Title: Alonzo Williams
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Title: Alonzo Williams
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FB 45A

SUB: Alonzo Williams

INT: "Button Project"

PLACE: Apopka

JF

NOV. 12, 1980


B: What year were you, did you first register to vote?

W: What year I registered to vote, probably about in 1968.

B: And what year were you, you were eligible when you were (2Ithenright?

W: Right.

B: Did the local registrars ever turn you down when you went?

W: No.

B: Have voter registration drives ever been held in your district?

W: Yes.

B: Do you remember the group that, that put this on, that uh?
ift w5
W: Well I would sayAthe NAACP, I couldn't say definitely. I never was involved with it.
W: 61.
B: Do you remember.,,fAet's see uh,,,do you remember about when these drives were held?

W: Uh .
\0,o `,0 \
B: Like before 4 between l-960 and -964, just a rough . .

W: I can't remember back in there, I don't guess so. 'Bout six years ago I would

sayA That's as far back as I can remember I'm talking

about six or seven years ago.

B: Do you remember how successful these were?

W: Yeah, they registered quite a few people. In fact they registered more people
a Ad +6- A4cre-
then, they had more people to turn out to vote that year then ever was.

B: You don't remember any numbers?

W: No, don't remember any numbers.

B: Are there any things which prevent blacks from registering to vote in your district?

W: No.






FB 45A


B: Look at these six items here and rank them in importance which you' think they've

had in preventing blacks to register. I'll just say these for the record; economicc

dependence on whites, would you say that played any significance? Try to get it
in two time spans; one, when you were first elected, or let's say five years ago,

and then now, you know so we can see if there's any type of a gain.

W: You're losing me right here, now you're trying, you're asking me . .

B: Two times, okay one, when were you first elected, I'm, I was . .

oi )cf -:t4 + e n H e e V -, -e VC
W: Mfiviefeett ,evevd
B: Okay, so how did economic dependence on whites affect voter registration in 1970,
andAhow do you see it as affecting them now? 7e?
UL^?r ...p6:A bl
W:A Really I don't um, here it doesn't play aVA v-a*erdidn't play a big role, nohuhh-

B: Okay, great. That's all we want is just your judgement. It doesn't, these don't

have to be significant.

W: W Le Se, I was trying because I, here it didn't really

play a big role.
B: And fear of physical violence from whites?

W: No.

B: That didn't play a big role?

W: Nor, no.

B: Complicated registration forms?

W: Umcomplicated registration...~4f now there were some of those, wait a minute,

complicated registration forms . I guess that's what it was because they
threw out some, and uh . .
'D70
B: This was back in like 1W then, or so?
W: Right, something back in likeA/ltlt 497-.
B: But you wouldn't say it plays any part right now?

W: Oky, ut tt u
B: Okay, how about poor registration hours?





FB 45A


W: No, because they're opening at, even much, half a day on Saturdays for the ones
that didn't come in through the week, and uh . .
'70
B: Is that, was that in-+9WO?
% 10
W: That was in* it's doors are open from you know eight to five daily, and on
Saturday in co5e Uo \JcAW O c, y COL((c. 0 O- e_.-
olvAso / th, e
B: Okay, then- what you're saying is registration was held often enough4 a nd number We.
. b: And indifference of black voters, did you, did that play a significant role?
W: Indifference?
B: Were blacks apathetic, did theyant to go and register, or did they see this not

as affecting them? ToI so Ifd5al in 'O7
W: That's very hard to answer. Uhwell in,4 kay-i-+n-49~7 they did because the
administration before -06 was somewhat CorrY.pie 1 -' and they came
'70
back in--947 to try to make a change, and you know you got quite a few blacks
-for ^>'.
outAweH- we don't have a big percentage of blacks registered in the city limit
of Apopka because the city limit of Apopka don't consist of many blacks. And
really my, in my election I had ninety-five percent white votes.
B: I will be asking you that question further on.
W: So it doesn't play a big difference, you know the, a big difference in black voters
here would have to be just about 100 percent blacks to get out and vote.

B: Okay, I see. Were you able to campaign freely, or was there, was there any
threat from whites, were any
W: No.

