fred P. Cone back in those days, you could understand very well. Off the record I can tell you something but I don't want it to go on tape. About May 1940 I received a telegram from Captain Kirkman. He told me to be on the watch for a certain car with a certain Arizona license on it. There should be three men in it and they were wanted for bank robbery in Arizona. That same night, even though it was raining, I encountered this car on US 1 south of Ft. Lauderdale on Banyan curve. I was on my bike and wearing a raincoat when I saw this car going too fast around this wet curve. Before stopping them I noticed the license tag was on the car wanted in Arizona. I knew the odds were against me so I made a plan as I walked to the car. I apologized for stopping them on a rainy night but since they were from out of state I felt they were due some southern hospitality. I told them our Sheriff, Walter Clark, being a native son, was always anxious to give our PAGE 24



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visitors souvenirs. Since they were headed that way I would be privileged to escort them to the courthouse and introduce them to him. They took the bait well and were glad to follow me thinking they would get the key to the county. On arrival at the Sheriff's office we all went in and I said I would go get the Sheriff from his private office and would they wait at the counter. I showed the telegram to the Sheriff and asked him to come out where they were but give me time to get behind them. When he appeared I was behind them and pulled my gun and ordered them to put their hands on the counter. After searching them, the Sheriff then took them upstairs to the jail and held them for Arizona. CW: How long was, how long was Colonel Kirkman gone from the Patrol? AF: This I will have to go back to tell you some reasons why it was as long, if you can give a little time here. I don't want to run your tape too long until I find that. CW: You found what they call the activity report. AF: Yes, this is from the, this is almost for a month because it was dated January the 1st, 1940 (1939-40, one month), that this report came out. And I have it there. There were 4,935 light corrections. CW: Light corrections, taillights. PAGE 25



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AF: Headlights, that's right. We paid attention to those things. Twelve arrests for improper lights. Two hundred and seventy-nine requested to obtain proper license plates. We requested that they get them. Fifteen arrests for improper tags. Seventy arrests for reckless driving. Fifty-one arrests for DWI. There was no DUI in those days. Forty-seven for no driver's license. Sixty-six miscellaneous. A hundred and nineteen revocations of which 107 of them were for DWI. There were 7,027 hours of service. Seventy-four thousand four hundred and sixty miles travelled. Six thousand four hundred and ninety-five cars stopped. Two thousand six hundred and forty-seven commercial vehicles stopped. Two hundred and 73 brake corrections. Three hundred and ninety-two weights and measures. Those were the little hand scales that we used out there. CW: Portables. AF: I want to tell you something about that, how I saved Jay Wallace Smith's life one night. I'll get to that. Don't let me pass it up. CW: Okay. AF: There were 360 assistance of people out there on the road. Seven thousand four, hundred and fifty-five verbal warnings. Forty-four acts of first aid. Sixty-six accidents investigated. Thirty school buses inspected. Two stolen cars recovered. The law back then provided a revocation for PAGE 26



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one year and was not eligible to receive another for one year. And that the judges and the city, of the city and the county were agents to act for the Department at that time. It's quite a record. The fines for 20 days were $4,536.12. CW: What did, what did a reckless driving ticket cost back then? AF: Oh, maximum $20, $25. If you took a person into court, and I took many of them in there. If you take them into the Sheriff's office to book them they could sign a guilty plea if they wanted to and they'd pay the cost of court, say $19 or something like that. CW: When you could put people, you put people in jail, you could put them in jail for any traffic violation. AF: Oh, yeah. You took them in. Because we didn't issue citations out there on their own recognizance. Any person that you had to write up an arrest citation on, you took them to the courthouse and let the Sheriff decide, so we weren't the mean little kids there. We took them there to the Sheriff's department and the deputy there on the desk would tell them what they had to pay as a bond or they could sign a guilty plea or they could use the phone there and call somebody to keep from going to jail. If they couldn't do any of that, upstairs they went. And that was the way that went on. CW: Getting back to your, we need to back up a little bit. Getting back to your graduation from Patrol school. And PAGE 27



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then you got your first assignment which I think the paper said was Broward County. AF: Right. CW: There were no Patrol stations there, obviously. AF: Ha, ha, ha, ha. CW: You just worked wherever they could get ahold of you? AF: What we had to do, the first thing was to report to the Sheriff's office. And I went right in. You know what? We're still on 1939. CW: Go for it. You reported in to the Sheriff. AF: Well, I went into the Sheriff's office and I met A.D. Marshall who was the jailer in charge there. And he lived in the courthouse. And told them where I'd be living. Gave them my telephone number which I was then living in a little hotel. 'Cause I left my wife up here in Ocala and she was teaching school and couldn't leave right in the middle of the school year. So, I let them have my telephone number and I knew I was assigned to the given area which was northern Dade County. Arch Creek Bridge was the end of the line which was about Miami Shores. Clear up to the far side of Boca Raton. And that was all of Broward County out all the way up to the Palm Beach County line on US 27 out in no PAGE 28



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man's land. The roads back in those days were something else. US 1 was the paved concrete road. A1A was an asphalt road. 441 was a loose gravel road where you dodge beer bottles on Saturday night on your motorcycle from the joints along the road there. When we went out in service I also kept in touch with the different police departments and we picked out various filling stations along the roads that we would be working as far as the Sheriff's department was concerned. So that if they did have to get in touch with us we could always pull in there, and any messages. Check it out. The lack of radio was something back in those days because everybody was on their own. And sometimes those Saturday night deals out there could be something else. Out there all by yourself at night. And lighting wasn't anything like it is today. You didn't have all these mercury vapor lights or the sodium lights up and down the roads. It was black as the inside of a stove. And we patrolled 12 hours a day, rain or shine. And to ride a motorcycle in the rain with your raincoat on backwards, that's the way you had to do it to keep. CW: Why'd you do that? AF: To keep the rain from coming in through and wetting your uniform so much. Because the lower half of your raincoat would make into like pants, would snap. And of course you had boots on. And when we first started out we had these big old windbrakes on the front of motorcycles that did help. But it became critical at times when you had to go. I remember the very first fatality that I had out there on PAGE 29



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US 27 was the fire chief of Palm Beach itself. He apparently went to sleep and went off the road and down into the canal and it killed him. Knowing that road out there, it's strictly no man's land. No communication except by what you can get somebody to go down the road and help you out. I've taken my own personal car and gone on these accidents because I knew that on a motorcycle I couldn't carry sufficient equipment that might be needed out there. If somebody was there and you don't have a radio to get hold of an ambulance or anything else. You don't know what you're going to need until you get there, to start with. And you're 40 miles from nowhere. So I've used my own car many a time. My own gasoline, no reimbursement. But it was for my own protection and it still afforded me the chance to do the job. CW: What kind of motorcycle did you ride? AF: Harley Davidsons. They were 74s and 61s. CW: How fast would they run? AF: Well, I had no desire to see how fast they would run, but I know that I chased one car that we were sitting on 100 mph all the way for 15 solid miles. But I could get, at times I was able to get 110 sometimes 115 depending on atmosphere. CW: What kind of patrol cars did you use back then? PAGE 30



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AF: They used Fords with Mercury motors, high speed rear ends, and the old, thick bulletproof windshields that were really a hazard to the person's eyes. CW: Were they particularly purchased to be bulletproof or were they just what Ford put in all of them? AF: Yes. No, they were special for that reason. It was a thick glass that really stuck out. It was almost an inch thick. And you had a waving situation that you could look off to the side and you lose your sharpness of visibility. It would stop a bullet and all that, but at high speeds and so on it could be very dangerous, to me, become distorted, wavy. CW: Where, where did you get your, where did you get your maintenance and your work, all your work done on your car and your motorcycles back then? AF: Well, they, first time I had a motorcycle to give me trouble I talked to various governmental agencies that had a mechanic around and tune up this or tune up that. And then the state decided that when you have too much trouble with your vehicle come in to Tallahassee with it. That was a beautiful ride in the middle of the winter to get out of Ft. Lauderdale and ride all the way to Tallahassee in the freezing all night weather. It wasn't anything to look forward to. But once in awhile you'd get a motorcycle there that was a lemon and you just couldn't do anything with it. So you'd have to take it back to the dealer, all the way up PAGE 31



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there. Then they began to have mechanics by the state that would go around and tune up the various vehicles and see that they were properly maintained. CW: You spent 12 hours a day on that thing at least. AF: Twelve hours a day, subject to call 24 hours a day. You never had a vacation time off on holidays. And you got two days off every two weeks. And that went from noon to noon. That's the way your days were. I have slept on the benches in police stations many a night on Saturday nights that I wouldn't go home because I knew that the minute I got the cover pulled up around me in the bed I was going to get a phone call. CW: Did they make you have a telephone at your house? AF: Yes. And they paid for that. CW: What do you suppose the population of Broward County was? AF: Well, the city of Ft. Lauderdale I know for sure was 18,000 people when I first got there in 1939. A beautiful little town, it wasn't a concrete jungle like it is today. CW: And you were the only trooper within how many miles? AF: Well, Tobe Bass was stationed there with me but he had like we said previously there, he was Sergeant of the, what do you call it, zone one I think it was. And he had to more or PAGE 32



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less keep up with the different ones in Broward I mean the other counties of the south part of the state. But I had the responsibility of running the northern Dade, all of Broward and south Palm Beach. CW: What was, what was the primary objective of the Highway Patrol back in 1939? What was your first and foremost job? AF: One thing was to eliminate accidents as they call them. I call them wrecks. Because nothing is an accident as far as I'm concerned, there's always a cause for it, and it's human error. If you have a collision out there and a tire blows out, well, if you'd a been taking care of that tire like you should have it probably wouldn't have blown out,,unless you ran over something that punctured it and you didn't see it. The majority of the cases are human error, carelessness. But it was to take care of that, eliminate the injuries that were on the road, the property damage. To get the drunks off the road. To assist people who were in trouble out there on the road, showing courtesy at all times. Helping people, particularly those who were stranded and didn't know how to look after themselves. Conduct first aid wherever it was needed until such time that you could get transport to a hospital, because we had lots of that in those days. We used splints and things like that which the trooper doesn't have to use too much today. But first of all the ambulances weren't paramedics. They. were strictly hearse drivers. They'd come running out there as fast as they could, get your, but you'd have the injured already in transporting condition, and get them to where they could go. And then PAGE 33



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you follow up through. I helped many a time in the hospital and in the emergency room on all kinds of injuries. One time particularly a doctor was going to cut a man's leg off because of the injury. And I told him, doc, not this Saturday night. Don't you do it. This man is unconscious, his wife is unconscious. You cut off his leg. I tell you no because he is not able to tell you yourself to go ahead and do it. You are supposed to do everything in your power to try to save this man. He listened to me and the man's leg was saved. And there was a quite a story about that. CW: Of course, did you write a lot of speeding tickets back then? AF: Well, in the beginning we didn't worry about speed as long as it wasn't reckless. Because there wasn't any law covering it. CW: There was no speed limit? AF: No. No speed limit. No speed limit, just reckless driving, willful and wanton disregard for life and property. Things like that. And if you saw somebody that got weaving in and out of traffic and endangering somebody else's life as well as his own, then you go grab him. And depending on the nature of it, how bad it was. I mean if he was, got -somebody in there that was sick and needed to get to the doctor, well you'd loan him assistance and help him get there. But if he was just out there carousing around, PAGE 34



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cutting the fool, taking fenders off of cars and so on, you took him on down to the cross bar hotel. Ha. CW: We still call it that too. AF: Do you? CW: Of course, I had heard from a couple of others that I have spoken with that one of your objectives of the Patrol was also to keep undesirables out of the state of Florida. Have you ever heard that? AF: I heard it, but it wasn't the FHP it was the county Sheriffs. CW: County Sheriffs. AF: I know that from observations. I know that every time a tramp got off the train in Broward County there, Walter Clark's men, either Virgil Wright or A.M. Whitcamp, or some of those other people, Earl Sharp or Bob Clark, the Chief Deputy who was the brother of the Sheriff, after they got through with the individual they put him in the car and they started relaying him on up the line. Don't come back, see. The FHP stayed clear of those things. But we saw a lot of that going on. We saw a lot of things going on. PAGE 35



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CW: What are, what are some of the other jobs that you were called upon to do in addition to traffic duties and accident investigations. Did you have any strange requests? AF: Yes. I was all, was very very green at the time but very sincere with my work. I never will forget the very first time that something happened there to me, and that was when, well, I mentioned awhile ago about Jay Wallace Smith. He came down to Ft. Lauderdale because he was assigned to Weights Division. And in him car he carried these little portable scales that you carry like a briefcase. They were heavy. But you would take these things and, are you familiar with them? CW: Yes. AF: And put them in front of the wheels of a semi or behind it depending on what you're able to do. And he put this thing in front of the wheels of this one semi. I was there to help him. This was at Ft. Lauderdale at the forks of the road at Andrews Avenue and the Federal Highway at the south end of town. I was a little bit skiddish about the driver of that truck. Well, Wallace Smith told him to pull up on the scale slowly. And I could see that this fellow had it in his mind to let that thing drop and he would have crushed Jay Wallace Smith. And I pulled out my gun right quick and told him, you let that thing drop and I'm going to drop you. And I would have at that time. But it shook Wallace PAGE 36



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Smith up quite a bit, it made him very very nervous after that. Of course you can imagine what happened after that. CW: What kind of guns did you carry then? AF: We had, I wish I had that gun today. It was a number 7 FHP issue. It was a 38 Colt on 41 frame. They were nickel plated. They were a four-inch barrel. And I had mine honed, and honed and honed, and whenever I pulled it out it would go off. Very smooth operation on that thing. CW: Did it have a hair trigger on it? AF: I mean. CW: Ha, ha. AF: I mean. Because I'll tell you, working where I was it didn't take me long to realize that I was in a very hot bed. I knew that the activity of my area was more than it was anywhere else in the whole state. In fact, I would say put together. Because we had all kinds of racketeers down there. And the, Myer Lanskey and Jake Lanskey the gangsters, the Purple Gang was there. Those people were around, but. CW: What was their, what was their, their big. AF: Gambling. PAGE 37



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CW: Gambling. AF: Gambling. CW: How about moonshine running? AF: Moonshine was trivial. Moonshine was there. I remember one time I smelled on my motorcycle riding into Pompano north of Lauderdale, I could smell mash cooking. And I told the Sheriff you better check on that out there. Because that wasn't my problem. I, I didn't have the jurisdiction when it's out in the woods there. CW: You didn't have jurisdiction to get off the highways? AF: Not anything like that. I told him, well I know that he's done nothing more other than to tell him to be more careful with it, you see. But traffic violations whatever the nature was out there on the highway, well then we were able to take care of that. But not off the road. We didn't have a right if we saw two people killing each other off the road. We were strictly out there on the roads. CW: How many highways did you have to patrol in your zone? AF: Oh gracious. Well, if you know how many highways there were in Broward. Your main arteries were A1A along the coast. There was US 1 which was a fairly new highway there then. And that was only 18 feet wide, concrete. Parallel to it was 441 which was also known as State Road 7 but it was only PAGE 38



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a gravel road up to the Palm Beach County line where it worked over into Military Trail. US 27 came out of Miami. It wasn't accessible too well until they developed State Road 84 out of Ft. Lauderdale. That was a mess. They built that on sponge muck. And I've seen people clear up to their neck in the muck while they were building it and they had to use drag lines to pull them out of the muck because they just stuck in there. They filled that in with pit rock, years went by when hurricanes hit there, I've seen the road just wash right out. Water has been clear to the tops of the road on both sides just lapping at the pavement. And to the point where the pavement was like riding on a wet sponge. And you, we had to set up barricades. This was later on in the picture, I'm getting ahead here. As it comes to my mind I tell you about it. But we had to stop all traffic on these roads and let only trucks go out there that were cattle trucks to get their cattle. Because they were out there drowning. What couldn't get on a little high bit of land they were just out there and drowned, that's all. And houses were being inundated by high water, people getting up into the attic. We got them out of the attics by boat. Killed snakes. I killed 18 snakes in a 20-mile stretch, big ones, with my pistol. And things like that. But I'm sort of getting away from the time that we were originally talking about. But when I mentioned about Jay Wallace Smith and this one particular incident, you asked me about other incidents. PAGE 39



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CW: I think one thing that I guess we maybe we better back up a little bit. We were talking about your Patrol duties and the areas and so forth. Were there, were there divisions in the state. Was it divided into certain areas of responsibility and command structure? AF: Yes, the, while Governor Cone was there it seems that about 1940, July the 1st, and this is just six months that had gone by that now we had a different chairman of the State Road Department. A man by the name of J.W. Perkins. And of course W.F. Bill Reid was still Department of Public Safety head. They created three districts for the FHP. The first one was the north and then the south and the central. Fitzhugh Lee was made a Lieutenant of the northern division to be extended to Gainesville from the state line. Then H.C. Red Martin was made Lieutenant from Gainesville to Sarasota area. Stuart Senneff was to be commander of the south division, southern division as we called it, which extended from Sarasota to Key West. And that's when we really started clamping down on driver's license tests. I should say driver's license checks. The Patrol became active and we started getting the Deputies out there with us so we'd have more manpower that we could to stop cars. Because we didn't have enough manpower ourselves to do it. So they were out there with and we could just find somebody that didn't have a driver's license and turn them over to the Sheriff right there. Didn't have stop and pull into the courthouse. PAGE 40



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CW: What all was involved in getting a driver's license back then? Was there any kind of test that you had to take? AF: Not until a little later on. We started having them. CW: Up until that time you'd just go down to the courthouse? AF: Yeah. CW: Someone even told me that you could buy a driver's license at Sears and Roebuck. AF: It depended on who the judge had set as various agencies. CW: But there were some private stores that you could actually buy drivers' licenses? AF: Oh yeah. The thing that I liked about the old license in one sense of the word was this. It was a paper folded license with three sheets. One was for warnings, one was for arrests. And if you stopped a fellow and he went on down the road a hundred miles and got picked up again, if you examined that license you found out that, well heck, he just, he didn't pay any attention to the warning. So you don't write him a warning ticket. You take him on down to the place of remembrance. Ha, ha. And too, it was about then that we were thinking about faulty equipment because stopping them out there for driver's license we found many many cars that come along with headlights out completely. No light there. And you'd find them with bad wiring', wires PAGE 41



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hanging dragging the ground and you knew it'd been like that for a long long time. Bad brakes, car you'd go to stop and it'd go off this way or that way. So, that's when faulty equipment card, the FHP 9 I think it was, was a little card that we got in. We wrote it in carbon copy. And we issued it out to the individual and he was to take that card and that vehicle and get that corrected. And he had 48 hours to get it done. I don't know whether they still use them or not. CW: Some, some things never change, Al. Ha, ha, ha. AF: They still got the DL 4s the same way. That was the driver's license application? CW: I don't know. I think the numbers may have changed. AF: I'll show you one in a minute. I got one in here when Paul Daniels got killed. The first trooper that ever got killed. CW: Was, was he killed down there in your area? AF: He was. He was using my car the night he got killed. But the thing that happened too that upset a lot of us was that on the 11th of July we had our color change on our uniforms. This was something. We wore caps on the bikes and they were a dark blue like city police had with a little bit of orange trim in it. PAGE 42



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CW: Sort of like, like the bus driver, what we'd call the bus driver cap? AF: Yeah. And the hats were no longer the Stetsons. Because our original hats were the original Stetson hat. They got them from the Surprise Store right there in Tallahassee. I don't know whether that place is still there in business or not. CW: Surprise Store. AF: That was the name of it. Everything that we got came through the Surprise Store. Boots, shoes. CW: Was it a uniform supply company or. AF: I guess so. I don't know. I've never been inside the place but I know that's where it came from. CW: Ha, ha, ha. AF: The hats and this is it is the old Frank Buck hats like you see a mail carrier wear sometime. CW: Okay. AF: I have some pictures there of Joe Gallop out there on the road with those, with that kind of hat on his head. And the pants, they were blue with an orange wide stripe down the side. Shirts, they were gray. I have a picture of me PAGE 43



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somewhere here that I can show you where I was in a, on one of the causeways going out of Miami heading towards Miami Beach. We were in a driver's license check and I had that uniform on. But that was the uniform of the day although it wasn't long before it reversed itself. I don't know, we may have worn that six months. The hats did come back into play there. We had the campaign hat like, like. CW: Smokey Bear. AF: Yeah, Smokey Bear hat. They were nice. They were good. They weren't as comfortable I don't think, to me it wasn't, as the old Stetson hat. But everybody to their own likes on that. CW: What were the uniforms made of? Was it comfortable? AF: A great, I suppose you would call it that. CW: Was it washed and pressed and starched and all that? AF: I had them dry cleaned. CW: Did you? AF: Yeah. Now the breeches that we wore on the bikes sometimes they would even be a gabardine, whip cord type, because they had the knee reinforcement and the seat reinforcement. I PAGE 44



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was wearing a brand new pair the time that I broke my knee on January the 1st, 1946. But, I'll get to that later. CW: Okay. AF: But it was the first of July 1940 when Tobe Bass who was as I said the number one Sergeant of the southern, well the new districts were created and Tobe was transferred then out of Ft. Lauderdale over to Deland by orders from Captain Green. We were getting involved at that particular time with the Orange Bowl Parade, being a huge thing every year. And I had a distinct privilege I guess in a way to lead that thing on an FHP bike and it was, you had to know how to ride a motorcycle to be able to ride that slow. And have a good tuned up bike too that wouldn't conk out on you right, and you didn't have electric starters. You had to kick that thing by your foot and if you happened to have the spark a little bit too far advanced you were liable to find your knee up on top of the handlebars. Ha, ha, ha. CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. Is that how you broke your knee? AF: No. No, but I broke it hitting a car while escorting him, the Governor, and I didn't have my regular assigned motorcycle. I was no longer riding, but I took a bike that time. They brought one over from the fifth district and it was horrible. It needed maintenance something terrible. It was one of those kind you'd put your foot on the brake and it didn't stop right then until you got down the road a little ways. And then it would take hold. Or if you wanted PAGE 45



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to accelerate, it was slow on accelerating. What are you going to do when you get in a tight with something like that? CW: Pray. AF: That's right. Well. CW: Let's, let's talk about the Orange Bowl for a minute. That, that's, that's something that been tradition. When was the first Orange Bowl Parade. Was it before the Patrol was formed? AF: Yes. Yeah, oh yes. CW: Did you ride, did you ride, were you first trooper to ride in the Orange Bowl Parade? AF: That's right. That's right. CW: Were there anybody else with you or did you lead the parade? AF: I was on the bike. Because we didn't have that many. As it went on the following year after that we had a contingent of bikes. What we called the flying wedge. We made it into a V shape. We'd start off with one at the point and then two, three, four, and five. And we rode that at the pace and speed of what the parade was travelling. Now the street coming down Flagler is not that wide. Biscayne Boulevard on that one side is not too wide either. So with people PAGE 46



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squeezing in on both sides we were boxed in there pretty tight. And when you keep straight lines this way as you go along and straight lines on an angle, you had to know what you're doing. And your bikes had to be running right, too. CW: This was later on when you had bikes that you could spare. AF: The following year, the following year. Yeah, it was in '41, the fall of '41. CW: What, did they add a bunch of manpower on to the Florida Highway Patrol? AF: Well they just brought them in from other places. CW: Oh, okay. AF: I know that the 1st of '41 which was the following day I was assigned to the Orange Bowl detail to help out on traffic for the parade, I mean for going to the game, usually the Governor was always there and you had to see to it that he was comfortable wherever he was going to be. Ha, ha, ha. CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. AF: I know that you ask about different things. On three occasions I had some things assigned to me that were kind of unpleasant disasters. I investigated an accident late at night on June 15, 1941. I'd say in the early morning hours. There was two semis hit almost head on out there on PAGE 47



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US 27 south of Southbay. Both drivers were killed. Well, there was no evidence of drinking. The fog was heavy. And both of them were blood brothers out of the same family. Neither one apparently knew that the other one was anywhere around. There was a horrible mess. Each one of them ended up the the opposite ditches. It killed them outright. And I got on the 5th of January of that year I, a driver hauling illegal whiskey was killed just north of Lauderdale. His arm was torn completely off and that's where the arm was buried. Right there in the ditch. CW: Who buried it? AF: I did. Yep. CW: Did you go back out after the thing later on, or did you do that right after? AF: No, I just let the grass grow. CW: Oh, okay, ha, ha, ha. AF: Because the man was killed right there, outright dead. And he wasn't, he wasn't going to put it in his casket I'm sure. And in those days they didn't worry too much about that. There was another thing that did happen. There was a train wreck in Pompano with injuries. That was on the 15th of August 1941. It was necessary for me to have threaten arrest and report to the Naval Department because a passenger who was a Navy officer and was a doctor. And he PAGE 48



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was refusing to administer to the injured on this train wreck. And it wasn't anything nice to look at. And he wouldn't do it until help arrived. So I told him, well either you're going to do this or I'm going to put you in jail. I'm going to notify the Naval Department and find how you can keep from being stripped. He changed his mind and he jumped right in there and helped out. It shows you some of the things that you're put to the test on. And whether or not you're capable of meeting it. Well it was then on the 18th of January that Jesse Gilliam took the place of W.F. Reid as Director. He was appointed by Governor Leroy Collins. CW: Jesse Gilliam? AF: Jess J E S S E. J. G I L L I A M. On May of 1941, I have a beautiful picture here that I could show you, where Ray Small and myself was, had gotten on the Patrol after we, after I had. But he had become a Sergeant already. We took two motorcycles and we escorted 16 Florida Motorlines. They weren't Greyhounds then, they were Florida Motorlines. The red and white buses. I've got a picture of them. This consisted of newspaper editors from all over the nation. And we escorted them all around south Florida until we got to our border line and we turned them over to another district. That was quite an ordeal. CW: I'll bet. PAGE 49



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AF: Yeah. I'll say this, that the bus drivers in those days were 100% friends to us, and so were 99% of the truck drivers. Little things, I don't care to glorify myself on any of this stuff I'm telling you, but if it's stuff that you want to cut, why you can cut it. CW: No, this is the stuff that we're after. AF: But I can remember one night, July 1941, that a friend of mine who was a Buick dealer in Ft. Lauderdale. They had been to an occasion there and they were just a half a block from the courthouse, and they were standing on the corner waiting for traffic to go by. His mother was with them. And around the corner came a black -fellow with a car that had been in a wreck and his fender was sticking out there like a can opener, and it caught her. And I mean it almost just cut her leg off. Well, we got her to the hospital quick. I don't know why I happened to be there. I got involved in more things, I wonder how I ever happened to be there. But there I was and Mrs. Bowers was her name, I got a nice letter from them. But I found out that in Jackson Memorial Hospital when the doctor in Ft. Lauderdale Hospital told me that what she had to have or she wasn't going to live through the night. And he thought that we could get it in Miami. Well, we contacted them and I made a round trip there and I made it in fast time, I'll tell you. But I got it back and it saved the woman's life. And a beautiful letter went to Tallahassee about it which I have a copy of it. Well, after that (July 1941) we had a six-day short course at the Lamar Hotel in Orlando. It was a gathering of PAGE 50



