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COPYRIGHT NOTICE


This Oral History is copyrighted by the Interviewee
and the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program on
behalf of the Board of Trustees of the University of
Florida.

Copyright, 2005, University of Florida.
All rights, reserved.

This oral history may be used for research,
instruction, and private study under the provisions
of Fair Use. Fair Use is a provision of United States
Copyright Law (United States Code, Title 17, section
107) which allows limited use of copyrighted
materials under certain conditions.
Fair use limts the amount of material that may be
used.

For all other permissions and requests, contact the
SAMUEL PROCTOR ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM at
the University of Florida









FP8
Miss Alma Warren
69 pages Restricted
February 6

Pp. 1-12: Miss Alma Warren is the daughter of Charles Ryan Warren, a lawyer from Savannah,
and Grace Fuller, a teacher from Milledgeville. Charles Ryan Warren was a lawyer trained at
Mercer, yet he was always interested in politics. This interest would blossom in his sons,
especially Fuller Warren. Fuller is Alma's third oldest brother. The Warrens originated from
Georgia. Before his death, Charles moved his family from Georgia to Blountstown, Florida. He
did this because he felt there would be greater opportunities to expand his career in Calhoun
county. Charles Warren became the County Judge of Calhoun County and also served in the
Spanish-American War. Alma's mother took care of the family during Charles' time at war as
well as after the death of Charles. Since Charles died when Alma was only three years old, Grace
had an enormous impact on her life. Grace Fuller had been educated at Coxe College and had
come from a long-line of Baptist preachers. Charles Warren had also been a Baptist. Alma's
oldest brother was named Hallowes, but he died at a young age. Alma also had four other
brothers: Joe Love (now retired in Blountstown but had been in the lumber business), Fuller Otis,
Julian Tharp (a Jacksonville attorney), and Richard Munford (now retired in Lake Butler but had
been in education). Alma's full name is Jessie Alma Warren, and she is an editor at the University
of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Pp. 12-15: Blountstown had been a small community (and still is), where everyone knew each
other. Alma's older brothers, including Fuller, attended Blountstown public schools for the
majority of their primary and secondary education. When Alma was four, the family moved to
Lake City, where she attended school for a short while. In Columbia County, Alma's mother was
a home economics teacher. When Grace received a better teaching position in Gainesville, the
family moved to the Northwest side of the city. Alma had most of her schooling in Alachua
County. At that time, there were only two schools in Gainesville, and the names have since been
changed. In 1923, when the Warrens first moved to Gainesville, the city was similar to
Blountstown in that it was a small, closely-knit community.

Pp. 15-17: Grace Fuller Warren was both smart and beautiful. Her attitude toward people and
education gave Fuller Warren the inspiration to achieve in politics. Grace was a home agent in
Gainesville and traveled around the county a lot. Still, she was able to take care of five children
on her own. Religion was important to the Warrens because of the strong Baptist background.
Grace died in 1948, two months before Fuller won the gubernatorial race.

Pp. 17-22: Fuller Warren was born on October 3, 1905. He and Alma were fifteen years apart,
yet they remained close because of their association after the death of their mother and especially
during the gubernatorial race. Fuller was an extremely sociable boy and knew everyone on his
college campus. Despite his avid reading, Fuller was not a great student. In college, Fuller
helped ton organize the Blue Key organization and the first Gator Growl has been attributed to
his organizational ability. After school, Fuller established himself in politics at his hometown of
Blountstown. In his early teens, he started out as a legislative page, but always dreamed of being









a governor. Fuller also worked for the Baptist Youth Union. A senator from Blountstown
encouraged Fuller toward a career in politics at a young age. Later, Governor Fuller would state
that he had been running for governor since he was ten years old.

Pp. 22-26: During college, Fuller became friendly with Governor Martin and increased his
political ties in Jacksonville and Tallahassee. During his time at the university, Fuller became
Duval County's representative in the Florida Legislature. At age 21, Fuller remains one of the
youngest men to have served on the city council for three terms. At age 25, Fuller married
Congressman Steagall's daughter, Sally Mae Steagall. The two met in Tallahassee as she was
attending the Florida State College for Women. Fuller and Sally were only married for ten years
and had no children. Sally is now re-married and living in Washington.