B: Okay, um how often is registration required here?
W: Only one time that I can recall.
B: Does redistricting serve to hinder black participationAokay uh . .
W: District voting right?
B: Yeah. Ok -
St ee
W: Well we don't vote in districts here, we just have a^what you call it, but it's





FB 45A


jtss+ 6 1ack
W: not districts, everybody-deas vote, you know -ide, city-wide.
B: Okay, were you handicapped by a lack of money to campaign with?
W: I could say yes that I was, but I guess you never have enough money to do what

you want to do, but I had enough money to take care of my needs at that time.
If I had had more money I could have campaigned more widely, but I did have enough
money to take care of what I had to do.
B: How much money did you spend, and where did you get it from?
Saty-one hnivdc wo uosnA olrsf
W: Well I spent approximatelyA$t!t well something close toA$ ~o I got it from

various organizations, various donations from friends, this type of thing, and

plus I put my own money in,) ie loiiy O 1 t
B: Do you remember what any of thep organizations were, were they local organizations

or . ?

W: Well I had gotten from church groups) vo-L I( 1 a oft (t of -4Ce vuith row5
mos4j, Oad VIA olicitedi41.solicited you know we formed into so many people, and we weren't

really organization)- / something like five or six people, and we solicited here,
solicited there. Again I put a lot of my money.

B: Okay, that's probably how it usually works out, you know. Why did you decide to

run for office?
W: Well really I didn't decide. I had a group of people come to me, ask me to uhCocd :E
Con s idere- c
feaidwe it, told them that I would, I don't know whether that comes from because
well really the guy that came was a NAACP member. But I don't think it was from

them, I think he was just interested in trying to get a black on the council, and
you know felt that I could do the job.
B:/ W4ich party or organization do you belong?

W: Democrats.
B: Did you get very much support from the Democratic party?

W: I would say yeah.
B: Okay. What were two or three of the major issues which you campaigned on?





FB 45A


W: Unity.
B: Do you think these issues were the main problems facing black or blacks in your

community?
W: Not really.
B: This was more or less a general problem of the uh . . If not, what were the
main problems for the blacks in the community?

W: Personally, I don't see any problems that can't be solved among the blacks, problems
TW ^Ei, YOI) yo. c hw 4 i VAcuIres.
there~ lot of problems are caused eCu of tmi- And here it hasn't
any pV)yr fro oor6f 0dM
really been trrn-ii-proess, no more than the usual, the low job tps aAtE
uh, we have a lot of uneducated people, and you know that causes problems. But
you know other than that everything . .

B: You didn't see any one significant problem.
W: NoI didn't see any one significant problem.
B: I see, okay.

W: 4Wealways had freedom for2you knowwhatever welwanted, after the change.

B: Right yeah, okay. How were you elected, at large or by district, you've already
answered, t~.
W: Yeah, at large.
B: Okay. How many people are in your district? oLfic,

W: How many registered voters do we haveJA I don't have a correct figureAon the number
of registered votershAC.
B: Okay. What percentage of the population in your district is black?
W: I would say about five.

B: About five per cents about what percentage of the blacks "of voting age in your
district are registered?
W: Let me put it this way, as close as I can remember in the neighborhood there was
two hundred and some registered black voters. That's as close as I can remember,
wJell \em,
you know I don't do a lot of figures,AbLn I hearA and this is what I've heard, it
was something like 200 registered voters was black4ln 4CJ Ccrniuhi^c.





FB 45A


B: About what was the percentage of blacks who were registered to vote do you

estimate actually voted when you were elected?

W: Again I guess I'd go to that five percent, I guess about five percent of them

voted. Of course there was a bigger turnout of blacks that year, butAI don't

know whether you're talking about me personal or the elections for that year.

Because of these five per cent that voted, you know, I didn't get, I wouldn't say

that I got a majority of those votes . .

B: But that's basically what we're asking)is for you.

W: Yeah, because I know that uh the lady that I was running against, she got a lot
Uh) ~o1 of 17ose
of those4votes

B:A Did you think you got any votes from whites?

W: That's where w: gt-gfthm I've dareadc h4ke on 1

B: Right, and what percentage of the total came from these whites?