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personnel. I have a picture of that if you wanted to see it. And, the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department had a school (June 21, 1941) and they asked me to be one of the faculty members to teach the rookies that they were putting on. So I consented to that. I have a picture that I can show you later of my last motorcycle that I ever rode. CW: When did you finally hang it up on motorcycles and go to cars, to a car? AF: Myself, was in July of '41. Then we were using cars but sometimes they wouldn't run fast enough. We tried all kinds of things to do it. One time the Patrol give me an old Hudson. I could get out and push the thing faster than it could drive. It was awful to try to chase somebody that was willfully trying to out run you and were drunk or either had a stolen vehicle, and you just couldn't keep up with them. Ha, ha. They saw us. CW: But you could carry a lot of gas in a Hudson. AF: Oh, yeah. CW: About what, 50 gallons? AF: Well, I didn't, I didn't, I didn't.carry that thing too long when they finally decided we'd better get rid of this. So we went back to Fords. But, we had a strike detail to come up on the 30th of July, 1941, that happened down in Key West where the Sheriff down there made us all deputies. We had PAGE 51



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to break up a strike. And I got a beautiful letter here from the Navy thanking us for coming down there. CW: What kind of strike was it? AF: It was civilian employees working down there at the Naval Air Station and the war was on, you know. I lost out on something here that I should tell you about on Roosevelt, but I can get back to it as soon as I finish this. But we got all the way back thinking that we had got that thing under control. Got clear back to Marathon. There was only one building in Marathon in those days. Now it's a city with airport and everything else. But there was only one building, and that was a store. We stopped there to get a cold drink and we got a message, go back and finish the job. Well, we went back and we finished the job. Needles to say, I put the Chief Deputy in his own jail. CW: How many people, how many troopers were sent down on that detail? AF: If you cut that a minute I'll get the picture and show you. I think all told if I look at the picture when I get it out of my file there it seemed to me there was around 10 or 12 of us. CW: That's probably about a third of the Highway Patrol, wasn't it? PAGE 52



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AF: But we took care of that problem. And we had a platoon of Marines behind us with fixed bayonets. And they had instructions that whatever we couldn't take care of with our nightsticks, they were to use those bayonets. CW: You were the first Highway Patrol riot squad. AF: That's right. Now I'll guarantee you, some windows went and some heads got hurt. But they straightened out. CW: What were they, you say they were contractors? What were they building boats in the Naval Air Station? AF: That's right. CW: Well, okay. AF: They didn't, you don't strike your government when you're at war. You just don't do that. Ha, ha. CW: You mentioned something about President Roosevelt that came to town. You were involved in that detail? AF: Yes, I was. Now this happened on December the 20th and 21st of 1939. I was drafted by a Mr. Baker who was at that time in Washington the Chief of the Secret Service. The Potomac had pulled in to Ft. Lauderdale and Pt. Everglades and was tied up in the main slip. While FDR was out there on that boat, on the, we were not at war yet. But Great Britain was. And there was a British cruiser just off shore between PAGE 53



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the port and the gulf stream. And they were after this German freighter. This was a brand new freighter called the Arauca. I have pictures of that. They ran him into the port trying to catch him. Well, once he got into our territory, they had to keep hands off. And, of course they tied him up at port, at the slip right next to the Potomac. Well that created a lot of blood pressure worrying about these Germans. You didn't know just what was going on as you will find out and I'll talk to you later about what happened on our beaches as to torpedoes and things like that where actually I was a witness to a lot of this stuff. But, Mr. Baker, because of his shorthandedness, not expecting something like this and at the beginning of a war which they'd never experienced anything like it before, he drafted me to be with the President for about 36 to 38 hours without shutting my eyes. And I was as close to him as I am to you all this time. There was one thing that I always remember is how he always sat there, if you've seen picture of him with that cigarette holder on an angle sticking up out of his mouth. With that cigarette way out there. That was one thing that he always had, seemed always kept it with him. Nobody was allowed in the area unless Baker came to me personally by himself. Not in the company of anybody. Because you never knew if he was being forced to do it. Then I would let somebody, whoever he said was alright, could come aboard. And that happened to be certain special, special press people that could come in there and interview the President about the world situation. PAGE 54



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CW: This was on the yacht? AF: This was on the yacht. I still, I was right there at ready at all times. The whole times, I stayed there with them and I didn't leave him until he was taken off the yacht by Baker, put on the train that backed right in alongside the slip, put him on the train, and headed him out to Washington. Then I went home and got my razor and shaved. Ha, ha, and got some sleep. But that was the situation there. I meant to tell you about that earlier but we get back to 1941 which is right after the strike detail. I was assigned to south Miami from Ft. Lauderdale September 1941. And I was to take care of all of the lower Dade County area including down onto the Keys. But I was still an ordinary patrolman. I guess you could call it acting like a PFC, Private First Class, but there wasn't Chevrons or anything or any increase in pay. But I had six rookies handed to me from the school and I had to work with them, help them on the road after coming out of the school, to make sure that they knew what they were doing. CW: Was this the second Patrol school? AF: Yes, yes. It wasn't our school. CW: Was it from, did they still have it in Bradenton, the second one, or did they move it? AF: I think, I'm not sure, I think that the next school, I don't have the records, I burnt up so many records, I think it was PAGE 55



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Kissimmee, I'm not sure. I think the one after that was in Lakeland which is one that I was there for awhile as a part-time instructor. But I had six different ones there, of which one of them was Paul Daniels, the first trooper to ever get killed. And there was Ben Porch, there was Charlie Gothie, who when the war really got going he got into the airlines flying over the hump down into Africa and he just did that constantly, he never came back to the Patrol. And a boy named Stafford, another one named Telzer, Brantley, who later on left the Patrol and became Chief of Police of Homestead. He died there one night, ice pick. But on the 6th of December was my day off and Paul Daniels was one of them. And I had told Paul I don't know how many times, you are no longer a city of Key West policeman. You're a highway patrolman now and it's a whole new ball game. And you play for keeps out there many and many a time. You've always been too friendly with the people in the city because you had closeness there of population, but when you're out here on the road you never know what you're dealing with. You're to be a gentleman at all times, but you're supposed to be able to take care of yourself. And one of the things that I told him was, don't ever stop a car at night with you being in front of the car that you stop. And that's what happened to him. He stopped this car that night that came through south Miami at an excessive rate of speed. And he took after him and he went clear down to Goulds at Allapattah Road and US 1 where he finally stopped him. Well the fellow stopped quicker than he did so Paul went ahead of him instead of either turning around and coming back or putting it in reverse and backing up. And left himself in PAGE 56



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the full headlights of the other car. He managed to go back to the car and question this Byrdl Hudgins, a/s/a Elmer Humber, and he was a 22-year-old tall boy. And he got from him his driver's license. He came back, by that time my car which I have a picture of the wreck of the thing, I had radio operating out of the city of Miami, WPFZ. And, they covered the whole county. CW: Was that one you could listen to but you couldn't transmit from? AF: No, my radio then was two-way. And he used my radio to call in to find out if there's anything on the car. There was no information at all because it had just been stolen and they didn't know it. Okay, as soon as he hung up the message came in to the police radio dispatcher that this car was wanted as a stolen car. Well they tried calling Paul but they got no answer. In the meantime he was up in his car and this fellow was back there with a 45 automatic. And the reason he couldn't answer was because when he started to hang up the radio he saw that gun. He put up his hands like that and he got shot. And I found his body in the ditch face down. CW: How long after he'd been shot did you find him? AF: I would say not more than an hour. CW: Well did they try to call him? PAGE 57



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AF: Called him and didn't get an answer and they called Senneff who was the commander and got ahold of him. He called me and he told me he said, I've got ahold of Ben Porch. We didn't have a radio. All we had was a car. And he come by my house and picked me up. I had already gone to bed. I jumped out and put my clothes on, Porch come by and picked me up. We went heading on down south. I knew the territory and when they told me about where it was we run a spotlight in the ditch as we were going and there he was laying there. But the car was gone. It so happens that the Allapattah took off on a 45 degree from US 1. As soon as I found him and I knew that he was dead because there was no signs of life whatsoever, I looked down the road there and I could see activity. And I knew it was another police car of some kind. And so I fired my gun into the air once to let them know where I was and who I was. We jumped in the car and went on down there to try to get to a radio or see what was going on and I was faced with the fact that there was my patrol car which had turned end over end and then side over side and then stopped upright. It was a mess. I looked in the car to see what was going on because I had a lot of DL papers all over the place and other things like that. But laying on the floor in its plastic container was a driver's license with a picture on it. And this was on the back floor behind the driver's seat. And I knew it didn't belong to me or any of my papers so I picked it up and I saw there, state of Ohio, Byrdl Hudgins, six foot, picture of him. I asked the Sheriff's Department to let me use their radio so I called in and put out an alert on who we wanted. Didn't think he had gotten very far, but anyway I got it to Captain PAGE 58



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Senneff and told him about it. Or he was still a Lieutenant. And told him about what had happened and so we started putting up roadblocks. I like to went to pieces there for awhile because I wanted to get that guy because he had killed not only a trooper but a father as well as a husband. And I knew what a good guy he was. He was always riding the motorcycle during the day, but on my day off he used my car. And I felt the presence of that person out there in the woods, but it was dark. There was no light. Palmettos, pine trees, rattlesnakes, and everything else. And I hollered out in the woods to him at his name, Come out of there instead of us getting you, maybe you might have a chance, but I don't think you'll have one if I face you. He testified to that on the stand. He never did come out. But when he did come out the following day, was over on the highway and two civilians who had known about it picked him up, got him in the back seat as though they were just helping out somebody on the road. But we had a roadblock set up and when they got to the roadblock they jumped out both sides of the car and left the door open and said there he is in the back seat. Well, there was an immigration officer there and he ran over and as Byrdl Hudgins tried coming out, he'd been hurt in that wreck, he had that 45 in his hand, well he knocked it out of his hand with his own gun. And took him on out. Because of my anxiety over the whole thing they transferred me over to the far end of the county stopping trucks and cars and everything else, because they was afraid I was liable to really hurt him if I had a chance. Or somebody else, I don't know which. But anyway, we took him on to jail. And he was tried and executed PAGE 59



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shortly. I have a lot of information on that. That, notifying his wife was a hard thing to do. Senneff called my wife and wanted her to go and tell her what had happened because we had become quite close knit, all of us boys down there together. But she just couldn't do it so she called Senneff back and he couldn't do it, but he picked up the phone and called her and told her on the telephone. It was the only way because he just couldn't come there and do it. It affected him too much. We had a lot to do there in 38 hours we were out on this manhunt and everybody was pretty tense. And I guess that pretty well covers it except for the end of the year I was assigned back to the Orange Bowl traffic control at the parade and that's when we had that V formation I was telling you about in .the Patrol. And that's just the first two years. CW: All right. What about the funeral. Big one? AF: Yes, it was a big funeral and we escorted the body all the way down from the funeral parlor in Miami. It was, it was a large funeral. It was attended by many police departments too. But it was a rainy day. In fact they had to delay it awhile because the rain was so bad. And you know the land is not much height to the elevation of the land in Key West as compared to sea level. So we had to think about that too. I have a picture of his gravesite yet today. That pretty much covered that, it was right at the end of the year and the only thing we had after that was just the Orange Bowl detail which we worked on traffic control at the parade. This particular year we escorted the parade in a V PAGE 60



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formation of motorcycles. It was a very tight organization. And we started out with one at the point and ended up with I think there were five across the back. And they were filled in solid there like a regular pyramid. CW: That must have been, that must have been people out of the second school. AF: Well, we brought them in from the fifth district, they had several in the, yeah, I would say there were some out of the second school there. CW: Okay, 1942. AF: One of the things that happened in 1942 was Governor Holland requested the legislature to increase the FHP to no less than 120 nor more than 190 men. And to make four Captains, eight Lieutenants and 16 Sergeants. This was when the Driver's License fee was to go up to $1.00. And to require exams for delinquents. And of course some of the facts that, in 1941 there were 2290 licenses revoked and 389 were suspended. But a revoked license restored to a person only by a parole commission. I don't know whether that's still in effect or not. But the suspension would be reinstated by the director upon the recommendation of the sentencing judge. CW: Did you work closely with the Driver's License examiners back then when they first got started? PAGE 61



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AF: I hired civilians when I became a ranking officer. And I fired the first one I ever hired and Tallahassee wanted to know why I fired him. I said because I felt that when I found the man taking money on the side to pass the examinees that I had the right to, and since you gave me the right to hire him, I should have the right to fire him. And I heard nothing more after that. CW: Did you give Driver's License tests yourself? AF: Oh, yes. Oodles of them way back as a patrolman. CW: The test or the written? AF: I gave written tests, I gave road tests. In the beginning we just give verbal tests out of your own mind. CW: What, what were some of the questions that you might ask somebody? AF: Well, if you are coming up to an intersection and there are no stop signs and there was another car approaching the intersection the same time as you were, which of the two of you had the right-of-way. CW: Okay. AF: Well, it's always the one on the right. Things like that in general. But of course it wasn't long before we began to PAGE 62



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get sheets of questionnaires. The first one we started out with was on the DL 4 itself. On the back of it. CW: DL 4 was what? AF: The driver's license card. CW: I'm looking at the DL 4. AF: Yeah. CW: And what it looks like an affidavit. AF: That's right, sure. CW: With all of the information and so forth on the front and it looks like the actual written test for driving was on the back. AF: That's correct. CW: And that became the driver's permanent file? AF: That's right. That went to Tallahassee and there it was kept supposedly in file cabinets alphabetically to determine who was licensed and who wasn't. And it was as you say an affidavit. CW: And this particular test was given by Trooper Daniels. PAGE 63



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AFT That was, and this is the car there that he was driving that night, my car. You notice on the side of the hood there a little thing, black bar, that was neon lights that we had stuck on the side of our cars. It wasn't official issue but it was approved. We'd come up beside of a car and those things would flash on State Patrol. CW: I'll be. AF: Yeah. They saw it right away at night. They knew it wasn't somebody wrong. This is Paul's grave in Key West. I had the gun that killed Paul, it was a 45 automatic and it was promised to me to keep by the judge. That's a picture of it right there. But it seems that that gun was involved in another killing up in Ohio in Cincinnati. And the court asked me if I would agree to let it go up there as evidence and that I would get it back. That's the last I've seen of it. CW: Daniels' killer was in fact executed? AF: Oh, yes, oh yes. I begged and pleaded with them to let me go and pull the switch on it but they wouldn't do it. CW: Where was this, up at? AF: Raiford. CW: Raiford. Old Sparky. PAGE 64



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AF: Yeah, I've seen executions. CW: Is that right? AF: Yeah. CW: In your official capacity as a trooper? AF: No. Before. But, Paul, it was a shame. That's him on his motorcycle. CW: What was the Broken, what was the Broken Spoke benefit back then? What was paid to the next of kin, how much? AF: I can find it out here for you. I have it in this file as to exact how much money it was. But it was no money at all to sit and speak of. Ten dollars and there wasn't that many there. CW: Up in 19 and 42 we started talking about 1942, did, did we ever get the increase that was asked for in the legislature for the 4 Captains and the 16 Sergeants. Did the legislature approve all those positions? AF: I have to assume that they did. I, I don't have documented proof here to say it other than out of my own mind. So I can't. PAGE 65



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CW: How about pay raises. Did you get any pay raises between '39 and '41? AF: Peanuts. CW: Peanuts. AF: Peanuts, yes. The system of civil service was set up at that time and the only civil service really was administration was changed to the Governor and six members of the Cabinet. And that was J. Edwin Larson, the Treasurer, Bob Gray, the Secretary of State, and Tom Watson, who I knew real well with his red suspenders, an Attorney General, and Colin English, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Jim Lee was the Comptroller, and Nat Mayo was the Commissioner of Agriculture. All good friends of mine, real good friends. Nat Mayo goes way back, way, way back to Governor Martin's day all in my family. Driver's License Division I think I told you was transferred from the Motor Division to Motor Vehicle Commission to the Department of Public Safety. And I mentioned about Keith was now the, sort of to administer it setting it up. But I knew they sent him to different states to familiarize himself with the operations that were required to do the job that he had to governing the Driver's License. CW: Clay Keith? AF: Right. On the 26th of July, 1942, Dick Danner who was the FBI special agent in Miami, he called on Tobe Bass and PAGE 66



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myself to assist in rounding up aliens. And this was during the war. I have a clipping on that. That's where we went in and we got, kicked down doors and everything else going in, we were in civilian clothes. We didn't reflect FHP at all. But we went in there to assist in rounding them up and the Orange Bowl was a concentration camp for awhile. CW: That, that seems like history repeats itself because they used the Orange Bowl for the Mariel boat lift too. AF: Sure. CW: Where, where, where were the aliens coming from back then? AF: They were peoples that were from these foreign countries that were involved in the war. CW: Trying to, refugees more or less trying to get out? AF: No, people actually lived here, and so what we wanted to find out from them was what did they have. What kind of an agent are they or are they a citizen? A loyal citizen. This occurred all over the country. Miami wasn't just one of the places, it was all over. CW: They had internment camps all over the place didn't they? AF: Yeah, now you take out in Arkansas there, they had a lot of Japs out there. But, I don't care to bring you up on any of the commendation letters that I got from people, but like PAGE 67



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for the, well I mentioned a while ago at the riot down there on the Keys. This Captain Crenshaw, he was a commandant at the Navy base on Key West. A real nice commendation from him as to how we functioned there in cooperation with his contingent of the Marine Corps. CW: Who else did you get commendations from? AF: Oh, there's, I have letters all throughout my files here. As you have time I can show them to you. They're numerous, but like I say I'm not trying to glorify myself. CW: No, this is good information. AF: I remember one time in 1942 I apprehended a truckload of slot machines coming south from Palm Beach to Miami. They belonged to a fellow named Fry and I caught them and took them in. It didn't make the Sheriff too happy. But anyway, I did it because they were out there on the highway and I had the right then to do it. I could see it. CW: That was just part of the organized crime takeover down in south Florida, the illegal gambling parlors and so forth? AF: Oh they had been functioning long before the Patrol ever organized. The old Purple Gang used to be there and they had a place called Greenacres in Hallandale just east of US 1. It was a nightclub. You take Barbara, what's her name on 20/20? PAGE 68



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CW: Walters. AF: Barbara Walters. I knew her daddy. He had this big nightclub down there on the causeway. Barbara was talking about it one night when she was just a girl. I met these gangsters. In fact one day the Fort Lauderdale police had a torpedo man, for Dutch Schultz gang cornered in a car and they were afraid to go up to him and get him out. I got word of it. I just happened to be in the area and I pulled in there in my car. I walked over to him and I found out what it was and I saw he was just an ordinary guy, that's all. So he had a gun, so did I. But, I walked over to him and he was in this convertible. He was sitting there about halfway between the seat. And I told him I said, you know you can spill a lot of blood here but there isn't any sense in it, why don't you come on and get out of here and these officers want to get along with you just like everybody else. I'd already flipped my holster loose. And, don't you think it would really be better for you to cooperate a little bit than it would to be creating a scene and maybe get killed? He reached to the glove compartment but as he did my gun hit his wrist. It didn't go any further. We took him on out of the car. I turned him on over to the police, got in my car and went on. Ha, ha, ha, ha. CW: Ha, ha, ha. AF: Those things happened, you know. PAGE 69



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CW: They still happen today. AF: Yeah. CW: Still happen today. AF: Well, the Patrol you know they invested in rising machine guns for awhile. 45 calibers. And I had one, and I had tracer bullets. Did you ever fire those? CW: Uh, uh. This is, this is history. This is history. AF: Yeah, it's history. I mean you do things out there and yet they fight you becoming a state police because the Sheriffs' Departments did that an awful awful lot which I have records on. At one time they didn't want this, but why weren't they offering what the state of Florida could offer? See? But you take different things like when the war came on there was a very great shortage of rubber and we had to go to these synthetic tires. And the speed limit had to be dropped to 35 mph because if you went over 35 the tires would blow out on you. CW: About when did they start putting speed limits up, do you remember? AF: No, I can't say exactly, but I would say somewhere in the year '41. PAGE 70



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CW: What was the maximum speed limit on an open highway before? AF: 65. CW: 65. And didn't it drop? AF: 70, 70, 70, yes, it was 70 mph. And then they started dropping it down. And of course during the war when it really got on and then they put everything at 35 mph. CW: Even the open roads? AF: Everywhere, because they were on synthetic tires. Gasoline rationing, you had to have coupons to get your gas. I had so much gasoline anyway given to me because the airplane crashes all around. It was not uncommon at all to see a plane fall out there. I saw a plane one time do an Immelman. That's an outside loop. The pilot didn't have his belt on. He came out, the plane went on by itself. We picked him up out of the ground. I picked up pilots out there that were shredded like you'd shred lettuce. With the aluminum structures of the planes had just when they hit the ground they'd just bury into the ground, and just cut these pilots up. I picked up bodies of them. Those were all of the things that we did. But anyway, we gathered rubber. I have a huge file on that, compliments of the Governor, compliments of people. We took the proceeds when we cashed in the rubber that we got and gave it to the Army and Navy relief fund. But I had Indians out there helping me get old tires and corsets and syringe bottles, anything you could PAGE 71



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think, out of the canals. I got pictures of the huge stack of rubber tires and all that that we got. And the Chairman of the Road Department came. I got Homer Rhodes who was with the Game Commission to work with me. We went everywhere that you could think of gathering this stuff. Getting it in. And all this was going toward the war effort. At the same time we weren't neglecting our work. But you talk about Indians, they didn't want, if you were in south Florida and had anything to do out there on Tamiami Trail, they're a little bit squeamish back in those days about being too friendly with a white person. But I was', thought nothing of going into their chickee and sitting up on the chickee with the, with the squaw and with the brave together. I was welcome. I would take them into town with me to the doctors and things like that, you know. During hurricanes it was not uncommon to get them unwrapped from around the trees out there afraid to turn loose and take them back to the villages. We got along fine. I got lots of pictures of Indians where they helped out with tires, putting them in the back of my car and things like that. Osceola, Corey Osceola who was the grandson of Osceola the chief that you think about at St. Augustine, I've got a picture of him in one arm, he and his wife, they were good friends of mine. But that, it was some of the things that the Patrol had an opportunity to establish. But, it was about that time too that the Sheriffs were beginning to get troubled. Because Walter Clark, who was Sheriff of Broward County, was removed from his office then by Governor Holland. There was quite a write-up-on-it-and, but showing you how things are, the state senate reinstated him. Put PAGE 72



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him back in office. Eddie Lee served as fill-in there for awhile when Governor Holland put him there. But, I think that when Governor Cone was there the one of the greatest confusion and drop in morale started in the final years of Governor Cone. Because it was obvious about favoritism. CW: Who was the, who was the head of the Highway Patrol at this time, in '42? AF: Well now this was then coming, as I mentioned while ago Jesse Gilliam. CW: How long did he was he with us? About a year? AF: No, he was longer than that. It was just when Caldwell came in. And I can give you that. I'll have to go back to this. This was in '40, it was in 45. Caldwell had taken office and Gilliam would, let's see, it was in '45. I can find a date for you as I go along here but. CW: We'll probably pick that up. AF: Yeah, you will. You'll pick it up. You know. CW: But the morale was, the morale back then was going down? AF: It was ona banana peel. And this was something that climaxed under Governor Holland. Holland had a lot of political favoritisms and the elevation in the ranks for those who did not merit it was not uncommon to be seen. PAGE 73



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You'd hire men to go in there and make a Sergeant out of him in no time at all. And put him over people who were really dedicated, working their hearts out. And it, it affected the morale. CW: There was no written promotional exam or anything back then? AF: None whatsoever. CW: It was all appointed. AF: Everything was appointed and that's the way it was. We had even the Duke of Windsor came through once. This was in the latter part of '42. He was in south Florida. I didn't have anything to do with him. Mack Britt had him and some of the Miami city officials. But I'm leading up to '43 here. I'm getting into Harry Truman's situation. So I don't know. CW: Let's, let's, we'll stop here and we'll go ahead and set up another appointment and we'll finish off in 1942. We've got a long way to go yet. AF: Look at that. August 1, 1942, I was transferred back to Ft. Lauderdale. CW: Time is 1:15 PM September 18th, 1989. CW: This interview is with Albert Fausett, the second interview in conjunction with the-Oral History Project for the 50th Anniversary of the FHP. I'm Lieutenant Chuck Williams. PAGE 74



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We're at Mr. Fausett's home in Ocala. Today's date is September 26th, 1989. The time is 10:15. Al we were talking in the previous interview about some of the people involved in the training at the first Highway Patrol school down in Bradenton and I understand you've done some research now insofar as those involved in the training of the first trooper class. Who were some of those people? AF: Well, first of all the school itself is housed at Manavista Hotel, but their school work as far as auditorium space was held on Memorial Pier. And the chief instructor was listed as Captain George Mingle of the Ohio State Patrol. And of course there was Jay T. Lowe, motorcycle officer of the Duval County Road Patrol. And Sheriff C.J. Hutches of Manatee County. He loaned his knowledge. And Bill Sheets, he was a Bradenton police officer in the radio department. He instructed us about radio and how obtain the radio license we all received. And then there was Lieutenant Ben Demby, D E M B Y, of the Miami Police Department, in charge of radio down there. And there was Lieutenant O.W. Whiteside of the Georgia Highway Patrol. There were FBI agents there and they talked to us about fingerprinting and the arts of how to preserve and gather information. And there was the Red Cross people and National Safety Council and of course the Attorney General was one of our speakers at our graduation. There were other police officials there, but that were competent enough to talk on Florida, psychology. PAGE 75



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CW: The, the Red Cross, I assume, taught first aid back then. AF: Yes. That was the limit of that. CW: Okay. And the National Safety Council. Did you have like a defensive driving course that you had to take through them? AF: Well, they were trying to teach us more or less the, the act of gaining proper information pertaining to accidents. Because prior to that they had been very much interested in factory injuries and things like that. But because of the pressing demand of the highway accidents and injuries and things they were wanting to really get into it. I forget now the man's name but I do have it on file. But this was one of their new fields that they were pushing on was getting more statistics as to the cause of the accidents, injuries, deaths on the highways. One of the things that you talked to me about last week was about Paul Daniels and his wife and how much did she receive. She received $1560 from the Broken Spoke Club. Because there was $10 apiece. There was 156 members at that time according to the newspaper clipping that I have. CW: What, did you get an assessment every time somebody was killed? AF: Ten dollars per person, yes. See our original Broken Spoke Club that we had, all of us that came out of the school were classed as charter members. We didn't have an initiation fee like they do today. But we were assessed $1 each month PAGE 76



