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Title: Interview with Sarah Krulevitz (July 1, 1976)
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 Material Information
Title: Interview with Sarah Krulevitz (July 1, 1976)
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publication Date: July 1, 1976
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: 12031
Duval County (Fla.) -- History.
 Notes
Funding: This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00006431
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
Holding Location: This interview is part of the 'Duval County' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: DUV 4

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Cover
        Cover
    Interview
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
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ORAL HISTORY PROJECT


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


INTERVIEWEE: Sarah Krulevitz
INTERVIEWER: Doris Proctor and Sylvia Shorstein


DATE: August 1, 1976




















S: We are interviewing Sarah Krulevitz, formerly Sarah Margol and before she
was married, Sarah Bernstein, who came to Jacksonville.

K: I came to Jacksonville June 1, 1917. I came to visit Ben Yoffee's
parents, and they lived on Clara Terrace. It took me twenty-four hours
on a pullman train to get to Jacksonville and when I came I was so dis-
appointed. A little broken-down wooden station, nothing but blacks
all around me, and they lived on Clara Terrace, and I visualized Clara
Terrace as a paradise with fruit trees.

S: What section of town was it?

K: That was LaVilla. When I came there I was so disappointed. Most of the
Jewish people lived around that neighborhood. There was the Shorsteins,
the Grossmans, the Weisses, the Moscovitzs, and the Wolfsons. They
lived around that neighborhood and they all congregated there. Then we
went to a picnic. I was here about a week or two. We went on a ferry
to Arlington.

S: Sarah, how old were you when you came?

K: I was twenty years old. I was born on June 25, 1896.

S: What brought you to Jacksonville?

K: Well, my parents were first cousins to the Yoffees and they lived in
Washington at one time and lived in Baltimore, and they invited me when
I was sixteen years old to come here, but my mother wouldn't let me go.
At that time white slavery was rampant all over, so finally we sent pic-
tures back and forth and they finally begged my mother to send me here,
so I came. I was told not to look at anybody on the train, not to talk
to anyone, and when I laid in my berth every minute I thought a hand was
reaching out to grab me. Well, I came here and then about two weeks later
we went to a picnic at Arlington on a ferry and I met Morris Margol, and
from that day on, that was it, and I was married August 26, 1917.

S: That was fast. You came when?

K: I never went back to Baltimore.

S: Where were you married?

K: I was married on Third and Evergreen. It was a big empty store. Mrs.
Yoffee's daughter, Hanna Hoffenberg, lived on Third Street, and so she
h.d the privilege of using that store and we had a seated dinner, and
Mrs. Yoffee, the Grossmans, and all the Jewish families helped to cook.
We had from soup to nuts, everything.









2





S: Was the Finkelstein Boarding House in existence there?

K: Yes, the Finkelstein Boarding House was on Adams Street. Now they were
the most generous people.

S: There were weddings there too, wasn't there?

K: There wasn't a person that was broke or anything that they didn't help.
They were the most charitable here. I think they were the first settlers
here, because they brought over Alex Hoffenberg, and that's how Hanna
Yoffee married Alex Hoffenberg. They were so charitable. When Morris
Margol came here in 1911, they brought him here as a Hebrew schoolteacher.
Meyer Setzer brought him over here, and of course, the salary that they
offered was too small.

S: There was no synagogue here then.

K: Yes, yes.

P: Beth Israel.

K: Yes.

S: Oh, Beth Israel.

K: The synagogue had already been built on Jefferson and Duval Streets.

S: Oh, B'nai Israel was here?

K: Yes, B'nai Israel was here.

P: Well, why didn't you get married in the synagogue?

K: Because only my father and mother came to the wedding. It was just a
small wedding. We didn't want a big wedding. I was living with Mrs.
Hoffenberg. Those days not everybody had cars. Now my first date was
really with Harry Bucholtz. My second date was with Nat Shorstein and
I've never lived it down Elaughter]by him. And the Jewish people were
very close at that time. They were one big family. Most of them lived
in back of the store, and we had an apartment at 1011 West Adams Street
right near Lee.

S: This was when you first got married.

K: When I first got married. After we were married we had the downstairs
apartment. We had a little tiny wood stove with a pipe to reach the
ceiling about eight foot tall, and we'd throw in a piece of paper and a
couple of pieces of wood and it would light up and that's how we got warm.
The Fineblooms lived upstairs and we had one bathroom upstairs that we all









3





share; one toilet and one bathroom. Life was hard, but at that time
we all took it that that's the way you live and that's the way it is.
Then I moved to 714 Monroe Street.

S: What did your husband do?

K: He had a general merchandise store on 704 Davis Street. We had the store
there twenty-eight years of my married life. When they brought Morris
Margol over, they offered him such a small salary and he....

S: Who brought him here?

K: Meyer Setzer brought him here.

S: Oh, he was working for Setzer.

K: No, Morris Margol was a Hebrew schoolteacher. But you see, the Finkelsteins
were all from Pushalot, and the Finkelsteins knew his parents from Europe,
so when he didn't want to take the teaching job, the old man Finkelstein
offered him $500 to start a business or whatever he wanted to do. At
that time $500 was a mint. But he said no, he would see if he could swing
it on his own, and he went peddling. At that time it was Houston Street,
you know, the red light district. That's where most of the Jewish people
got their start here, peddling that way, and when he saved enough money,
he went into business for himself.

S: What did they peddle?

K: They peddled dry goods, I guess. I really don't know, because when I married
him in 1917, he was in business already on Davis Street. We had a four-
room apartment and I had a maid for a dollar and a half a week.

S: She work every day?

K: She worked five days a week, and she came in the morning and stayed all day,
because the floors were bare. There was no carpet on the floors, and you
had to scrub them. I came from Baltimore and we happened to be a clean
family, and the roaches and the little sugar ants were all over. We were
invited to dinner at somebody's house, I won't mention names, and when I
saw that man take the bread and shake it out and the ants were running out
of it and then he ate it, my stomach turned over and I couldn't eat. That's
the way a lot of people lived. Then we moved to 714 West Monroe Street.
Joseph Spiwak's family had bought a house and we had the upstairs and
they had the downstairs. I got pregnant with Melvin, my oldest son. A-
cross the street lived Morris Laserus and his family, Dave Moscovitz and
his family, and Hymie Bloom and his family. The Walinskys lived the third
door from me, the Englers lived the second door from me, and it was just like
one big happy family. We all used to go to the synagogue which3 was right
on the corner there. Rabbi Safer was the head. He performed the ceremony









4





when I was married, and he circumcised my sons. They lived across the
street in a great big house and they had twelve children. The Wittens
lived on Jefferson Street and the Falises lived on Jefferson Street.
When I moved in the same house with the Spiwaks, they had Sophie, Morris,
and Saul. Then she got pregnant with Abie. Abie was born two and a half
months sooner than my Melvin. When Abie was born, they didn't have enough
room for him, so we had a little spare bedroom and Sophie, who is Witten
now, used to sleep upstairs. I was crazy about that girl. I took her
wherever I went. She was my companion.

