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Title: Adolph Dial
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Title: Adolph Dial
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Full Text
ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MONOLOGUE: G. E. Butler, "The Croatan Indians
of Samson County, Their Origin and
Racial Status, a Plea for Separate
Schools" Adolph Dial
DATE: September 3, 1971





D: Today is September 3, 1971. I am at the Sampson County Public
Library, visiting the festivities of the Indians in Robeson County.
Tonight there well be a princess contest, tomorrow a parade and
speakers, and a thing on Sunday afternoon. While here in Sampson
County, I thought it would be feasible to research in the library
any material on the Indians of this area. I have here one book
written by George E. Butler, Clinton, North Carolina, entitled The
Croatan Indians of Sampson County, Their Origin and Racial Status,
A Plea for Separate Schools. George E. Butler's son, Alvin R.
Butler, is the federal judge of this district and is much in the
news these days. He is holding a hearing on the public schools
in the Prospect area of Robeson County.
On the very first page are pictures of the Croatan Normal
School at Pembroke, North Carolina--the first Croatan Indian
school established and supported by the state. There were about
fifty or sixty students. The copyright date of this book is 1916.
It was published by the Seenman Printery, Durham, North Carolina.
On the first page is a petition of the Indians of Sampson County
to the Honorable Board of Education of Sampson County, North Car-
olina, stating: "The undersigned, your petitioners, a part of the
Croatan Indians living in the county of Sampson, state a foresaid,
having their residence here for more than 200 years as a citizen
and taxpayer of the county and state equally sharing all the bur-
dens of our government and desiring to share in all the benefits
----------------respectfully petition your honorable board for
such recognition and aid in the education of their children as you
may see fit to extend to them the amount appropriated to be used
for the sole and exclusive purpose of assisting your petitioners
to educate their children and fit them for the duties of citizen-
ship. Your petitioners would show that there are, according to
the bulletin of the thirteenth census of 1910, 213 Indians in
Sampson County and that there are, I believe, of school age for
whom there are no separate school provisions, over 100 Indian
school children, that these children are not permitted to attend,
and have no desire to attend, the white schools and in no other
section of the state are they required to attend the colored
schools, that they are a distinct and separate race of people and
are now endeavoring as best they can at their own expense to build
and maintain their own schools without any appropriation from the
county or state notwithstanding their carefully paid taxes for this
purpose and otherwise share in the burdens and benefits of the
government, that the Croatan Indians of this county are a quiet,
peaceful, and industrious people and have been residents of this
section long before the event of the white man with whom they are,
they have always been friendly and with whom they have always
courted and maintained cordial relations. There is tradition among
them that they are a remnant of White's lost colony and during the
long years that have passed since the disappearance of that colony
they have been struggling to fit themselves and their children for
the exalted privileges and duties of American freemen and to sub-
stantiate this historical and traditional claim hereto attend and
make a part of this petition such historical data as they have been
able to collect to aid you in arriving at their proper racial
status. Your petitioners respectfully show that they are of the





2
same race and blood and is part of the same people held by Indians
of Robeson County, many of whom were former residents of Sampson
County and with whom they have married and intermarried. That since
the state of North Carolina has been so just and generous as to
provide special and separate school advantages for our brothers and
kinsmen in Robeson County as well as in the counties of Richmond,
Scotland, Hoke, Person, and Cumberland, we now appeal to you for
the same just and generous recognition from the State of North
Carolina and from your honorable board in Sampson County that we
may share equal advantages with them as people of the same race and
blood and as loyal citizens of the state, and your petitioners will
ever pray. Respectfully submitted, Ezem Amond, H. A. Broyton, J.
H. Broyton, J. R. Jones, Robin Jacob, R. J. Jacob, Calvin Amond,
H. S. Broyton, Jonathan Goodman, Lucy Goodman, Jeff Jacob, J. D.
Simmon, William Simmon, Sr., W. J. Bedsole, Matthew Burnett, Enich
Emanuel, Jr., Gus Robertson, M. L. Broyton, R. H. Jacog, J. W.
Faircloth, E. R. Broyton, W. R. Bedsole, Enich Emanuel, C. B.
Broyton, W. D. Broyton, Thomas Jones, C. O. Jacob, J. S. Strictland,
Michael Goodman, Enich Jacob, A. J. Amond, C. A. Broyton, C. D.