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and in case of an accident or death or anything like that we were assessed $10. In order to bring up, in case of an injury why that was to bring up the injured person's salary to the maximum level of what he was receiving then working in conjunction with insurance. CW: Broken Spoke did that as well as death benefits, then. AF: Uh huh. CW: Was there a board of directors of the Broken Spoke? Were there folks in charge of it? AF: Yes, we had three people that were in the Broken Spoke Club, Stuart Senneff and I forget now, I can look it up, I don't think it's that important. But I know that Stuart Senneff was the secretary of it. He later on turned it over I think to J.W. Hagans I believe, then became president of it or something like that. CW: Continuing on, I think, I think the last time we spoke we left off with about 1942. AF: Well, we still had the Orange Bowl facing us on the first day there. CW: Do you remember who played? AF: No, I sure don't. I have no idea right now. I really don't. But I know there always were some pretty good games, PAGE 77



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large crowds, enthusiasm for the old Orange Bowl. It, 1941 brought out a lot of things. We had Governor Holland in there then. The legislature was requested to increase the Patrol to no less than 120 and no more than 190. And to make four Captains and eight Lieutenants and 16 Sergeants. And I remember. CW: Captains, Captains being what we now term the Troop Commanders? AF: Yes. CW: They had more or less a region or district? AF: Well back there the Captains had a division which had been one third of the state. One third of the state. There was the north, the central, and the south. That's the way it was divided up. I don't know if you care to know about the activities that occurred during the year in the courts and so on. Statistics. CW: Sure. AF: The driver's license was increased to $1 and it was required for exams on delinquents. Now there 2290 licenses revoked in 1941 which was the previous year so we gathered this up. There 389 suspensions. The revoked license was to be PAGE 78



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restored only by a parole commission. And the suspensions were reinstated by the director on a recommendation of the sentencing judge. CW: Who was the director at this time? AF: This was Gilliam. J.J. Gilliam. CW: Were they testing for licenses at that point? There was to be started there that Drivers License would require exams on those who were delinquent. New ones that had not had a driver's license, yes. But anybody who had a current, just like today, all you did was renew it. What about the first time licensee though, somebody just, just wanting a driver's license for the first time? AF: Well, in the early days they didn't require anything except your money. You'd just go in there. CW: They subcontracted to Sears and Roebuck, I think you could buy a license in some cities. AF: You probably could, I don't know about that. Most of us got them from the county judge. CW: When did they begin testing everybody for a driver's license, do you recall? AF: Well, I know that in '40, let's see when Iwas transferred to Ft. Lauderdale in June of 1942 we were then giving PAGE 79



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driver's tests ourselves. We didn't even have civilian employees. But it was shortly after that that as I will get to it in the later portion of my statements here, that we started having civilian employees doing that. CW: What kind of driver's test, did you give the written as well as the road test? AF: We used that DL 4, the jacket that was put in the files in Tallahassee after we had them answer the questions on the back of that. And if they were able to do that and satisfactorily show how to park and give hand signals how they stopped, whether they stopped or just slowed down for stop signs, and how they could back in to the curbing and things like that. CW: Did you have a, where there any patrol stations, Highway Patrol stations in 1942? AF: No. Only Division headquarters. CW: Where did work, out of the local Sheriffs? AF: Out of the local Sheriff's office. That's all. CW: And I guess you conducted your driver's license operation out of the same office? AF: No, we managed to get the county commissioners to set off a room within the courthouse. I know that in our particular PAGE 80



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case in Broward County we were expanding, and expanding, and expanding and what little spaces we had became way too small and we kept appealing to them for larger and larger. Which they always did come around and give us additional space. But we would use a room somewhere near the Sheriff's Department. Because we felt that we should keep close to them. We'd never know when we'd find somebody that comes in that we'd need the assistance there of the Sheriff's Department. CW: How were the duties, how were the driver's license duties spread out. Did you, did everybody take their turn or one day a week or two days a week that you'd get the driver's license function? Or how did you work that? AF: Well, back in those early days we didn't have anybody to spread it out to. It fell upon us ourselves. And we would say, take one day a week and if anything happened on the road why that's one reason why we were close to the Sheriff's office. If a call should come in from a distressed, from a scene out there, well then we just had to pick up and go. But, 1943, as we increased the personnel why then we were able to keep people on the road as well as take one of them to give the driver's test. And that was the beginning of starting to hire civilians which were put into a uniform. I was transferred as I mentioned there to, back-,to Ft. Lauderdale from south Miami in June of '42 and I was placed under Sergeant Small. I was also sent to a training school to assist and I forget now exactly whether it was '42 or '43. I think it was '43 that I was sent there PAGE 81



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that I helped on teaching motorcycles. Had them riding in and out of these tires and things like that and how to lay them down in case you had to and how to protect yourself in case you knew you were going to have a collision. I helped out on first aid because I was a recognized instructor by the Red Cross of first aid. And, did a lot of the drilling because I was familiar with drilling having been in the military school and was recognized by the Pentagon who sent their generals down to inspect our school and they cited me for my abilities there in the use of automatic weapons like machine guns. I tied the all-time record for field stripping when blindfolded. And, they wanted me to come back to the school as a student the following year and teach military science and tactics, so I felt qualified to help there on the drilling and I guess the department did too. And one thing too learned in the school that I knew how to take care of equipment. And I was picked to that and while there I did compose, I think this department still uses it, but it's an equipment care report, where in going through your territory you inspect your man to see how his equipment, his car, and maintenance of his vehicle, maintenance of his uniform, all of those sort of things. CW: We still do that today. A few more things that we have to check now, but we still do the monthly inspection. AF: There was at this time the war was on, I had come very close to Dick Danner who was then the Chief Special Agent for the FBI in the Miami area. And he called on Tobe Bass and myself to go in civilian clothes and to assist in rounding PAGE 82



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up aliens. We used the Orange Bowl as a concentration camp down there. We did gather, I have clippings there that can verify this, that it's not out of my head, I have proof of it. We did collect an awful lot and we had to break down a few doors here and there because the element of surprise was the thing that we wanted to try to keep foremost. And not just go up and knock on the door. We went in the we found quite a few things although it's doubtful that they would have been able to create much in the way of sabotage. As those who came ashore from submarines later, which I can tell you about as to when it happen and what really took place. The FBI was having a war traffic school about then and they invited the members of the Patrol in that area, which I was one, and the various other police departments to attend it. And it was really. CW: What's a war traffic school? AF: Well, it has to do with your responsibilities in the case of movement of troops on the highways. It has to do with security of the coastline, the enforcement of vehicles that were being used on the roads, that they had blackout headlights. Which meant that better than 50% of the headlight was painted on the top half so that they couldn't be seen from above. A light can be seen on the road, but as to the vehicle itself it wouldn't illuminate so much. It has to do with the governing of lighthouses even, showing that their candlepower would be decreased. Because this is something that I will be telling you about later how it would make it perfect for a submarine to land offshore to PAGE 83



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pick out ships between them and the lighthouse. Which they did. I know you get flashbacks every once in awhile of things that did occur. It can go on and on and on. CW: Obviously 1943 began with the famous Orange Bowl detail. AF: Yeah. It always had traffic there at the Orange Bowl. The Highway Patrol it just seemed that they were in demand to be there. And there were two occasions that occurred in the first part of the year that I was assigned to which I think is worthy of mention. I got my assignments by radio, I didn't have anything in writing. I was called to meet the neighboring patrol car coming down. And the reason for meeting it was that they were bringing who was then the United States Senator Harry Truman, who was chairman of the Dies Committee. Well, when he got there to me, I don't know it seemed that we built up a pretty close relationship. Because I had him on two different occasions and spent a lot of time with him. When we got to Ft. Lauderdale he wanted to go by Walter Clark's house where we did go there and nothing was ever private from me at any time, the conversations, what took place, and so on. Then, I'll show how an ordinary person he is, he said I'm hungry, what about us going out in the kitchen and getting something to eat? So, okay, we'll do that. So he and I went out and left Walter in the house there. He said I'm going to make the sandwiches, how about you pouring the drinks? Well, of PAGE 84



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course this was not, this was soft drinks of course. And things like that. Anytime he was in the area why I was with him all the time. CW: Did he ride in your patrol car with you? AF: Right on the front seat. Right in the front seat. He'd never sit in the back. He's just plain old Harry up there. He was a plain individual. He did some wild things while he was down there which I'll discuss at a later time when he dedicated the Everglades National Park which is also in the encyclopedias to back up what I'm telling you. It was shortly after that the new Overseas Highway was being built and was coming along well. That's when Governor Holland came down and he inspected the, the highway which was a great change from the old, old highways that we had there. CW: Was this, was this Spessard Holland? AF: This was Spessard Holland. Yeah. There was a call that went to me, I don't know why they picked on me, but I guess it was because I had been to the FBI School that they had there in Miami as I mentioned previously about the war traffic school that the city of Ft. Lauderdale was having a defense for police training for recruits. And they were working in conjunction with the home guard. And they called me there to give a lecture to them, which I did. I can never forget that one night a taxi was stolen by means of -armed robbery and I got the call on the radio and it was stolen in Ft. Lauderdale and I was ten miles south in PAGE 85



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Hollywood. I got the radio call and it said it was a sailor. Well, I knew right where he was going to be going with that thing. It was just a hunch, and so I went right straight to the Hollywood Beach Hotel where they were housed. In comes the car, the sailor jumps out and goes inside, and I go right to the duty officer, find out who it was and he told me that it was a boy that just checked. His name was Stewartz. And, Stewartz, that's just too familiar. A thousand miles away, twelve hundred miles away I knew this boy's family before he was ever born. And I went on up there with the Shore Patrol right to his room and I said, Cooney, that was his nickname, get up from there. And, sure enough that was him. He was the one who had stolen this car by means of firearms. He didn't shoot the man or anything like that but he stole the car, so in the brig he went. We were very cooperative with the military and the military was cooperative with us. And whenever we picked up a serviceman we usually turned it over to the military courts and I would go to the courts as a witness if necessary and so on. They got good punishment in the military courts. And we, we had the freedom to go about on their bases with our firearms on us. And I refused to go on the base unless I did have it because I considered myself out of uniform if I didn't have my gun on the side of me the same as the MPs had. The people at the taxi company were, just couldn't believe, but anyway they wrote a nice letter to the department-about it and it was also in a magazine. The state guard had a lot of volunteers and they were taking on recruits as fast as they could. They had to drill-them with firearms and they called on me to come in there and PAGE 86



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help them with their firearms. Which I considered that an honor. There was time too that the Sheriff, D.C. Coleman, down in Dade County had his men pick up this Vincent Christy, who was a murderer who killed a whole entire Leopold family. That was quite a thing back in those days. And they had him in custody and they, they had fear of getting him to Miami without sufficient escort. So they called on me to escort them, and I went with them all the way to the Dade County Courthouse. Which I have a picture of that. And then next thing after that may have not been the first, but it's the first one I've heard about, I had to shoot a boy down there one night. He was a soldier, he stole a car. And he ran around the house, and I had an MP and the Shore Patrol with me. I hollered at him to halt and he wouldn't do it. I told him, I said if you don't stop I'm going to shoot you. Well, when I said that he headed right straight to my car which was setting there with the door open because I was after him so fast so I just leveled it out there and shot him. I've got pictures of it showing where he was hit. In the hospital it shows the operation, the removal of the bullet which I still have today. CW: Did you kill him? AF: No. I didn't intend to. But it was a very well delivered bullet right into the shoulder, right shoulder, it went right down his arm and stopped between the wrist and the elbow. And I'll show you those pictures if you want to see them later. Then we began to have technicians working on our radios. Before that we always had to depend on local PAGE 87



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police departments to help us out. I have a picture here of John Conyers who was one of our patrolmen who knew quite a bit about radios but he got into the radio division of it and started checking the radios from place to place, different ones. It was during this year of 1943 that many things occurred. World War II was exploding all over the place. All vehicles were required to operate with the upper half of the headlights painted black. As I mentioned awhile ago, the lighthouse lights were reduced to at least 50%. I'm thinking particularly about the one that was in my own neighborhood there right close to the Gulf Stream called Hillsborough Lighthouse at Pompano. And in the beginning the FBI agents, Army and Navy intelligence, they rode with me constantly. I never was alone anymore. And as they were trained from time to time they had MPs developing the knowledge of what they were to do and got the Shore Patrol learning. Then they started replacing the military intelligence people with me. Well, dealing with military patrols on foot along Highway A1A which was the oceanfront there at nighttime, it was a very ticklish thing at first. They were all very green people and many of them were scared to death. These young boys were fresh out of the farms and off of plows and handed a rifle, and some of them had never had such thing in their hands before. It was not uncommon to come up on a patrol at night and have the CO, I can remember one Lieutenant that was in charge of this squad, platoon, and he'd stand there with his sidearm in his hand and just shaking like he was having a severe chill. He was frightened. He didn't know whether Iwas the enemy or not. His men, I've seen them pull back the bolts on their rifles PAGE 88



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and shaking so that they couldn't even get it back into place there. They were a brave bunch of boys. They were actually scared that they knew that their area was being patrolled along the Gulfstream by German submarines. There had been landings by rubber rafts and they came ashore to certain arranged areas. And I've had rockets shot right over my patrol car at night. They were coming both from the ocean and from the land. So I was able to contact the State Road Department engineers and actually get a pinpoint as to exactly where these things were coming from on the land side. And this was given to my friends in the FBI at once and they closed in on a Gulf Service Station that was located on Oakland Park Road and A1A. Well right in behind the station in a protected area there was a little small homemade shack and it had six bunks in it. And these bunks were found and had been occupied. And this operator was posing as a seashell outlet, selling seashells there at that service station just as a rouge. Information in quizzing him revealed that he'd been making trips to the upper Florida Keys and was charting the various channels for submarine use. And since it had been established that the saboteurs had been put ashore here, even one ran out of his shoe when he landed, and it was sufficient to suspicion that the Gulf Station operator as a contact for the enemy. The fact too was that submarines were known to be in the area is the ships were being torpedoed along the Hillsborough light. That's by the lighthouse itself. And the area proved that they were in existence out there. It also refers to a story that I have on the back of a clipping here about saboteurs on the Florida coast and the submarines, in PAGE 89



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the newspaper. I have a copy of it. The outline of the ships that were passing the lighthouse even though reduced in candlepower became a perfect target for torpedoes. They could see them come through and break that light and get the outline. The activity was confirmed on page 1 of the Miami Herald dated July the 26th, 1942. Dick Danner as I mentioned earlier was my friend. And I've had much correspondence with him through the years since. My friend and special agent in charge of the Miami FBI saw to it that I was almost always accompanied by one of his men. The information that we learned was what they call very classified. So much so that it did not become known beyond his office. In fact the department didn't even know a lot of it. There was a case when a Navy blimp was searching the waters off Hillsborough when a German sub surfaced right out there in those shallow waters this side of the Gulfstream. And it surfaced right underneath the blimp. Well, it used its deck guns because they opened the hatch and came out and got that deck gun and they shot down the blimp. But before that blimp completely fell to the water they were able to use their radio and they called in to the Ft. Lauderdale Naval Air Station which was just a few miles away. It didn't take them long to get their Grumman TBFs in the air. And they were right out there and those waters being shallow until you get out past the Gulfstream, and they found the sub and they blew him to pieces. I had proof of that because I had a mattress that came out of that sub and I kept it for years and years. A bunk mattress like they use on the submarines.-Well, all of this here caused an activity on the. part of the Patrol in delivering blood. We PAGE 90



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used to have to go to Miami to Jackson Memorial and pick up case after case of raw blood and we rushed it. This was in the early days of those transfusions back there then. They didn't have as much chance of doing much Pasteurizing or whatever was necessary with the blood. And we had to rush it by FHP from Miami to the vicinity of Vero Beach for the merchant seamen who were on the ships that were torpedoed just offshore. Well this struck home to me one day when one of our own FHP was on one of those ships as a seaman. It was long ago and I've lost his name. I think it was Johnny Patterson, but I don't remember now. But I'll never forget waiving goodbye to him standing there on shore and he was up on the high deck there and waiving goodbye to me when he pulled out from Port Everglades. CW: Was he with the Patrol and then went to sea? AF: Yeah. He went to sea because of the fact he was like others in the Patrol that was not married. So consequently they got drafted. The draft board refused to take me. I tried my best to get them to take me but they would not do it. Because I was married and had a family. No, I didn't have family yet, I was just married. But they wouldn't take me. But he was taken and he did like others, he enlisted. It was my understanding that that was his first trip and his last trip. Because I understand that ship was hit as soon as they got out to sea. And, on the very first day. Well, we had not only that to go by, we had visual proof that things were happening because as much oil that washed ashore on the beaches and lot of tar that comes out of engine PAGE 91



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rooms, difficult to get off your shoes. If you were out there on the beach swimming and got it on your feet you would have to take mineral spirits to get it off, because it really stuck. The information that came back to the various intelligence agencies revealed that happenings were happening long before the media ever became aware of it. We knew what was taking place on the battlefront. Well, that pretty well covered '43. We got '44 coming up if you want me to go into that unless you have any questions. CW: Was, was, was the Highway Patrol involved in, in coast watching and all, or just, I mean, you just more or less took care along A1A? AF: You took care of your own assigned territory. And where the need was the most I felt in my particular case I had no instructions one way or the other, but I felt that my public safety was. Public safety, that's all. That's protecting the people. And the Sheriff's department were quite nill in those days. They were interested in trying to help out on home guard and things like that but as far as being out and patrolling the areas like we were. And it seemed that the FBI had a choice in the matter too because they certainly worked me over time. I was glad to be of service. CW: 1944. AF: Yeah, this was another year, we still had the situation there to take care of. I was awarded a Certificate of Achievement in Basic Procedure in Law Enforcement from the PAGE 92



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University of Florida right at the first of the year there. The thing was necessary that these kind of polishings up is necessary constantly, otherwise people can get real rusty, they can get in ruts. But there was so much activity back there then that there wasn't much of a chance to get in a rut believe me. We were constantly being kept in pistol practice. The FHP was. I have pictures here showing us, quite a group of us, two different pictures where we were in Port Everglades where the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department had their pistol range there and we'd keep pretty sharp on that all the time. Then about that same time too as the military was around they have bivouac here and bivouac there, I had an incident come up that's kind of embarrassing to me. The Chief of Police of Ft. Lauderdale who is well known there, well liked, in sports and in police work in the community and everything else, he made a big mistake. He went to Miami one time in a city car in uniform, came back and he stopped by the country club out there and played a little poker and took on a few little drinks to the point where he was deprived of his normal faculties. And darkness overtook him so when he headed for home his visibility must have been quite obscured. Anyway a narrow little old street coming into Ocala, I mean to Ft. Lauderdale, just outside the city there was a platoon of, or company rather, more than just a platoon of soldiers out there on bivouac. They were marching single file along both sides of the road. And they had their Captain with them. And he was driving down the road there, the Chief was, meeting this car in the opposite direction. He crossed over the center line and hit this car and then bounced off of it and went over off the PAGE 93



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road and hit three of the soldiers. And he went out into the sand there where it was quite sandy in that area and got stuck. He kept trying to get the thing out of there and go off and leave them. So the soldiers surrounded him and stopped him. In the meantime the police department came out there, which was out of their jurisdiction, and they tried to help him in every way they could. But, the Captain of the Army insisted they call the Highway Patrol. I just happened to be in the station at the time and I got the call. I had to go out there. Well, they had sobered him enough, pouring chewing gum to him as fast as they could to change his breath. To say that he was totally deprived of his faculties at the time that I got there, I couldn't testify to that. But the physical evidence warranted me after talking to the prosecuting attorney that we had sufficient grounds to charge him with willful and wanton disregard for human life and property. Which we did. And that went into quite a hassle, a jury trial, and it bounced back and forth there for quite awhile. The jury convicted him. The city fired him. The civil service board asked me if I would accept the job as Chief of Police and I told them no. So they appointed their assistant chief as acting chief until they could make up their minds what they were going to do. That was an ordeal that I didn't care to be a part of, but I had no choice in the matter. Well, most of the year was just involved with routine patrol work, court cases, and awareness of the needs of the area but one of the needs that I noticed with concern was the availability of ammunition on the part of all the police officers up and down my territory. I found like for instance in Hallandale there PAGE 94



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was one police officer didn't have but two bullets in his gun. And he couldn't buy them. Hardware stores didn't have them. It's because most of the ammunition was going to the Navy in 38 caliber. 45 caliber was going to the Army. But there was a friend of mine named Eddie Myers who came on the Patrol. I had known him for years and he had served my father who was Chief of Police in Ocala as a representative of an arms company. And in talking with Eddie I was able to get him to make contact with Peters Arms Company. And they agreed to send me in case lots ammunition. Which I in turn doled out to the police up and down the line. But it was quite a situation there for awhile. When you see a police officer out there with one and two bullets in his gun and that's all he had. CW: You didn't practice very much, obviously. AF: I did. I practiced because I had ammunition but the police themselves didn't because they didn't have the ammunition to do it with. The department with Eddie Myers coming into the scene started reloading, making wadcutters as we call them, the blunt-nosed bullets. We did a lot of practice there and I was able to get a lot of ammunition out of the military. They had so much of it. And they would always invite me to their ranges, and I stayed and practiced there with them a lot. And so there wasn't any particular shortage there as far as I was concerned. That's why I felt that anything you could do to help a brother officer regardless of what uniform he was wearing, I'd try to do it. Onoccasions after training school because of our marksmanship Red Martin PAGE 95



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who was a Captain of the central division later on, and then Jay Hall who was up in Tallahassee for years, and myself and there was one other, I forget who it was now. I don't remember whether it was Homer Clay or who it was but we used to demonstrate firearms and marksmanship. And this proved helpful to me when I got called on by Captain Jack Fannon, the home guard, to instruct his people in the home guard how to train the recruits, how to use firearms. All those things paid off. And because of the many military bases in my area there was always troop movement as I mentioned awhile ago. This called for much coordination between the state and city and county police. It wasn't just a case you get in front of a car and take it down the road. When you have three, as much as one time I had four hundred plus trucks and that included troops with full equipment. And they were headed for ports of embarkation. The city police were always kept on the routes more than anything else. And the FHP usually did the escorting. And they were on the routes to help us to keep people from running out in front of us. As they would do it once in awhile. Some of them would get impatient sitting there when you've got three and four hundred trucks rolling through a city like Miami. They get impatient and want to come out. Well, there were times when this occurred and some of them just didn't realize that we were at war, and that they had to stay there. Well, we were losing men too, we had lost 20 of them all told in the draft, or either by enlistment. CW: Twenty troopers? PAGE 96



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AF: Yes, and Director Gilliam would not replace these men when they were called into the service. I have a clipping that backs that up. But that pretty much covers 1944. Things, there were a lot more things happen but this could go on and on. In 1945 as I had mentioned to you when I talked to you last time that I had nearly a trunkload of correspondence with records of all kinds that I had destroyed. I didn't see the need of keeping them. I didn't anticipate this day to come and that I figured that FHP would have a lot of this stuff. I still got the memories of those things and wherever I can bring it out, I'll be glad to do it. But during this period things were in a turmoil in the Patrol. And there was a lot of jealousy among the ranking officers that had been friendly brothers you might say in the service. And it was very obvious and this was being reflected down through the ranks and was putting resentment of one district against the other. And for an example on that, you might be in the fifth district and you come over into my district and I've got FHP issued gun in my holster with the handle on there like they issued. But you'd be wearing a pearl handle. Well, I couldn't do it because I wasn't instructed to do that, or wasn't permitted to do it. But these are some of the little silly things that were occurring but it hit home with a lot of the fellows. Some of them were having special little things on their patrol cars. Different ways, little things on their uniform. And, it, it was just one of these things that created a bad situation. That it, the brother up there in Pensacola had PAGE 97



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to wear it a certain way, the one in Key West should wear it the same way too. But it was not that way, it was beginning to get. CW: Go according to district? AF: Yeah. And whoever the CO was there, he was allowing these things, or either setting the example himself. Well, the pot came to a boil between Director Gilliam and Captain Senneff. It was quite a, I have quite a clipping on that thing as to the turmoil that took place, and the Governor discussing it and the Cabinet. And Gilliam resigned effective August the 15th, 1945. Before doing so, he preferred charges against Senneff. In the meantime, Tobe Bass, who was one of the original troopers stationed with me in Ft. Lauderdale from the first school, we'd had a lot together. A lot of instruction one to the other, criticism one to the other, what you would call beneficial instruction. We worked together and we had a lot of harmony and a lot of respect for each other. We became very good friends and we remained respectful of one another from the training school on and we kept discussing the unrest in the Patrol. And what could be done to get who we figured was the right man back in the Patrol, and that was Neil Kirkman who was the one in charge of the old Patrol under Scholtz. He was in charge of the Patrol in the beginning under Fred P. Cone before he brought Bill Reid in and, and Pig Green. I suggested to Tobe myself that my family had been host many times and friends since and including way back when Governor John Martin was the Governor way before Scholtz. And right PAGE 98



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here in Marion County. And right down to well including United States Senator Park Trammell who was apparently a very good friend of mine because he recommended me in an appointment to West Point which I turned down. And I figured there was influence down to Nat Mayo who was a Marion County man who had known my grandfather since the early days of each of them. And Claude Pepper himself. I figured that something might be done to get Kirkman out of the Army, where he was stationed in the Army. We knew where he was and so we figured, I suggested that I write to him. I wish that I had kept copies of that, but that was part of the stuff in the trunk and that I had gotten his reply back to see just how it was. He responded and he welcomed any support that we could give him. And the one letter that I have here in my file right now reflects his attitude about me when he was writing to me when I got hurt that one time later on in '45, or '46. But he wrote some very personal things. He was anxious to get back to the Patrol. So knowing that he was in Ft. George Meade in Maryland, why as I say, I wrote to him and got his reply back. Well Governor Caldwell had taken office and from all indications it looked like he was just going to instill a little merit in the Patrol. We felt very confident that this man was going to make things straight down the road. So between Tobe Bass and myself, we seemed through the families and friends to help get Kirkman out of the Army and to appeal to Governor Caldwell, which was successful. My side obtained Senator Pepper's influence. He was the United States Senator then. He wasn't just the Congressman after George Smathers had his little set to with him. We were able to get Nathan Mayo, Ed PAGE 99



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Larson, they all with their votes and petition to Governor Caldwell which apparently he favorably accepted it, because with Bob Gray on the part of Tobe Bass he worked on him and when you've got those kind of commitments and it seemed that Caldwell was very anxious to make the change. Particularly after what had happened. So he, he knew, I knew that Kirkman was stationed in Ft. Meade and on August the 15th he was officially offered the job as State Director of Public Safety to be filled within 60 days. So Olin Hill who was a good officer had been promoted temporarily as Captain and acting as Director. And it was on that same day, let's see, August the 14th it was, yeah, that same day Senneff resigned as Captain of the southern division and also Sergeant Ray Small resigned and went to the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department. And Lieutenant Tobe Bass was transferred to Ft. Lauderdale to take charge of the southern division. And Lieutenant Mack Britt was assigned in charge of the fifth district at Ft. Myers. October the 16th, 1945, Kirkman came to Tallahassee to accept as Director. He not only had been offered but he came now to accept it. It was early in 1945 that I was occupied with considerable accidents and arrests and vandalism and car thefts and military personnel. And in December I had, I don't know why, but they invited me, the Railroad Commission invited me to their convention at Miami Beach for services rendered to them during the railroad strike that they had. And on the 4th, 5th, and 6th I was a guest of J.M. Lee and Ed Larson at the 30th convention at Roney Plaza. And so I was granted an assignment there to be with them. It was on the first of December 1945 that I was promoted to Sergeant after six years. And, my dates are a PAGE 100