W: Ninety-five.
yotive \&Jon
B: I've just got to re-ask the question*. In the election of which You were-, office,

how many opponents did you have?

W: One.
B: One?

W: Take that back, two. But one of them was eliminated the first round, and then the
Whon 4H 'QYanoff.
next round I went ahead-and wan.

B: Were they both black women?

W: Both white.

B: Both white. About what percentage of the total vote did you get?

W: Hmm, the total vote, you lost me, I got 413 votes, and I think that's something

like uh, 600 voted uh . v eI

B: So you probably got about sixty-six percent, roughly.AsBIn what ways do you think

you have helped blacks in your district by holding office?

W: Well, I would say the main thing is respect. And when I say respect it's where





FB 45A


W: maybe a lot of things that come up a lot. i my cctlms, come up a lot isg

black community ) here when there wasn't any blacks on the council, they would

pass over, going to shun it some way or another. But now if it come up they will
act on it, one way or another, whether theyll641 do anything about it or not, it wi(k(o,

if will be acted on at justipf in other problems that arise, po uh I was instrumental

in helping the recreation department get off to a good start. That was the first

thing I was put on when I got to be a councilman. And now I'm in the sanitation
department, and we have helped it accumulate good relationship between our
And wev hovoe)T J-ow-,
employees and our city officials./-1 e don't uh, I don't have all this stuff to-

gether. Forget I reflected it back to respect.

B: Okay, what if anything has prevented you from doing a better job, especially in
regard to benefiting blacks?

W: Non-cooperation from the blacks.

B: From the blacks?

W: From the blacks.

B: I see. Can you elaborate on this just a little?

W: Well really . .

B: Is it just that they don't care or they are just not interested, or they, they
just don't see politics as a good way of their needs expressed?
Wel!
W:AI don't know which one of those to really elaborate on. Really they haven't
shown any interest, they don't attend the council meetings when something come

up Want to squawk about. They don't, I don't get any calls from them regarding
one thing or another. If something happens they don't like they talk about it

among themselves, and they let the other officials know that they're not really

together. And it's hard to say butAwe feel as if we have been left out so long

that things are supposed to be done for us regardless of)you knowwhat the

situation is, feel that it's supposed to be handed to us on a silver platter.

Imm a little different, I'm human and I believe in humans, I like a 11 humans,





FB 45A


W: and I work for the betterment of the community and people. And if anybody sees

my views different you know, then they're not for the same thing that I am. And
me
if I make a vote that they don't like, and yet they haven't consultedAwith why

they don't like it, or why I made this vote you know to get the understanding

after I have put my study into it, and you know all these things go against

you and this has been the situation here, really no

support, non-support. I feel thatyou know, I try to figure andAhave been hard
/ oY
to figure. I don't know what they wantAwhat they look for out of a black elected

official.

B: Okay. Could you look at these listings again and try to rank them in importance

in preventing you from doing a better jobbenefiting blacks. Number one is office

has no real authority.
ell tC^-
W:Ayy office has real authorityA I am in charge of the sanitation and trash department

here. I mean I guess this is what you're talking about when you said . That's

one of the top priorities of the city, your garbage and your trash because this

has got to go. And I feel that we have a real good program going because the

complaints have dropped down to minus zero.so I think that

B: You don't have to answer it like I'm saying like these have to apply, you can say
\ 0 it
like you just did4$2,; n lit doesn't apply, and give me why it doesn't apply,

exactly like you did. Overvoted by white officials?

W: I have that .Echtice)

B: Would you say this is a major prevention?

W: No, I wouldn't say it was a major prevention, no I wouldn't say that because this

doesn't happen that often, just once in a blue moon.

B: Fairly important or not important, right around there?

W: Really is not important.
wh rCVUe--
B: Okay. Not enoughilrevenue available? (I cklc)

W: That's from, oh)there's not enough revenue available for some of the things that

we really need. For instancewe need a lot of streets here) /e need a lot of





FB 45A


W: drainage, we got a lot of drainage problems. And really the city don't have the

revenue to do this. But then again think we could put this on a long range

plan and set aside so much each year for these type projects and get them done.

Well I added that into it, this is in the makings. But right now, that's all I'm

speaking of, right now there's not enough revenue.