S: Who was this?

K: Sophie Witten. She was Sophie Spiwak Witten, and at night when she'd get
up and couldn't sleep, she used to cry, and she'd call, "Mr. Margol, come
cover me." Because she was afraid I'd fuss at her. So he used to get up
and cover her. By the time he'd get back to bed she wanted a drink of
water. So he'd get up and give her a drink of water. We had one bathroom
upstairs, and she slept upstairs. Then I decided when Melvin was born that
we'd better move into different quarters. So we moved on Jefferson Street
next door to the Max Wittens. Now the Falises had lived there. The
Falises bought a house on Duval Street, so Mr. Witten divided the house
into two apartments, and I had the downstairs. I had four rooms. The
bathroom was on the back porch. The Pastures lived upstairs and they
raised their neice, Cele Weiss. They didn't have any children. That's
where my twins were born. Melvin was born on Monroe Street. The twins
were born on Jefferson Street. So in my bedroom I put up two cribs, and
in the living room I had a hide-a-bed for Melvin. I had a dining room and
a kitchen. Those days were so different. You had a little apartment and
everybody was one big happy family. Then my sister came to town. She
had opened a confectionary store on the corner of Madison and Duval.

S: Who's your sister? Identify her.

K: My sister, Rose Coonin and her husband Zele. She lived across from the
Workman Circle Building. So low and behold, she gave birth to a little
girl, Rita Leigh, who is now Mrs. Samuel Schain. I had to take my sister
after she gave birth to a baby, so I bought a big, double Simmons bed,
who later on I gave to Mrs. Meyerhoff and my sister and the baby slept
there and my mother came. So my mother slept on the hide-a-bed that I had
and Melvin slept on the cot in the living room, it was all in the living
room, see. Then my father came to see the new baby. So I put up another
cot in the dining room. Then my brother decided to come with a cousin of
ours from Norwich, Connecticut. Upstairs was this little spare bedroom, so
we put them to sleep there.

P: About what year was this?

K: That was, well, after the twins were born, February 22, 1924. They're
fifty-two.

S: You had two new babies to take care of, plus all these relatives that came.









5





K: Melvin was only three years old.

S: Who did the cooking?

K: I did, and I kept a kosher home, too. But the Safers had a butcher shop
and grocery store on Adams Street. We wouldn't think of buying anything
in a gentile store. Even sardines that you didn't buy in Safers, it was
trayfe otherwise, see. Then we used to have to buy live chickens, and
Rabbi Safer would kill it. We'd have to stand there and pick the feathers.
When you came home you had to have to take a bath because you might have
had chicken lice on you. Sometimes we'd get the colored boy and we'd give
him three cents to pluck the chickens for us. Life wasn't hard. We worked
hard. I had to help out in the store. But life was so different. It
was so simple. We used to sit on the front porch. The Franks lived
across the street from me. The Mageses lived across the street from me.
The Biscows lived on the corner. We used to sit sometimes Saturday morning
and watch the people go to synagogue and you took your friends. The
Hashbergs lived next door. The Wittens moved to Riverside. If your child
got sick, you didn't call a doctor, you called your neighbor. The neigh-
bors would doctor each other's children and it was such a togetherness at
that time. Then Bernice was born.

S: Was there a Jewish doctor at that time?

K: Yes. Dr. Aronowitz was the only Jewish doctor that I remember. Of course
later on it was Dr. Safer, but he didn't stay there long enough. Then we
moved to Springfield.

S: What did you do for entertainment on Sunday or in the evening?

K: Well, for entertainment we used to go out to Ortega, and there was a little
confectionary store. We used to buy ice cream cones for the children and
we'd all congregate and just talk.

S: Did you have a car?

K: The first car we bought when Melvin was two years old and that was fifty-
three years ago. We bought an Oldsmobile and it had the plastic windows
and when it would rain, by the time you put the windows up you got soaked,
and the time you finished you had to take them down again and....

S: They were plastic?

K: Nathan Paul was the first one that bought a car with windows and we said,
"It's the most dangerous thing. If it has an accident, they'll all get
killed.". It took years before people decided to get a car with windows,
because we thought that was terrible. I didn't want any more children, and
I found I was pregnant and Melvin was just a little over two and I thought
it was terrible, so Morris Margol surprised me with an Oldsmobile to please
me. So the black man brought the car and he took me around for one lesson









6





and he was supposed to come back the next day. Well, he didn't come. So
that evening I took Mrs. Pastor. She said, "Well, if you value your life
you'll take care of mine," and I took my children and we got in the car
and where did we go? Downtown, and I forgot that there was a Ku Klux Klan
parade and I got in the middle of the parade and the car stalled Claughter].
The officer blew his whistle and I couldn't get going. We got through all
right and I've been driving a car ever since. Those years you didn't need
a driving permit. All you had to do was buy a car and drive. That's how
Mr. Margol learned to drive.

S: Was it a gas-driven car?

K: Oh, it was a car like today, you know, gasoline.

P: You said that you had lived across the street from the Workman Circle?

K: My sister had a confectionary store right across from the Workman Circle.

P: What function did the Workman Circle serve?

K: The Workman Circle were really anarchists. They called themselves Bol-
sheviks. I remember Roshashanah and Yom Kippur. Nobody rode in those days
on the holidays, and they used to ride past the synagogue back and forth
and blow their horns, to flaunt themselves in our face, see. Most of them
weren't married. They were living in sin, so to speak. But when the war
came along, they got scared. You know, the first World War, 1918, that's
when they got scared and they got married. They had children already. I
can name quite a few families that are living, the children are living here
today. Their parents were not married when they were born. That was their
ideal.

P: Did they have a large membership?

K: Yes, they had a good size, but its community wasn't too big.

S: How many do you think belonged to the Workman Circle at that time?

K: Might have been a hundred families.

P: Was the Jewish community afraid of the Workman Circle?

K: No, no, they just took it for granted. That was what they wanted to do and
that was their business. There was no friction between them. They just
didn't belong to the synagogue and didn't bother with anybody, that was their
way of living.

S: Did they mix socially with the community?

K: Yes, they did. But everybody knew they were the Workman Circle.

P: Did you all look down on them because [they] were "living in sin?"









7





K: Well, of course people talked. They gossiped like they do today, see.

P: Yes.