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little bit scattered here, but I can give you the information as best I can here. Dwight Johnson who was in FHP for a short period there, left the Patrol and he went in as in charge of the traffic department at Ft. Lauderdale Police. And the 26th of September the FHP was authorized to shoot crippled animals along the roads. And also to remove dead animals on the roadside. And it was October the 10th that the Cabinet increased the monthly subsistence from $44 to $70 in addition to the base pay to take effect at once. CW: Monthly subsistence? AF: Yeah. In other words if you were out on the road and you weren't back into your territory, hotels, food, and things like that. December the 30th and 31st '45 assigned to supervise and organize the Orange Bowl detail. To include highway traffic control, the parade, and game security and dignitaries escorts. There's quite a picture there of the group that was associated in that. I attended on the 10th through the 13th of December, was invited to the International Association of Chiefs of Police at the Roney Plaza in Miami Beach. That was quite an exciting thing. I met a lot of officers and got a lot of ideas. That pretty much covers '45. In 1946 on January the 1st while escorting Governor Caldwell, I was on a motorcycle, I suffered a broken left knee in three places in Miami at North Miami Avenue and Eleventh Street. They said I'd never walk again. I think I fooled them. Anyway, the problem, one of the problemswas in-these hurry up things sometimes things don't get checked out like they should. And the motorcycle PAGE 101



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that I got onto, which I wasn't riding motors anymore, but I got onto this one that came over from the fifth district. It was in pitiful shape. Delayed action on brakes, delayed action on acceleration, so when you put on the brakes you're finally going forward before it finally takes place. I struck that car that came out from a blind corner. And I had motormen ahead of me that were supposed to keep the road clear for me because I was directly in front of the Governor. But they made a mistake, they turned left at the corner before this. And I knew that the route was supposed to go straight ahead so I had the whole thing by myself. But the noise in Miami sometimes you don't hear sirens. Too much of anything else. But I hit this car, went clear over it, came down and hit right on a manhole with my knee. That's what fractured it in three places. And it temporarily knocked me out because I don't even remember hitting the car. All I remember was rolling in the road and I woke up and I looked over my shoulder and I saw that the Governor's car had stopped so I yelled back to them and get to where he had to go on their own power. Use their radio and call in and get an ambulance out there for me. It was right about that same time I got a very nice letter from George Mingle who then had become the Director of the Ohio State Highway Patrol. And he sent me that certificate right over your head there, honorary member of the state of Ohio. I had 31 men assigned to me for the Orange Bowl Parade and the games andso on. I have a picture to show you who all they were. But, that was quite a number back in those days but nothing now as to what you'd. PAGE 102



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CW: And still no Patrol station? AF: Yes, we were beginning to have little stations here and there. But not like you have out on the road today. CW: Where was the first station at down there? AF: The very first official station that we had was when Senneff was Captain was in Ft. Lauderdale at the State Road Department Building. CW: Before Miami? AF: Oh yes, oh yes. And after the State Road Department needed their space which we even housed Joyce and there were two or three boys who stayed there in the barracks and the office. We had the radio in there. But after we moved out of there, we moved into Miami and West Flagler and 27th Street. They still have that building there. And that was my headquarters there when I was promoted later on as a Lieutenant, was sent there. But, the rest of things that we had were just like, in our area, were just like little driver's license stations. They were Patrol stations but not like we have today. Fitzhugh Lee was Captain of the northern division and on March the 28th he resigned and he took two patrolmen along with him. These people, I don't know,I don't care to say anything about it, but they're no longer with the Patrol. Drivers tests had began to come -more severe and uniform exams were being implemented by Keith who became the Chief Examiner pretty much. He was a PAGE 103



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Sergeant then. It was beginning to get some teeth in it. Become more uniform. And we began to have sheets of paper that people would come in and fill out the exams and go out and take their drivers' tests and so on. CW: The Highway Patrol was still involved at that point in giving drivers' tests? AF: Oh, yes. Well there are a lot of letters that I received when I got hurt that time from the Governor, from the Colonel, and from the Cabinet, from members of the Patrol, cards and things like that, pictures which shows that they had some feeling behind them. It was on the 8th of November I think that when Governor Caldwell was talking about immunity for the Patrol. That we were more or less confined to the highway to all things and if we were to get involved by assisting a Sheriff or anybody else and to get involved, that we were not immune up to that point. And this wanted to make us immune from court cases, suits, lawsuits and things like that. The FHP report for 1945 to '46 was quite nice. There were 3315 cars stolen that were recovered. The value of those cars then was only $3,285,000. There 508 escaped prisoners that were captured. There were 657 criminals, 665 missing persons located, 7,086 accidents investigated, 17,601 arrests. There were 16,634 people that were given first aid, or given aid rather, not first aid. -There were 1545 that were given first aid for injury. 259,402 of them examined for drivers' license. 182,836 of them passed. 67,261 failed. 732 people killed in 1946. PAGE 104



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That's all from Associated Press news clipping to back it up. That pretty much covers that year there. CW: Okay, we'll take a short break here. AF: Alright. Well we start off in a new year, 1947. My friend that I mentioned awhile ago who was a good officer in the FHP and he left the Patrol because he didn't want to leave town and so he got an offer with the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department as the Traffic Chief. This was in January, I don't remember the exact date now, but he was on a motorcycle and it was kind of a hurry up call on account of a bridge being stuck in the city on US 1. The woman made a left turn in front of him going the same way he was going and it crowded him to where his motor skidded out from under him. He crashed head first right into the curbing, concrete curbing. And fractured his skull. He died within an hour or two after that-in a hospital. Everybody hated the event that happened to Dwight Johnson because he was a good officer, good friend. And he was always there whenever you needed him for anything. CW: He was a trooper? AF: Yes, for a short period of time. I have pictures of him where he attended our school over in Orlando, refresher school. He was a good, big boy. He wasn't afraid of a thing. He did his job. PAGE 105



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CW: Was he a trooper when he was killed? AF: No. He had left and gone to the city of Ft. Lauderdale. The Sheriffs' departments were giving us a lot of problems back in those days, statewide, trying to get the Patrol abolished. They'd done everything they could to get the Patrol eliminated by act of the legislature. They were putting pressure all over the state on the legislature, but they were meeting a lot of resistance from the Chambers of Commerce, the Junior Chamber of Commerce, and from the legislators. CW: Why do you suppose they wanted to abolish us? AF: Because we were stepping on their toes. For instance, I found a still operating, I didn't find the still, but I knew a still was operating right close to me one time when I was approaching Pompano on US 1 I could smell mash. I reported it to the Sheriff. Well, who wants to stop that easy coming in money. That's the way they were. I know that the Chief Deputy Sheriff back in those days, his brother Bob Clark, was the enforcer and Walter was the politician. He, Walter was the Sheriff. He's the one that did all the political sides and Bob was the enforcer. You didn't come into his county and run bolita or anything else without clearing it with him. This was a known fact. If you did come in there and didn't make it known, he'd come see you. CW: Okay, we were talking about the enforcer. PAGE 106



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AF: Well there was a lot of things that were taking place back in those days. I don't know any of the Sheriffs that weren't involved in some way or another. Either they or their men. Whether it was in Miami, Broward County, Escambia County, or wherever it might be. The same thing was holding true right here in my home county, Marion County. When Lum Thomas, S.C.M. Thomas was Sheriff here these things would happen. But they kept the popularity of a lot of people because whenever anybody got in trouble why they always went to the Sheriff and they helped them out. And of course they were financially able to do it. Well, you don't get that kind of money just on your fine and forfeiture fund. But. CW: What about traffic tickets? Were the Sheriffs, did the Sheriffs they could get rid of one of those quick, couldn't they? AF: He, they spent more time on their civil cases servers, process servers and things like that but traffic tickets, they hardly ever that I was around them. Now Dade County, Miami, they had roving cars that were patrol cars, but they answered more criminal cases, family disturbances and things like that. If, if they got involved in a traffic case it was a rare thing. CW: Suppose one of the friends of the local Sheriff got a traffic ticket say from the Highway Patrol and that friend PAGE 107



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went to the Sheriff with that ticket and said, hey, will you take care of it. Did you see a lot of that? AF: No, I don't know whether they were acting under the impression that they were received or what but the Sheriffs in my district found out right off that if I brought a person into jail, he was to be tried. Or he was to plead guilty and post a bond and pay a fine, or either he'd pay a fine right there, whatever the judge might have allowed the Sheriff to collect. If I had to, I had one time only that the Sheriff came to me about a person that I arrested and I told him no way would I do it because he not only was guilty of driving drunk and so on, he was guilty of manslaughter. And I took him to court and tried him and convicted him and he got three years for that. But, you would find that more amongst the Deputies than you would amongst the Sheriffs themselves. Because they were out in the field and a lot of things happened that they never got into the courthouse with. But I know this, that in spite of all the problems that they tried to create for the Highway Patrol, the civic clubs kept supporting us. And they kept pushing the various legislators to stay with us to maintain their efforts to stop the Sheriffs. We had a lot of newspaper write-ups from even out of the state that were saying that we should become state police. And that we should be on a level with the Sheriffs. That they were better as process servers, that they took care of that on civil cases, and allow us because we were out there all the time and of course it never did materialize that far. But the Sheriffs' -Department were constantly calling on us whenever they had problems. They, PAGE 108



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when things sometimes would get pretty squeamish out there. I can remember one case in Palm Beach County when I was called on because they had a convict who had disarmed a guard and took his gun away from him and headed for the woods. Well, the woods weren't that thick that if he stood up he could be seen. And likewise anyone in pursuit of him could be seen. So this was a case where he had a gun just like you would have one. And they didn't want to venture into it. They, they called me and I went out there, they knew I had a loudspeaker on my car. And, I called out to the convict out there, and I told him to come on out, I'd give him one minute or else I was going to set the woods on fire. CW: Ha, ha. AF: And he didn't come out so I took my rising out and I put a load of tracer bullets in it. It caught the woods on fire because it was dry palmettos out there and he came out with his arms up and I told him if he dropped them I was going to drop him. So I walked on out there to him with the Deputy and disarmed him and put cuffs on him and brought him on in. Well, that was the end of that. The clipping that I have that was in what was called Pass and Review showed about the starting pay of the Patrol that increased now up to $150 dollars a month. CW: You were getting big money then, weren't you? PAGE 109



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AF: Oh, man. The duty hours of course were 12 hours a day. And subject to call 24 hours a day rain or shine. But, Kirkman was having problems because Judge Walker, he had to be holding court on a case that the Attorney General, Tom Watson, had brought against Colonel Kirkman contending that he was illegally holding his office. And Judge Walker back there on the 28th of March, 1947, ruled that Tom Watson was wrong and Kirkman was legally holding his office. On the first of June, 1947, I was transferred to Sarasota in charge of five counties. I had been in charge of a group there in Ft. Lauderdale and I had three men there. And I had a civilian employee to give drivers tests. I don't know whether I mentioned that or not. I may not have. But I know that the district office when they moved it back in October 1946 from Ft. Lauderdale to Miami and they had a little station there at 2853 West Flagler, no that was the big office. That replaced the little one that they had on Second Avenue. I had a group of patrolman there, let's see, there was Conroy and Fillingim, and Brinson, George Reichgott and an examiner. That was our first examiner, a civilian by the name of James Myers. Unfortunately I had to fire him. I caught him in the act of taking money for passing drivers tests. I got in trouble with Tallahassee about that as to why I fired him. So I wrote them back and I said I fired him for the same reason that I hired him. You gave me the responsibility to hire him, I figured I had the right to fire him. And I heard no more about that. And I might say too that I left out something at the end of '46. We did have a gathering of the, all the Sergeants in Orlando to discuss law changes and that was at the Lamar PAGE 110



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Hotel. I've got a nice picture on that. I have a picture of the men that I had with me on that assignment with Governor Caldwell at the Governor's Convention that he had down there. Now getting back to the year where I was there, I was, as I say, I was transferred over to Sarasota in charge of five counties and I would have then seven men with me. And headquarters would be at the airport of Bradenton and Sarasota combined. They had to open up a station there for the first time. There'd never been one there before. And I had Sarasota, Manatee County, Desoto County, Hardee County, and Highlands County to look after. I was only there for one month and got the thing going and I got a notice that I'd been promoted to Lieutenant and transferred back to the Miami office as the district commander of the sixth district. My territory then was from Key West to the Sebastian River, and all the east side of Lake Okeechobee to the Yeehaw Junction. I had three radio stations, there was WSYP Miami, WSPF West Palm Beach, there was WRSF in Pahokee. CW: And there was a Yeehaw Junction that far back? AF: Oh yes. Yeah, ha, ha, ha. That's how far we had to go. I lived one month as I say in Sarasota and then I was back in, living in Ft. Lauderdale with my headquarters in Miami. So many good wishes came to me that I was appreciative of the fact that these various troopers around that I have the letters from them to this day. Even up through, all the way from Tallahassee right down to the local boys congratulating me on my appointment. My command consisted then of 26 Patrol personnel. I had from First Sergeant, to Sergeant, PAGE 111



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Corporals and patrolmen. And I had 12 civilian personnel. One of the things that happened during that year too was when a hurricane went through. In the early days they'd just give the identification of.the hurricane by the date rather than the name. Like they do now, they use the name, either a male or a female. But we had the flooding all from Hialeah clear up into the vicinity of South Bay. And the highways leading out of Miami, leaving out of South Bay, or leaving out of Ft. Lauderdale were pretty much on the point of being underwater. A lot of cattle out there and the roads were almost like a roller coaster, spongy. You never knew when they were going to give out from under you. And a lot of them had been washed out completely. And a lot of cattle out there that were drowning. We had to put up roadblocks and I have pictures of the buildings that were hauled out there where the patrolmen stayed right there. And the only people that we allowed in there was trucks to go get their cattle. Killed an awful lot of snakes with my pistol, an awful lot of them. The, one big thing that happened I was assigned to the dedication of the Rickenbacker Causeway. And that came to me from the southern division commander. I got a lot of commendations from him, from the Dade County Parks Department, from the Governor, from the Chairman of the Dade County Commission. I was real proud of the way things went. The complete cooperation of all the personnel under me. I tried to never to ask my men to do anything that I wouldn't set the example. On the 6th of December this assignment, I don't have the papers on it, I wish I did. But it's a matter of fact in encyclopedia that this did occur. I received an PAGE 112



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assignment from Captain Bass to oversee the needs of the Everglades National Park dedication. The park was to be dedicated by President Harry Truman and would be accompanied by certain dignitaries. And the detail required the taking over of a golf course that they had out there and make a parking lot out of it. Well, that didn't set too well but it was the only place and you know there was just a road out through the swamp out there. And so the parking lot was put to use and I would have to set up two small radio stations to be confined right there within our own needs to handle the traffic. Patrol personnel would be brought in from district five and six. That was all part of the southern division. Parking of all the vehicles and traffic to and from the Everglades from Everglades City would be handled by the FHP. Security will also be the responsibility of the FHP. The President, Harry Truman, and I were already familiar with each other from his days as Senator. So his being Chairman of the Dies Committee at the time brought him to my territory twice and we were together very privately each time. This made it easier to understand how to handle him. The program went along fine except that the luncheon at the clubhouse, the President decided he wanted to go to the rest room. And in so doing he went on out through the outer door like here into the rest room. But on the other side of the wall was the door going outside, out into the open. Well, there was a white Cadillac convertible setting out there with the top down and Harry Truman got in the PAGE 113



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thing and took off and headed towards Naples. Reminded me of the Lone Ranger. I wondered why he didn't holler "Hi ho silverl. Ha, ha. CW: Ha, ha, ha. AF: But anyway I saw what happened and nobody seemed to know that he wasn't still in the rest room. I radioed to the boys down the road and said put your noses together out there. He'll either stop or get wet or hit you, one or the other. And I took after him. Went on down there and I got there, opened the side door of my car, went over and opened the door on the Cadillac. I said, come on sir. And he got out just as nice as pie, just as if it was something funny, you know. He got in the car and went right on back unnoticed. Now, they might have thought he really was bothered there for awhile in the rest room, but took him back the same way he came out and nobody knew anything about it. Those are just some of the little things. I wouldn't want to go on and expose anything more that I thought was going to be on the record of what took place with Harry Truman and myself. I learned a lot of his peculiarities and I've been with him before. In that time Broward County gave a lot more room to the Patrol up in that area so that they could have better facilities for drivers tests. And they moved out the home guard, made all of their space available. Like I had said too, the county salons, the legislature and the Jaycees were solidly behind the FHP to increase enforcement powers. And the media as well was with us. The Sheriff's Department when, they had a hard time PAGE 114



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getting any publicity on the thing. Well, we had the Orange Bowl parade and the game detail as usual. A nice picture with Colonel Kirkman and his wife and Captain Bass' wife and my wife. That was about the end of 1947. Beginning 1948 I have a very nice letter from Lieutenant H.E. Black, Alabama Highway Patrol, thanking us for the assistance we gave him. I was transferred on the 14th of February to West Palm Beach to command five counties, Palm Beach, Martin, St. Lucie, Indian River, and Okeechobee. And this was quite a letdown from what I'd had before. When I was on my vacation, no, not on my vacation, when I was in the office one morning there I heard one of our Sergeants at Ft. Pierce check in service and radio there was quite noisy because of the powerlines. And I had a feeling sitting there in my office that he wasn't in service and I told Fred Bondero who was my dispatcher, don't you reveal when I'm out of the office. I'm just not available right now. And I got in my car and I went up there. And I found the patrol car sitting at his house. And he was still in pajamas and a bathrobe when he opened the door. Well, I instructed this young man to be in the office the following morning. I didn't know that the Colonel was in town in my district. But, I contacted my superior who was Captain Bass and told him about it. So, he and the Colonel came up there the following morning and in the end of the discussion with the four of us it was decided that this Sergeant should take a week off and go fishing and come back and decide whether he wanted to keep his job or turn in his uniform. Well, he stayed with the Patrol. But I know that didn't set too well. Those are things that you have to do, and if you have to them, you have to do them PAGE 115



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regardless of what the consequences are to you for doing it. Because sometimes somebody can involve other politicians and it can cause problems. The Peace Officers Association had their convention in West Palm Beach on the 19th of July and I was asked to give the welcoming address. Which I did. Then that same year, one thing that rings out to me, a lot of things happened. The boy that was Chief of Police of West Palm Beach was an old schoolmate friend of mine back in 1929 and '30. And, little did I know that within three years' time he was going to be dead. That his heart stopped on him. But that same year, October the 18th, we had a kind of a rush situation to occur. The Chief Deputy Sheriff of Ft. Pierce named Ed Brown, he approached me and he said that his wife was pregnant, and that she had lost three babies before with Rh-positive blood. And they died before a transfusion was possible. So we went to Good Samaritan Hospital in West Palm Beach and made arrangements there for them to have this -kind of blood there because the hospital between West Palm Beach and where he was wasn't able to take care of the situation. Well, everything in order but the doctor for her, and the ambulance people, members of the Patrol, and the disgruntled bridge tenders who didn't want to listen to that. They said if a bridge had to be opened for a boat coming through, they were going to open it. So I had instructed Sergeant E.L. Brown to escort the ambulance down and I told patrolman Dugger that if it became necessary for him to handcuff the man to the bridge rail, do it. But don't let that bridge be opened regardless. Well, we got the detail completed to the hospital in fine success and it was a success all the way. PAGE 116



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The baby did have difficulty in breathing at first but it lived and a lot of publicity about it. And I felt that was the first order of business myself, that the boats out there, having owned a boat of my own, and I knew that you could tread water if you had to. And there was a lot of compliments from them and I felt that was a job well done myself. My final year with the Patrol was the following year of 1949. I didn't know on January the 1st that I would be thinking about leaving the Patrol. In fact, even when I stopped in Tallahassee to see the Colonel on the way back from my vacation in Arkansas in the early part of July, or the latter part of June, I forget now. And Colonel Kirkman sat there at his desk and told me face-to-face that if all of his districts were in as good a shape as mine, he'd never have any problems. So, that made me feel good that I had been doing my job. On the 13th of March my father died of a heart attack and the Patrol had 15 men there to handle the funeral arrangements with Captain Bass there. So, it was shortly thereafter that we had little problems of stormy weather there again and I received some commendation letters from the head of the Southern Bell branch down there, also from Florida Power, and also from the United States Congressman Dwight Rogers, who was a very personal friend of mine, and Palm Beach Red Cross, from McGregor Smith who was president of the Florida Power, and served with him a lot. But on the 21st of August President Truman was once again back and this time I didn't-have to do anything special with him except to be in civilian clothes along with Tobe Bass and myself the Captain. We were at the airport when he came in to see that he got to the convention hall. I have PAGE 117



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clipping and pictures of both of those. Shortly after that on the 15th of November I made up my mind I was going to leave the Patrol so I made a petition to the Governor and the Cabinet that I was going to resign. And it was in December that I got the acceptance. I left the Patrol. CW: Where, where did you go after you left the Patrol? AF: I stayed in West Palm Beach for just about a year until I, I had real estate there and my father had real estate there. He had real estate in Ft. Lauderdale and I had all of these things and I was an only child. My mother was living with me from or looking to me for help because I was the only one she could turn to. And so my good friend Dwight Rogers, Jr. who was Assistant State's Attorney, Phil O'Connel was the State's Attorney in Palm Beach, Dwight was in Broward. He told me that I want you to handle your father's estate and so that required a lot of attention on my part. I tried to work it out in a peaceful way to where I could be away from the Patrol and do it but it looked like it just wouldn't work out that way so it created a lot of friction. And because of it and acting under instructions from my superiors I did what I did and I saw that it was creating a lot of situations so I decided then that I would leave. And I stayed there in Palm Beach long enough to sell our property. It was a nice piece of property. And I sold all that and I moved back toFt. Lauderdale where I could be close to her. And on getting back to Ft. Lauderdale I was approached about a job there if I would take it over. It had to do with two corporations. And I discussed it and I PAGE 118



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decided I would and after I would say about a month, they wanted me to be general manager of the whole thing. They put a lot of responsibility on me and it worked out well. But it was a huge organization and it kept me on the go all the time. But there again my attorney who was Dwight Rogers, Jr. was involved as the attorney for that company. And so I stayed there and then eventually I decided it was time for me to just hang up my hat. I got out of the business and decided I didn't want to work anymore. CW: What kind of business was it? AF: I have stationery around. It was a huge maintenance company, landscaping, sodding. We had 300 acres of sod. I had 80 some odd people on my payroll out there just taking care of the sod fields. Where they, I fed them, housed them, had a full time cook for them. I had diesel trucks running up and down the road from Key West clear up to Atlanta. I had huge nurseries with over half a million plants growing all the time. Had a lot of personnel. Had three landscape architects alone working for me. 25 salesmen. And lawn service people. I had six crews of that, four men to the crew, with two roving supervisors for that. Had it broken down into divisions like landscape division, pumps, well, sprinkler systems. If you wanted to buy a jacuzzi pump in Florida you got it from me or through me because I had the-franchise with the jacuzzi family. It was quite an organization. PAGE 119



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CW: How long were you in that business? AF: Oh, I'd say, I think was pretty close to '70. CW: Is that when you left and came back up here? AF: Yeah. Well, I stayed down there for awhile because I had a nice house. I had a 13 room house there. And I had a nice swimming pool and I had apartments next to me and nice boat. Did a lot of boating. Belonged to the Outboard Club down there. We'd travel all around, and I'd bring them up here and let them see the Ocklawaha River and take them through it, the chain of lakes and things like that. In 1977 I finally talked my wife into coming back to Ocala. At first she didn't want to but when we thought about Lake Weir why yeah she would consent to that. So we lived down there for 10 years and then a year ago this past June I decided I was going to sell my house because my mother had died. She'd lived with me all of those years since 1949. And she was 95 when I lost her. And so we found this piece of land here and got this house built the way we wanted it. I guess you can see by the walls we have a lot of family memories. CW: Yeah, you do. AF: And I have untold history on it. Ha, ha. CW: Well, you've been very enlightening and again, I'd like to thank you on behalf of the Director of the Highway Patrol, and I would like to take you up on being able at a later PAGE 120



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date to photostat some of your documents because there's a lot of stuff that you have that just doesn't exist in the archives of the Highway Patrol and it's history that deserves preservation. AF: Well, any way I can cooperate with the Highway Patrol I'm, it was my first love CW: Obviously. AF: When you think about as I said to you in the beginning, I was offered and I have certificates up there to prove, on the wall that I was qualified to teach at the high school in Marianna, Florida. Also I had certificate, or statements from the federal prison in Atlanta. This was the United States Government. To come there and those certificates up there qualified me to be eligible for rehabilitation work with prisoners to try to get them out of there as a good citizen instead of continuing the same life that they had when they went in there. And the Patrol came. Well, to me, I was fascinated by it and having made application with Marion County to be one of the motorcycle patrolman there, I missed that by coming in second place but promised by the county commission to get the next appointment. Well at that time well the Patrol was coming on so. I always had respect for a state organization. I looked upon them the same as I did some of my relatives in Canada who belonged to the Montreal Provincial Police. And I just couldn't be bought at any price and I had a lot of respect for the Patrol and like I have said, I have never asked my men at any time that PAGE 121



PAGE 1

I was privileged to command or supervise to ever do anything that I wouldn't first set the example. And try to lead them. But, if circumstances hadn't presented themselves the way they did and in fact my father wasn't even cold in his grave yet, I may have still been on the Patrol throughout my time as, until retirement. But it was something I couldn't put up with. CW: Well, we appreciate your time. This is Lieutenant Chuck Williams. This interview is concluded on September 26th 1989 at 12:35 PM. PAGE 122


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Full Text


























DIVISION OF FLORIDA HIGHWAY PATROL

50TH ANNIVERSARY ORAL HISTORY PROJECT







INTERVIEW WITH LIEUTENANT ALBERT G. FAUSETT

SEPTEMBER 18 and 26, 1989

INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY LIEUTENANT CHARLES WILLIAMS


PAGE 1




CW: This is Lieutenant Chuck Williams, Public Information

Officer with the Florida Highway Patrol. I'm interviewing

Mr. Albert G. Fausett, retired member of the Patrol.

Interviewing him in his home at 5460 SE 24th Street in

Ocala, in conjunction with the Florida Highway Patrol 50th

Anniversary activities. And the Oral History Project of the

Florida Highway Patrol will be placed in the archives in the

University of Florida. Good morning, Al.



AF: Good morning, Chuck. How are you?