B: Okay, but you said this if for the, the whole community experiences this, it

doesn't affect you with blacks particularly, t-h4l~is for the whole community?

W: Right.

B: Okay. Unfamiliar with administrative duties?

W: Now who are you talking about?

B: I'm talking about you, I mean what are the, what, out of these that I'm listing,

which do you feel has hindered you in helping blacks, do you believe that you were


W: Oh, no.

B:NoAhat hasn't played any importance?

W: That hasn't played any importance, I was pretty well up with it.

B: Lack of cooperation from whites?
W: That hasn't had any effect a,, ;=I,

B:A Lack of cooperation from blacks?

W: Right.

B: Okay, I think you've answered that.

W: Yeah.

B: Okay, lack of cooperation from state officials?

W: I wouldn't put that On state official, because I/1 had a lot of mail from them

askingyou know what they can do, and I've met a lot of them. But I haven't, I

haven'tyou know/give 'em a problem or anything so

B: Lack of cooperation from federal officials?

W: Through the city) I think federal officials have been pretty, pretty fair with us.





FB 45A 10


W: There's a lot of federal programs in town, a lot of federal programs going on,
so I think they have been pretty fair.
B: Has criticism or lack of support from the black community hindered you in holding
office, that is do some blacks not cooperate with you because they believe you're
a token in the government and have no real authority?
W: yes.
B: Do they do that?
W: Uh huh.
urn, iY
B: Could you give an example of thisAau how they've prevented you or this type of 0
situation has prevented you from doing a better job?
W: Well I might have to change it from preventing me from doing a better job. I have
done a job regardless of their not cooperating. And due to the fact that I've had

the cooperation from the other people I continue to do my job. COc(t e u_ ,
criticisms that I've had, you know they say that I was put there by the other
man and I vote the way he wants me to vote,

__and they allsay that well he got what he wanted, he doesn't
care about us, but that's not the point. I care about people, and people in general
as I've forestated. You know these are the criticisms that you get.
B: Okay, I believe you've touched on the next question here, do you feel that white
officials treat you differently from other officials or not, that is do they
consider you the spokesman for the black and are you able to raise only certain
issues, that means, do they just relegate you to blacks? D you just speak for the
blacks or for the community?
W: I speak for the community)not only blacks. As a matter of factI had this uh, you

know when I was elected in all my campaigning, and you know at all of my speeches,
acu whatever I have to say, I let 'em know that I, you know they say that I was a
representative of +ke 'bl ks Okt I am from the black community,
I'm the only black official there, and I'm going to look outyou know/for the





FB 45A


W: black when things come up for him, but again I have a position to play, and I got
to play that position, and in order to play my position I got to look out for

the whole community.
Oko^l'j.
B:A What services have you provided blacks in your district that they do not, that

they did not have before you took office, and if there have been any could you
give an example?
W: Well there are more streetlights for one thing, that might be minor. There's not

a whole lot of big things that have been done. In fact there's not a whole lot

of big things that have been done in the community1 as a whole.we areI guess,
really just been keeping it together due to the fact that revenue has been awful

short. But there, there are some services, little services that you don't really

see that have been done. Then again I can't begin to name them 'cause I don't

B: Okay, we have a rating here. How would you rate these listings here in the way
teat you would feel that they . Well how effective do you think you have

been in each of the following areas of service?

W: Police protection, police protection is very effective here.
B; Okay, streets and roads?

W; That we don't have. So
Housing .
B: How were streets related to, do, does the white part of your community have
streets and blacks don't, or is it shared throughout . .

W; No, well there are some streets in white communities not up to par, but they have,

the majority of their streets are nice. But this has happened before . .
B; You took office?
W: Yeah I took into office, in fact the street right in front of my house was paved

the year just before I went in. They did this, this was a political move. ForbL-

what they did is came and put some blacktop out there/A Jhey didn't fix the
drainage, they didn't it or nothing. And they assessed us all to pay our
drainage, they didn't acuve it or nothing. And they assessed us all to pay our





FB 45 a


W: part for an incomplete street. Okay,,this is one of the first things that I
kicked on when I took office, and well the city, they dropped it,, /o we didn't
have to pay, the street wasn't completed and blah, blah, blah. And, but the rest

of them, we haven't paved any streets since I've been in. But they haven't got
any pavement over there, and they haven't got any pavement over here. Did a little
patchwork, but again, they you know, all this was, that part of town was fixed
years ago.