K: And especially so many years ago.

S: I mean it was really a big no-no.

K: It was fifty-five years ago. You know, it was a terrible thing.

S: Yes.

K: Today of course it's nothing Claughter]. Then we moved to Fifth Street,
next door to the Wolfsons. We had an upstairs apartment there and I
wasn't happy with the steps going up and down. Benny Setzer had his first
grocery store on the corner of Fifth and Silver. I'm sorry, but I made
one error. When we lived on Jefferson Street, where my twins were born,
Hannah Setzer's parents and the family came over from Poland, Russia, or
wherever they were from. Hannah was fifteen years old at that time, because
she was sixteen when she got married. She was the most beautiful thing.
No powder, no paint, nothing, she was gorgeous, and of course Benny was
foreign-born, too, and he spoke a broken English and most of the girls
didn't want to go out with him, see. Somebody made this match between them
and they were married in the YMHA, which was right across from the syna-
gogue. After that they moved away and we moved.
I remember Hymie Bloom's parents. Hymie Bloom had two sisters, a
Mrs. Savage and a Mrs. Teretsky. And Hymie Bloom's mother died in the old
country, and he married his wife's sister and that was Hannah's mother.

S: Hannah Setzer?

K: Hannah Setzer's mother.

S: Hannah Setzer's mother.

K: With the second marriage, he had his [Hymie Bloom's] sister, Becky, who
came to the wedding. Becky, and then there was Mrs. Lipschitz and her
husband, and then there was another sister I think that died after that.
She was married to Rosenblath's husband, see, and she died. And then there
was Hannah and Jake Bloom was the youngest when they came over.

S: Sarah, stop one minute. Let's go on back to the life with the kids now.
Where did they go to school?

K: Melvin went to nursery school in LaVilla School and there was a colored
woman that used to come and pick up all the children in the neighborhood and
walk them to school. Then when Melvin was six years old, the synagogue had
a basement and that's where the schoolroom was and it was very damp down there.









8





S: Hebrew school.

K: The Hebrew school. But they went to school at LaVilla, and then I decided
that I didn't want Melvin to go in the basement, so I got a Mr. Sauls. He
was the shochet that killed the chickens for the butcher shop. Jack
Becker had a butcher shop at that time and he was the shochet. So he
used to come to my house. I had Melvin, Abie Spiwak, Saul Spiwak, the two
Goldman boys, Sol and Joe, and they would come and there was a regular class-
room Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, because Thursday he had to kill the
chickens, and Friday he was busy in the butcher shop, and of course not
Saturday. They went to Sunday school in the synagogue. Later on they
went to school when I moved, then I moved to Springfield. That's when they
went to Ninth and Perry.

P: What year did you move to Springfield?

K: Let me see, Bernice will be forty-seven and Bernice must have been about five
year old, I think, about that time.

P: So you moved about 1929. Well, that was when B'nai Israel moved, changed
over to the Jacksonville Jewish Center at Third and Silver.

K: Yes, that's when they built the building at Third and Silver. The same
year I moved to Springfield, because I wanted Melvin to go to Hebrew
school. They got older. They didn't want Mr. Sauls to come to the house.
So they went to school at Ninth and Perry and they still went to the
Center CJacksonville Jewish Center3 when they built the synagogue and built
the youth building.

P: When B'nai Israel changed over to the Center and they became Conservative,
what happened to the Orthodox members within B'nai Israel?

K: Well, there was a lot of friction there until Rabbi Toefield came. See it
was Orthodox and Conservative at the Center. There was so much friction.
The Orthodox thought that we were too modern, we thought they were too
strict. They used to have fist fights and whatnot, even in the old synagogue.
When they had a meeting, you could hear them a mile away. So we had Rabbi
Margolis, of course we had Rabbi Benjamin, Rabbi Stein.

S: Sarah, who were some of the leaders fighting for the Conservative?

K: Well, it was Dave Moscowitz and the Selber family and the Sloats, the Slotts,
the Margols, and Max Rose.

S: Now who were some for the Orthodox?

K: The Orthodox at that time, when Mr. Wolfson broke away from the synagogue
because they didn't give him his way. When they were ready to build the
youth building, there was a house across the alley on Silver Street that the









9





synagogue had bought, and Mrs. Mavin lived in that house and they used it
for transients. If a poor person would come they'd have a place to sleep.
They didn't feed them because Begal had the only Jewish restaurant. And
they used to send them to Begal. Brings back so many things now....Then
Mr. Wolfson, the Orthodox seminary from New York sent a man here. He
was a rabbi but he came as a teacher to instill Orthodox. He wanted the
Conservative to break away and go Orthodox, so he came as a teacher. They
were in the process of raising money for the Center, but Mr. Wolfson said
that they should put that man in that house and give him a home to live in.
So the congregation said, "We!re not going to do that, because we don't
care to give him the house and you don't have to tell us what to do." So
he pledged $50,000 if they let him do what he wants to do.

S: Mr. Wolfson, yes.

K: Harry Gendzier was the chairman of the fund raising. So then they put it
up to the board and Benny Setzer said, "I'll give the $50,000 and if we run
short of money, for every dollar that's given, I'll give a dollar." That's
the way the Jacksonville Jewish Center Youth Building was built, because
Benny Setzer was very active. He was very charitable. At that time he
had opened several stores and he was very generous, see. There's others I
could name but they were hard to get money out of. His dollar was always
the first dollar right there. And the Pushaloters, most of them, were with
the Conservative movement. At that time you either had to be married to
a Pushalot or born a Pushalot to be a member. I married one, so I was the
president of the Ladies Auxiliary, and Morris Margol was secretary of the
Pushalot Men's Society.

S: Sarah, when did this society start in Jacksonville?

K: When I came to Jacksonville they had started the Pushalots because most
of them were from that. little town. The Finkelsteins brought Alex Hoffenberg.
Then they brought Meyer Setzer. Meyer Setzer brought Morris Margol. Meyer
Setzer brought his brothers here, and one would bring the other, and that's
how...I don't know how they brought Rabbi Safer in. I can't remember that,
but he came from Lithuania. My mother knew him in the old country and when
I was getting married my mother recognized him from Lithuania, from the
little town where she came from. At that time the Jewish people were very
close. There were no charity organizations. You helped one another. If
you didn't have it, you helped your fellow man. There was a Mrs. Lasky
that moved here from Savannah. She moved here when I was pregnant with
Melvin. He's fifty-five, so I'm going to let you girls figure out the date.
She had started an organization in Savannah. I used to do all her correspon-
dence. She started a charity organization and we would give a quarter a
week and she would go from house to house for that quarter, see. And if
a Jewish transient came along, she gave him a dollar for a night's lodging
and then a meal or two at Begal's Restaurant and then he'd go on his way.