Broyton, Martha Jones, C. J. Jacobs, J. M. West, Albert Jacobs,
R. W. Wims, J. A. Broyton, Harley Goodman, W. E. Goodman, D. J.
Faircloth, Hersey Simmon, J. G. Simmon, J. A. Bedsole, H. J. Jones,
and Jonah Manuel."
Chapter one, page eight, contains an historical sketch of the
Indians of Sampson and adjoining counties. On July 30, 1914, the
United States Senate passed a resolution directing the secretary of
the interior to investigate the conditions and tribal rights of the
Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties of North Carolina,
recently declared by the legislature of North Carolina to be
Cherokee and formally known as Croatan. They were to report to
Congress what tribal rights, if any, they have with the Indian band
or tribe--whether they are entitled to have or receive any land,
whether there are any monies due them under their present condition,
their educational facilities, and such other facts as would enable
Congress to determine whether the government would be warranted in
making suitable provisions for their support and education. In
conformity with this request, the secretary of the interior called
an investigation to be made by a special Indian agent, 0. M.
Macpherson. His report, dated September 19, 1914, is quite full,
showing a careful investigation of the grounds as well as histori-
cal research. This report was submitted by the secretary of the
interior to the president of the Senate of January 4, 1915, and is
entitled, "Report on Conditions and Tribal Rights of the Indians of
Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina." This report
contains 252 pages from which we have gathered much information
embraced in this historical sketch. We have examined the booklet
prepared by Honorable Hamilton McMillan of Fayetteville, North
Carolina, who made an extensive study and investigation of the
Croatans entitled, "Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony." We have
examined the sketch entitled, "The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Its
Fate and Survival," by one of our state historians, Honorable
Steven B. Wheat. We have also examined Samuel A. Ash's history of
North Carolina, volume two of Hull's history of North Carolina,
and a work entitled, "Handbook of American Indians." The histor-
ical records, the family history and traditions, information





3
attainable from the United States census in 1910, and the school
and tax records of Sampson County form the basis of the information
set out in this historical sketch.
The Croatan Indians comprised a body of mixed blood people
residing chiefly in Sampson, Robeson, Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland,
Scotland, Richmond and Hoke counties in North Carolina, and in
Sumter, Marlboro, and Dillon counties in South Carolina. They are
called "Redbones" in South Carolina but probably belong to the same
type of people residing in North Carolina. In the eleventh census,
1890, under the title, "North Carolina Indians," they are described
as "generally white, showing the Indian mostly in actions and
habits. They are enumerated by the regular census, enumerated in
part as white, are clannish, and hold with considerable pride the
tradition that they are descendents of the Croatans of the Raleigh
period in North Carolina and Virginia."
They are described in the Handbook of American Indians as
people evidently of mixed Indian and white blood, found in various
sections of the eastern part of North Carolina, particularly in
Robeson County. It is also stated that for many years they were
classed with the free Negroes but steadfastly refused to accept
such classification or to attend Negro schools or churches,
claiming to be descendents of the early native tribes and white
settlers who had intermarried with them. A bulletin of the thir-
teenth census, 1910, of North Carolina, showed their number to be
as follows: Bladen County, thirty-six; Columbus County, twelve;
Cumberland County, forty-eight; Scotland County, seventy-four;
Union County, ten; Harnett County, twenty-nine; Sampson County,
213; and Robeson County, 5,895. The total in North Carolina was
6,317 in 1910. The Indian office in Washington had no knowledge
of the existence of the Croatan Indians until the latter part of
1888 when that office received a petition sent by fifty-four of
these Indians describing themselves as part of the Croatan Indians
living in Robeson County, claiming to be remnants of White's lost
colony, and petitioning Congress for aid.
On January 11, 1889, the directors of the Ethnological Bureau,
in response to this petition, replied, "I beg leave to say that
Croatan in 1585 was the name of an island and Indian village just
north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. White's colony of 120 men
and women had landed on Roanoke Island just to the north in 1587
and in 1590 when White returned to revisit the colony he found no
trace of it on Roanoke Island save the name "Croatan" carved upon
a tree which, according to a previous understanding, was inter-
preted to mean that the colonists had left Roanoke Island for
Croatan. No actual trace of the missing colony was ever found,
but more than 100 years afterward Lawson obtained additional infor-
mation from the Hatteras Indians which led him to believe that the
colonists had been incorporated with the Indians. It was thought
that traces of white blood had been discovered among the Indians,
some having grey eyes. It is probable that the greater number of
the colonists were killed, but it was quite in keeping with the
Indian usage that a greater or a lesser number, especially women
and children, could have been made captive and subsequently incorp-
orated into a tribe."