CW: Good. I guess I'll get a little of background on you

first. Where, Where are you from originally?



AF: Ocala is my home.



CW: Ocala.



AF: In fact I'm a third generation. I was born here what you

might say in 9, 10, and 11, September the 10th, 1911. I'm

actually a third generation here. My folks came here by

means of a stagecoach.



CW: What, what did your folks do for a living? Farm, or.



AF: No, my grandfather here was quite an individual in this

county. He was at one time city commissioner in Ocala along

with Ed Carmichael who owned and developed Silver Springs.

He was quite a property owner. He owned lots of land out


PAGE 2






west of Ocala between Highway 27 and Highway 40, all the way

through there with cattle and sharecropping of vegetables

and things like that. And he had a grits mill, a huge

mercantile store, Victorian home that he built back during

the Spanish-American War. He was still putting the shingles

on the roof when the soldiers went by on the train which

went right along close to the house. Then my father, he was

Chief of Police of Ocala and.



CW: What year was that?



AF: Oh, that was back in the '20s, the latter '20s, early '30s.

And I got the idea then that I would be interested in law

enforcement. And by that I meant law enforcement not law

tolerance. So much that goes on today or were going on

prominently at those times even.



CW: I met your lovely wife a while ago. Is she from Ocala also?



AF: No, Doleen was born in New York state, a little town of

Springwater about 40 miles south of Rochester. She came to

Florida with her people back in the '20s over near Crescent

City. They lived there for awhile and they moved to Ocala,

and that's where I met her. Thirteen months later I asked

her to marry me.



CW: Any kids?


PAGE 3






AF: We have two, a boy and a girl. They're 41 and 40 years of

age now. My son lives here in Ocala and my daughter lives

in Ft. Lauderdale.



CW: What, I'm sure that Ocala was not as populated as it is

now. Describe, describe Ocala back in, after you were born

when your dad was Chief of Police.



AF: Well, Ocala had a lot of black people. I would say it was

about 50-50 in population, maybe half black half white. And

maybe 5,000 people. I know that when I went to school my

grandmother used to take me to school in horse and buggy,

pony and buggy with the little fringe on the top and all

that sort of thing, and a brown paper sack for lunch,

carrying my food like that. It was quite a thing, the

school didn't have any window screens. It didn't have any

heat inside and the plumbing was the -great outdoors. That's

the way it was. And, it's good that the school didn't go

year-round because it would have gotten too hot in the

school there because there were no fans or anything like

that. By the time I was ready to graduate from high school

I think that we had our very first school bus. And, from

then on why it's just been, the kids didn't have to worry

about getting to school. There was always a bus out there

to take them. But we either rode a bicycle, walked, or got

there the best way we could.



CW: How many in your graduating class?


PAGE 4







AF: There was about 64, 64.


CW: What, what was the population of Marion County back then.

Do you know?



AF: Around, yeah, I would say about 7500.



CW: 1-75 obviously wasn't through Marion County back then was

it?



AF: No.



CW: How many paved roads did you have?



AF: Paved roads were like this, they were, they were lime rock

roads smoothed out oil topped. Sometimes you might see a

little gravel put on top of it. But that was about it.



CW: What did you do after you graduated from high school? Did

you stay here?



AF: Yes, I stayed here. This was right in the middle of the

depression. And people don't know how bad things were

unless they lived at that time. A dollar an hour was, oh

that was tremendous pay. And I got a job working with a, a

store in town as a meat cutter. I had grown up in my

grandfather's store and my father, and I learned how to cut

meat. So, it helped me to be able to make a living. And at

the time why then my father became Chief of Police and I

became more and more interested in police work than I was in

PAGE 5






anything else because I felt that there was a need. I had

seen so much go on before I got on the Patrol and I saw so

much happening by the various counties of the state and what

was going on that shouldn't be that way.



CW: Did you go to college?



AF: I have credits up there from the University of Florida

extension division that enabled to me be able to get other

jobs at the same time that I made application for the

Patrol, and which I turned them down. One was to teach

school in Marianna High School and the other one was to be a

part of the department there in Atlanta, the federal prison,

to counsel and guide prisoners to become better fitted for

life when they got out.



CW: Obviously back then to apply for the Patrol you had to be 21

years old.



AF: Right.



CW: What, what did you do. Did you work in a grocery story,

just kind of worked your way and took your college courses

until you were 21?



AF: Yes.



CW: Did you apply for the Patrol when you turned 21?


PAGE 6






AF: No, no, I was, I was around 28 I think it was. Because the

Patrol started in 1939. And that would have made me 28

years of age when I went to the training school.



CW: How did, how did you find out about the Patrol when it was

going to be formed? You were in the first class. Did they

advertise in the newspapers or.



AF: Yes, there was, 'there were publications in the paper about

the activity taking place in the legislature and of course

we always had a lot of support from the junior chamber of

commerce which was one organization that really did push it

an awful lot. The, the various editors of the newspapers

were behind it. And, they felt the need for some safety out

there on the roads. The counties were somewhat coming to

the idea that they needed to do more. I know, I'd forgotten

to mention that Marion County here had decided to put on a

road patrol in the form of motorcycle. And they were only

going to put on one. Well, I made an application for that

just prior to the FHP application. And I was second pick on

that. And there were quite a few applications. I was told

that the, that whenever they put on the second motor out

there on the road that I would be the one that would fulfill

the job. The first one was the Assistant Chief of Police

under my father.



CW: What was his name?


PAGE 7






AF: Roger Lyles. He was quite a heavy man. He weighed close to

300 lbs. That poor motor just groaned when he sat on it.

He was a good motorcycle rider and a good officer.



CW: Where did you have to apply? Did you have to call

Tallahassee and get them to send you an application down in

the mail?



AF: I wrote a letter and addressed it to Governor Fred P. Cone.

Because that was the instruction that we, to do that. And

of course I sent in with it supporting letters from people

that could recommend my character and what type of person

that I was, my background. They were people of influence.

But.



CW: Who were they, do you remember?



AF: Yes, I sure do. I had numerous letters which I have in my

envelope here. I don't know.



CW: Just do you recall the names?



AF: Yes, I had the Honorable Dr. Therrell who was quite

prominent with Governor Cone. There was Mr. Harry Stein who

was one of these recognized people here locally. I had, oh

numerous ones, I'd have to go in, I have the supporting

letters that I could get out of this bag here.



CW: Sure.


PAGE 8






AF: My letter that I wrote myself is dated June the 28th, 1939,

where I wrote it to Governor Fred P. Cone stating my desire

to be accepted as applicant to the Patrol.



CW: Why don't you, why don't you read it onto the tape, Al.



AF: Well, I wish to take this opportunity to present my

application as patrolman on the new state Highway Patrol.

I'd like to first state that I am married, 27 years of age,

and a property owner. I graduated from Ocala High School

and have a rating of Corporal in a Reserve Officers Training

Corps which I gained at Riverside Military Academy,

Gainesville, Georgia. I might just hesitate right there and

say that upon my completion of schooling up there they

wanted me to come back to that school as a student teacher

of military science and tactics. And there would be no

tuition whatsoever. Everything would be furnished to me

free if I would consider such a thing. Well, I, I kind of

liked being back home so I came back home here and shortly

thereafter I married. I've had experience riding

motorcycles for the past ten years during which time I owned

three motorcycles. I did all of my own mechanical repairing

and feel that I understand motorcycles sufficiently to be a

capable rider as well as being a mechanic when necessary.

I've had equal experience with automobiles having driven and

repaired many types of cars. I've had access to a library

on police work and crime prevention and feel that I've

gained much knowledge on it. My father was Chief of Police

of Ocala for six years and is now Chief of Police at Camp

Roosevelt, Florida's ship canal central base. Having spent

PAGE 9






much of my time with him and his men while on duty, I feel

that I've gained a vast experience. Recently Marion County

put on a motorcycle patrolman picked from 20 applicants.

These men were required to take an examination similar to

civil service and I was second high on the list. I was put

on, to be put on patrol duty as soon as the county budget

would allow a second patrolman. I would like to say that if

appointed I would do my very best to be most efficient and

competent. You earnest consideration would be deeply

appreciated. Yours very truly.



CW: You say you have some other letters in there of

recommendation? Just to try to get a flavor of some of the

people that, that you got to recommend you.



AF: Well I have one here dated June the 19th 1939 to Governor

Cone. It's from Harry A. Stein who I knew the family very

well. Mr. Albert Fausett whom I have known for a number of

years, the son of Chief Harry Fausett of the Police

Department at Camp Roosevelt, is desirous of obtaining a

position on the state Highway Patrol. He is an excellent

rider of a motorcycle and young man with good moral habits.

And I feel sure would efficiently perform his duties should

he be appointed. And this one of course here is from Dr.

Therrell who formerly lived in Ocala and was connected with

banking circles. He became Superintendent of the Florida

State Hospital in Chattahoochee and I kept in touch with

him. He wrote a letter to the Governor. Let's see if I can

-find it. Understanding, this is to Governor Cone. It says,

understanding that Mr. Albert G. Fausett of Ocala is

PAGE 10






applying for position in the motor Highway Patrol created by

the legislature, I would like to say that I have known this

gentleman for the past twenty odd years. I have known his

father and his grandfather and they come from one of the

oldest and best families in the county. His father was for

many years the Chief of Police of Ocala and has since been,

has been since Camp Roosevelt was built, the Chief of Police

for the federal government of the federal reservation at

Camp Roosevelt. I believe that if this young man rates

among those eligible after examination, which I understand

is required, that he would make you a most capable man.

Cordially yours, P.H. Therrell, Superintendent.



CW: Did you, did you say that you had to take the civil service

exam? The written exam?



AF: For the County of Marion.



CW: But not for the, the state?



AF: No, we, we did take IQ exams there of which I was second

high at that time. There was one other person. My points

then was 128 and there was only one other one ahead of me

and that was Jay Wallace Smith. And, it was just a matter

of a few points. I don't remember how much it was.



CW: How long did it take you from the time that you applied to

the Patrol that you got word that you were gonna' be hired?


PAGE 11






AF: To give you an exact time on that I can turn to a letter

from Fred P. Cone, Governor, addressed to me the 29th of

June. Enclosed are the necessary papers to be executed by

you as a prerequisite for a position with the proposed state

road patrol. They told me to answer the questions in my own

handwriting and execute it before a notary public. Return

with my photograph and a health certificate completed by a

physician. Return all the papers in one envelope. All

right, I did that. And then on, let's see, the 30th of

October, 1939, Bill Reid, who we, as we call him, W.F. Reid

who was the appointed Director of the Florida Highway

Patrol, he sent me a letter on the 30th of October and said,

in connection with your application for a position on the

Highway Patrol, Florida Highway Patrol, you're advised that

this department will conduct a training school at

Bradenton. Well, it just goes on to say that I had been

accepted for the school. And of course it would be up to me

to pass it. And it tells that you're further advised that

your board and lodging will be paid while you are attending

this school. Laundry, pressing, etc. will be the expense of

the individual. You will be paid on a basis of $75 per

month during the time that you attend the school. And

before you travel to Bradenton by bus or train, secure

receipts in duplicate covering the cost of your

transportation in order for reimbursement. In the event you

report for duty at the training school it will be necessary

for you to report to Patrol headquarters, Manavista Hotel,-

Bradenton, between the hours of 10:00 AM and 6:00 PM,

Sunday, November the 5th, 1939. And of course they wanted a

prompt reply. And as I have mentioned to you previously

PAGE 12






there, I couldn't quite make up my mind just what to do, but

I got a telegram from Director Reid to make up my mind, that

they needed to know something. So I sent him word right

away that I was accepting an application and would be there.



CW: So you went to Bradenton. How many people reported in the

Patrol school? Do you recall?



AF: Yes, 44.



CW: Forty-four.



AF: And 10 of them washed out.



CW: Well, what did they, how did they wash out?



AF: They couldn't take it.



CW: Was discipline pretty heavy?



AF: Discipline was nothing new to me, having been in military

school. I accepted discipline with respect for what its

purpose was. But a lot of the fellows thought it was just

going to be something you'd just go there because I've done

this or I've done that I can go right on through. It would

be no problem. But this getting up at daylight, being out

there and taking your physical exercises and taking your

drilling and going through your first aid training school,


PAGE 13







they couldn't quite see the necessity of all these things.

But later on the benefits of that proved their worth, I'll

tell you.



CW: The letter mentioned the Manavista Hotel.


I
AF: Yes.



CW: Is that where they housed you?



AF: Yes.



CW: Or is that where the whole school was?



AF: That's where they housed us and the school was there in the

dining room.



CW: Was it, was it an old resort hotel that had been, did they

still use it as a hotel from time to time or was it strictly

just for that purpose?



AF: Oh yeah, it was used but the Patrol had access to it

completely. I think they probably made arrangements that it

would just close its doors during that time I don't think

there was anybody else there because we had our dining room

there and we had our classrooms at the municipal pier.

There, we did on one occasion go to a theater. I remember

that. I think it was the time when the Attorney General

came there to address us.


PAGE 14






CW: How long was your, how long was the school?


AF: A month.



CW: A month.



AF: Yes.



CW: Was Bradenton a very, very populated town back during that

time?



AF: Bradenton was a small little town. Water conditions there

were terrible. The drinking water was something else for

people to have to drink, I'll tell you. But it was a nice

little town, quiet as most of them over there on the west

coast of Florida were. But not too much activity.



CW: Give me a typical, a typical day in recruit school back

then.



AF: Okay, a typical day was up first thing in the morning. You

got into your coveralls and we were right down on the, I

would say, I can't call it parade grounds, but it's on the

street where we were like a parking lot and we immediately

started our exercises. And it was done through proper

conducting and each one had to do it. I mean you just, you

got sweated out, that was just something else. You don't,

you had to participate if you expected to make it. After

that we would usually go back to our rooms and briefly to

clean up, go downstairs, have breakfast. And, then we would

PAGE 15






have our classes afterwards. We'd have lectures, we'd have

FBI and jujitsu. We took a lot of that. And they taught us

how to disarm people with guns in our stomach and our back.

And to, how to use our firearms. We were out on the pistol

range. The ways of squeezing off a pistol, or jerking it so

that you don't get it. The proper use of shotguns, the

proper uses of self defense. As we went into first aid we

learned that. And of course I had no problem there with

that because I was an instructor, I have cards here for two

years, two cards that I had received already before that

from the American Red Cross. And then of course I got an

additional card when I was at Bradenton and I also received

another card from Lt. Lauderdale in Broward County. I

became active in it. In fact, prior to the Patrol I'd

taught convict guards first aid as to how to take of

incidents that occur out there on the right-of-ways wherever

they were.



CW: What time of the morning did you get up? Like before

daylight?



AF: At the crack of dawn we were out there on the pavement ready

for exercise, yeah.



CW: How long did you go to class?



AF: The-amount of hours in a class is something I couldn't tell

you exactly this except it was just like any other military

thing, ten o'clock was lights out time.


PAGE 16






CW: Were you allowed to leave the hotel at all at night?


AF: I never had the occasion to do it.

others that were granted that.


I don't know of any


CW: How was the food?



AF: Excellent.



CW: Really?



AF: The amazing thing there that tickled me, I'm glad you asked

that, was one time when Ted Reilly who was one of the cadets

there, he was a Catholic boy and he knew that they were

serving fish that day. And of course he said on Friday

you're supposed to have fish. But he took the menu and he

held it up to the waitress there and he pointed to a nice

steak there. He said I want this flounder right here.



CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha.



AF: This one right here. I want it medium well.



CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. Did you have a menu back then?



AF: Yes.



CW: You could order pretty much anything you'd want?


PAGE 17







AF: Yes, as long as you stayed with whatever the menu called

for.



CW: Who were, who were some of the instructors that you can

recall?



AF: Oh yes, that's, one of my favorites was George Mingle from

Ohio. He was Captain of the Highway Patrol in Ohio.



CW: Where did he teach?



AF: He taught general Patrol work. The things that you're

confronted with out there on the highways. He taught you

how that you should have your information gathered properly,

particularly on the scenes of an accident. How you can be

negligent or how you can come out with a good report and get

convictions whenever you made an arrest. He set an example

in first class appearance. He was always neat. He was

always sharp. I have pictures of him. And I suppose you

have seen his pictures. But there's one of him right there

on the. And that was George Mingle.



CW: He also taught firearms?



AF: He taught firearms a lot and we had others to assist him on

that, but he was what I would call the number one instructor

of the school.- I felt very honored because you see on the

wall up there where I have, the second one down there, the

certificate of honorary commission to the state of Ohio


PAGE 18






issued to me. And I have a letter verifying that. He later

became not only Captain of the state of Ohio, but he became

the Director.



CW: Who were, who were some of the other instructors that?



AF: Well, you had in addition to him there was was, let me see

just a moment, I, I have, Sheriff Hutches, C.J. Hutches of

Manatee County. He was there constantly, and I have his

picture too where he was there, and that's him right here.

That hat, that black hat. He was there to inform us of the

various laws of the state of Florida as far as he knew about

traffic as best he could and to just to be part of the

instruction for us. And Jay T. Lowe was loaned to us by the

city of Jacksonville for the instruction of riding

motorcycles. Now Jay T. Lowe's not in this picture here but

I have a picture of him.



CW: Did everyone have to learn how to ride motorcycles?



AF: This is Jay T. Lowe right there with the dark glasses on in

uniform and that Hutches right beside him.



CW: Did everyone have to learn how to ride motorcycles or just

those who were going to be assigned to the, to the motor

squad.


PAGE 19






AF: Well, no one knew who was going to get a car and who was

going to get a bike. And so the, the course was rugged for

those particularly that were afraid of these things. I

don't know of anybody that went to that school that didn't

have to know how to ride a bike. And that was me of course

there in that white coveralls.



CW: Who were some of the other instructors that you can recall?



AF: Well we had an officer there from the city of Bradenton that

was connected with the radio department. He taught us about

the things that we'd have to know about radio and so on

which I got a certificate there to operate. Of course back

in those days you were on 2440 KHz if we happened to have

radio. But we started out with nothing. No radio. Which I

later on was able to get a one-way receiving radio on my

motorcycle to operate off of Ft. Lauderdale WAKO and city of

Miami police WPFZ. I could receive them, of course they

didn't know whether I got it or not. So I had to be chained

to that thing at all times and they knew when I was in

service and when I wasn't.



CW: Who was the commandant of the Academy? Who was the first

commander who kind of oversaw the training?



AF: Well that would be Captain Neil Kirkman.



CW: So this is during the time that Bill Reid and.


PAGE 20






AF: Bill Reid was the Director.


CW: How long did he remain Director?



AF: This was the situation. You had to know Fred P. Cone to

understand the politics of those days. The training school

was one that was overseen by executive administrators of

which the governor was the chairman of the commission and

under him was Arthur B. Hale, chairman of the State Road

Department. And next also in line was D.W. Finley who was

the commissioner of the Motor Vehicle Department. That was

your governing board of the Florida Highway Patrol. You had

no civil service or anything else at that time. And it was

at that time to when the Patrol did get out on the road that

we had what we called the Broken Spoke Club. I don't know

whether that's still in effect or not.



CW: Yeah.



AF: But I was one of the charter members of the Broken Spoke

Club. And that was formed and I have my old original Broken

Spoke Club card somewhere here.



CW: What were the dues back then?



AF: Whenever, yeah, there's my original card. As you can see

who the officers were. And this was a picture, you asked

about the dues, the dues were, the only thing that we had to


PAGE 21






worry about in those times were ten dollars a person for

anytime there was a fatality.



CW: Like an assessment?



AF: Yes. And see there's old Governor Cone. And this is Arthur

Hale. And this is Finley. This is Captain Kirkman who was a

Major in the Army. And that was Bill Reid, the Director.

That's the way the cookie crumbled in those days.



CW: So actually you worked for the State Road Department for the

most part, didn't you?



AF: Well, like I say, there were 33 that went on the Patrol but

there was a 34th one by the name of Tony Maseda that got

behind of the wheel of the Cadillac that Arthur Hale rode

around in. So he was assigned to him all the time.



CW: Did he go to Patrol school with you?



AF: Yes.



CW: When you, you graduated from Patrol school you said it was

four weeks long, is that when you got your assignment to

where you were going as far as an assignment in the state?



AF: Yes, I have a clipping here that tells and their first

stations. This is so old the paper is hard to handle but it

tells you there where each patrolman went to and it

mentions, too, I think on that sheet that two of the

PAGE 22






personnel were made what they call Acting Sergeants. One

was of the north zone and one was of the south zone. Now,

Tobe Bass was made Acting Sergeant of the south and this was

George Watts was Acting Sergeant of Section Two. What they

called Section One and Section Two. It was a very short

time after the Patrol went into effect that the name that

you do see on there suddenly became a Lieutenant on the

Highway Patrol. And that was W.M. Green, known to all of us

as Pig Green.



CW: Why did they call him that?



AF: Well, the picture that I have here of him might show you.



CW: I want to copy this down before I leave.



AF: Yes, okay. I can get this stuff photostated for you. Pig

Green was a heavyset boy from Pinellas County. He'd been in

law enforcement over there and the report that I have is

that he was the Governor's nephew. So the front door was

wide open apparently and he walked right in as a

Lieutenant. And it was shortly thereafter he was second in

command. Rated second in command directly under Kirkman.

This wasn't a very comfortable position but the American

Legion and the Jaycees that I mentioned awhile ago, they

were the ones that really pushed the Highway Patrol back in

those days, and of course we had other civic clubs. But,

Pig Green before 1940 got underway very well, he became the

Captain commander in place of Kirkman. This was on June the


PAGE 23







17th, 1940 that W.M. Green was elevated from Lieutenant as

second in command to Captain succeeding H.N. Kirkman who was

discharged.



CW: From the Patrol?



AF: From the Patrol. Period.



CW: What, what motivated his discharge? Was it somebody with

more political clout?



AF:. Nothing else. Nothing else. There wasn't performance.

There wasn't character. I'm your nephew. You owe me. And

if you knew Fred P. Cone back in those days, you could

understand very well. Off the record I can tell you

something but I don't want it to go on tape. About May 1940

I received a telegram from Captain Kirkman. He told me to

be on the watch for a certain car with a certain Arizona

license on it. There should be three men in it and they

were wanted for bank robbery in Arizona. That same night,

even though it was raining, I encountered this car on US 1

south of Ft. Lauderdale on Banyan curve. I was on my bike

and wearing a raincoat when I saw this car going too fast

around this wet curve. Before stopping them I noticed the

license tag was on the car wanted in Arizona. I knew the

odds were against me so I made a plan as I walked to the

car. I apologized for stopping them on a rainy night but

since they were from out of state I felt they were due some

southern hospitality. I told them our Sheriff, Walter

Clark, being a native son, was always anxious to give our

PAGE 24






visitors souvenirs. Since they were headed that way I would

be privileged to escort them to the courthouse and introduce

them to him. They took the bait well and were glad to

follow me thinking they would get the key to the county. On

arrival at the Sheriff's office we all went in and I said I

would go get the Sheriff from his private office and would

they wait at the counter. I showed the telegram to the

Sheriff and asked him to come out where they were but give

me time to get behind them. When he appeared I was behind

them and pulled my gun and ordered them to put their hands

on the counter. After searching them, the Sheriff then took

them upstairs to the jail and held them for Arizona.



CW: How long was, how long was Colonel Kirkman gone from the

Patrol?



AF: This I will have to go back to tell you some reasons why it

was as long, if you can give a little time here. I don't

want to run your tape too long until I find that.



CW: You found what they call the activity report.



AF: Yes, this is from the, this is almost for a month because it

was dated January the 1st, 1940 (1939-40, one month), that

this report came out. And I have it there. There were

4,935 light corrections.



CW: Light corrections, taillights.


PAGE 25






AF: Headlights, that's right. We paid attention to those

things. Twelve arrests for improper lights. Two hundred

and seventy-nine requested to obtain proper license plates.

We requested that they get them. Fifteen arrests for

improper tags. Seventy arrests for reckless driving.

Fifty-one arrests for DWI. There was no DUI in those days.

Forty-seven for no driver's license. Sixty-six

miscellaneous. A hundred and nineteen revocations of which

107 of them were for DWI. There were 7,027 hours of

service. Seventy-four thousand four hundred and sixty miles

travelled. Six thousand four hundred and ninety-five cars

stopped. Two thousand six hundred and forty-seven

commercial vehicles stopped. Two hundred and 73 brake

corrections. Three hundred and ninety-two weights and

measures. Those were the little hand scales that we used

out there.



CW: Portables.



AF: I want to tell you something about that, how I saved Jay

Wallace Smith's life one night. I'll get to that. Don't

let me pass it up.



CW: Okay.



AF: There were 360 assistance of people out there on the road.

Seven thousand four, hundred and fifty-five verbal warnings.

Forty-four acts of first aid. Sixty-six accidents

investigated. Thirty school buses inspected. Two stolen

cars recovered. The law back then provided a revocation for

PAGE 26






one year and was not eligible to receive another for one

year. And that the judges and the city, of the city and the

county were agents to act for the Department at that time.

It's quite a record. The fines for 20 days were $4,536.12.



CW: What did, what did a reckless driving ticket cost back then?



AF: Oh, maximum $20, $25. If you took a person into court, and

I took many of them in there. If you take them into the

Sheriff's office to book them they could sign a guilty plea

if they wanted to and they'd pay the cost of court, say $19

or something like that.



CW: When you could put people, you put people in jail, you could

put them in jail for any traffic violation.



AF: Oh, yeah. You took them in. Because we didn't issue

citations out there on their own recognizance. Any person

that you had to write up an arrest citation on, you took

them to the courthouse and let the Sheriff decide, so we

weren't the mean little kids there. We took them there to

the Sheriff's department and the deputy there on the desk

would tell them what they had to pay as a bond or they could

sign a guilty plea or they could use the phone there and

call somebody to keep from going to jail. If they couldn't

do any of that, upstairs they went. And that was the way

that went on.



CW: Getting back to your, we need to back up a little bit.

Getting back to your graduation from Patrol school. And

PAGE 27






then you got your first assignment which I think the paper

said was Broward County.



AF: Right.



CW: There were no Patrol stations there, obviously.



AF: Ha, ha, ha, ha.



CW: You just worked wherever they could get ahold of you?



AF: What we had to do, the first thing was to report to the

Sheriff's office. And I went right in. You know what?

We're still on 1939.



CW: Go for it. You reported in to the Sheriff.



AF: Well, I went into the Sheriff's office and I met A.D.