Pp. 26-31: Fuller had wanted to be governor of Florida since childhood. He first ran for
governor in 1940 while he was in his thirties; he lost the race. During the 1930's, Fuller had
remained close with his family, visiting often and speaking with them about various political issues
and the books he was writing. After Fuller's failure to win the governorship, Fuller went into the
Navy and fought in World War Two. Fuller's rank was low, but he made over twenty Atlantic
crossings. Dispatches written by Fuller on his experiences were printed in Florida newspapers.
He also wrote to his family on a frequent basis. After the war, Fuller settled back in Jacksonville
and continued to practice law.

Pp. 31-38: In 1948, Fuller decided to run for the governorship again. Alma remembers him as
being very enthusiastic about this decision. Already divorced, Fuller went into this campaign as a
bachelor. Therefore, his family filled the role that a wife might normally. Alma's role was to
speak with women's clubs and other small groups. These were informal meetings where no issues
were discussed. Fuller's mother has actually been credited with having the most influence during
this campaign because of the enormous number of people she knew. Fuller's brothers helped in
their own way, but Julian was the only brother to drop his job and campaign with Fuller. There
are many recollections of the election night had by Alma.

Pp. 38-48: In the 1948 election, Fuller (the liberal candidate) defeated Dan McCarty (the
conservative candidate). Despite his leftist persuasion, Fuller's image as a "country boy" helped
to win most of the central and northern sections of the state. His public speaking abilities also
helped him to gain recognition (he is compared with Billy Graham). Alma recalls other attributes
which helped Fuller to gain respectability, including: non-smoker, no profanity, no drinking, and
fastidious dress. Alma also recalls the festivities associated with the inauguration of January 1949
and her first days in the governor's mansion. Alma was the "first sister," so to speak, and did all
of the hostessing during the Governor's parties. She was also the only full-time family member at
the mansion. Therefore, she had the opportunity to speak with him over political matters. Yet,
she recalls keeping her distance from the political end of things as she felt this was none of her
concern. Alma also recalls the criticism her brother received during his administration. She also
recounts her feelings on being in the political spotlight and in the press.

Pp. 48-54: Alma recounts her experiences in the governor's mansion which included hosting
celebrities and foreign royalty, keeping the house clean and pretty and dealing with the









housekeepers and other servants. After Fuller's first year in office, he was re-married to a woman
named Barbara Manning of California. They were married for ten years without having children.
At Fuller's request, Alma remained at the mansion for the remainder of the Warren
administration. She recalls fixing up the mansion during her stay, but not always having the funds
to do with it as she would have liked.

Pp. 54-69: Alma believes that the Warren administration is now seen as a progressive era,
especially because of the sales tax that was put into effect during Fuller's term. Other important
policies enacted during Fuller's governorship include the Cows-Off-The-Road-Program, the Pine
Tree Prosperity, the Citrus Taste Test, other tax and road-building related issues, and tourism
boosters. Alma does not recall any undo harshness by the press toward Fuller, but there was a lot
of criticism at the time. Underground college newspapers would call him "The West Wind," but
never mention him by name. Yet, this type of treatment, Alma believes, did not persist. She sees
Fuller as a man of conviction and humility. Surprisingly, Warren never attempted to run for the
Senate (almost every former governor does). Fuller did not wish to be in Washington D.C. After
the end of his administration, Fuller moved to Miami and established a law firm. He remains there
today. Alma, after the term's end, stayed on in Tallahassee and went to the women's university.
Alma recalls the governors after Fuller, but believes that her brother was one of the most
influential of them all. The Warren family is now scattered across the South, but remain in
contact with each other.








Tape #1 Interview with Miss Alma Warren conducted by Samuel Proctor


P: This is February 6, Friday afternoon. We're recording an interview this afternoon


with Miss Alma Warren of the University of Florida. We're recording in the Graduate


Research Library. The interviewer is Samuel Proctor. Why don't you tell me first of


all who y-.eire parents were, their names.


W: My father was Charles Ryan Warren.


P: Is that R-y-a-n?


W: Yes, Irish. My mother was Grace Fuller. They're both from Georgia.


P: They were born in Georgia?


W: Uh-huh.


P: Where?


W: My father was born in Savannah and my mother was born in a small town, Millegeville,


I believe.


P: Oh, I know where Milld eville is, of course.


W: A lovely old fashioned type of town.


P: Uh-huh. Not too far from Atlanta.