4
A tradition among these Indians was that their ancestors were
white people, part of Governor White's lost colony who amalgamated
with the Hoke Indians and afterwards moved to the interior where
they now reside. It is a matter or common knowledge that the In-
dians are a people of tradition being entirely destitute of written
records. These traditions would be of little value were they not
supported by authentic historical data. Governor White left a
colony of 120 men and women from England on Roanoke Island in 1587.
When he returned in 1590 he found no trace of the colony save the
word "Croatan" carved upon a tree in Roman letters, the word
"Croatan" without any cross or sign of distress about the word, for
he had the understanding that if any misfortune came to them, they
should put a cross over the word. One of the earlier maps of the
Carolina coast, which appears in Leader's Travelers, prepared in
1666, represents Croatan as an island south of Cape Hatteras.
Croatan is part of the mainland directly west of Roanoke Island.
Governor White indicates that the colony originally removed to
Croatoan and not to Croatan. The term "Croatan," or "Croatoan,"
was applied by the English to defend this friendly tribe of Manteo
whose chief abode was on the island southward from Roanoke. The
name "Croatan" seems to indicate a locality in the territory claim
of Manteo and his tribe. Manteo was one of two friendly Indians
who had been carried to England by Sir Richard Grimble and returned
with Governor White on the occasion of his first voyage in 1587.
By direction of Sir Walter Raleigh, Manteo was baptized and, in
reward for his service to the English, was designated Lord of
Roanoke. McMillan, in his pamphlet, says, "It is evident from the
story of Governor White that the colonists went southward along the
coast of Roanoke, of Croatan Island, now a part of Carteret County
in North Carolina and distanced about 100 miles in a direct line
from Albermarle Sound." Dr. Hogg, in his history, speaks of this
tribe as the Hatteras Indians.
From the first appearance of the English, relations of the
most friendly character were known to exist between the tribe and
the colony. Manteo was their chief. The Hatteras Indians are des-
cribed in the Handbook of American Indians as follows: "Hatteras,
an Algonquin tribe living in 1710 on the sandy banks about the Cape
Hatteras in of Pamlico Sound, frequently Roanoke
Island. Their single village and bank has only about eighty inhab-
itants. They show traces of white blood and claim that their an-
cestors were white. They may have been identical with the Croatan
Indians, with whom Raleigh's colonists at Roanoke Island are sup-
posed to have taken refuge."
John Lawson was an early English explorer who left a permanent
record of his travels among the tribes of North Carolina. He com-
menced his journey on December 28, 1700. Lawson's history of North
Carolina is regarded as the standard authority for the period he
covered and he states that there was a band of Indians in the
eastern part of North Carolina known as Hatteras Indians that lived
on Roanoke Island. They told him that many of their ancestry were
white people and could talk in a book. Many of these Indians had
grey eyes that were found among no other Indians, were friendly to
the English, and were ready to do all the friendly services. He





5
states it is probable that White's colony miscarried for want of
timely supplies from England, or, through treachery of the natives.
We may reasonably suppose the English were forced to cohabit with
them and that, in the process of time, they conformed themselves
to the manner of their Indian relations. Sam Lawson traveled among
the Indians of North Carolina before they had come in contact with
any of the white settlers and found the same tribe of Indians re-
siding on the south side of the Neuse River as the Coree tribe.
One of the head men of this tribe was an Indian of the name of
Eno-Will, who traveled several days with Lawson and his guide.
"Speaking of this Indian," Lawson said, "our guide and landlord,
Eno-Will, had the best and most agreeable temper that I ever saw
within an Indian, being always ready to serve not out of gain but
real affection." Lawson had with him his Bible, and Eno-Will was
accompanied by his son, Jack, fourteen years old. Eno-Will re-
quested that Lawson teach his son to "talk in a book and to make
paper speak," to write. From MacPherson's report commenting on the
above, we copy as follows: "The presence of grey eyes and fair
skin among these people in Lawson's time cannot be explained on any
other hypothesis than that of amalgamation with the white race."