B: Housing?
W: Well that's a nasty issue here. It was with me anyway because I just made a
voteA turn down some housing, a housing plan that the county brought to our
commissioner meeting which is really, I didn't see it being beneficial to the
Oka/,
residents of Apopka.A I voted against it, and a lot of people thought that was
one of the ridiculous thatyou know you could do. They said they need housing.
But they didn't look into the groundwork of this program. Like I told themI'll
grant you we need housing. There are houses here, a lot of rentals, they tear
'em up, don't keep 'em first class, well that's beside the point. And then we
uth Acrr we ere--
took a survey to find fifteen vacant nice houses in Apopka thatAWvag I take it
back, fifteen nice in one area, and uh,that was unoccupied at this time. So
houses are) ,, -Z I think if they wanted a better housethey
could find a better house, vbt what they say that they can't afford it, they
need a free house.
B: 4[i Uk kIJT" see. 5 see q0 f-. How about welfare?

W: Welfare. I'm not, I'm not, what phrase of welfare are you talking about?
B: Well, just looking for how effective you think you've been in establishing any
of these since you've held office. Do you think you've made gains in any of
these areas, or r you just want to tell what the situation is now in any of
these areas?
W: Welfare, I don'tj-get-thft- dj\'' nl ) '1e1 e4in welfare.





FB 45A


B: Parks and recreation?

W: Well we missed employment.

B: Oh, okay employment? '

W: Employment/I think that I have played a very effective part in employment. 4 had
a lot of employees hired in the police department. I've tried to get them to go

to the fire department. I've hadAto go into administrative at city hall. Don't
le m
have any there now due to the fact that they don't stay. Got a mast of -hem in

thee -at the recreation department. And I've had 'em to get promotions in the

sanitation department. So employment has been very effective.

B: Okay, and parks and recreation?

W: I think I hit on that before, but uh . .

B: Yeah, I do too.

W: Here I've played a, I think I played a very effective part in that.
B; Water, sewage, and garbage, I think that's right up your . .

W: Yeah, again, yeah, that's very effective. I can't say too much more than that.

I'll say that we handledthat situation pretty well.

B: Health and hospitals?

W: I don't have anything to do with that, that's not connected with the city.

B: Okay, and education?

W: No, I wouldn't . .

B: You wouldn't say that's come up in, since you've been in office, thi-s part of your

job, you haven't effected any change in this area? OKm.

W: No.

B: Fire protection?
5- Lp jOD.e
W: Well, I don'tAs,4aAwhfe I could say that I did anything thereA4 vote to keep
lith
the fire departmentAfirst class equipment, and vote to send 'em to school to get
he necessary training, and you know vote4fe the higher budget, you knowAwhich

has made our fire department one of the finest in the state of Florida.






FB 45A


B: So I'd say you helped in making it very effective.MA:WhyAni~Lyou say, maybe I

should have asked this where you ewtid clCtUS it i Hl -ihe WoJ R own bi,1, why do

you think you've been effective or ineffective in these areas, is there any key

reason?

W: I wouldn't say there was a key reason, but I have made these effective. I think

that any thinking person would have done the same thing to help make these effective.

All they do is take a little brains, and see things the right way, and make the

right vote on a lot of these. And some of them have been personally motivated,

like employment, like ,ei WaI s trying up heae eI 4h e-rah and so that

would make me feel that I have played a small part in 'bei-i- effective.

B: Okay, that's pretty good. Have you gotten federal funds for your district?

W: We have federal funds, yes.

B: Could you list some of t-he-types of federal funds which you're getting now?

W: Not really, I think we get ERA, and . .

B: And if it's possible could you list maybe the amount that your getting from them.

if it's possible? No?

W: No, I don't have those figures.

B: /:ell then just list, could you list what type of federal funding that you're getting?