W: That's right. She was the daughter of a preacher. There was a long line of


preachers in Savanah. And my father came from a long line of lawyers and he was also


a lawyer.


P: Now, were both families native to Georgia?

1









W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: Do you know when the families first moved into Georgia?


W: No, I really don't,Sam. We haven't ever run the family tree down. We did,


interesting enough, have someone come over on the Mayflower though. We had a Richard


Warren in our family who came over on the Mayflower, so it started somewhere up in


Massachusetts. (Is that right?)


P: Uh-huh.


W: Some of those early immigrants from England, you know.


P: Was your father an attorney?


W: Yes, uh-huh. He went to Mercer. You're hearing a lot about Mercer now in con-


nection with the new justice.


P: Justice Carswell. Judge Carswell.


W: Excuse me, he's not justice yet. Yes, he was a graduate of Mercer. When he came

kind of ous
to Florida--oh, you know like people were/V adventure / in those days--to get out to


Florida, leave Georgia and come to Florida.

id be,
P: '6dA.* practice at all in Georgia before he moved to Florida.


W: Yes, uh-huh, he was practicing when he and my mother were married. He was maybe


twenty years older than my mother.


P: Do you happen to remember when he was graduated from college?


W: No, the date escapes me, but I thought-a4bot-'-- the other day. He died in his


2








fifties and he's been dead about forty-five years, so he'd be up in the ninties now.


P: So both your mother's family, the Fuller family, and your father's family were


Georgians.


W: >--;". that's right.


P: They were married where?


W: I believe they were married in Savannah. My mother was a teacher and she met my


father when he was maybe on the school board or something--there was some connection


there. He came to the school.


P: So he graduated from Mercer? He went back to Savannah which was his home community


and began a law practice there.


W: Uh-huh. Yes, that's right.


P: Was his father also an attorney?


W: His father was a lawyer. I don't remember how many generations there were, but I


remember on the maternal side there were preachers, preachers and lawyers.


P: On the paternal side do you remember,whether your grandfather and your father


practiced together?


W: No, they did not.


P: They did not. Was your father in politics in Georgia; you said he was on the


school board.


W: 4Qfjust minor politics He always had a great 4dea interest in politics. He


3








never realized his ambition in politics, as my brother did. But somehow his eagerness

*4AP pOlics
and enthusiasmlwas carried on to my brother Fuller.


P: There was a strain of this kind of interest and enthusiasm in the family.

There
W: XS-s, ther;6 was. And it was developed quite young in my second oldest brother,





P: Do you remember any particular stories, interesting stories about your parents--how


they met or their marriage or 'r-'ir-honeymoon, or anything like that?


W: No, because I remember my father very vaguely. He died when I was about three years


old. I remember going to his funeral. And you know the child's eye view of a funeral.


I remember that. And I remember that he was a very jolly person, out-going, but my


memory of him is just ..


P: Cloudy?


W: Yes, very cloudy because I didn't really know him except for just a few years.


P: But the family moved from Georgia directly to 3a~ste


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: And your father came because he thought there was opportunity available in Florida?


W: He wanted to stFike out in a new territory. J/X/1t He had wanted to get into


a small community and maybe realize his ambitions for politics because you know he


was in a larger city there. So he did come to Blintstown and became County Judge


there.








W: He was Judge Warren.


P: Why Bl ntstown? T/ e f ; p O -

fJ ,J^ es ',,- BI"^^~)e=p??^^
W: Well,/it wasn-t too far [intoJ Florida. ~--f- eEn' --rMuci Eveloped i~rtLo-?-rida-


Je ce in those days, sort of a frontier.

that was already
P: But you had no family $///~~%/1If there that drove him there?


W: No, no family to draw him there. There was a lot of lumber interest there and 4Lere


WLa a chance to just strike out on your own, so he decided to pull up stakes from his


family and come on down.

01^
P: Tell us where Blantstown is.

4CA 6 aqofc le c(S
W: Blntstown is about fifty miles from Tallahassee, on the 6al~ here RiverNe-AS that
A A

the river there?Oa beautiful river there. And it's a small community there, still a


small community. It was a very interesting community. When we were going up there,


though, everybody knew everybody. The old hum. kind of town where you just,


well everybody knew everybody and were friends with everybody.


P: Your father came to Blontstown then, and opened a law office.


W: That's right.


P: And shortly afterwards ran and was elected as County Judge?