Lawson wrote in 1709 that a tradition among the Hatteras Indians
stated that their ancestors were white people who could talk in a
book, and that they valued themselves extremely for their affinity
to the English and were ready to do them all friendly offices.
I have already referred to the fact that Eno-Will--a Coree
Indian who had been raised on the coast and was probably nearly
seventy years of age when he acted as Lawson's guide--knew that the
English could "talk in a book," and as he probably expressed it,
could "make paper talk," indications that he was familiar with the
customs of the English. Coupled with the fact that the guide had
an English name, Will, which he probably assumed at the age of
twenty or twenty-one, and the information previously given by him
that he lived on Eno Bay when he was a boy, leads to the conclusion
that the Corees had come in contact with at least some portion of
the Lost Colony. It must be remembered that when Will was a boy
there were no English settlements on the east coast of North Car-
olina, other than White's Lost Colony. Their religion and ideas of
faith were more exalted than was common among the savages and leads
one to believe that they had communication with the more civilized
race from the east. There is an abiding tradition among the people
at the present time that their ancestors were the Lost Colony,
amalgamated with some tribes of Indians. This tradition is sup-
ported by their looks, complexion, color of skin, hair and eyes, by
their manners, customs, and habits.
Speaking of the language of this people, Mr. McMillan said,
"The language spoken is almost purely Anglo-Saxon, a fact which we
think supports evidence of their relation to the Lost Colony of
whites. "NMon," Saxon, is used for "man." "Father" is pronounced
"f-a-y-t-h-e-r," and a tradition is usually begun as follows:
"Mon, my father told me that his father told him." "Mension" is
used for "measurement," "aks" for "ask," "hit" for "it," "hosen"
for "hose," "lovend" for "loving," and housee" for "houses." They
seem to have two sounds for the letter "a" on like a short "o."





Many of the words in common use among them have long been obsolete
in English-speaking countries."
Colonel Fred, an old newspaper correspondent at Raleigh, says
of their language, "The language spoken by the Croatan is a very
pure and clean old Anglo-Saxon and there are in daily use some
seventy-five words which have come down from the great days of
Raleigh and his mighty mistress, Queen Elizabeth. These old Saxon
words arrest attention instantly, for "man" they say "mon," pro-
nounce "father," fatherer" use "mension" for "measure," "aks" for
"ask," "hosen" for "hose," "lovend" for "loving," "wit" for
"knowledge," housee" for "houses," and many other words, in daily
use by them, have for years been entirely obsolete in English-
speaking countries. Just when the colonists and Indians with whom
they amalgamated were moved to the interior is not known, but it is
believed to have been as early as 1650. At the coming of the first
white settlers to what is now known as Robeson County, there was
located on the banks of the Lumber River a large tribe of Indians
speaking the English language, tilling the soil, owning slaves and
practicing many of the arts of civilized life, and what is of
greatest significance, a very large number of names appeared among
the Lost Colony are to be found among the Croatan Indians, a fact
inexplicable upon any other hypothesis than the Lost Colony amal-
gamated with the Indians." Those names common to both are printed
in italics in the McMillan book.
Mr. McMillan adds, "The writer has been much interested in in-
vestigating the traditions prevalent among the Croatan and expressed
his firm conviction that they are descendents from the friendly
tribe found on our East coast in 1587 and also descended from the
Lost Colony of Roanoke who amalgamated with this tribe. From the
foregoing I have no hesitancy in expressing the belief that the
Indians, which originally settled in Robeson and adjoining counties
of North Carolina, were an amalgamation of the Hatteras Indians
with Governor White's lost colony. The present Indians are their
descendents with amalgamation with the early Scotch and Scotch-
-Irish settlers and such amalgamation continuing down to the pres-
ent time together with a small degree of amalgamation with other
races. I didn't find that the Hatteras Indians, or the so-called
Croatan Indians, ever had any treaty relations with the United
States or that they have received any lands or that they owe any
money to them."