Marshall who was the jailer in charge there. And he lived

in the courthouse. And told them where I'd be living. Gave

them my telephone number which I was then living in a little

hotel. 'Cause I left my wife up here in Ocala and she was

teaching school and couldn't leave right in the middle of

the school year. So, I let them have my telephone number

and I knew I was assigned to the given area which was

northern Dade County. Arch Creek Bridge was the end of the

line which was about Miami Shores. Clear up to the far side

of Boca Raton. And that was all of Broward County out all

the way up to .the Palm Beach County line on US 27 out in no


PAGE 28






man's land. The roads back in those days were something

else. US 1 was the paved concrete road. A1A was an asphalt

road. 441 was a loose gravel road where you dodge beer

bottles on Saturday night on your motorcycle from the joints

along the road there. When we went out in service I also

kept in touch with the different police departments and we

picked out various filling stations along the roads that we

would be working as far as the Sheriff's department was

concerned. So that if they did have to get in touch with us

we could always pull in there, and any messages. Check it

out. The lack of radio was something back in those days

because everybody was on their own. And sometimes those

Saturday night deals out there could be something else. Out

there all by yourself at night. And lighting wasn't

anything like it is today. You didn't have all these

mercury vapor lights or the sodium lights up and down the

roads. It was black as the inside of a stove. And we

patrolled 12 hours a day, rain or shine. And to ride a

motorcycle in the rain with your raincoat on backwards,

that's the way you had to do it to keep.



CW: Why'd you do that?



AF: To keep the rain from coming in through and wetting your

uniform so much. Because the lower half of your raincoat

would make into like pants, would snap. And of course you

had boots on. And when we first started out we had these

big old windbrakes on the front of motorcycles that did

help. But it became critical at times when you had to go.

I remember the very first fatality that I had out there on

PAGE 29






US 27 was the fire chief of Palm Beach itself. He

apparently went to sleep and went off the road and down into

the canal and it killed him. Knowing that road out there,

it's strictly no man's land. No communication except by

what you can get somebody to go down the road and help you

out. I've taken my own personal car and gone on these

accidents because I knew that on a motorcycle I couldn't

carry sufficient equipment that might be needed out there.

If somebody was there and you don't have a radio to get hold

of an ambulance or anything else. You don't know what

you're going to need until you get there, to start with.

And you're 40 miles from nowhere. So I've used my own car

many a time. My own gasoline, no reimbursement. But it was

for my own protection and it still afforded me the chance to

do the job.



CW: What kind of motorcycle did you ride?



AF: Harley Davidsons. They were 74s and 61s.



CW: How fast would they run?



AF: Well, I had no desire to see how fast they would run, but I

know that I chased one car that we were sitting on 100 mph

all the way for 15 solid miles. But I could get, at times I

was able to get 110 sometimes 115 depending on atmosphere.



CW: What kind of patrol cars did you use back then?


PAGE 30






AF: They used Fords with Mercury motors, high speed rear ends,

and the old, thick bulletproof windshields that were really

a hazard to the person's eyes.



CW: Were they particularly purchased to be bulletproof or were

they just what Ford put in all of them?



AF: Yes. No, they were special for that reason. It was a thick

glass that really stuck out. It was almost an inch thick.

And you had a waving situation that you could look off to

the side and you lose your sharpness of visibility. It

would stop a bullet and all that, but at high speeds and so

on it could be very dangerous, to me, become distorted,

wavy.



CW: Where, where did you get your, where did you get your

maintenance and your work, all your work done on your car

and your motorcycles back then?



AF: Well, they, first time I had a motorcycle to give me trouble

I talked to various governmental agencies that had a

mechanic around and tune up this or tune up that. And then

the state decided that when you have too much trouble with

your vehicle come in to Tallahassee with it. That was a

beautiful ride in the middle of the winter to get out of Ft.

Lauderdale and ride all the way to Tallahassee in the

freezing all night weather. It wasn't anything to look

forward to. But once in awhile you'd get a motorcycle there

that was a lemon and you just couldn't do anything with it.

So you'd have to take it back to the dealer, all the way up

PAGE 31






there. Then they began to have mechanics by the state that

would go around and tune up the various vehicles and see

that they were properly maintained.



CW: You spent 12 hours a day on that thing at least.



AF: Twelve hours a day, subject to call 24 hours a day. You

never had a vacation time off on holidays. And you got two

days off every two weeks. And that went from noon to noon.

That's the way your days were. I have slept on the benches

in police stations many a night on Saturday nights that I

wouldn't go home because I knew that the minute I got the

cover pulled up around me in the bed I was going to get a

phone call.



CW: Did they make you have a telephone at your house?



AF: Yes. And they paid for that.



CW: What do you suppose the population of Broward County was?



AF: Well, the city of Ft. Lauderdale I know for sure was 18,000

people when I first got there in 1939. A beautiful little

town, it wasn't a concrete jungle like it is today.



CW: And you were the only trooper within how many miles?



AF: Well, Tobe Bass was stationed there with me but he had like

we said previously there, he was Sergeant of the, what do

you call it, zone one I think it was. And he had to more or

PAGE 32






less keep up with the different ones in Broward I mean the

other counties of the south part of the state. But I had

the responsibility of running the northern Dade, all of

Broward and south Palm Beach.



CW: What was, what was the primary objective of the Highway

Patrol back in 1939? What was your first and foremost job?



AF: One thing was to eliminate accidents as they call them. I

call them wrecks. Because nothing is an accident as far as

I'm concerned, there's always a cause for it, and it's human

error. If you have a collision out there and a tire blows

out, well, if you'd a been taking care of that tire like you

should have it probably wouldn't have blown out,,unless you

ran over something that punctured it and you didn't see it.

The majority of the cases are human error, carelessness.

But it was to take care of that, eliminate the injuries that

were on the road, the property damage. To get the drunks

off the road. To assist people who were in trouble out

there on the road, showing courtesy at all times. Helping

people, particularly those who were stranded and didn't know

how to look after themselves. Conduct first aid wherever it

was needed until such time that you could get transport to a

hospital, because we had lots of that in those days. We

used splints and things like that which the trooper doesn't

have to use too much today. But first of all the ambulances

weren't paramedics. They. were strictly hearse drivers.

They'd come running out there as fast as they could, get

your, but you'd have the injured already in transporting

condition, and get them to where they could go. And then

PAGE 33






you follow up through. I helped many a time in the hospital

and in the emergency room on all kinds of injuries. One

time particularly a doctor was going to cut a man's leg off

because of the injury. And I told him, doc, not this

Saturday night. Don't you do it. This man is unconscious,

his wife is unconscious. You cut off his leg. I tell you

no because he is not able to tell you yourself to go ahead

and do it. You are supposed to do everything in your power

to try to save this man. He listened to me and the man's

leg was saved. And there was a quite a story about that.



CW: Of course, did you write a lot of speeding tickets back

then?



AF: Well, in the beginning we didn't worry about speed as long

as it wasn't reckless. Because there wasn't any law

covering it.



CW: There was no speed limit?



AF: No. No speed limit. No speed limit, just reckless driving,

willful and wanton disregard for life and property. Things

like that. And if you saw somebody that got weaving in and

out of traffic and endangering somebody else's life as well

as his own, then you go grab him. And depending on the

nature of it, how bad it was. I mean if he was, got

somebody in there that was sick and needed to get to the

doctor, well you'd loan him assistance and help him get

there. But if he was just out there carousing around,


PAGE 34







cutting the fool, taking fenders off of cars and so on, you

took him on down to the cross bar hotel. Ha.



CW: We still call it that too.



AF: Do you?



CW: Of course, I had heard from a couple of others that I have

spoken with that one of your objectives of the Patrol was

also to keep undesirables out of the state of Florida. Have

you ever heard that?



AF: I heard it, but it wasn't the FHP it was the county

Sheriffs.



CW: County Sheriffs.



AF: I know that from observations. I know that every time a

tramp got off the train in Broward County there, Walter

Clark's men, either Virgil Wright or A.M. Whitcamp, or some

of those other people, Earl Sharp or Bob Clark, the Chief

Deputy who was the brother of the Sheriff, after they got

through with the individual they put him in the car and they

started relaying him on up the line. Don't come back, see.

The FHP stayed clear of those things. But we saw a lot of

that going on. We saw a lot of things going on.


PAGE 35







CW: What are, what are some of the other jobs that you were

called upon to do in addition to traffic duties and accident

investigations. Did you have any strange requests?



AF: Yes. I was all, was very very green at the time but very

sincere with my work. I never will forget the very first

time that something happened there to me, and that was when,

well, I mentioned awhile ago about Jay Wallace Smith. He

came down to Ft. Lauderdale because he was assigned to

Weights Division. And in him car he carried these little

portable scales that you carry like a briefcase. They were

heavy. But you would take these things and, are you

familiar with them?



CW: Yes.



AF: And put them in front of the wheels of a semi or behind it

depending on what you're able to do. And he put this thing

in front of the wheels of this one semi. I was there to

help him. This was at Ft. Lauderdale at the forks of the

road at Andrews Avenue and the Federal Highway at the south

end of town. I was a little bit skiddish about the driver

of that truck. Well, Wallace Smith told him to pull up on

the scale slowly. And I could see that this fellow had it

in his mind to let that thing drop and he would have crushed

Jay Wallace Smith. And I pulled out my gun right quick and

told him, you let that thing drop and I'm going to drop

you. And I would have at that time. But it shook Wallace


PAGE 36







Smith up quite a bit, it made him very very nervous after

that. Of course you can imagine what happened after that.



CW: What kind of guns did you carry then?



AF: We had, I wish I had that gun today. It was a number 7 FHP

issue. It was a 38 Colt on 41 frame. They were nickel

plated. They were a four-inch barrel. And I had mine

honed, and honed and honed, and whenever I pulled it out it

would go off. Very smooth operation on that thing.



CW: Did it have a hair trigger on it?



AF: I mean.



CW: Ha, ha.



AF: I mean. Because I'll tell you, working where I was it

didn't take me long to realize that I was in a very hot

bed. I knew that the activity of my area was more than it

was anywhere else in the whole state. In fact, I would say

put together. Because we had all kinds of racketeers down

there. And the, Myer Lanskey and Jake Lanskey the

gangsters, the Purple Gang was there. Those people were

around, but.



CW: What was their, what was their, their big.



AF: Gambling.


PAGE 37







CW: Gambling.


AF: Gambling.



CW: How about moonshine running?



AF: Moonshine was trivial. Moonshine was there. I remember one

time I smelled on my motorcycle riding into Pompano north of

Lauderdale, I could smell mash cooking. And I told the

Sheriff you better check on that out there. Because that

wasn't my problem. I, I didn't have the jurisdiction when

it's out in the woods there.



CW: You didn't have jurisdiction to get off the highways?



AF: Not anything like that. I told him, well I know that he's

done nothing more other than to tell him to be more careful

with it, you see. But traffic violations whatever the

nature was out there on the highway, well then we were able

to take care of that. But not off the road. We didn't have

a right if we saw two people killing each other off the

road. We were strictly out there on the roads.



CW: How many highways did you have to patrol in your zone?



AF: Oh gracious. Well, if you know how many highways there were

in Broward. Your main arteries were A1A along the coast.

There was US 1 which was a fairly new highway there then.

And that was only 18 feet wide, concrete. Parallel to it

was 441 which was also known as State Road 7 but it was only

PAGE 38







a gravel road up to the Palm Beach County line where it

worked over into Military Trail. US 27 came out of Miami.

It wasn't accessible too well until they developed State

Road 84 out of Ft. Lauderdale. That was a mess. They built

that on sponge muck. And I've seen people clear up to their

neck in the muck while they were building it and they had to

use drag lines to pull them out of the muck because they

just stuck in there. They filled that in with pit rock,

years went by when hurricanes hit there, I've seen the road

just wash right out. Water has been clear to the tops of

the road on both sides just lapping at the pavement. And to

the point where the pavement was like riding on a wet

sponge. And you, we had to set up barricades. This was

later on in the picture, I'm getting ahead here. As it

comes to my mind I tell you about it. But we had to stop

all traffic on these roads and let only trucks go out there

that were cattle trucks to get their cattle. Because they

were out there drowning. What couldn't get on a little high

bit of land they were just out there and drowned, that's

all. And houses were being inundated by high water, people

getting up into the attic. We got them out of the attics by

boat. Killed snakes. I killed 18 snakes in a 20-mile

stretch, big ones, with my pistol. And things like that.

But I'm sort of getting away from the time that we were

originally talking about. But when I mentioned about Jay

Wallace Smith and this one particular incident, you asked me

about other incidents.


PAGE 39







CW: I think one thing that I guess we maybe we better back up a

little bit. We were talking about your Patrol duties and

the areas and so forth. Were there, were there divisions in

the state. Was it divided into certain areas of

responsibility and command structure?



AF: Yes, the, while Governor Cone was there it seems that about

1940, July the 1st, and this is just six months that had

gone by that now we had a different chairman of the State

Road Department. A man by the name of J.W. Perkins. And of

course W.F. Bill Reid was still Department of Public Safety

head. They created three districts for the FHP. The first

one was the north and then the south and the central.

Fitzhugh Lee was made a Lieutenant of the northern division

to be extended to Gainesville from the state line. Then

H.C. Red Martin was made Lieutenant from Gainesville to

Sarasota area. Stuart Senneff was to be commander of the

south division, southern division as we called it, which

extended from Sarasota to Key West. And that's when we

really started clamping down on driver's license tests. I

should say driver's license checks. The Patrol became

active and we started getting the Deputies out there with us

so we'd have more manpower that we could to stop cars.

Because we didn't have enough manpower ourselves to do it.

So they were out there with and we could just find somebody

that didn't have a driver's license and turn them over to

the Sheriff right there. Didn't have stop and pull into the

courthouse.


PAGE 40







CW: What all was involved in getting a driver's license back

then? Was there any kind of test that you had to take?



AF: Not until a little later on. We started having them.



CW: Up until that time you'd just go down to the courthouse?



AF: Yeah.



CW: Someone even told me that you could buy a driver's license

at Sears and Roebuck.



AF: It depended on who the judge had set as various agencies.



CW: But there were some private stores that you could actually

buy drivers' licenses?



AF: Oh yeah. The thing that I liked about the old license in

one sense of the word was this. It was a paper folded

license with three sheets. One was for warnings, one was

for arrests. And if you stopped a fellow and he went on

down the road a hundred miles and got picked up again, if

you examined that license you found out that, well heck, he

just, he didn't pay any attention to the warning. So you

don't write him a warning ticket. You take him on down to

the place of remembrance. Ha, ha. And too, it was about

then that we were thinking about faulty equipment because

stopping them out there for driver's license we found many

many cars that come along with headlights out completely.

No light there. And you'd find them with bad wiring', wires

PAGE 41







hanging dragging the ground and you knew it'd been like that

for a long long time. Bad brakes, car you'd go to stop and

it'd go off this way or that way. So, that's when faulty

equipment card, the FHP 9 I think it was, was a little card

that we got in. We wrote it in carbon copy. And we issued

it out to the individual and he was to take that card and

that vehicle and get that corrected. And he had 48 hours to

get it done. I don't know whether they still use them or

not.



CW: Some, some things never change, Al. Ha, ha, ha.



AF: They still got the DL 4s the same way. That was the

driver's license application?



CW: I don't know. I think the numbers may have changed.



AF: I'll show you one in a minute. I got one in here when Paul

Daniels got killed. The first trooper that ever got killed.



CW: Was, was he killed down there in your area?



AF: He was. He was using my car the night he got killed. But

the thing that happened too that upset a lot of us was that

on the 11th of July we had our color change on our

uniforms. This was something. We wore caps on the bikes

and they were a dark blue like city police had with a little

bit of orange trim in it.


PAGE 42







CW: Sort of like, like the bus driver, what we'd call the bus

driver cap?



AF: Yeah. And the hats were no longer the Stetsons. Because

our original hats were the original Stetson hat. They got

them from the Surprise Store right there in Tallahassee. I

don't know whether that place is still there in business or

not.



CW: Surprise Store.



AF: That was the name of it. Everything that we got came

through the Surprise Store. Boots, shoes.



CW: Was it a uniform supply company or.



AF: I guess so. I don't know. I've never been inside the place

but I know that's where it came from.



CW: Ha, ha, ha.



AF: The hats and this is it is the old Frank Buck hats like you

see a mail carrier wear sometime.



CW: Okay.



AF: I have some pictures there of Joe Gallop out there on the

road with those, with that kind of hat on his head. And the

pants, they were blue with an orange wide stripe down the

side. Shirts, they were gray. I have a picture of me

PAGE 43







somewhere here that I can show you where I was in a, on one

of the causeways going out of Miami heading towards Miami

Beach. We were in a driver's license check and I had that

uniform on. But that was the uniform of the day although it

wasn't long before it reversed itself. I don't know, we may

have worn that six months. The hats did come back into play

there. We had the campaign hat like, like.



CW: Smokey Bear.



AF: Yeah, Smokey Bear hat. They were nice. They were good.

They weren't as comfortable I don't think, to me it wasn't,

as the old Stetson hat. But everybody to their own likes on

that.



CW: What were the uniforms made of? Was it comfortable?



AF: A great, I suppose you would call it that.



CW: Was it washed and pressed and starched and all that?



AF: I had them dry cleaned.



CW: Did you?



AF: Yeah. Now the breeches that we wore on the bikes sometimes

they would even be a gabardine, whip cord type, because they

had the knee reinforcement and the seat reinforcement. I


PAGE 44







was wearing a brand new pair the time that I broke my knee

on January the 1st, 1946. But, I'll get to that later.



CW: Okay.



AF: But it was the first of July 1940 when Tobe Bass who was as

I said the number one Sergeant of the southern, well the new

districts were created and Tobe was transferred then out of

Ft. Lauderdale over to Deland by orders from Captain Green.

We were getting involved at that particular time with the

Orange Bowl Parade, being a huge thing every year. And I

had a distinct privilege I guess in a way to lead that thing

on an FHP bike and it was, you had to know how to ride a

motorcycle to be able to ride that slow. And have a good

tuned up bike too that wouldn't conk out on you right, and

you didn't have electric starters. You had to kick that

thing by your foot and if you happened to have the spark a

little bit too far advanced you were liable to find your

knee up on top of the handlebars. Ha, ha, ha.



CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha. Is that how you broke your knee?



AF: No. No, but I broke it hitting a car while escorting him,

the Governor, and I didn't have my regular assigned

motorcycle. I was no longer riding, but I took a bike that

time. They brought one over from the fifth district and it

was horrible. It needed maintenance something terrible. It

was one of those kind you'd put your foot on the brake and

it didn't stop right then until you got down the road a

little ways. And then it would take hold. Or if you wanted

PAGE 45







to accelerate, it was slow on accelerating. What are you

going to do when you get in a tight with something like

that?



CW: Pray.



AF: That's right. Well.



CW: Let's, let's talk about the Orange Bowl for a minute. That,

that's, that's something that been tradition. When was the

first Orange Bowl Parade. Was it before the Patrol was

formed?



AF: Yes. Yeah, oh yes.



CW: Did you ride, did you ride, were you first trooper to ride

in the Orange Bowl Parade?



AF: That's right. That's right.



CW: Were there anybody else with you or did you lead the parade?



AF: I was on the bike. Because we didn't have that many. As it

went on the following year after that we had a contingent of

bikes. What we called the flying wedge. We made it into a

V shape. We'd start off with one at the point and then two,

three, four, and five. And we rode that at the pace and

speed of what the parade was travelling. Now the street

coming down Flagler is not that wide. Biscayne Boulevard on

that one side is not too wide either. So with people

PAGE 46







squeezing in on both sides we were boxed in there pretty

tight. And when you keep straight lines this way as you go

along and straight lines on an angle, you had to know what

you're doing. And your bikes had to be running right, too.



CW: This was later on when you had bikes that you could spare.



AF: The following year, the following year. Yeah, it was in

'41, the fall of '41.



CW: What, did they add a bunch of manpower on to the Florida

Highway Patrol?



AF: Well they just brought them in from other places.



CW: Oh, okay.



AF: I know that the 1st of '41 which was the following day I was

assigned to the Orange Bowl detail to help out on traffic

for the parade, I mean for going to the game, usually the

Governor was always there and you had to see to it that he

was comfortable wherever he was going to be. Ha, ha, ha.



CW: Ha, ha, ha, ha.



AF: I know that you ask about different things. On three

occasions I had some things assigned to me that were kind of

unpleasant disasters. I investigated an accident late at

night on June 15, 1941. I'd say in the early morning

hours. There was two semis hit almost head on out there on

PAGE 47







US 27 south of Southbay. Both drivers were killed. Well,

there was no evidence of drinking. The fog was heavy. And

both of them were blood brothers out of the same family.

Neither one apparently knew that the other one was anywhere

around. There was a horrible mess. Each one of them ended

up the the opposite ditches. It killed them outright. And

I got on the 5th of January of that year I, a driver hauling

illegal whiskey was killed just north of Lauderdale. His

arm was torn completely off and that's where the arm was

buried. Right there in the ditch.



CW: Who buried it?



AF: I did. Yep.



CW: Did you go back out after the thing later on, or did you do

that right after?



AF: No, I just let the grass grow.



CW: Oh, okay, ha, ha, ha.



AF: Because the man was killed right there, outright dead. And

he wasn't, he wasn't going to put it in his casket I'm

sure. And in those days they didn't worry too much about

that. There was another thing that did happen. There was a

train wreck in Pompano with injuries. That was on the 15th

of August 1941. It was necessary for me to have threaten

arrest and report to the Naval Department because a

passenger who was a Navy officer and was a doctor. And he

PAGE 48







was refusing to administer to the injured on this train

wreck. And it wasn't anything nice to look at. And he

wouldn't do it until help arrived. So I told him, well

either you're going to do this or I'm going to put you in

jail. I'm going to notify the Naval Department and find how

you can keep from being stripped. He changed his mind and

he jumped right in there and helped out. It shows you some

of the things that you're put to the test on. And whether

or not you're capable of meeting it. Well it was then on

the 18th of January that Jesse Gilliam took the place of

W.F. Reid as Director. He was appointed by Governor Leroy

Collins.



CW: Jesse Gilliam?



AF: Jess J E S S E. J. G I L L I A M. On May of 1941, I have

a beautiful picture here that I could show you, where Ray

Small and myself was, had gotten on the Patrol after we,

after I had. But he had become a Sergeant already. We took

two motorcycles and we escorted 16 Florida Motorlines. They

weren't Greyhounds then, they were Florida Motorlines. The

red and white buses. I've got a picture of them. This

consisted of newspaper editors from all over the nation.

And we escorted them all around south Florida until we got

to our border line and we turned them over to another

district. That was quite an ordeal.



CW: I'll bet.


PAGE 49







AF: Yeah. I'll say this, that the bus drivers in those days

were 100% friends to us, and so were 99% of the truck

drivers. Little things, I don't care to glorify myself on

any of this stuff I'm telling you, but if it's stuff that

you want to cut, why you can cut it.



CW: No, this is the stuff that we're after.



AF: But I can remember one night, July 1941, that a friend of

mine who was a Buick dealer in Ft. Lauderdale. They had

been to an occasion there and they were just a half a block

from the courthouse, and they were standing on the corner

waiting for traffic to go by. His mother was with them.

And around the corner came a black -fellow with a car that

had been in a wreck and his fender was sticking out there

like a can opener, and it caught her. And I mean it almost

just cut her leg off. Well, we got her to the hospital

quick. I don't know why I happened to be there. I got

involved in more things, I wonder how I ever happened to be

there. But there I was and Mrs. Bowers was her name, I got

a nice letter from them. But I found out that in Jackson

Memorial Hospital when the doctor in Ft. Lauderdale Hospital

told me that what she had to have or she wasn't going to

live through the night. And he thought that we could get it

in Miami. Well, we contacted them and I made a round trip

there and I made it in fast time, I'll tell you. But I got

it back and it saved the woman's life. And a beautiful

letter went to Tallahassee about it which I have a copy of

it. Well, after that (July 1941) we had a six-day short

course at the Lamar Hotel in Orlando. It was a gathering of

PAGE 50







personnel. I have a picture of that if you wanted to see

it. And, the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department had a school

(June 21, 1941) and they asked me to be one of the faculty

members to teach the rookies that they were putting on. So

I consented to that. I have a picture that I can show you

later of my last motorcycle that I ever rode.



CW: When did you finally hang it up on motorcycles and go to

cars, to a car?



AF: Myself, was in July of '41. Then we were using cars but

sometimes they wouldn't run fast enough. We tried all kinds

of things to do it. One time the Patrol give me an old

Hudson. I could get out and push the thing faster than it

could drive. It was awful to try to chase somebody that was

willfully trying to out run you and were drunk or either had

a stolen vehicle, and you just couldn't keep up with them.

Ha, ha. They saw us.



CW: But you could carry a lot of gas in a Hudson.



AF: Oh, yeah.



CW: About what, 50 gallons?



AF: Well, I didn't, I didn't, I didn't.carry that thing too long

when they finally decided we'd better get rid of this. So

we went back to Fords. But, we had a strike detail to come

up on the 30th of July, 1941, that happened down in Key West

where the Sheriff down there made us all deputies. We had

PAGE 51







to break up a strike. And I got a beautiful letter here

from the Navy thanking us for coming down there.



CW: What kind of strike was it?



AF: It was civilian employees working down there at the Naval

Air Station and the war was on, you know. I lost out on

something here that I should tell you about on Roosevelt,

but I can get back to it as soon as I finish this. But we

got all the way back thinking that we had got that thing

under control. Got clear back to Marathon. There was only

one building in Marathon in those days. Now it's a city

with airport and everything else. But there was only one

building, and that was a store. We stopped there to get a

cold drink and we got a message, go back and finish the

job. Well, we went back and we finished the job. Needles

to say, I put the Chief Deputy in his own jail.



CW: How many people, how many troopers were sent down on that

detail?



AF: If you cut that a minute I'll get the picture and show you.

I think all told if I look at the picture when I get it out

of my file there it seemed to me there was around 10 or 12

of us.



CW: That's probably about a third of the Highway Patrol, wasn't

it?


PAGE 52







AF: But we took care of that problem. And we had a platoon of

Marines behind us with fixed bayonets. And they had

instructions that whatever we couldn't take care of with our

nightsticks, they were to use those bayonets.



CW: You were the first Highway Patrol riot squad.



AF: That's right. Now I'll guarantee you, some windows went and

some heads got hurt. But they straightened out.



CW: What were they, you say they were contractors? What were

they building boats in the Naval Air Station?



AF: That's right.



CW: Well, okay.



AF: They didn't, you don't strike your government when you're at

war. You just don't do that. Ha, ha.



CW: You mentioned something about President Roosevelt that came

to town. You were involved in that detail?



AF: Yes, I was. Now this happened on December the 20th and 21st

of 1939. I was drafted by a Mr. Baker who was at that time

in Washington the Chief of the Secret Service. The Potomac

had pulled in to Ft. Lauderdale and Pt. Everglades and was

tied up in the main slip. While FDR was out there on that

boat, on the, we were not at war yet. But Great Britain

was. And there was a British cruiser just off shore between

PAGE 53







the port and the gulf stream. And they were after this

German freighter. This was a brand new freighter called the

Arauca. I have pictures of that. They ran him into the

port trying to catch him. Well, once he got into our

territory, they had to keep hands off. And, of course they

tied him up at port, at the slip right next to the Potomac.