W: County Judge, that's right. Very small county of course you realize.


P: And the county was what?


W: The county was Calhoun.








P; Calhoun County. And he served then as Judge Warren in Calhoun County almost from


the time that he arrived in the county up until the time of his death7


W: Well I don't remember the dates. I'm hazy on the dates, because his career was


interrupted. He was in the Spanish-American War. There againhe was a adventurous


person. He volunteered and was in Cuba and was a colonel in the Army there. And you

probably Pezcl/ beig


P: A short time.


W: Short time, uh-huh. But he went down for that and then picked up the threads when


he came back.


P: YetL--e mother then was really eth- the dom i at member of your family.


W: That's right.


P: How did your mother take care of the financial needs of y rr family after your
A

father's death?


W: Well my mother was an educated woman, as my father was and so she was one of the


first home demonstration agents in Florida. You may know the program--the extension


program. It started in about 1914, and she was the first agent in Calhoun and one of

Vpio'eer- ylgenTs
the 2iohtrep'A. &gi


P: Let's go back and ask some questions about your mother's family, to bring the thread


up. Where did she get her education?


W: She went to a little college called Shorter College, no ~oxeiCoXs College, And it


6








just out of Atlanta. I don't believe it is even. ie': :i tfre-now. It was a church


school. '


P: Was it a girl's school?


W: It was a girl's college, like oh, some colleges in Georgia now, like /%~/(


Wesleyqn, or something of this sort. A very small college. And she studied, I suppose,


to get to be a teacher there. You know education was different in those days.


P: What about her family--you said they were all preachers.


W: They were all preachers, uh-huh.


P: Which would indicate that they were educated people.


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: And they were native southern/ e.stock?


W: *_rfC ..r were, uh-huh. And her uncle was quite a scholar. He read in Greek and


had all kinds of wonderful library, Greek and Latin books. And he spent his last

YID, kNoJw.
days with his library, collecting.this sort of thing.


P: What was the religious persuasion of the Fuller family?


W: Baptist.


P: They were Baptist?


W: Uh-huh.


P: And what about your father's family.









W: He was Baptist.


-- i- Audi your graiidfd Lhii'b f-anb y- -





P: And your grandfather then, on your mother's side, had a church?


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: Where?


W: Well I don't remember that either. I used to hear my grandmother talk about it, but


it just doesn't come to mind. It might have been several churches. You know, in those


days they moved around quite a bit. And it was in, I suppose, the area of Atlantaj;lkak ec.


P: Tell me about your brothers and sisters; let's list them in terms chronologically.


W: Well, in those days you know people had large families, and I have a brother who .


My oldest brother is not living--he had an interesting name; he was named for someone


back on my grandfather's side, I believe. Hallowes, his first name was Hallowes.


P: How do you spell that?


W: H-a-l-l-o-w-e-s.


P: Hallowes?


W: Hallowes.


P: What was his middle name?


W: I don't remember his middle name.


P: Now he's deceased.








W: He's deceased. He was the oldest.


P: icjtGfa- was his profession?
1

W: Well/ou see e did not live!. he died as a young child, a childhood disease.


P: I see.


W: Then the living uh, I don't have any sisters. I have four brothers; Joe)


Fuller, Julian, and Richard.


P: Now, Joe, what's his middle name?


W: Joe Love.


P: That's Joseph Love Warren.


W: That's right.


P: That's your second oldest brother.


W: Uh-huh.


P: And where is he living?


W: He lives in Bluntst6wn, and he's retired.


P: -Att4-whrr was his profession? /


W: Well, 14=a always-t he,--lum irbusins.......


P: Does he have a family?


W: He has a son and several grandchildren, and his wife.


P: And your third brother then is Fuller, is that right?


W: Yes, that's right.








W: Fuller Otis.


P: O-t-i-s. Is that part of the family?


W: Yes, one of my preacher grandfather's name was Otis.


P: Otis.


W: Otis Fuller.


P: So his name is Fuller Otis Warren. Where does the Fuller come from?
Syo/ -i YO(r see.
W: Well in those days, and maybe today, a lot of people took the family name. A S my


mother 'z-n-r.--'s v-s Grace Fuller...


P: Uh-huh.

ft. eld
W: ~'Tr-so she named her second child for the family name like.


P: Actually this would have been the third son because the oldest one died.


W: That's right.