MacPherson says that, in investigating the traditions preva-
lent among the people, he found many families identical
to those of the Lost Colony of 1587. He published a list of the
names of all the men, women, and children of the Roanoke colony
which arrived in Virginia and remained to inhabit there. We give
below a list of these names of this lost colony as follows:
Roger Baily, Christopher Cubbard, Thomas Stevens, John Sampson,
Bionys Hardie, Robert Pratts, George Howl, and many others. I do
not feel it necessary to list them since it can be found in many
places. All of the above are Indian names in Robeson, Sampson, and
adjoining counties. In addition, we have the following Indian
names in Sampson County: Jacob Goodman, Simmons Hammond Broynton,
Mainor, Manuel, Emanuel, Jones Bedsole, Faircloth Harding, and





7
Warrick. The Croatans were first found over two hundred years ago
in eastern North Carolina on the banks of Lumbee,
Cohare and South Carolina in Sampson and adjoining counties where
they are living to this day and are found nowhere else. In his
report, McPherson says that the region inhabited by the Croatan is
a low, woodland region locally in their own possum land, abounding
in waterberries and blackberries which bring some revenue to the
people.
Commenting upon this part of the PcPherson report, Dr. Wheat
says, "This was probably on the upper waters of the in
what may now be Wayne or Lenoir County. It is probable that they
were joined by those who had not undertaken the expedition towards
Virginia and from this point they could have passed easily into
Sampson and Robeson County in conformity with their traditions as
related to Mr. McMillan."
Their ancestors, the Cherokees, according to their tradition,
had their principal abiding place in the mountains to the West and
had trails or roads leading to various points on the coast. On
the principal road known as Lowree, they had settlements on the
River, on the waters of the Black River, on the
of the Lumbee and as far as the Santee in South Carolina.
Their principal settlement was in the territory along the Lumbee,
covering a large part of the present county of Robeson, and ex-
tending through what is now Cumberland County as far as a route
there on Cape Fear. They had other trails leading eastward from
the mountains and three of them united with the Lowree Road or
trail where there was a crossing of the Cape Fear, where the pres-
ent town of Fayetteville is situated. Reverend Blair, a missionary
to the settlement on the eastern coast of North Carolina, wrote to
Lord Wamous in 1703 regarding the Indian tribes which he came in
contact with and referred to them as a great nation of Indians and
very civilized people. McPherson says that there is reason to be-
lieve that the descendents of the colony were living in the country
southeast of Pamlico at the time that Mr. Blair writes and that
they immigrated westward toward the interior where a large of
Croatan Indians and descendents of the Lost Colony
had previously located. It is probable that the civilized Indians
mentioned were a portion of the Croatan Indians as there was no
other tribe to which the records could apply. In 1703 there were
no settlements of white men known to exist beyond the region around
Pamlico Sound. Separate to that date, white immigrants penetrated
the wilderness and in 1729 there was a settlement made on Hart
Creek, a tributary of the and near the site of the pres-
ent town of Fayetteville. arrived in what is now known
as Richmond County in North Carolina during the 1770's.
penetrated as far north as the southern border of North Carolina
in the early part of the eighteenth century. At the coming of the
white settlers there was found located on the waters of the Lumbee
River a large tribe of Indians speaking English, tilling the soil,
owning slaves and practicing many of the arts of civilized life.
The first renting of land to this tribe, of which there is written
evidence, was made by King George II in 1732 to Henry Berry and
James Lowrie, two leading men of the tribe, and was located on





8
Lowrie Swamp east of the Lumbee River in the present county of
Robeson. A subsequent rent was made to James Lowrie in 1738.
These people were helpful, and friendly relations were established
between them and their white neighbors. These Indians built good
roads and connected the distant settlement with their principal
on the Lumbee, as the Lumbo River was then called.
According to A Plea for Separate Schools, one of the great
roads constructed by them can be traced from a point on Lumbo
River for twenty miles to an old settlement near the mouth of Hart
Creek, now Cross Creek. Another highway still bearing the name
Lowree Road and used at this day as a public road, extends from
the town of Fayetteville through Cumberland and Robeson County in
a southwest direction toward an ancient Croatan settlement on
. Henry Barry Lowrie, the grantee previously men-
tioned, was a linear descendent of the English colonist Henry
Barry, who was left on Roanoke Island in 1587. Many of the tribe
served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and
received pensions within the memory of persons yet living.
From Hamilton McMillan's book, Sir Walter Raleigh, the Lost
Colony, we quote as follows: "At an early period after the English
colony became corporate with the tribe they began to emigrate
westward. The first settlement made was probably in what is now
Sampson County on several small river tributaries, the Black River.