Well that created a lot of blood pressure worrying about

these Germans. You didn't know just what was going on as

you will find out and I'll talk to you later about what

happened on our beaches as to torpedoes and things like that

where actually I was a witness to a lot of this stuff. But,

Mr. Baker, because of his shorthandedness, not expecting

something like this and at the beginning of a war which

they'd never experienced anything like it before, he drafted

me to be with the President for about 36 to 38 hours without

shutting my eyes. And I was as close to him as I am to you

all this time. There was one thing that I always remember

is how he always sat there, if you've seen picture of him

with that cigarette holder on an angle sticking up out of

his mouth. With that cigarette way out there. That was one

thing that he always had, seemed always kept it with him.

Nobody was allowed in the area unless Baker came to me

personally by himself. Not in the company of anybody.

Because you never knew if he was being forced to do it.

Then I would let somebody, whoever he said was alright,

could come aboard. And that happened to be certain special,

special press people that could come in there and interview

the President about the world situation.


PAGE 54







CW: This was on the yacht?


AF: This was on the yacht. I still, I was right there at ready

at all times. The whole times, I stayed there with them and

I didn't leave him until he was taken off the yacht by

Baker, put on the train that backed right in alongside the

slip, put him on the train, and headed him out to

Washington. Then I went home and got my razor and shaved.

Ha, ha, and got some sleep. But that was the situation

there. I meant to tell you about that earlier but we get

back to 1941 which is right after the strike detail. I was

assigned to south Miami from Ft. Lauderdale September 1941.

And I was to take care of all of the lower Dade County area

including down onto the Keys. But I was still an ordinary

patrolman. I guess you could call it acting like a PFC,

Private First Class, but there wasn't Chevrons or anything

or any increase in pay. But I had six rookies handed to me

from the school and I had to work with them, help them on

the road after coming out of the school, to make sure that

they knew what they were doing.



CW: Was this the second Patrol school?



AF: Yes, yes. It wasn't our school.



CW: Was it from, did they still have it in Bradenton, the second

one, or did they move it?



AF: I think, I'm not sure, I think that the next school, I don't

have the records, I burnt up so many records, I think it was

PAGE 55







Kissimmee, I'm not sure. I think the one after that was in

Lakeland which is one that I was there for awhile as a

part-time instructor. But I had six different ones there,

of which one of them was Paul Daniels, the first trooper to

ever get killed. And there was Ben Porch, there was Charlie

Gothie, who when the war really got going he got into the

airlines flying over the hump down into Africa and he just

did that constantly, he never came back to the Patrol. And

a boy named Stafford, another one named Telzer, Brantley,

who later on left the Patrol and became Chief of Police of

Homestead. He died there one night, ice pick. But on the

6th of December was my day off and Paul Daniels was one of

them. And I had told Paul I don't know how many times, you

are no longer a city of Key West. policeman. You're a

highway patrolman now and it's a whole new ball game. And

you play for keeps out there many and many a time. You've

always been too friendly with the people in the city because

you had closeness there of population, but when you're out

here on the road you never know what you're dealing with.

You're to be a gentleman at all times, but you're supposed

to be able to take care of yourself. And one of the things

that I told him was, don't ever stop a car at night with you

being in front of the car that you stop. And that's what

happened to him. He stopped this car that night that came

through south Miami at an excessive rate of speed. And he

took after him and he went clear down to Goulds at

Allapattah Road and US 1 where he finally stopped him. Well

the fellow stopped quicker than he did so Paul went ahead of

him instead of either turning around and coming back or

putting it in reverse and backing up. And left himself in

PAGE 56







the full headlights of the other car. He managed to go back

to the car and question this Byrdl Hudgins, a/s/a Elmer

Humber, and he was a 22-year-old tall boy. And he got from

him his driver's license. He came back, by that time my car

which I have a picture of the wreck of the thing, I had

radio operating out of the city of Miami, WPFZ. And, they

covered the whole county.



CW: Was that one you could listen to but you couldn't transmit

from?



AF: No, my radio then was two-way. And he used my radio to call

in to find out if there's anything on the car. There was no

information at all because it had just been stolen and they

didn't know it. Okay, as soon as he hung up the message

came in to the police radio dispatcher that this car was

wanted as a stolen car. Well they tried calling Paul but

they got no answer. In the meantime he was up in his car

and this fellow was back there with a 45 automatic. And the

reason he couldn't answer was because when he started to

hang up the radio he saw that gun. He put up his hands like

that and he got shot. And I found his body in the ditch

face down.



CW: How long after he'd been shot did you find him?



AF: I would say not more than an hour.



CW: Well did they try to call him?


PAGE 57







AF: Called him and didn't get an answer and they called Senneff

who was the commander and got ahold of him. He called me

and he told me he said, I've got ahold of Ben Porch. We

didn't have a radio. All we had was a car. And he come by

my house and picked me up. I had already gone to bed. I

jumped out and put my clothes on, Porch come by and picked

me up. We went heading on down south. I knew the territory

and when they told me about where it was we run a spotlight

in the ditch as we were going and there he was laying

there. But the car was gone. It so happens that the

Allapattah took off on a 45 degree from US 1. As soon as I

found him and I knew that he was dead because there was no

signs of life whatsoever, I looked down the road there and I

could see activity. And I knew it was another police car of

some kind. And so I fired my gun into the air once to let

them know where I was and who I was. We jumped in the car

and went on down there to try to get to a radio or see what

was going on and I was faced with the fact that there was my

patrol car which had turned end over end and then side over

side and then stopped upright. It was a mess. I looked in

the car to see what was going on because I had a lot of DL

papers all over the place and other things like that. But

laying on the floor in its plastic container was a driver's

license with a picture on it. And this was on the back

floor behind the driver's seat. And I knew it didn't belong

to me or any of my papers so I picked it up and I saw there,

state of Ohio, Byrdl Hudgins, six foot, picture of him. I

asked the Sheriff's Department to let me use their radio so

I called in and put out an alert on who we wanted. Didn't

think he had gotten very far, but anyway I got it to Captain

PAGE 58







Senneff and told him about it. Or he was still a

Lieutenant. And told him about what had happened and so we

started putting up roadblocks. I like to went to pieces

there for awhile because I wanted to get that guy because he

had killed not only a trooper but a father as well as a

husband. And I knew what a good guy he was. He was always

riding the motorcycle during the day, but on my day off he

used my car. And I felt the presence of that person out

there in the woods, but it was dark. There was no light.

Palmettos, pine trees, rattlesnakes, and everything else.

And I hollered out in the woods to him at his name, Come out

of there instead of us getting you, maybe you might have a

chance, but I don't think you'll have one if I face you. He

testified to that on the stand. He never did come out. But

when he did come out the following day, was over on the

highway and two civilians who had known about it picked him

up, got him in the back seat as though they were just

helping out somebody on the road. But we had a roadblock

set up and when they got to the roadblock they jumped out

both sides of the car and left the door open and said there

he is in the back seat. Well, there was an immigration

officer there and he ran over and as Byrdl Hudgins tried

coming out, he'd been hurt in that wreck, he had that 45 in

his hand, well he knocked it out of his hand with his own

gun. And took him on out. Because of my anxiety over the

whole thing they transferred me over to the far end of the

county stopping trucks and cars and everything else, because

they was afraid I was liable to really hurt him if I had a

chance. Or somebody else, I don't know which. But anyway,

we took him on to jail. And he was tried and executed

PAGE 59







shortly. I have a lot of information on that. That,

notifying his wife was a hard thing to do. Senneff called

my wife and wanted her to go and tell her what had happened

because we had become quite close knit, all of us boys down

there together. But she just couldn't do it so she called

Senneff back and he couldn't do it, but he picked up the

phone and called her and told her on the telephone. It was

the only way because he just couldn't come there and do it.

It affected him too much. We had a lot to do there in 38

hours we were out on this manhunt and everybody was pretty

tense. And I guess that pretty well covers it except for

the end of the year I was assigned back to the Orange Bowl

traffic control at the parade and that's when we had that V

formation I was telling you about in .the Patrol. And that's

just the first two years.



CW: All right. What about the funeral. Big one?



AF: Yes, it was a big funeral and we escorted the body all the

way down from the funeral parlor in Miami. It was, it was a

large funeral. It was attended by many police departments

too. But it was a rainy day. In fact they had to delay it

awhile because the rain was so bad. And you know the land

is not much height to the elevation of the land in Key West

as compared to sea level. So we had to think about that

too. I have a picture of his gravesite yet today. That

pretty much covered that, it was right at the end of the

year and the only thing we had after that was just the

Orange Bowl detail which we worked on traffic control at the

parade. This particular year we escorted the parade in a V

PAGE 60







formation of motorcycles. It was a very tight

organization. And we started out with one at the point and

ended up with I think there were five across the back. And

they were filled in solid there like a regular pyramid.



CW: That must have been, that must have been people out of the

second school.



AF: Well, we brought them in from the fifth district, they had

several in the, yeah, I would say there were some out of the

second school there.



CW: Okay, 1942.



AF: One of the things that happened in 1942 was Governor Holland

requested the legislature to increase the FHP to no less

than 120 nor more than 190 men. And to make four Captains,

eight Lieutenants and 16 Sergeants. This was when the

Driver's License fee was to go up to $1.00. And to require

exams for delinquents. And of course some of the facts

that, in 1941 there were 2290 licenses revoked and 389 were

suspended. But a revoked license restored to a person only

by a parole commission. I don't know whether that's still

in effect or not. But the suspension would be reinstated by

the director upon the recommendation of the sentencing

judge.



CW: Did you work closely with the Driver's License examiners

back then when they first got started?


PAGE 61







AF: I hired civilians when I became a ranking officer. And I

fired the first one I ever hired and Tallahassee wanted to

know why I fired him. I said because I felt that when I

found the man taking money on the side to pass the examinees

that I had the right to, and since you gave me the right to

hire him, I should have the right to fire him. And I heard

nothing more after that.



CW: Did you give Driver's License tests yourself?



AF: Oh, yes. Oodles of them way back as a patrolman.



CW: The test or the written?



AF: I gave written tests, I gave road tests. In the beginning

we just give verbal tests out of your own mind.



CW: What, what were some of the questions that you might ask

somebody?



AF: Well, if you are coming up to an intersection and there are

no stop signs and there was another car approaching the

intersection the same time as you were, which of the two of

you had the right-of-way.



CW: Okay.



AF: Well, it's always the one on the right. Things like that in

general. But of course it wasn't long before we began to


PAGE 62







get sheets of questionnaires. The first one we started out

with was on the DL 4 itself. On the back of it.



CW: DL 4 was what?



AF: The driver's license card.



CW: I'm looking at the DL 4.



AF: Yeah.



CW: And what it looks like an affidavit.



AF: That's right, sure.



CW: With all of the information and so forth on the front and it

looks like the actual written test for driving was on the

back.



AF: That's correct.



CW: And that became the driver's permanent file?



AF: That's right. That went to Tallahassee and there it was

kept supposedly in file cabinets alphabetically to determine

who was licensed and who wasn't. And it was as you say an

affidavit.



CW: And this particular test was given by Trooper Daniels.


PAGE 63







AF: That was, and this is the car there that he was driving that

night, my car. You notice on the side of the hood there a

little thing, black bar, that was neon lights that we had

stuck on the side of our cars. It wasn't official issue but

it was approved. We'd come up beside of a car and those

things would flash on State Patrol.



CW: I'll be.



AF: Yeah. They saw it right away at night. They knew it wasn't

somebody wrong. This is Paul's grave in Key West. I had

the gun that killed Paul, it was a 45 automatic and it was

promised to me to keep by the judge. That's a picture of it

right there. But it seems that that gun was involved in

another killing up in Ohio in Cincinnati. And the court

asked me if I would agree to let it go up there as evidence

and that I would get it back. That's the last I've seen of

it.



CW: Daniels' killer was in fact executed?



AF: Oh, yes, oh yes. I begged and pleaded with them to let me

go and pull the switch on it but they wouldn't do it.



CW: Where was this, up at?



AF: Raiford.



CW: Raiford. Old Sparky.


PAGE 64







AF: Yeah, I've seen executions.


CW: Is that right?



AF: Yeah.



CW: In your official capacity as a trooper?



AF: No. Before. But, Paul, it was a shame. That's him on his

motorcycle.



CW: What was the Broken, what was the Broken Spoke benefit back

then? What was paid to the next of kin, how much?



AF: I can find it out here for you. I have it in this file as

to exact how much money it was. But it was no money at all

to sit and speak of. Ten dollars and there wasn't that many

there.



CW: Up in 19 and 42 we started talking about 1942, did, did we

ever get the increase that was asked for in the legislature

for the 4 Captains and the 16 Sergeants. Did the

legislature approve all those positions?



AF: I have to assume that they did. I, I don't have documented

proof here to say it other than out of my own mind. So I

can't.


PAGE 65







CW: How about pay raises. Did you get any pay raises between

'39 and '41?



AF: Peanuts.



CW: Peanuts.



AF: Peanuts, yes. The system of civil service was set up at

that time and the only civil service really was

administration was changed to the Governor and six members

of the Cabinet. And that was J. Edwin Larson, the

Treasurer, Bob Gray, the Secretary of State, and Tom Watson,

who I knew real well with his red suspenders, an Attorney

General, and Colin English, Superintendent of Public

Instruction, Jim Lee was the Comptroller, and Nat Mayo was

the Commissioner of Agriculture. All good friends of mine,

real good friends. Nat Mayo goes way back, way, way back to

Governor Martin's day all in my family. Driver's License

Division I think I told you was transferred from the Motor

Division to Motor Vehicle Commission to the Department of

Public Safety. And I mentioned about Keith was now the,

sort of to administer it setting it up. But I knew they

sent him to different states to familiarize himself with the

operations that were required to do the job that he had to

governing the Driver's License.



CW: Clay Keith?



AF: Right. On the 26th of July, 1942, Dick Danner who was the

FBI special agent in Miami, he called on Tobe Bass and

PAGE 66






myself to assist in rounding up aliens. And this was during

the war. I have a clipping on that. That's where we went

in and we got, kicked down doors and everything else going

in, we were in civilian clothes. We didn't reflect FHP at

all. But we went in there to assist in rounding them up and

the Orange Bowl was a concentration camp for awhile.



CW: That, that seems like history repeats itself because they

used the Orange Bowl for the Mariel boat lift too.



AF: Sure.



CW: Where, where, where were the aliens coming from back then?



AF: They were peoples that were from these foreign countries

that were involved in the war.



CW: Trying to, refugees more or less trying to get out?



AF: No, people actually lived here, and so what we wanted to

find out from them was what did they have. What kind of an

agent are they or are they a citizen? A loyal citizen.

This occurred all over the country. Miami wasn't just one

of the places, it was all over.



CW: They had internment camps all over the place didn't they?



AF: Yeah, now you take out in Arkansas there, they had a lot of

Japs out there. But, I don't care to bring you up on any of

the commendation letters that I got from people, but like

PAGE 67






for the, well I mentioned a while ago at the riot down there

on the Keys. This Captain Crenshaw, he was a commandant at

the Navy base on Key West. A real nice commendation from

him as to how we functioned there in cooperation with his

contingent of the Marine Corps.



CW: Who else did you get commendations from?



AF: Oh, there's, I have letters all throughout my files here.

As you have time I can show them to you. They're numerous,

but like I say I'm not trying to glorify myself.



CW: No, this is good information.



AF: I remember one time in 1942 I apprehended a truckload of

slot machines coming south from Palm Beach to Miami. They

belonged to a fellow named Fry and I caught them and took

them in. It didn't make the Sheriff too happy. But anyway,

I did it because they were out there on the highway and I

had the right then to do it. I could see it.



CW: That was just part of the organized crime takeover down in

south Florida, the illegal gambling parlors and so forth?



AF: Oh they had been functioning long before the Patrol ever

organized. The old Purple Gang used to be there and they

had a place called Greenacres in Hallandale just east of US

1. It was a nightclub. You take Barbara, what's her name

on 20/20?


PAGE 68






CW: Walters.


AF: Barbara Walters. I knew her daddy. He had this big

nightclub down there on the causeway. Barbara was talking

about it one night when she was just a girl. I met these

gangsters. In fact one day the Fort Lauderdale police had a

torpedo man, for Dutch Schultz gang cornered in a car and

they were afraid to go up to him and get him out. I got

word of it. I just happened to be in the area and I pulled

in there in my car. I walked over to him and I found out

what it was and I saw he was just an ordinary guy, that's

all. So he had a gun, so did I. But, I walked over to him

and he was in this convertible. He was sitting there about

halfway between the seat. And I told him I said, you know

you can spill a lot of blood here but there isn't any sense

in it, why don't you come on and get out of here and these

officers want to get along with you just like everybody

else. I'd already flipped my holster loose. And, don't you

think it would really be better for you to cooperate a

little bit than it would to be creating a scene and maybe

get killed? He reached to the glove compartment but as he

did my gun hit his wrist. It didn't go any further. We

took him on out of the car. I turned him on over to the

police, got in my car and went on. Ha, ha, ha, ha.



CW: Ha, ha, ha.



AF: Those things happened, you know.


PAGE 69






CW: They still happen today.


AF: Yeah.



CW: Still happen today.



AF: Well, the Patrol you know they invested in rising machine

guns for awhile. 45 calibers. And I had one, and I had

tracer bullets. Did you ever fire those?



CW: Uh, uh. This is, this is history. This is history.



AF: Yeah, it's history. I mean you do things out there and yet

they fight you becoming a state police because the Sheriffs'

Departments did that an awful awful lot which I have records

on. At one time they didn't want this, but why weren't they

offering what the state of Florida could offer? See? But

you take different things like when the war came on there

was a very great shortage of rubber and we had to go to

these synthetic tires. And the speed limit had to be

dropped to 35 mph because if you went over 35 the tires

would blow out on you.



CW: About when did they start putting speed limits up, do you

remember?



AF: No, I can't say exactly, but I would say somewhere in the

year '41.


PAGE 70






CW: What was the maximum speed limit on an open highway before?


AF: 65.



CW: 65. And didn't it drop?



AF: 70, 70, 70, yes, it was 70 mph. And then they started

dropping it down. And of course during the war when it

really got on and then they put everything at 35 mph.



CW: Even the open roads?



AF: Everywhere, because they were on synthetic tires. Gasoline

rationing, you had to have coupons to get your gas. I had

so much gasoline anyway given to me because the airplane

crashes all around. It was not uncommon at all to see a

plane fall out there. I saw a plane one time do an

Immelman. That's an outside loop. The pilot didn't have

his belt on. He came out, the plane went on by itself. We

picked him up out of the ground. I picked up pilots out

there that were shredded like you'd shred lettuce. With the

aluminum structures of the planes had just when they hit the

ground they'd just bury into the ground, and just cut these

pilots up. I picked up bodies of them. Those were all of

the things that we did. But anyway, we gathered rubber. I

have a huge file on that, compliments of the Governor,

compliments of people. We took the proceeds when we cashed

in the rubber that we got and gave it to the Army and Navy

relief fund. But I had Indians out there helping me get old

tires and corsets and syringe bottles, anything you could

PAGE 71






think, out of the canals. I got pictures of the huge stack

of rubber tires and all that that we got. And the Chairman

of the Road Department came. I got Homer Rhodes who was

with the Game Commission to work with me. We went

everywhere that you could think of gathering this stuff.

Getting it in. And all this was going toward the war

effort. At the same time we weren't neglecting our work.

But you talk about Indians, they didn't want, if you were in

south Florida and had anything to do out there on Tamiami

Trail, they're a little bit squeamish back in those days

about being too friendly with a white person. But I was',

thought nothing of going into their chickee and sitting up

on the chickee with the, with the squaw and with the brave

together. I was welcome. I would take them into town with

me to the doctors and things like that, you know. During

hurricanes it was not uncommon to get them unwrapped from

around the trees out there afraid to turn loose and take

them back to the villages. We got along fine. I got lots

of pictures of Indians where they helped out with tires,

putting them in the back of my car and things like that.

Osceola, Corey Osceola who was the grandson of Osceola the

chief that you think about at St. Augustine, I've got a

picture of him in one arm, he and his wife, they were good

friends of mine. But that, it was some of the things that

the Patrol had an opportunity to establish. But, it was

about that time too that the Sheriffs were beginning to get

troubled. Because Walter Clark, who was Sheriff of Broward

County, was removed from his office then by Governor

Holland. There was quite a write-up on it and, but showing

you how things are, the state senate reinstated him. Put

PAGE 72






him back in office. Eddie Lee served as fill-in there for

awhile when Governor Holland put him there. But, I think

that when Governor Cone was there the one of the greatest

confusion and drop in morale started in the final years of

Governor Cone. Because it was obvious about favoritism.



CW: Who was the, who was the head of the Highway Patrol at this

time, in '42?



AF: Well now this was then coming, as I mentioned while ago

Jesse Gilliam.



CW: How long did he was he with us? About a year?



AF: No, he was longer than that. It was just when Caldwell came

in. And I can give you that. I'll have to go back to

this. This was in '40, it was in 45. Caldwell had taken

office and Gilliam would, let's see, it was in '45. I can

find a date for you as I go along here but.



CW: We'll probably pick that up.



AF: Yeah, you will. You'll pick it up. You know.



CW: But the morale was, the morale back then was going down?



AF: It was on a banana peel. And this was something that

climaxed under Governor Holland. Holland had a lot of

political favoritisms and the elevation in the ranks for

those who did not merit it was not uncommon to be seen.

PAGE 73






You'd hire men to go in there and make a Sergeant out of him

in no time at all. And put him over people who were really

dedicated, working their hearts out. And it, it affected

the morale.



CW: There was no written promotional exam or anything back then?



AF: None whatsoever.



CW: It was all appointed.



AF: Everything was appointed and that's the way it was. We had

even the Duke of Windsor came through once. This was in the

latter part of '42. He was in south Florida. I didn't have

anything to do with him. Mack Britt had him and some of the

Miami city officials. But I'm leading up to '43 here. I'm

getting into Harry Truman's situation. So I don't know.



CW: Let's, let's, we'll stop here and we'll go ahead and set up

another appointment and we'll finish off in 1942. We've got

a long way to go yet.



AF: Look at that. August 1, 1942, I was transferred back to Ft.

Lauderdale.



CW: Time is 1:15 PM September 18th, 1989.



CW: This interview is with Albert Fausett, the second interview

in conjunction with the Oral History Project for the 50th

Anniversary of the FHP. I'm Lieutenant Chuck Williams.

PAGE 74






We're at Mr. Fausett's home in Ocala. Today's date is

September 26th, 1989. The time is 10:15. Al we were

talking in the previous interview about some of the people

involved in the training at the first Highway Patrol school

down in Bradenton and I understand you've done some research

now insofar as those involved in the training of the first

trooper class. Who were some of those people?



AF: Well, first of all the school itself is housed at Manavista

Hotel, but their school work as far as auditorium space was

held on Memorial Pier. And the chief instructor was listed

as Captain George Mingle of the Ohio State Patrol. And of

course there was Jay T. Lowe, motorcycle officer of the

Duval County Road Patrol. And Sheriff C.J. Hutches of

Manatee County. He loaned his knowledge. And Bill Sheets,

he was a Bradenton police officer in the radio department.

He instructed us about radio and how obtain the radio

license we all received. And then there was Lieutenant Ben

Demby, D E M B Y, of the Miami Police Department, in charge

of radio down there. And there was Lieutenant O.W.

Whiteside of the Georgia Highway Patrol. There were FBI

agents there and they talked to us about fingerprinting and

the arts of how to preserve and gather information. And

there was the Red Cross people and National Safety Council

and of course the Attorney General was one of our speakers

at our graduation. There were other police officials there,

but that were competent enough to talk on Florida,

psychology.


PAGE 75






CW: The, the Red Cross, I assume, taught first aid back then.


AF: Yes. That was the limit of that.



CW: Okay. And the National Safety Council. Did you have like a

defensive driving course that you had to take through them?



AF: Well, they were trying to teach us more or less the, the act

of gaining proper information pertaining to accidents.

Because prior to that they had been very much interested in

factory injuries and things like that. But because of the

pressing demand of the highway accidents and injuries and

things they were wanting to really get into it. I forget

now the man's name but I do have it on file. But this was

one of their new fields that they were pushing on was

getting more statistics as to the cause of the accidents,

injuries, deaths on the highways. One of the things that

you talked to me about last week was about Paul Daniels and

his wife and how much did she receive. She received $1560

from the Broken Spoke Club. Because there was $10 apiece.

There was 156 members at that time according to the

newspaper clipping that I have.



CW: What, did you get an assessment every time somebody was

killed?



AF: Ten dollars per person, yes. See our original Broken Spoke

Club that we had, all of us that came out of the school were

classed as charter members. We didn't have an initiation

fee like they do today. But we were assessed $1 each month

PAGE 76






and in case of an accident or death or anything like that we

were assessed $10. In order to bring up, in case of an

injury why that was to bring up the injured person's salary

to the maximum level of what he was receiving then working

in conjunction with insurance.



CW: Broken Spoke did that as well as death benefits, then.



AF: Uh huh.



CW: Was there a board of directors of the Broken Spoke? Were

there folks in charge of it?



AF: Yes, we had three people that were in the Broken Spoke Club,

Stuart Senneff and I forget now, I can look it up, I don't

think it's that important. But I know that Stuart Senneff

was the secretary of it. He later on turned it over I think

to J.W. Hagans I believe, then became president of it or

something like that.



CW: Continuing on, I think, I think the last time we spoke we

left off with about 1942.



AF: Well, we still had the Orange Bowl facing us on the first

day there.



CW: Do you remember who played?



AF: No, I sure don't. I have no idea right now. I really

don't. But I know there always were some pretty good games,

PAGE 77






large crowds, enthusiasm for the old Orange Bowl. It, 1941

brought out a lot of things. We had Governor Holland in

there then. The legislature was requested to increase the

Patrol to no less than 120 and no more than 190. And to

make four Captains and eight Lieutenants and 16 Sergeants.

And I remember.



CW: Captains, Captains being what we now term the Troop

Commanders?



AF: Yes.



CW: They had more or less a region or district?



AF: Well back there the Captains had a division which had been

one third of the state. One third of the state. There was

the north, the central, and the south. That's the way it

was divided up. I don't know if you care to know about the

activities that occurred during the year in the courts and

so on. Statistics.



CW: Sure.



AF: The driver's license was increased to $1 and it was required

for exams on delinquents. Now there 2290 licenses revoked

in 1941 which was the previous year so we gathered this up.

There 389 suspensions. The revoked license was to be


PAGE 78






restored only by a parole commission. And the suspensions

were reinstated by the director on a recommendation of the

sentencing judge.



CW: Who was the director at this time?



AF: This was Gilliam. J.J. Gilliam.



CW: Were they testing for licenses at that point? There was to

be started there that Drivers License would require exams on

those who were delinquent. New ones that had not had a

driver's license, yes. But anybody who had a current, just

like today, all you did was renew it. What about the first

time licensee though, somebody just, just wanting a driver's

license for the first time?



AF: Well, in the early days they didn't require anything except

your money. You'd just go in there.