10





S: Sarah, who were these transients? Were they rabbis coming through. Were
they just Jewish travelers?

K: Well, they were Jewish people trying to get away from the cold. Sometimes
they'd come in a dilapidated car with children. They didn't have gasoline
to go further. That was the way the money was spent. At one time, when I
lived on Jefferson Street and I was pregnant with the twins, and Melvin
was a baby, I...Abe Kramer, let's see, was it, Clara Jaffe's father had a
butcher shop on Broad Street right near Monroe. He had the kosher butcher
shop. Alex Hoffenberg's brother was the shochet there. He was from
South Africa. He came to Jacksonville, and he was the shochet there. One
morning I went to get some meat and Mr. Hoffenberg came in. He said, "There's
a young man outside that said he's hungry. Could you women give him some-
thing?" Well, those years, one gave him a quarter, fifteen cents, one
gave him a dime. They got together fifty cents. So then a thought entered
my mind and I went out and I said, "Young man, would you like to come home
with me?" At that time you weren't afraid. You didn't even lock your
doors. I says, "Come home with me and I'll feed you; whatever change that
he gave you, you could keep." So I only lived on Jefferson Street, just one
block down and I knew the neighbors were home. I took him home and I went
to fix him some eggs. He says all he wants is bread and coffee. He didn't
even want to put butter on his bread. He was a fellow about six foot tall.
So he took out of his wallet credentials where he had been a diamond.cutter,
worked for Tiffany among the leading jewelers in New York, but he wanted to
be a doctor and he studied so hard till he got a nervous breakdown and he
had that wanderlust, and he said, "The only thing that keeps me from jumping
in the river is my mother's face. I can't do that to her." And just as
I was talking Mrs. Lasky came knocking at my door for the quarter. So
Mrs. Pastor went out in the hall, Mrs. Pastor gave her a quarter and I gave
her a quarter, and then told her the story about this young man. She says....

S: Was he Jewish?

K: Yes. She says, "Let me look at him." He was Jewish, and she came in and
she talked to him and she came out. She said, "He told me he's a diamond
cutter and he's got a trade, so we don't have enough money to give him
anything." Well, I felt very bad about it, so I gave him another half a
dollar and I told him that there wasn't any money in the treasury and we
couldn't do anything for him.

S: Was this from the Pushaloter Society or was this just...?

K: No, this was the Ladies Hebrew Sheltering-Aid that Mrs. Lasky started. I'm
trying to tell you how that society started. This was before the society
was organized. So he went away and the next morning they fished his body
out of the river. Well, that old lady felt so bad, and that's how that or-
ganization, which is now the River Garden Ladies Auxiliary, started.

S: Well now, who was Mrs. Lasky?









11





K: Mrs. Lasky had a daughter, Mrs. Jack Rosenberg. Where Farrell's Jewelry
is onLaura Street, that was his building. He had a ladies' ready-to-wear.
Mrs. Lasky and everybody knew Jack Rosenberg. The Jewish people didn't
buy in any other store but Jack Rosenberg's store, see, and the old lady
Lasky was very charitable.

S: Now wait a minute. Jack Rosenberg and Mrs. Lasky, how were they...?

K: That was her son-in-law. It was Jack Rosenberg who was contributing to
her support.

S: Oh, I see.

K: You know Sabina Rosenberg?

P: Sabina and Bill, uh huh.

K: Well, Willie Rosenberg, all those...

S: Yes.

K: ...that was her grandchildren. When she was seventy years old, we gave her
a party and we had a big birthday cake with seventy candles on it. I had
the picture I gave to the Rosenbergs that lived on San Marco, she was
Sabina, wasn't she?

P: Yes, Willie and Sabina.

K: I gave her thatpicture years later after I was looking through some things
and I found it. That's how that organization started when I lived on Jeff-
erson Street. Now when we lived on Jefferson Street, that's when we started
the Daughters of Israel, see. The Sisterhood was called the Daughters of
Israel and Mrs. Harry Finkelstein was the first president.

S: Right.

K: And then Mrs. Joel, Mrs. Bono, she was a Joel, she was the first treasurer.

P: Was this Bono?

K: No. No, that was Mrs. Bono's son. Now when her father was living, he had
a store on Bay Street, and he used to run from house to house to collect
dues. They were all originally from Savannah. They were very religious
Jews. And then the two sisters lived on Monroe Street there, and the
Bonos lived on Duval Street, near Broad.

S: Aunt Sarah, let's get back to your family. Like you used to take rides on
the weekend.

K: We'd go to Ortega, then we'd go to the naval air station. At that time it
was sitting in front of the river. We would take sandwiches.









12





P: Would you take a bus?

K: No, we had a car. Then we'd go to the beach. The beach had a very narrow
little road, and we all would get up [at] five o'clock Sunday morning and
cook a big dinner and take all our food, everything while it was hot, to
the beach, and they had picnic tables.

S: Was that where Atlantic Boulevard is now? Was that the beach?

K: No, no, Pablo Beach.

S: Oh, it was Pablo Beach.

P: Did everybody that you were close to do this on Sunday, get up and fix
breakfast and lunch?

K: Yes, we used to get out there. We wouldn't think of buying anything on
the boardwalk. It was trayfe. We had one section where we'd all meet with
our lunch baskets and everything.

S: Where was that?

K: That was at Pablo Beach.

S: All right, Pablo is no longer, so what's there now? And is it Jacksonville
Beach?

K: Jacksonville Beach.

S: Is it near where the boardwalk was?

K: Yes.

S: Like Fourth Street, Third Street...

K: On the oceanfront about First Street, around that section.

S: All right, did you have a house there at any time?

K: Well, yes. When Bernice was already engaged to Bob, we had a house right
on the waterfront, right near the lifesaving station. Coming this way, it
was on the left-hand side of, the other side of the lifesaving station.
I moved from Fifth Street to Silver Street. That's when Rabbi Margolis was
here, and Mrs. Margolis was here.

S: What year was that, Aunt Sarah, do you know? When you moved, can you remember
the ages of the kids?










13





K: Yes, Bernice must have been about five years old, and she's forty-seven.
That's when Hitler came to power and he allowed the people to come out,
but you had to sign for different people. You had to get signatures. Well,
Mrs. Margolis was very active. She brought somany families here and....

S: Now when was this? Prior to World War II?