These were Big Soharie and Little Soharie, a portion located in
Robeson, but it is probable that they have resided there for two
hundred years, which would mean around 1760. According to their
universal tradition they were located there long before the trou-
ble with the Tuscaroras began in 1911. Some of the tribes fought
on the Bonnul, as they term Colonel Barnwell, and we have reliable
evidence that they brought Indians as prisoners and
slaves. The descendents of these, had their tra-
ditions also. The name 'Barry' was not recognized by them in the
first investigation, but we afterwards discovered that they pro-
nounce this name variously D-a-r-i, D-u-r-i, and D-o-r-i. This
discovery was made when we related to an old chronicle of the
tribe of Soharie, Virginia Dare, the first white child born on
American soil. The name 'Door" and 'Dora' has appeared on the
Lumbee River since the War of 1812. The name 'Dorr' appears on
the role of a company composed in part of Indians
from Robeson County which served during the war in the United
States Army. Several chronicles persons who keep
the traditions of the tribe, have informed us that there are fami-
lies bearing the name of 'Dorr' and 'Dare' to be found in western
North Carolina who are claimed by the tribe as descendents of the
English colony of Roanoke. These chronicles affirm that the Dares
and the Coopers and the Hardies and others were purely of
blood and were generally the prisoners of immigration. Many names
are corrupted so that it is difficult to trace their history. The
name of Goyan was originally O'Guin as appeared from
records. The name of Lumber, as applied to the river, was origin-
ally Lumbee or Lombee. The name Manteo is not familiar to them.
While they had a tradition of their leader or chief who went to
England, they have preserved no name for him. The nearest





9
approach to the name Manteo is Maino or Mainor. Mainor
today. An old woman, whom we interviewed, spoke of the great man
as Wonoke. This may be a corruption of Roanoke where we must
remember Manteo was made Lord of Roanoke."
The late John F. Leary wrote Dr. Wheat from Fayetteville, North
Carolina, under the date July 22, 1891: "I do not know as to
whether any considerable number of the Croatans emigrated from the
state at any time in a body. Quite a number who were connected with
the Croatans in Robeson County left the state at different times.
Senator Hiram R. Revels, his brother, Willis Absolom, his sisters,
some of the Oxindines, Leary and Dial. I do not know the exact
number. My father's mother was a Revels, born in Robeson County,
and was second cousin to Hiram Revels. She married an Irishman
named O'Leary. Her father was born in Sampson County on the Big
Sahare. His parents moved to that county. In 1806 they came to
Fayetteville where father lived until he died in 1818. Father came
from the Croatan stock. My mother was born in France and was brought
to this country by her parents in 1812. Father and Mother were
married in 1825 and in 1857 my father sent my brother, Louis Sheraton
Leary, to Oberlin, Ohio. While there he formed an old acquaintance
with John Brown and went with him to Harper's Ferry in 1859. He was
killed on the seventeenth of October, 1859, while guarding what is
now known as John Brown's Fort. I saw this fort for the first time
in 1880. It is a small brick house. I have a grand-uncle, my
father's mother's brother, living now in the Croatan settlement in
Robeson County, 108 years old. As soon as I can make it convenient
to see him I will have a talk with him and put on paper whatever
information I can get from him and give you to benefit of it." That
is the late John F. Leary writing in 1891.
Section one, Chapter 254 of the Laws of 1887. I am in the
Section 1810 of the Code of North Carolina in 1887. In the next
part of the brochure, Mr. Butler points out separate schools in
other counties such as Robeson and Richmond and so forth in the law
for these counties. Section one, Chapter 488 of the Laws of 1889,
provides that Croatan Indians of Richmond County and their descen-
dants shall be entitled to the same school privileges and benefits
as the Croatan Indians of Robeson County. Section one, Chapter six
of the Laws of 1889, and then Section two of the Laws of 1885 by
adding after the word 'law' in the last line of that section, the
words, "And there shall be excluded from such separate schools the
said Croatan Indians of all children of the Negro race in the
fourth generation." Chapter 215 of the Laws of 1911 provides that the
Board of Directors of the Insane at Raleigh be authorized to provide
and set apart aftersaid hospital, suitable apartments and wards of
the accommodation of any of these Indians now located in Robeson
County. Robeson had its own deaf and dumb school at one time.