P: So her third son she named for her own family.


W: That's right. You see the family names were coming out. The "Love" name was


somewhere in the family and the "Hallowes". Interesting name, I think.


P: Uh-huh. And then your youngest brother you said was Julian?


W: Julian Tharp.. He was named for a family friend, the Tharpbs.


P: T-h-o-r-p-e?


W: Uh, I believe %X/ 4I/ they spelled it T-h-a-r-p. They called it Thorpe.


P: And he is living, too, isn't he?








W: Yes, he's an attorney in Jacksonville.


P: In Jacksonville. So there were four brothers and you were the youngest and thf only


daughter. And your name is Alma ,


W: Jessie Alma, but we're leaving out one brother, Richard. Richard Warren, the one


who had the same name as the Mayflower immigrant. Richard's name was Munford, and I


believe that was on my father's side.


P: Now where does he come in the line?


W: He comes in before Julian. Julian is my youngest brother.


P: I see. Now he is not living.


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: He is living?


W: Yes, he is living.


P: So you actually have five living brothers?


W: No four: Joe, Ftller, Julian, and Richard. Four brothers, tha'


P: Oh. And where is Richard living?


W: Richard lives in Lake Butler.


P: And what does he do?


W: Richard is retired, too. He's on for all his life.


P: As a teacher?


W: School superint f, and welljust any phase of education. He's a


11








graduate of the University here.


P: And you are at the University of Florida, and your profession is what?

ITFAS-- Agiculafur(
W: I'm an editor over in e .--.-.. Institute of Food and 4Hedioal. das


Sciences.

ob dY
P: Alright, now let's talk a little bit about Blantstown. As you remember Blantstown,


growing up in it, you said that it was a small.//yf little typically southern com-


munity?


W: Uh-huh.

7
P: A relatively small population and everybody knew everybody.


W: Right.


P: Where were you and your brothers educated?


W: Well I was not educated in BlVntstown because I lefi,' '-IFtBlntstown when I
A /

was about four years old. But the boys got some of their schooling here. The older


boys came from high school there to the University here. The younger boys went to


school here in Gainesville.


P: But Fuller and his brothers received their early education in the elementary


schools at Blontstown.


W: -'Z. y-sT:' And then they did go to a ,el, you wouldn't call s a private school

W:a ri a D e te s hool
but they went to a school Fuller went to a school in Springs. It was kind
yoLu ktOow
of a private school there, an academy, for a few years just to get away from home for


12









awhile.


P: And you said that you were four years old when you left?


W: Oh, three or four, uh-huh.


P: Where did you go?

r~o~er
W: We moved to Lake City, where my-jim=a:went to work after my father died. She went
4

into extension work.


P: Why Lake City?


W: She got a good offer there.


P: Was this the state?


W: Well the extension service was supported by the state and the countyfunds, yes.


P: At that time. So she went to work for Columbia County?


W: Uh-huh, tf:'Columbia County, as a home economics extension 4mPkoE


P: So you don't really have any early memories of Bl*ntstown.
A

W: None, except what I heard the boys talk about.


P: Almost as a child then you remember Lake City and Columbia County.


W: Well we didn't live in Lake City long because my mother got a better offer here


and she / O came here to educate the boys, you see.


P: You were raised )a-e in Gainesville?


W: Yes, I came here in the first grade, so .


P: Where did you live?







uh,
W:J I lived wellthat's hard to say. The streets have changed. But I've lived


in East Gainesville, west Gainesville.


P: Was there a family home here?


W; Yes, we had a family home here, about a fifty year old home, ere.-.


P: Where is it?


W: It's on N.rth '. Fifth.


P: And you went to school here in Gainesville then, starting in the first grade. Whici


school did you attend?


W: I remember I started with Miss Metcalf--she was my first teacher. And what do they


call that school over in East Gainesville?


P: Kirby-Smith.


W: Kirby-Smith. They didn't call it that in those days. You see the names have


changed. We went to school there. Only two schools in Gainesville5 -&E


P: Uh-huh.


W: They had a grammar school there and a high school.


P: And Fuller and your other brothers were in high school when the family moved over


here.


W: Yes.


P: They weregraduated from the Gainesville schools?


W: No, they finished school in Bluntstown, you see.


14








P: I see.


W: Fuller was already in the University when we moved to Lake City. He was ~i his


freshman year there.