K: The late thirties, it was Hitler's time. She did a lot for the refugees
and then Mr. Max Rubin had a brother who was mayor of Fort Pierce. But
Meyerhoff came to this country with their two children, the boy and the
girl, and they went to Fort Pierce. At that time they could take out their
silver, their linens, a lot of their things. Well, they, Mrs. Meyerhoff,
worked in a canning place and Mr. Meyerhoff worked on the wharf and they
saw that there would be no future for them there, so they got acquainted
with Mr. Rubin in Fort Pierce, and Mr. Rubin said, "Go to Jacksonville. I
have a brother there and they'll help you." So at that time we were all told
that Kloepell, who had a hotel, was a Nazi and that he had a wireless in
his hotel. He had sent money to Berlin, but his excuse was that he sent
money because his parents were there. Hitler sent him a medal. So he
wanted to prove to the Jewish people, because the salesmen stopped staying
there, that he was an American and he was for the Jewish people. They
contacted the Rubins. So Mrs. Rubin took the Meyerhoffs to Kloepell. She
says, "If you want to do something for the Jewish people, here's this family
that Hitler tried to destroy. Give them a place to stay." So he gave them
a room at the Jefferson Hotel on the corner of Davis and Adams Street, and
he gave Mr. Meyerhoff a job as a dishwasher. Well, it came to our atten-
tion. So Mrs. Margolis said, "We're not going to let that Nazi do anything
for our Jewish people." Mrs. Margolis and myself went' to the hotel. We
packed Mrs. Meyerhoff off. She can tell you today. She'll tell you what
she ate in my house the first day. Packed them up and brought them to my
house with the children and I had fixed a traditional regular nuchica
supper. I had borscht, I had blintzes, and I had gefilte fish for supper.
Then we got the Ladies Hebrew Sheltering Aid Society to rent an apartment
for them on Perry Street. It was a seven-room apartment, and it was very
reasonable. I think twenty-five dollars a month, something like that.
And then I say on the telephone with Mrs. Margolis. I gave them that big
double bed that I had bought, a Simmons bed. One family bought a new
dining room set. They were supposed to give it to the furniture store as
a trade-in. We got the furniture store to give them the dining room set.
I used to cook by gas, so I was very well acquainted with a Mr. Maxwell,
who is still living today. He was head of the gas company here, and I
went to him and he gave them a stove and an ice box. One gave them pots.
That's how we furnished the whole apartment. The women used to go to
the beach. The families went to the beach every summer and rented a cottage
or apartment or something, but the men had to eat lunch, and most of
them were like the Haimowitzes, the Lasks, the Berkowitzes, and different
people had to eat lunch.' Ida Haimowitz and I and a couple other women, would
go up there and we....









14





S: Were would you go?

K: We'd go up to Mrs. Meyerhoff's...

S: Yes.

K: ...to teach her how to cook. She didn't know how to boil water. They
were very wealthy in Germany. They had a big department store and she'd
never cooked.

S: So they were not in the catering business at first. What business was he in?

K: We got him a job with a Daylight Grocery-Mr. I. H. Edwards. Then we brought
over his brother, Manual Katz. He reminded me Sunday at the wedding how I
took him all over town to get him a job. Everytime he sees me, he hugs and
kisses me, and says he'll never forget me. I rode around with him for two
weeks. He spoke German and I spoke Jewish. And I went from store to store
and nobody hired him. So I went to Setzer's Eighth Street store and Archie
Publy was manager. I said, "Archie, I brought apupil to you. Now this
will be his school. Put him behind the vegetable counter and teach him
how to say potatoes, onions, teach him how to weigh and don't pay him any-
thing at all. You don't have [to] pay him. This will be his school." He
said, "All right." So the first week he gave him ten dollars. The next
week he gave him twenty-five dollars. He worked for Setzer's and Food Fair
stores until he retired. He was the manager of all the produce stores.

S: Who was this?

K: Manual Katz, and then he married Dora Gross and they had one son.

S: Dora Katz, I know who they are.

K: Manual Katz, Sunday he reminded me. He said, "You remember?" He told me
stories....

S: Let's get back to the Meyerhoffs and how did they get into the catering
business?

K: Now the Meyerhoffs served luncheons, then they started to serve dinners, and
then they opened up a food stand and it didn't do so well. She went to
New York and took a course in cooking, and that's how she started. And she
deserves a lot of credit. She educated two children and she deserves a lot
of credit. Everything she has, she deserves because she didn't sit down
and ask for a handout. She brought a nephew over. We found out where he
was, now living in Dallas. Now this nephew joined the United States Army
and he was over in Holland when he found his mother who survived a concen-
tration camp.
When we had a luncheon, Laura Wexler, Dora Bryant, and I used to go
around schnoring from- store to store. We never had to pay for food or
anything we got from Setzers, from the Daylight Grocery.









15





S: What was that organization now?

K: That was the Jacksonville Jewish Center Sisterhood. When they built the
Jacksonville Jewish Center, the Sisterhood changed their name from the
Daughters of Israel to the Jacksonville Jewish Center Sisterhood. There
was so much unity in our organization. We tried to pinch pennies left and
right. And everybody cooperated. Everybody tried to outdo the other one
to raise moneyto build up our sisterhood.

S: Who were some of the presidents that you remember?

K: Well, there was Mrs. Harry Finkelstein, there was....

P: Let me ask you, let me get off this track a little bit. When you were talking
about the Reform, the Temple group and the Center group were not friendly.
Do you feel that they got together during Hitler's time and they started to
get friendlier?

K: Yes, you see, before Hitler came to power, Rabbi Kaplan wouldn't think of
talking about Israel, anything pertaining to Israel at all, or any of the
Jewish functions from the Orthodox or Conservative movement, see. But when
Hitler came along....Jacksonville Jewish Center had a Troop Fourteen of
the Boy Scouts. My three boys were Boy Scouts and they used to borrow the
hut from Troop Twelve, which was the Temple, the Reform Temple, and they'd go
out to Doctor's Inlet and the hut was filthy. It would take them days to
clean it up, and they got disgusted. There were five committeemen. I
remember Mr. Weinstien, Selber, and Moscowitz. I was the only woman that was
put on the committee with them. We decided that we would build a hut for
the boys. We printed tickets and the tickets were a donation, a dollar a brick,
and Mrs. Margolis and I went to Sam Kipnis at that time, who was a nationally
container corporation, and we talked and we talked to him and we couldn't get
no place with him. They belonged to the Temple and he said he didn't see why
we couldn't raise the money amongst ourselves. So I said, "Well," Halle Cohen
was the scout leader of the Temple and he was the only store in Jacksonville
that had the scout supplies.

S: This is with...the store. He was the owner's son.

P: May Cohen,at that time it was Cohen Brothers.