W: I don't think I'm going to be able to do that. I know we get federal funds for

the recreation department, we get federal fund to helpAso many employees, and

there's some kind of fund the police department gett, but again)I can't name 'em.

B: Name exact ones, okay. Have you as an elected official or part of the local
vw: Ao. : A/o, 0
community been able to bring industry or retail stores into your area?A /as there

been any growth of industry or business in your area since you've taken office?

W: Yes, there's been tremendous growth in the area since I took office. Well I don't

know the reason for this but the first three, you know first three years we are

growing by leaps and bounds, and you know when the economy fell everything dropped

off. But there has been tremendous growth since I've taken office.





FB 45A


B: Could you list maybe like some of the areas that you see as being great, or is it
pretty well spread?
W: Well it's pretty well spread. Well we got Es.-l stc-- we got

( j)la "Te TVra North Shopping Center, we got Shelly North Mobile Home
Park, and we got the Oaks, we got . ye =now noV, ih s D o C of ourc)y.
B: But those, that gives me a pretty good idea what type of growth that you're

talking about. Have you been able to see that blacks are fairly hired in local

government?
W: Yes I have.

B: Could you explain how you've done this, any type of activity that you've had in
this area?
W: I really wasn't, we didn't have any activities, just that I speak. . but I better

get this broke down, you said local you said local government. Now when you
say local government I speak of government as city hall and the surrounding, you
know the police department, and the recreation, I call that local government. B:P~R ok- y.
W:That's what I'm talking about.
B:ASo you're saying that just your presence on the committee has made it easier for
blacks to be hired fairly?

W: Wellif I say that we need a secretary, I will mention that we should put a black
secretary, and we need a black secretary in city hall, and you know they will try
tWh
to hire one. Again,I said we don't have one right now, but in factAI don't know
the reason why, guess I got to get back on it again.
B: But you see that um . .
W: But I have had 'em, but I have had 'em there.
B: Oh, I see, okay. Has federal revenue sharing helped your districtor not?
41" k
W: Well IAbkww you're going to ask me where and I'm not going to be able to tell you,
but I will sayA (chuckle) I think it has, yeah.
B: But you're not sure exactly where?





FB 45A


W: No I'm not sure exactly where it is.
B: Okay. Have there been there any protests,sit-ins, boycotts, riots in your city in
the past ten years, and if so what were the issues involved?
W: There hasrt been any.
B: Okay. We're really going fast here, you know. Briefly what's your opinion of

) Reuben Askew, that is do you think he has been favorable in his attitude and
policy towards blacks in Florida or not, and what is your opinion of other state
officials and representatives?
Tor
W: Well I hope I can answer this question fairly due to the fact that I'm pOt of

C.G.)Reuben Askew. I think that hel done a marvelous job in the state of
Florida and for the blacks. I can't say because I don't
know personally some of the things that he may have done. But again I'm,ps.~Jiref%-f o
the govemen f Reuben Askew, I think he's a good governor, and I would support
him4whe~ e he tries to a t-emp A whatever he has done for the blacks or didn't
looked
do, I don't think he ltke over us because we were black. It was that he didn't
see fit for the program or some nature of that.
B: And how would you feel about the rest of the state officials? Did you feel that
they are as fair as( ) Askew? o r + 8:Oka .
W: nh-nm. (i IdZIo1rAt to covvmn\ Aw:Really I don't, you know I haven't
really thought too much of the rest of them. I guess I'm behind Gov. Askew and
the rest of them I, you know, kind of fall in line with him. But you know maybe
there are some that's not an d Son5 -4t) iSn 1U, I I
don't have them picked out.
B: Do you think that winning and holding office in Florida has been worth the effort,
and can you go into it a little bit whatever your answer is?
W: Yes I think it has been worth my effort. I've had a lot of experience. I've
gathered a lot of knowledge that I wouldn't have had due to the fact that I under-
took a lot of study into government, due to the fact that I went in not knowing





FB 45A 17


W: anything so I've studied awful hard, and I've learned a lot /nd the experience

has been marvelous./ ined a lot of respect from both sides. It puts you in the

know of what's going on, what's about to happen before it get out to the other

people. So it really keeps you abreast, and keeps you . .