Chapter 191 of the Public Law of 1913 provides for an additional
appropriation of five hundred dollars for the normal schools.
Section 4168-9-70-71 of the School Laws of North Carolina, as it
appears in 1905 under the caption titled, "Croatan Indians," are as
follows: The persons who reside in Robeson and Richmond counties,
supposedly descendants of the friendly tribe and so forth, quoting
the section there, 4168 and (cont'd)





10
Section 4169. _Section 4170, Section 4171. Also,
Section 4068 of the School Law, and Chapter twenty-two of the
Public Laws of 1909, and Section 2083 of 1905, all of these per-
taining to Indians. Now Chapter 263 of the Public Laws of 1911
establish separate schools for the Croatan Indians of Sampson
County simply by adding the word 'Sampson' after the word 'Rich-
mond' and 'Robeson' in the school laws as is set out in Section
4168 to 4171. Also Chapter 100 of 1913.
It goes on to say how the Indians built schools at their own
expense in Sampson County as they did in other counties, too.
Indian taxpayers, 1911, such names as Strickland, Gubman, Broyton,
Hammond, McLaine, Williams, Jacobs, Faircloth, Simmons, Emanuel,
Gladsow, Burnett, Jones, Mainor, Butler. Then he goes on to say
that they never were slaves, and he says formally they were classed,
erroneously classed, as free Negroes. It goes on to say that state,
the laws of the state, recognize them as a separate race. The
state provides separate schools for negroes, and whites but not
for Indians. The Indians are justly proud of their history. Then
he quotes McPherson, saying that better education of this facility
should be provided. Sampson County exceeds all other counties,
except in Robeson, in Indian rolls of property. Person County
polls fourteen, valuation $2,890; Hope County, thirteen, $3,574;
Scotland County, thirty-eight, $6,500; Sampson County, fifty-six,
$13,793; Robeson County, 964, $93,900. This is 1912. Then he
takes up the family relationship between the Croatan Indians of
Robeson County and Sampson County, saying that the state of North
Carolina provides separate schools for the Croatans of Robeson
County, yet had failed to provide separate school advantages for
the Croatans of Robeson and Sampson counties who are of the same
race and blood. The Croatans of Robeson and Sampson counties have
intermarried for several generations and their children in Robeson
County are Croatans and are entitled to the same recognition by
the state. There is no reason why their children in Sampson
County cannot receive the same recognition. The following is a
partial list of Croatan Indians in Sampson and Robeson County who
have intermarried: Simeon Broyton of Sampson married Sally Hardie
of Robeson and so forth, Arthur Mainor of Sampson married Penny
Oxindine of Robeson, Willie Mainor of Sampson married Susan
Strickland of Robeson, Albert Thomas of Sampson married Iris Bell
of Robeson, Dempsey Mainor of Sampson married McGomery Lowrie of
Robeson, Willie Mainor of Sampson, excuse me Mary Lee
Manuel of Sampson married Hessie Jones of Robeson, and many others.
A new Indian school, Township, Sampson County,
North Carolina. The school board in 1911 recommended to the leg-
islature separate school facilities for these people and accord-
ingly an act was passed giving them the same separate school ad-
vantages as the Croatans of Robeson County. Boyd Carter, a Croatan
Indian of Robeson County, taught the first school of the country,
paid twenty-five dollars per month on a salary and the patrons of
the school the balance. He was a close friend who raised my
mother-in-law, more or less.
As of 1835, these people claimed to have attended the schools
with whites. In 1859, they built a school for themselves which





11
was taught by Alvin Manuel, a Croatan. After the war they were
given a public school in this community, but the efforts to force
the attendance of children of Negro blood in this school brought
forth friction and finally resulted in withdrawal of county sup-
port and distrust of the school. I have pictures of Indian fami-
lies in the schools of Robeson, and of Sampson County. Many I
know. Many are my wife's relatives. He says of the Indian photo-
graphs and pictures: "We have procured from the homes of these
Indian families a few photographs showing the type of these Croatan
Indians living in Sampson County. It will be readily claimed that
they are neither white people, Negroes, or mulattos. They all
have straight black hair, the Indian nose and lips, their skin, a
light brown hue, mostly high cheekbones, erect in their carriage,
steel-grey eyes and an intelligent counter. Where the white blood
predominates many of them have beards. They are of the true type
of Croatan Indians and have always resided and lived in this sec-
tion and known as free persons of There are a few
of these people that have intermarried with mulattos, but all of
those of Negro blood have been excluded from this and no
demands or claims are made in their behalf as under the law they
are properly classed as Negroes.