K: May Cohen. So I took Mrs. Magezez with me. I made an appointment with him,
and I went up to his office and we sat there. He was in conference with
two ladies from the Civic Association. So he comes out with them and he
tells the secretary to write them out a check for twenty-five dollars
for the dog track. They were running a benefit. So I said, "Mrs. Magezez,"
I whispered to her, I says, "you know, at least we'll get fifteen if we
won't get more, see." We rushed into his office. I said, "Mr. Cohen, I
represent the Boy Scout Troop Fourteen from the Jacksonville Jewish Center
and we're trying to build a hut," and I explained to him how hard it was for









16





the boys. It would take them days to clean the hut up." He said, "Why
don't you go to your own kind of people instead of coming to me?" So
I looked up at him and I thought, "Sarah Margol, keep your temper. Be
careful what you say." I looked up at him and I said, "You know, Mr.
Cohen, I just want to prove to you how different I am than you are." I
said, "I was walking down the street and a little boy came along and he
said, "Lady, won't you buy a brick? We want to build a hut for Boy Scouts."
And I reached in my pocketbook and took out a dollar and when I went to
give it to him, I saw his face was black, but all I could see was a sign
of the Boy Scouts and it didn't make any different to me what he was or
what color his skin was." Well, he realized that he made a mistake. So
he started to hem and haw that they had a father and son banquet and he
had to pay for it. The fathers never paid for it and all that. And I
says, "Well, you are thennly store that has the Boy Scout supplies." I
says, "I know you make money on that and we buy our supplies from you."
He says, "Oh, that's non-profit." I says, "True, but you know what? I
have twin sons, and as I went to get their merit badges, they passed the
shoe department and they decided they wanted some new shoes." I says, "I
bought them two pairs of shoes. You can prove it in the office because
I haven't paid the charge yet," which was the truth. And I says, "And
I know you didn't lose money on the shoes and many other things." So
he hemmed and he hawed and I thanked him very much for his time and I went
home and I called Rabbi Margolis. Rabbi Margolis called Rabbi Kaplan and
Rabbi Kaplan got ahold of Halle Cohen and Halle Cohen sent a letter of
apology, but he never gave anything and we wouldn't have taken anything
from him. That shows you how the Temple felt about us. They had no feeling.
But when Hitler came along they got scared because they saw the handwriting
on the wall, that Hitler didn't care whether the Jews were born in Germany
or whether they fought for Germany or what. He wanted to get rid of all
the Jews. That's when they got softer. But Rabbi Kaplan and Rabbi Lef-
kowitz were very much against us. They thought we were scum, we were
nothing. We never mingled with them.

P: When did the Jewish Community Council start? Do you remember that?

K: No, I can't remember that.

P: Because I thought it was in the forties.

S: Aunt Sarah, let's go back now with the kids growing up. When did you move
to Southside?

K: We moved in 1940. We bought a home. The neighborhood on Silver Street started
cheapening, you know, so that's when the Wolfsons moved away.

S: You didn't go to Riverside with a lot of the other families.

K: No, no, we went straight to Southside.









17





S: Why did you decide on Southside instead of Riverside where a lot of other
Jewish families...?

K: Well, Southside was just starting. The Wolfsons, the Weises, the Safers,
and the Wittens lived in Riverside. There were a lot of Jewish people
that had moved because they felt that that was the nicer neighborhood.
We bought a home at 1537 River Oaks Road.

S: Did you build the house?

K: No, that was a model home. It was owned by a bachelor with his two old-
maid sisters. The agent had the house up for sale about six months. He
wanted $1800 down. Who had $1800 to pay down on a house at that time?
Mr. Margol had just got over the heart attack. He was in bed for six
months. Two months he walked around before he went to the store. It was
during the Depression. Things were very bad and I didn't know where my
next dollar was coming from, but I had the cooperation of Abe and Nathan
Newman. Abe was my lifesaver. And all the wholesalers. I put my cards
on the table and I told them that if I didn't pay them that meant that I
was absolutely broke. And Oscar Margol, my husband's brother, brought me
a check signed with his name. He asked me how much money I needed and
my children and I got together. We took inventory and we decided that
we needed $600 to pay each of the wholesalers $25. So he brought me a
signed check and he says, "When you get ready, call me and tell me how
much more you filled it in for." So with that I paid a little bit to
each one and I wrote them that if I won't pay them anymore that means I
don't have it. But if I have it they'll get it. And Mr. Margol, when I
took him out of the hospital, I didn't have any money to pay. I don't
remember what his bill was, but it was a big bill. And I told Mr. Cruz,
who was superintendent at that time, that if I have it he'll get it and if
I don't give it to him...you know St. Luke's....

S: Yes.

K: ...is a state hospital. But that, that's the situation, and everybody
was most cooperative. I couldn't have gotten along without them. And
my family...but thank God I payed back every penny. My family sent me
$500 to pay down on a house and Oscar and Annie Margol, and Morris Margol
went to look at the house. But I says, "How can I swing $1800?" It was
right after he was recuperating. So he says, "Well, how much can you
swing?" I says, "I don't know." "Well, you take inventory and see." So
$500 my folks sent, a few dollars I squeezed out as business got a little
better, and Oscar gave me again a check for $600. Well, off the record,
when Morris got sick in April, Pesach, and when I saved from the Christmas
business I gave Annie Margol that check for $600 she tore it up to
pieces. She said, "I don't want it. We don't need it." I says, "Annie,
thank God I could give it back. If I need it again I'll ask for it again."

P: Was this typical of the Jewish community, that if somebody else were in
trouble everybody would come to their aid?









18





K: Yes, you see, the two brothers were the only ones in this country and
Morris brought Oscar over, and they were very close. The rest of the
family was in South Africa and England.

P: I'm talking about other families in Jacksonville.

K: Other families, yes.

P: If they had these troubles then they would help each other. Nobody was
really left out on the street.

K: No. The family was very close. The organizations were functioning.
The Ladies Sheltering Aid Society was doing a lot of charity work. Mrs.
Crystal did a lot, and the Mizrahis. David Moed, we saved his life.
David Moed got sick. You see, his father was asthmatic and he wasn't
well, and his mother was one of the finest, bravest women that ever
walked on two feet. So we tried to help them as much as we could. So
the Daughters of Israel had a rummage store on Adams Street. When we
got through with the rummage store, we decided to put them in the Moeds and
we all gave whatever we could and that's how she started a little second-
hand store. Well, David got very sick and Dr. Safer said that there's
only one man that can save his life, that's in New York. So it was
Succoth and it was on a Saturday, and I got my old standby, Anna Katz,
and we went from store to store. We went to Mizrahi'sin Springfield,
and Mrs. Mizrahi, the old lady, when she opened the door I said, "Mrs.
Mizrahi, I'm here for help." She says, "Don't tell me who for. Don't tell
me anything," and gave me five dollars, which at that time was like a
hundred today. I went from store to store. I went out on Florida Avenue
when I heard there was a Jewish store. Do you know who had a store there?
Sue's, it was his grandniece, her uncle, Mr. Marks had a little store.
Only one Jewish family who had four children of their own gave me fifteen
cents. They had the biggest store on Broad Street, and somebody said we
should have thrown it in her face. I said, "No, that fifteen cents hurt
her more to give it to me and the fifteen cents still will add to David."
And we sent the boy and his mother to New York and he had that operation.
He can see. He has double vision, and is living today. But he changes
his glasses. One day I was in the synagogue, and there was a plaque for
his father, and he said to me, "If it wasn't for you, that plaque wouldn't
be up there and I would be up there too." He remembered those things;
that's what the community did for each other.