End Side 1A





FB 45A


B: Okay uhthese questions are asked to compile an overall group profile of black

elected officials and again I'll say that all these answers, um)any answer that

you give will not be with your name, it'll just be that so many people fall into

this category so we get some type of idea of what type of person is being elected,
ffe[r here,
so anything that you eaf is, you answerAis strictly confidential. Your type of

office that you've held?
W: Commissioner.

B: Date first elected?

W: December something 1970.

B: Okay, date that you took office?

W: January 1.

B: Number of times run for office?

W: Two.

B: Okay, your age between eighteen and twenty-nine, thirty and forty-nine, and fifty

and over?
W: Thirty, thirty and forty-nine.

B: Okay, occupation before you were elected?
W: Managed a grocery store.

B: Your educational background?

W: I finished high school a gAk Cry chlooli

B: The salary you receive from your elected post?
W: $ -a-onth, A u1cJvccJ ar if/ dollar-< a v c-

B: Were you active in civil rights movements between 44-60 and 446-? Mo?

4* Non

B: Church to which you belong?

W: North Baptist Church of Apopka.

B: Are you an official in your church?

W:Deacon.

B: Are there are other community organizations or activities to which you are involved in?





FB 45A


W: No.

B: Do you know of any other black elected officials in this area who have been in
1V7
office since +O?

W: No.

B: What is your fathers occupation?

W: Custodian,

B: What effect has, what effect has running for office had upon you and your family?

W: None.

B: Socially or anything?

W: Nothing.

B: How long have blacks been elected in this area?

W: I was the first.

B: Okay, whatAidws what do you think has been primarily the key to your success? I

believe I've asked this before.

W: Respect, you know, all I can say.
Okay. Source
B:A Besides office, do you have any other m4-of income?

W: I own a grocery store.

B: Okay. What do you think is the biggest detriment to blacks being elected, I mean

what keeps them from being elected?

W: Revenue, really t.ey don't have enough money to campaign.

B: I see. Do you see this both on, in the local areas and in the . .

W: Uh huh. That's my first object, they don't have enough money to, and you have to

have enough money to get out there and let the people know who y6u are and what

you represent, jf not, if 4e people don't know you they can't vote for you.A:Okay,

what happened to me I was known because I had uh been at this place fourteen years

downtown, and they had known me from you know a boy to my adulthood, and really it

didn't take a whole lot to be known. ___ I felt if I had to go county-

wide I would have to have enough money to get out there. Okay just like last election





FB 45A


W: we had another black to run. He would have done good, but he didn't have enough
support in his campaign financial-wise to let the people know about him. And a lot
of them have got to change their campaign style in order to be elected. You can
be, it's possible you can be elected where there's fifty-fifty, you know people,
or either you have,jthe black had a majority of the voters. But where it's not
this situation~you have got to change your campaign style somewhat. I see a lot
of blacks campaigning black, and when you campaign black yeU really not going to
get many more votes besides blacks, and if you don't have a majority of those you
So~ni
can't get elected. I'm not saying all of them, but I have seen th-e campaigns that
run this way.
B: How de, when a person does rurnAprimarily just going after the black vote, do the
blacks respond to this, do they turn out in greater numbers or is it pretty much
the same people who vote. .

W: I haven't seen where they turn out in greater numbers. I can't say that this
don't happenbut I haven't seen4 1 ,
B: Okay, wellI think that's all the questions I've got to ask you. I've mentioned
that this will go into the Oral History Project, and this is not for public use
in that this tape will be transcribed and sent to you, i4 that you can edit it
in every, in any way, tell them what parts you want used, you don't want usedor
that you don't want the whole thing used. If you don't want this used it will be
just used for, to collect the data that you've given us, and that, we'll erase
it, and nobody will ever know that you ever spoke to us. And do we have your
agreement to use this in our oral history project for use?
W: Yes.
B: Okay. You'll still be sent all this material1 and you can edit it.
W: I think what I'll say today I can say at any, well I'm pretty outspoken so I
don't um .
B: Okay. Ebreo-k iV ta1c] This 6hs 6ecvl an iafnviW W je o, AuIontzo Wvi'lics1.
eFdL DF. I iWrE iVtvJ




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