We append to this subject a brief sketch of a few of the most
prominent Indian families prepared a few years ago by Enic Emanuel
or Emanuel, a typical Croatan Indian now over seventy years old, a
farmer in Bismal Township, Sampson County, also a teacher of the
private Indian school known as Shiloh in that township. His pho-
tograph and that of his Indian wife appears in this booklet. He
was aided in preparing this sketch by C.D. Broyton, the teacher of
and Indian school in Bismal Township who was educated at the Croa-
tan Normal School in Robeson County. His picture also appears in
this sketch and C.D. Broyton is my wife's uncle. Pictured are
Enic Emanuel and wife, Sarah E. Emanuel. Of Enic Emanuel and Sarah
E. Emanuel is says, Enich Emanuel and wife live in Bismal Township,
Sampson County. He is now seventy years old. His father was
Michael Emanuel and lived on South River and died in 1858. Michael's
father was Ephraim Emanuel that fought in the Revolutionary War in
John Toomer's Army. His father was Ephraim Emanuel and the records
of Sampson County show, on page 222, that in the reign of George III,
Benjamin Williams conveyed to Ephraim Emanuel 400 acres of land
lying on the east side of Great Sahare, charging annual rent to
his majesty."
We find another deed from Solomon Harden to Levi Emanuel, dated
October the tenth, 1778, for 125 acres of March Branch and Mary
Bottom Branch in Sampson County, consideration fifty English
pounds. There are numerous other deeds to the Emanuel family on
record in Sampson County. The father, Ephraim Emanuel, came from
Roanoke River and claimed to be half-white and half-Indian. There
is no trace of Negro blood to exist in the Emanuel family as far
back as they have any record. Enic Emanuel says that his ancestor,
Nicky Emanuel, raised Mathew Leary, father of Sheraton Leary who
was killed in John Brown's insurrection at Harper's Ferry.
Sheraton Leary was a brother of John S. Leary, a lawyer at Char-
lotte formerly of Fayetteville, North Carolina. Sarah, the wife





12
of Enic Emanuel, whose picture is here, was the daughter of Emas
Harden, a wheelright in Honniecut Township, and was recognized as
a Croatan Indian. The couple have seven children. They have not
intermarried with the Negro race and their children attend Shiloh
Indian School in Bismal Township of which school Enic Emanuel
has founded.
Next is William J. Bedsole and wife, Nancy Bedsole. Their
geneology. These look like real Indian pictures, quite interest-
ing. Hardie A. Broyton. The Broyton family is the largest family
of Croatans living in Sampson County. Hardie is the son of Rafer
Broyton and the grandson of Hannah Broyton, who lived in Sampson
County from 1775 to 1850. The records in the office of registered
deeds of Sampson County show that the in the county of
1807 on Sahare. She is well remembered by Jonathon Goodman, James
Strickland and other old men now living. They described her as
being a good specimen of the Cherokee Indian. She married White
Simmons, so-called because he had no surname and was half-Indian
and half-white. After the marriage he took her name and was known
as Simon Broyton. Rafer Broyton was their son and married Bashaby
Emanuel, nearly a thousand of acres of land on Sahare,
part of Silver Ephraim Broyton became a great
dancer, using the greatest skill and grace and rendering the same
as the Indian dance of a hundred years ago. He was so perfect in
his performance that he became almost world-famed for dancing in
Italy. He took one trip to Europe and it was said that he played
for the King of England. Finally he returned home and married
Miss Davis of Robeson County. It will be noted that the names
William, Bill, and Will, are familiar names in the Simmons and
Broyton family. The appearance of these two names, Enic and Will,
in the same Indian family, suggests that the origin of the name
came from Eno-Will, a friendly and intelligent Indian of the Coree
tribe found by John Lawson in 1902, living on the Moose River not
many miles from the present habitations of Indians now on Sahare
in Sampson County. This has been a very enjoyable day and I'm
getting ready to get into the hotel, and tonight, over to the
festivities.





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