P: Yes.

K: We helped each other.

P: Did your social life revolve around the Center?

K: Yes. Everything was around the Center. We were very close at that time.
You know, we were all like the Mendelsons. When I lived on Jefferson Street
the Mendelsons lived on the corner, that's Ann Rosner's parents. The









19





Habers lived on Jefferson Street, and Rob Baker's family lived next
door to the B'nai Israel. And the Morgensterns and the Schemers lived
next door to that, and the Flectchers and the Margols and the Hoffenbergs
and Jack Becker's family lived on Duval Street there, see. So we were
all like one big family and it followed us when Springfield got the
biggest community at that time.

P: Yes.

K: Everybody migrated to Springfield on account of the Center. You know the
Slotts and the Sloats and all of them.

S: So they just had a great big get-together.

K: Mitchell told me about it. So you see, that's the way it was at that time.
Nobody counted your money, whether you had a nickel or not, it didn't make
any difference. We were one big happy family. The Bonos lived on Duval
Street right near Broad Street. That's when the Edwards had the grocery
store, and the Edwards lived on Monroe Street near Broad.

S: When did Mr. Margol pass away?

K: My husband?

S: Yes.

K: Twenty years ago.

S: Were the children still in school?

K: He was living when the boys went to the University of Florida. He lived
to see grandchildren. Melvin graduated during the Depression, and he
didn't want to go to college. So I sent him to Virginia to learn the
installment business from my brothers who were all in that business.
The twins went to the University of Florida. They were mid-termers,
and everybody said, "They'll never make it, being mid-termers." When
my boys went to college they went with one suit and pants and shirts. We
took them to the store, gave them socks and underwear, and that's the way
they went to school. So they wanted to join a fraternity. So they took
a laundry concession in the fraternity house. Then they were janitors
one year. One of their buddies is an architect in Miami, Teddy Gotfreid.
There's one, Frankie Marks, who is the big criminal lawyer in Miami. They
tried to save money to join:the fraternity. We were just starting to get
on our feet, see. I worked ten days a week. When the other stores would
open at nine, I was there at seven. When they closed at seven, I was
there till nine or ten.

S: Where was your store at this time?









20





K: Our store was at 704 Davis Street. My children worked right with me.
Hilbert played football; Howard didn't. And one of them was always in
the store with us. It was a togetherness with the family. One knew what
the other was doing...all our discussion were around the dinner table and
that's where we would make our decisions, and we decided that the twins
should go to college if they wanted to.

P: Was it common for a parent to want all their children to go to college
at that time?

K: Oh yes, oh, that was the ambition of every Jewish parent. A college
education, because they didn't have the education themselves. Now Mr.
Margol had an education. He was supposed to be a rabbi and he was edu-
cated in the best colleges in Europe, even in London, but he lost his
religion along the way. When I married him he had no religion at all. He
would keep the store open even on Roshashana. It made no difference to
him. But when I came from an Orthodox family and I told him the only
way I'd marry him was if I wanted to light candles for him not to blow
it out because those years you heard a lot of stories that way. With
the Workmans Circle, if the wife wanted to be religious, it was an abso-
lute no. He told me he wouldn't join the synagogue until Melvin was born.
Then he realized. But he never objected and he went along with what-
ever I said as far as religion was concerned, and he would never talk
against it because he had too much education. The twins were sophomores
when they were taken out and put in the service, and at that time that's
when the work started for me, you know. We couldn't get enough help and I
really worked very hard before we retired. Mr. Margol retired nine years
before he died, and the main thing was the togetherness. My three sons
and my son-in-law were always together. They always thought of their
little sister. She was a queen. Like Melvin said Saturday night, "We
were three brothers, but we had one queen in our family and she's still
our queen," and that tickled me. I'm sorry we didn't have a recording
of Saturday night. But you see, it was a different set-up with children.
Parents trusted children. I never had to worry where my children were
because they came out with the truth. I knew where they were, what they
were doing. They didn't have to lie to me, because the children went to
school with all the Gentile children. I have pictures when our children
took part in the Christmas plays, but it never converted them because they
had religion in the home.

S: The home was strong enough.

K: When Hilbert was about twelve years old they called me from the synagogue.
Mr. Wilson was the Sunday school teacher and Mr. Hackel was the chairman
of education, and Oscar Magezez was the Shammash. That was in Springfield.
So they called me that Hilbert misbehaved, and that to me was just as if
somebody had slapped my face. Sunday was the only day that I had for rest.
So I went to the synagogue and there was the class, and Oscar Magezez,