CW: They subcontracted to Sears and Roebuck, I think you could

buy a license in some cities.



AF: You probably could, I don't know about that. Most of us got

them from the county judge.



CW: When did they begin testing everybody for a driver's

license, do you recall?



AF: Well, I know that in '40, let's see when I was transferred

to Ft. Lauderdale in June of 1942 we were then giving

PAGE 79






driver's tests ourselves. We didn't even have civilian

employees. But it was shortly after that that as I will get

to it in the later portion of my statements here, that we

started having civilian employees doing that.



CW: What kind of driver's test, did you give the written as well

as the road test?



AF: We used that DL 4, the jacket that was put in the files in

Tallahassee after we had them answer the questions on the

back of that. And if they were able to do that and

satisfactorily show how to park and give hand signals how

they stopped, whether they stopped or just slowed down for

stop signs, and how they could back in to the curbing and

things like that.



CW: Did you have a, where there any patrol stations, Highway

Patrol stations in 1942?



AF: No. Only Division headquarters.



CW: Where did work, out of the local Sheriffs?



AF: Out of the local Sheriff's office. That's all.



CW: And I guess you conducted your driver's license operation

out of the same office?



AF: No, we managed to get the county commissioners to set off a

room within the courthouse. I know that in our particular

PAGE 80






case in Broward County we were expanding, and expanding, and

expanding and what little spaces we had became way too small

and we kept appealing to them for larger and larger. Which

they always did come around and give us additional space.

But we would use a room somewhere near the Sheriff's

Department. Because we felt that we should keep close to

them. We'd never know when we'd find somebody that comes in

that we'd need the assistance there of the Sheriff's

Department.



CW: How were the duties, how were the driver's license duties

spread out. Did you, did everybody take their turn or one

day a week or two days a week that you'd get the driver's

license function? Or how did you work that?



AF: Well, back in those early days we didn't have anybody to

spread it out to. It fell upon us ourselves. And we would

say, take one day a week and if anything happened on the

road why that's one reason why we were close to the

Sheriff's office. If a call should come in from a

distressed, from a scene out there, well then we just had to

pick up and go. But, 1943, as we increased the personnel

why then we were able to keep people on the road as well as

take one of them to give the driver's test. And that was

the beginning of starting to hire civilians which were put

into a uniform. I was transferred as I mentioned there to,

back-2to Ft. Lauderdale from south Miami in June of '42 and I

was placed under Sergeant Small. I was also sent to a

training school to assist and I forget now exactly whether

it was '42 or '43. I think it was '43 that I was sent there

PAGE 81






that I helped on teaching motorcycles. Had them riding in

and out of these tires and things like that and how to lay

them down in case you had to and how to protect yourself in

case you knew you were going to have a collision. I helped

out on first aid because I was a recognized instructor by

the Red Cross of first aid. And, did a lot of the drilling

because I was familiar with drilling having been in the

military school and was recognized by the Pentagon who sent

their generals down to inspect our school and they cited me

for my abilities there in the use of automatic weapons like

machine guns. I tied the all-time record for field

stripping when blindfolded. And, they wanted me to come

back to the school as a student the following year and teach

military science and tactics, so I felt qualified to help

there on the drilling and I guess the department did too.

And one thing too learned in the school that I knew how to

take care of equipment. And I was picked to that and while

there I did compose, I think this department still uses it,

but it's an equipment care report, where in going through

your territory you inspect your man to see how his

equipment, his car, and maintenance of his vehicle,

maintenance of his uniform, all of those sort of things.



CW: We still do that today. A few more things that we have to

check now, but we still do the monthly inspection.



AF: There was at this time the war was on, I had come very close

to Dick Danner who was then the Chief Special Agent for the

FBI in the Miami area. And he called on Tobe Bass and

myself to go in civilian clothes and to assist in rounding

PAGE 82






up aliens. We used the Orange Bowl as a concentration camp

down there. We did gather, I have clippings there that can

verify this, that it's not out of my head, I have proof of

it. We did collect an awful lot and we had to break down a

few doors here and there because the element of surprise was

the thing that we wanted to try to keep foremost. And not

just go up and knock on the door. We went in the we found

quite a few things although it's doubtful that they would

have been able to create much in the way of sabotage. As

those who came ashore from submarines later, which I can

tell you about as to when it happen and what really took

place. The FBI was having a war traffic school about then

and they invited the members of the Patrol in that area,

which I was one, and the various other police departments to

attend it. And it was really.



CW: What's a war traffic school?



AF: Well, it has to do with your responsibilities in the case of

movement of troops on the highways. It has to do with

security of the coastline, the enforcement of vehicles that

were being used on the roads, that they had blackout

headlights. Which meant that better than 50% of the

headlight was painted on the top half so that they couldn't

be seen from above. A light can be seen on the road, but as

to the vehicle itself it wouldn't illuminate so much. It

has to do with the governing of lighthouses even, showing

that their candlepower would be decreased. Because this is

something that I will be telling you about later how it

would make it perfect for a submarine to land offshore to
PAGE 83






pick out ships between them and the lighthouse. Which they

did. I know you get flashbacks every once in awhile of

things that did occur. It can go on and on and on.



CW: Obviously 1943 began with the famous Orange Bowl detail.



AF: Yeah. It always had traffic there at the Orange Bowl. The

Highway Patrol it just seemed that they were in demand to be

there. And there were two occasions that occurred in the

first part of the year that I was assigned to which I think

is worthy of mention. I got my assignments by radio, I

didn't have anything in writing. I was called to meet the

neighboring patrol car coming down. And the reason for

meeting it was that they were bringing who was then the

United States Senator Harry Truman, who was chairman of the

Dies Committee. Well, when he got there to me, I don't know

it seemed that we built up a pretty close relationship.

Because I had him on two different occasions and spent a lot

of time with him. When we got to Ft. Lauderdale he wanted

to go by Walter Clark's house where we did go there and

nothing was ever private from me at any time, the

conversations, what took place, and so on. Then, I'll show

how an ordinary person he is, he said I'm hungry, what about

us going out in the kitchen and getting something to eat?

So, okay, we'll do that. So he and I went out and left

Walter in the house there. He said I'm going to make the

sandwiches, how about you pouring the drinks? Well, of


PAGE 84






course this was not, this was soft drinks of course. And

things like that. Anytime he was in the area why I was with

him all the time.



CW: Did he ride in your patrol car with you?



AF: Right on the front seat. Right in the front seat. He'd

never sit in the back. He's just plain old Harry up there.

He was a plain individual. He did some wild things while he

was down there which I'll discuss at a later time when he

dedicated the Everglades National Park which is also in the

encyclopedias to back up what I'm telling you. It was

shortly after that the new Overseas Highway was being built

and was coming along well. That's when Governor Holland

came down and he inspected the, the highway which was a

great change from the old, old highways that we had there.



CW: Was this, was this Spessard Holland?



AF: This was Spessard Holland. Yeah. There was a call that

went to me, I don't know why they picked on me, but I guess

it was because I had been to the FBI School that they had

there in Miami as I mentioned previously about the war

traffic school that the city of Ft. Lauderdale was having a

defense for police training for recruits. And they were

working in conjunction with the home guard. And they called

me there to give a lecture to them, which I did. I can

never forget that one night a taxi was stolen by means of

armed robbery and I got the call on the radio and it was

stolen in Ft. Lauderdale and I was ten miles south in

PAGE 85






Hollywood. I got the radio call and it said it was a

sailor. Well, I knew right where he was going to be going

with that thing. It was just a hunch, and so I went right

straight to the Hollywood Beach Hotel where they were

housed. In comes the car, the sailor jumps out and goes

inside, and I go right to the duty officer, find out who it

was and he told me that it was a boy that just checked. His

name was Stewartz. And, Stewartz, that's just too

familiar. A thousand miles away, twelve hundred miles away

I knew this boy's family before he was ever born. And I

went on up there with the Shore Patrol right to his room and

I said, Cooney, that was his nickname, get up from there.

And, sure enough that was him. He was the one who had

stolen this car by means of firearms. He didn't shoot the

man or anything like that but he stole the car, so in the

brig he went. We were very cooperative with the military

and the military was cooperative with us. And whenever we

picked up a serviceman we usually turned it over to the

military courts and I would go to the courts as a witness if

necessary and so on. They got good punishment in the

military courts. And we, we had the freedom to go about on

their bases with our firearms on us. And I refused to go on

the base unless I did have it because I considered myself

out of uniform if I didn't have my gun on the side of me the

same as the MPs had. The people at the taxi company were,

just couldn't believe, but anyway they wrote a nice letter

to the department-about it and it was also in a magazine.

The state guard had a lot of volunteers and they were taking

on recruits as fast as they could. They had to drill them

with firearms and they called on me to come in there and

PAGE 86






help them with their firearms. Which I considered that an

honor. There was time too that the Sheriff, D.C. Coleman,

down in Dade County had his men pick up this Vincent

Christy, who was a murderer who killed a whole entire

Leopold family. That was quite a thing back in those days.

And they had him in custody and they, they had fear of

getting him to Miami without sufficient escort. So they

called on me to escort them, and I went with them all the

way to the Dade County Courthouse. Which I have a picture

of that. And then next thing after that may have not been

the first, but it's the first one I've heard about, I had to

shoot a boy down there one night. He was a soldier, he

stole a car. And he ran around the house, and I had an MP

and the Shore Patrol with me. I hollered at him to halt and

he wouldn't do it. I told him, I said if you don't stop I'm

going to shoot you. Well, when I said that he headed right

straight to my car which was setting there with the door

open because I was after him so fast so I just leveled it

out there and shot him. I've got pictures of it showing

where he was hit. In the hospital it shows the operation,

the removal of the bullet which I still have today.



CW: Did you kill him?



AF: No. I didn't intend to. But it was a very well delivered

bullet right into the shoulder, right shoulder, it went

right down his arm and stopped between the wrist and the

elbow. And I'll show you those pictures if you want to see

them later. Then we began to have technicians working on

our radios. Before that we always had to depend on local

PAGE 87






police departments to help us out. I have a picture here of

John Conyers who was one of our patrolmen who knew quite a

bit about radios but he got into the radio division of it

and started checking the radios from place to place,

different ones. It was during this year of 1943 that many

things occurred. World War II was exploding all over the

place. All vehicles were required to operate with the upper

half of the headlights painted black. As I mentioned awhile

ago, the lighthouse lights were reduced to at least 50%.

I'm thinking particularly about the one that was in my own

neighborhood there right close to the Gulf Stream called

Hillsborough Lighthouse at Pompano. And in the beginning

the FBI agents, Army and Navy intelligence, they rode with

me constantly. I never was alone anymore. And as they were

trained from time to time they had MPs developing the

knowledge of what they were to do and got the Shore Patrol

learning. Then they started replacing the military

intelligence people with me. Well, dealing with military

patrols on foot along Highway A1A which was the oceanfront

there at nighttime, it was a very ticklish thing at first.

They were all very green people and many of them were scared

to death. These young boys were fresh out of the farms and

off of plows and handed a rifle, and some of them had never

had such thing in their hands before. It was not uncommon

to come up on a patrol at night and have the CO, I can

remember one Lieutenant that was in charge of this squad,

platoon, and he'd stand there with his sidearm in his hand

and just shaking like he was having a severe chill. He was

frightened. He didn't know whether I was the enemy or not.

His men, I've seen them pull back the bolts on their rifles

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and shaking so that they couldn't even get it back into

place there. They were a brave bunch of boys. They were

actually scared that they knew that their area was being

patrolled along the Gulfstream by German submarines. There

had been landings by rubber rafts and they came ashore to

certain arranged areas. And I've had rockets shot right

over my patrol car at night. They were coming both from the

ocean and from the land. So I was able to contact the State

Road Department engineers and actually get a pinpoint as to

exactly where these things were coming from on the land

side. And this was given to my friends in the FBI at once

and they closed in on a Gulf Service Station that was

located on Oakland Park Road and A1A. Well right in behind

the station in a protected area there was a little small

homemade shack and it had six bunks in it. And these bunks

were found and had been occupied. And this operator was

posing as a seashell outlet, selling seashells there at that

service station just as a rouge. Information in quizzing

him revealed that he'd been making trips to the upper

Florida Keys and was charting the various channels for

submarine use. And since it had been established that the

saboteurs had been put ashore here, even one ran out of his

shoe when he landed, and it was sufficient to suspicion that

the Gulf Station operator as a contact for the enemy. The

fact too was that submarines were known to be in the area is

the ships were being torpedoed along the Hillsborough

light. That's by the lighthouse itself. And the area

proved that they were in existence out there. It also

refers to a story that I have on the back of a clipping here

about saboteurs on the Florida coast and the submarines, in

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the newspaper. I have a copy of it. The outline of the

ships that were passing the lighthouse even though reduced

in candlepower became a perfect target for torpedoes. They

could see them come through and break that light and get the

outline. The activity was confirmed on page 1 of the Miami

Herald dated July the 26th, 1942. Dick Danner as I

mentioned earlier was my friend. And I've had much

correspondence with him through the years since. My friend

and special agent in charge of the Miami FBI saw to it that

I was almost always accompanied by one of his men. The

information that we learned was what they call very

classified. So much so that it did not become known beyond

his office. In fact the department didn't even know a lot

of it. There was a case when a Navy blimp was searching the

waters off Hillsborough when a German sub surfaced right out

there in those shallow waters this side of the Gulfstream.

And it surfaced right underneath the blimp. Well, it used

its deck guns because they opened the hatch and came out and

got that deck gun and they shot down the blimp. But before

that blimp completely fell to the water they were able to

use their radio and they called in to the Ft. Lauderdale

Naval Air Station which was just a few miles away. It

didn't take them long to get their Grumman TBFs in the air.

And they were right out there and those waters being shallow

until you get out past the Gulfstream, and they found the

sub and they blew him to pieces. I had proof of that

because I had a mattress that came out of that sub and I

kept it for years and years. A bunk mattress like they use

on the submarines. -Well, all of this here caused an

activity on the. part of the Patrol in delivering blood. We

PAGE 90






used to have to go to Miami to Jackson Memorial and pick up

case after case of raw blood and we rushed it. This was in

the early days of those transfusions back there then. They

didn't have as much chance of doing much Pasteurizing or

whatever was necessary with the blood. And we had to rush

it by FHP from Miami to the vicinity of Vero Beach for the

merchant seamen who were on the ships that were torpedoed

just offshore. Well this struck home to me one day when one

of our own FHP was on one of those ships as a seaman. It

was long ago and I've lost his name. I think it was Johnny

Patterson, but I don't remember now. But I'll never forget

waiving goodbye to him standing there on shore and he was up

on the high deck there and waiving goodbye to me when he

pulled out from Port Everglades.



CW: Was he with the Patrol and then went to sea?



AF: Yeah. He went to sea because of the fact he was like others

in the Patrol that was not married. So consequently they

got drafted. The draft board refused to take me. I tried

my best to get them to take me but they would not do it.

Because I was married and had a family. No, I didn't have

family yet, I was just married. But they wouldn't take me.

But he was taken and he did like others, he enlisted. It

was my understanding that that was his first trip and his

last trip. Because I understand that ship was hit as soon

as they got out to sea. And, on the very first day. Well,

we had not only that to go by, we had visual proof that

things were happening because as much oil that washed ashore

on the beaches and lot of tar that comes out of engine

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rooms, difficult to get off your shoes. If you were out

there on the beach swimming and got it on your feet you

would have to take mineral spirits to get it off, because it

really stuck. The information that came back to the various

intelligence agencies revealed that happenings were

happening long before the media ever became aware of it. We

knew what was taking place on the battlefront. Well, that

pretty well covered '43. We got '44 coming up if you want

me to go into that unless you have any questions.



CW: Was, was, was the Highway Patrol involved in, in coast

watching and all, or just, I mean, you just more or less

took care along A1A?



AF: You took care of your own assigned territory. And where the

need was the most I felt in my particular case I had no

instructions one way or the other, but I felt that my public

safety was. Public safety, that's all. That's protecting

the people. And the Sheriff's department were quite nill in

those days. They were interested in trying to help out on

home guard and things like that but as far as being out and

patrolling the areas like we were. And it seemed that the

FBI had a choice in the matter too because they certainly

worked me over time. I was glad to be of service.



CW: 1944.



AF: Yeah, this was another year, we still had the situation

there to take care of. I was awarded a Certificate of

Achievement in Basic Procedure in Law Enforcement from the

PAGE 92






University of Florida right at the first of the year there.

The thing was necessary that these kind of polishings up is

necessary constantly, otherwise people can get real rusty,

they can get in ruts. But there was so much activity back

there then that there wasn't much of a chance to get in a

rut believe me. We were constantly being kept in pistol

practice. The FHP was. I have pictures here showing us,

quite a group of us, two different pictures where we were in

Port Everglades where the Ft. Lauderdale Police Department

had their pistol range there and we'd keep pretty sharp on

that all the time. Then about that same time too as the

military was around they have bivouac here and bivouac

there, I had an incident come up that's kind of embarrassing

to me. The Chief of Police of Ft. Lauderdale who is well

known there, well liked, in sports and in police work in the

community and everything else, he made a big mistake. He

went to Miami one time in a city car in uniform, came back

and he stopped by the country club out there and played a

little poker and took on a few little drinks to the point

where he was deprived of his normal faculties. And darkness

overtook him so when he headed for home his visibility must

have been quite obscured. Anyway a narrow little old street

coming into Ocala, I mean to Ft. Lauderdale, just outside

the city there was a platoon of, or company rather, more

than just a platoon of soldiers out there on bivouac. They

were marching single file along both sides of the road. And

they had their Captain with them. And he was driving down

the road there, the Chief was, meeting this car in the

opposite direction. He crossed over the center line and hit

this car and then bounced off of it and went over off the

PAGE 93






road and hit three of the soldiers. And he went out into

the sand there where it was quite sandy in that area and got

stuck. He kept trying to get the thing out of there and go

off and leave them. So the soldiers surrounded him and

stopped him. In the meantime the police department came out

there, which was out of their jurisdiction, and they tried

to help him in every way they could. But, the Captain of

the Army insisted they call the Highway Patrol. I just

happened to be in the station at the time and I got the

call. I had to go out there. Well, they had sobered him

enough, pouring chewing gum to him as fast as they could to

change his breath. To say that he was totally deprived of

his faculties at the time that I got there, I couldn't

testify to that. But the physical evidence warranted me

after talking to the prosecuting attorney that we had

sufficient grounds to charge him with willful and wanton

disregard for human life and property. Which we did. And

that went into quite a hassle, a jury trial, and it bounced

back and forth there for quite awhile. The jury convicted

him. The city fired him. The civil service board asked me

if I would accept the job as Chief of Police and I told them

no. So they appointed their assistant chief as acting chief

until they could make up their minds what they were going to

do. That was an ordeal that I didn't care to be a part of,

but I had no choice in the matter. Well, most of the year

was just involved with routine patrol work, court cases, and

awareness of the needs of the area but one of the needs that

I noticed with concern was the availability of ammunition on

the part of all the police officers up and down my

territory. I found like for instance in Hallandale there

PAGE 94






was one police officer didn't have but two bullets in his

gun. And he couldn't buy them. Hardware stores didn't have

them. It's because most of the ammunition was going to the

Navy in 38 caliber. 45 caliber was going to the Army. But

there was a friend of mine named Eddie Myers who came on the

Patrol. I had known him for years and he had served my

father who was Chief of Police in Ocala as a representative

of an arms company. And in talking with Eddie I was able to

get him to make contact with Peters Arms Company. And they

agreed to send me in case lots ammunition. Which I in turn

doled out to the police up and down the line. But it was

quite a situation there for awhile. When you see a police

officer out there with one and two bullets in his gun and

that's all he had.



CW: You didn't practice very much, obviously.



AF: I did. I practiced because I had ammunition but the police

themselves didn't because they didn't have the ammunition to

do it with. The department with Eddie Myers coming into the

scene started reloading, making wadcutters as we call them,

the blunt-nosed bullets. We did a lot of practice there and

I was able to get a lot of ammunition out of the military.

They had so much of it. And they would always invite me to

their ranges, and I stayed and practiced there with them a

lot. And so there wasn't any particular shortage there as

far as I was concerned. That's why I felt that anything you

could do to help a brother officer regardless of what

uniform he was wearing, I'd try to do it. -On occasions

after training school because of our marksmanship Red Martin

PAGE 95






who was a Captain of the central division later on, and then

Jay Hall who was up in Tallahassee for years, and myself and

there was one other, I forget who it was now. I don't

remember whether it was Homer Clay or who it was but we used

to demonstrate firearms and marksmanship. And this proved

helpful to me when I got called on by Captain Jack Fannon,

the home guard, to instruct his people in the home guard how

to train the recruits, how to use firearms. All those

things paid off. And because of the many military bases in

my area there was always troop movement as I mentioned

awhile ago. This called for much coordination between the

state and city and county police. It wasn't just a case you

get in front of a car and take it down the road. When you

have three, as much as one time I had four hundred plus

trucks and that included troops with full equipment. And

they were headed for ports of embarkation. The city police

were always kept on the routes more than anything else. And

the FHP usually did the escorting. And they were on the

routes to help us to keep people from running out in front

of us. As they would do it once in awhile. Some of them

would get impatient sitting there when you've got three and

four hundred trucks rolling through a city like Miami. They

get impatient and want to come out. Well, there were times

when this occurred and some of them just didn't realize that

we were at war, and that they had to stay there. Well, we

were losing men too, we had lost 20 of them all told in the

draft, or either by enlistment.



CW: Twenty troopers?


PAGE 96






AF: Yes, and Director Gilliam would not replace these men when

they were called into the service. I have a clipping that

backs that up. But that pretty much covers 1944. Things,

there were a lot more things happen but this could go on and

on. In 1945 as I had mentioned to you when I talked to you

last time that I had nearly a trunkload of correspondence

with records of all kinds that I had destroyed. I didn't

see the need of keeping them. I didn't anticipate this day

to come and that I figured that FHP would have a lot of this

stuff. I still got the memories of those things and

wherever I can bring it out, I'll be glad to do it. But

during this period things were in a turmoil in the Patrol.

And there was a lot of jealousy among the ranking officers

that had been friendly brothers you might say in the

service. And it was very obvious and this was being

reflected down through the ranks and was putting resentment

of one district against the other. And for an example on

that, you might be in the fifth district and you come over

into my district and I've got FHP issued gun in my holster

with the handle on there like they issued. But you'd be

wearing a pearl handle. Well, I couldn't do it because I

wasn't instructed to do that, or wasn't permitted to do it.

But these are some of the little silly things that were

occurring but it hit home with a lot of the fellows. Some

of them were having special little things on their patrol

cars. Different ways, little things on their uniform. And,

it, it was just one of these things that created a bad

situation. That it, the brother up there in Pensacola had


PAGE 97






to wear it a certain way, the one in Key West should wear it

the same way too. But it was not that way, it was beginning

to get.



CW: Go according to district?



AF: Yeah. And whoever the CO was there, he was allowing these

things, or either setting the example himself. Well, the

pot came to a boil between Director Gilliam and Captain

Senneff. It was quite a, I have quite a clipping on that

thing as to the turmoil that took place, and the Governor

discussing it and the Cabinet. And Gilliam resigned

effective August the 15th, 1945. Before doing so, he

preferred charges against Senneff. In the meantime, Tobe

Bass, who was one of the original troopers stationed with me

in Ft. Lauderdale from the first school, we'd had a lot

together. A lot of instruction one to the other, criticism

one to the other, what you would call beneficial

instruction. We worked together and we had a lot of harmony

and a lot of respect for each other. We became very good

friends and we remained respectful of one another from the

training school on and we kept discussing the unrest in the

Patrol. And what could be done to get who we figured was

the right man back in the Patrol, and that was Neil Kirkman

who was the one in charge of the old Patrol under Scholtz.

He was in charge of the Patrol in the beginning under Fred

P. Cone before he brought Bill Reid in and, and Pig Green.

I suggested to Tobe myself that my family had been host many

times and friends since and including way back when Governor

John Martin was the Governor way before Scholtz. And right

PAGE 98






here in Marion County. And right down to well including

United States Senator Park Trammell who was apparently a

very good friend of mine because he recommended me in an

appointment to West Point which I turned down. And I

figured there was influence down to Nat Mayo who was a

Marion County man who had known my grandfather since the

early days of each of them. And Claude Pepper himself. I

figured that something might be done to get Kirkman out of

the Army, where he was stationed in the Army. We knew where

he was and so we figured, I suggested that I write to him.

I wish that I had kept copies of that, but that was part of

the stuff in the trunk and that I had gotten his reply back

to see just how it was. He responded and he welcomed any

support that we could give him. And the one letter that I

have here in my file right now reflects his attitude about

me when he was writing to me when I got hurt that one time

later on in '45, or '46. But he wrote some very personal

things. He was anxious to get back to the Patrol. So

knowing that he was in Ft. George Meade in Maryland, why as

I say, I wrote to him and got his reply back. Well Governor

Caldwell had taken office and from all indications it looked

like he was just going to instill a little merit in the

Patrol. We felt very confident that this man was going to

make things straight down the road. So between Tobe Bass

and myself, we seemed through the families and friends to

help get Kirkman out of the Army and to appeal to Governor

Caldwell, which was successful. My side obtained Senator

Pepper's influence. He was the United States Senator then.

He wasn't just the Congressman after George Smathers had his

little set to with him. We were able to get Nathan Mayo, Ed

PAGE 99






Larson, they all with their votes and petition to Governor

Caldwell which apparently he favorably accepted it, because

with Bob Gray on the part of Tobe Bass he worked on him and

when you've got those kind of commitments and it seemed that

Caldwell was very anxious to make the change. Particularly

after what had happened. So he, he knew, I knew that

Kirkman was stationed in Ft. Meade and on August the 15th he

was officially offered the job as State Director of Public

Safety to be filled within 60 days. So Olin Hill who was a

good officer had been promoted temporarily as Captain and

acting as Director. And it was on that same day, let's see,

August the 14th it was, yeah, that same day Senneff resigned

as Captain of the southern division and also Sergeant Ray

Small resigned and went to the Ft. Lauderdale Police

Department. And Lieutenant Tobe Bass was transferred to Ft.

Lauderdale to take charge of the southern division. And

Lieutenant Mack Britt was assigned in charge of the fifth

district at Ft. Myers. October the 16th, 1945, Kirkman came

to Tallahassee to accept as Director. He not only had been

offered but he came now to accept it. It was early in 1945

that I was occupied with considerable accidents and arrests

and vandalism and car thefts and military personnel. And in

December I had, I don't know why, but they invited me, the

Railroad Commission invited me to their convention at Miami

Beach for services rendered to them during the railroad

strike that they had. And on the 4th, 5th, and 6th I was a

guest of J.M. Lee and Ed Larson at the 30th convention at

Roney Plaza. And so I was granted an assignment there to be

with them. It was on the first of December 1945 that I was

promoted to Sergeant after six years. And, my dates are a

PAGE 100




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