21





Mr. Hackel, and Mr. Wilson. Mr. Wilson said that Hilbert was throwing
spitballs and disrupted the class. Well, Hilbert got up and defended
himself and he said that part of the lesson is so boring that he just had
to do something and that was the only way he could relieve his frustration.
So Mr. Hackel got up and said, "Look, when I was a child growing up in
Europe, I was so hungry we didn't have anything to eat and I thought if
I go to cheder, to Hebrew school, I would fill my head with knowledge, I
would forget that my stomach was hungry." And each one said something
else. So I got up and I said, "Well, you're too big to whip. The only
punishment that I can give you is Wednesday there's a Scout banquet." Mrs.
Fanny Moscowitz and I worked very hard. We were the only two mothers
that sewed on the merit badges and everything. I said, "The only punish-
ment that I can give you, unless you give me your Scout oath that you'll
behave yourself from now on, is that you cannot go to the banquet." Well,
Sunday they used to come home from Sunday school and eat lunch and go to
the show. That was their treat Sunday afternoon. So Sunday went by,
Monday went by, Tuesday he says, "Mama, tell Maddy [the maid] not to
forget to press my uniform." I says, "What do you need your uniform for?"
He says, "Did you forget about the banquet tomorrow night?" I says, "I
didn't forget, but you forgot your promise." He says, "Well I can't give
you my Scout oath, but I can give you my word of honor that I'll try my
best to behave," and I never had any more trouble with him. That was the
punishment that I used to give them. Different things like that. But I
swear to God that I didn't have the trouble with all four of my children
growing up that some people have...well, I'll tell you.
I had a nephew I brought over from England, sent him to school in
the United States and I had plenty Cof3 trouble from him. But you see,
that's the way things were. Melvin made a speech Saturday. He said, "We
didn't have riches in our home, but we had plenty [of] love and plenty Cof3
closeness." And to this day, when my children got married, Howard was the
first one, I asked each of my daughters-in-law, "I don't care how you get
along with your neighbors. What friends you make is none of my business.
The only thing that I ask you is to try your best to get along with your
sisters-in-law. Nothing disrupts a family as when sisters-in-law start to
squabble and fuss." And thank God it has worked. Howard is married
twenty-eight years. Hilbert will be married twenty-eight in November.
Melvin's married twenty-five. Bernice will be married twenty-five in Sep-
tember. They're all together. I thank God. I only hope and pray that
my grandchildren will do the same. Now I have three grandchildren married.
They married our kind of people. I pray that the rest of them will follow
suit. Whatever they'll do, I'll accept it, because they're my grandchildren.
I won't like it, but I'll accept it. But thank God they all three married
our kind. They're following in our footsteps in the Conservative synagogue.
That's the first thing they did when they moved from Jacksonville. The last
one that was married was Felice Margol, who was born here. She married Joel
Gross August 4, last year. It'll be a year this August. His parents, Herman
and Evelyn, are very religious Orthodox families, and wonderful young people
like my Howard, they're Howardrs age. The father is a biologist and the
mother is overall secretary of the Jewish Center in Atlanta. I love being









22





with them. They don't eat out; they don't eat anywhere. They're a won-
derful family and I'm very proud. So that's all I ask for.

P: Well, we certainly enjoyed talking with you this morning. It's been very
interesting.

K: Well, you can leave whatever you want out, but you know, life was so dif-
ferent then. If we had a rabbi and his wife like Rabbi Margolis, that
woman should be mentioned. There was a time when she was so sick and he
used to come late to the synagogue. Old man Selber, Phil's father, used
to jump on him and call him everything under the sun, and he didn't tell
them that he had to stay there and bathe her and she wouldn't let the nurse
bathe her. Mr. Robbins was Shamus in the Jacksonville Jewish Center. He
was really a lifesaver. Everybody loved him, and Ethel Crystal and I were
the only ones that would be allowed to go up to see Mrs. Matilda Margolis.
She didn't want to see anybody because she looked so bad. There's not
another person that would go through the things that he went through for
her. Eleven o'clock at night she decided she wanted strawberries. It was
out of season, and he got out and tried finding strawberries. Then she
wanted a new hat. She figured she'd be well enough for Yom Tov to wear it.
He went down to Rose Joel's and brought her a half a dozen hats. She was
so sick she didn't even try them on. You know, things like that stand
out in your memory. They treated him, he was the rabbi, he was the teacher,
he was the cantor, he was an author, he wrote a play, The Wedding. That
play played twice inthe Moroccan Temple to a packed house. And Melvin was
a shadchan, made up, he was only about fourteen years old. He was made up
like a shadchan with a long frock coat and a vamaca and a beard. Now
you come in somebody's house and if the television is on, they'll either
tell you to keep quiet or wish that you hadn't come because they're watching
TV. Like Hilbert says, "Mama..." I says, "You know, today there's no
togetherness." All our discussions were around the dining room table when
the maid was in the kitchen doing the dishes and we were on dessert. That
was our decisions, our discussions, our everything. So I says, "But today."
He says, "Mama, when we were growing up there were no radios, no television.
We went to public school from the time they were six years old, Bernice and
my boys. And then we'd go to Hebrew school. We'd come home. We'd play out-
side a little bit. We'd come home. We'd have supper. We'd do our homework
and we'd go to bed. There was nothing else to do. But today each one's
got a radio. Each one has their own activities.. A child goes out. You
never know where they're going or who they go with." It's a different
world. Everything centered around the synagogue. The Boy Scouts were very
active. I don't know if they still are or not, and you know, it was dif-
ferent. Like my Bernice's Linda. You know, she'll be fifteen. I says,
"You know, honey." I says, "I can't understand why you don't join the BBGs
CB'nai Brith Girls]. Your mother was president for two years of the BBG.
She says, "Grandma, I want you to know they're nothing but a social group.
We, the USYers [United Synagogue Youth], we're a religious group and we take
care of our religion Claughter]."

P: Linda was President of USY. My daughter is president of Rodolf Shalom
Sisterhood.









23





K: I know it, but that's the answer....

S: This in Tampa.

P: Yes, right, but they have a group here.

K: That's the answer that she gave me. Because I was surprised, because
Bernice was so active in BBG at that time. You see, but today....Thank
God, my daughter, my children were lucky. But up until now, my fourteen
grandchildren are on the decent track. Now my daughter, Bernice Wolf, you
know, Sandy graduated for the University of Miami nursing, and Mike is in
Harvard. Four-year scholastically, $4,000 a year. Marshall is in Stanford
scholastically on a four-year scholarship, $4,000 a year. When my Linda
comes to the synagogue every Saturday morning and Friday night--sometimes
she skips Friday--on a Saturday morning they have a clique there, the
boys and girls, and she gets up on there and she reads the Torah. She
davens with Musaf. One Saturday morning I went to pick her up and I wasn't
going. I had my car in the shop and a friend of mine was taking me to
pick up my car, which is right near the garage near the synagogue. So
Bernice says,"Mom, would you think Marian would mind picking Linda up?"
I said, "I know she wouldn't mind. I'll be glad to ask her." So we went
to pick Linda up and she comes out of the house and her face was down and
she gets in the back and I hear she's davening. And I says, "What's the
matter, Linda? You don't feel good?" "I'm all right." So then I asked
Bernice, "What happened with Linda today?" I got worried, you know. She
says, "Well, ten o'clock Friday night they called her. The girl who was
supposed to daven with Musaf got sick and she was afraid that she wouldn't
know it after a million times." So I told her afterwards, I says, "Linda,
you shouldn't have been afraid. Most of the congregation don't even know
half, a fourth of what you're saying." So you see, as long as they are
still active and taking a part, and the same thing with my other grandchildren,
as long as they know....I wrote Marshall a letter. He wrote me about some-
thing and I wrote him, I says, "Never forget your heritage." You know,
Marshall just joined a fraternity in Stanford and you'll never guess who's
his fraternity brother--Toby Schneider.

P: We ought to end this. Thank you very much and we appreciated talking to
you today.





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