P: Oh.


W: Julian graduated here.


P: Tell me about Gainesville as you remember it when you first came here.


W: Oh, it was delightful. You know, lots of pretty trees and slow-paced kind of a


life. And here again you knew everybody. You know, it was so friendly--just a village.

2, 00
The University was aboutA2=-tundred then.


P: This was in the early 1920s wasn't it?


W: Yes, 1923 I think it was.


P: When did Fuller enter the University?

Fuller
W: /i//X was born in 1905, so he must have come here,'what would that make it about ,


P: Well about i .

Se csJ ieeJ wd Sf'e.--
W: Af ?i. '.'-about 1922.


P: What kind of a women was your mother?


W: Well she was a woman of great wit and wisdom and she was an outgoing kind of person.


Very much like my brother Fuller. They were very much alike. Loved people. She was


a very good-looking woman. She was voted the most beautiful girl in Georgia when she


was in college. So she had a combination of intellect and good looks.


15








P: To what degree do you think your mother shaped Fuller's career?


W: Oh, greatly, I think. She encouraged him to read. In fact he was reading before


he ever even entered school, she being a teacher. He often says that he would spend


his time reading while the rest of the children were playing. But he missed some of


the sports that way. But he has always been a great reader, reads five or six newspapers


a day. Reading is a great pleasure to him.


P: Was your mother kind of a woman that you children could communicate with easily?


W: Oh, very much so. She was a very strong had a great strength. You know,


A nyenwi-& could raise five children alone in those days had to have it.


P: Was she on the road much as a home agent?

She wo,$ i.
W: No. /-,S the county, she traveled around in the county. She was agent here for about


twenty years.


P: She drove her own car way back in the twenties?


W: yes, uh-huh. And she said that Fuller used to help her as a zingchild over in


Blantstown. He would go out in horse and buggy with her in those days. You see,
A

back ini tr~the cars weren't too numerous.


P: But she was able to do that and keep house at the same time?


W: Oh yes, you see you could get help in those days. We had .


P: Help in the house.


W: Uh-huh.








pi What about the influence of the church on the4 r.fsi',;How religious-minded were you?


W: I think it was rather strong.


P: Your mother was a strong ... *

I
W: We always went to church. Being from a ministers background, you see.


P: You belonged to the Baptist Church here in Gainesville?


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: When did your mother die?


W: My mother died she has been dead since 1948. She died just two months before


my brother announced for governor, and she had been over to help him w"-MoS.r.campaign


and get started on his gubernatorial race.


P: Was this a sudden thing?

4I was rather sudden, yr'.-
W: No, she,hum.. Aelf'T,e had complained a little bit about not feeling too well,


and she took about six months. She went down rather rapidly, I think.


P: Is she buried here in Gainesville?


W: Buried in Jacksonville.


P: Where is your father buried?


W: He's buried in Blantstown.


P: I see. Now, Fuller was born according to the records, October 3, 1905.


W: That's right, uh-huh.


P: Of all your brothers have you been more closely associated with Fuller?


17








W: No, not particularly. Because I think you're more e0~#tiyassociated with the ones

...-HeieS
you grow up with, you know, and he and I fKI'quite a difference in our age.


P: Uh-huh.


W: Oh, about fifteen years difference. And Julian and Richard and I are probably


closer. But Fuller and I are quite close because I .. *. IA ie \4 r..,.


P: Well)you worked with him.


W: Uh-huh. -fqytf rzrnd .-TLy4 .. He wanted my mother ;iR;= to go and help him when


he went to Tallahassee to be his hostess. Of course she didn't live to go--she helped


him get there. And then he invited me to go. So we became quite close during his


g bernatorial race.


P: What kind of fellow was Fuller when he was growing up?

Crasw
W: Well he had lots of friends, and kind of a smart youngster in school.


P: Was he always as gregarious as the image that he projects politically?

oft
W: Yes. Everyone in Blentstown knew him. And as you know he knew everybody's name


here on the campus his first year. He knew everybody by name.


P: Was this something that he went out of his way to learn to do, or did it just come


natural?


W: It was just kind of a natural thing. He says that the greatest thing is to know


people's names; that that makes that's part of human relations, that you remember








a person's name and call them by name.


P: What kind of a student was he at the University?


W: He was not an exceptional student at all. He was not a scholar, by any means.


P: Why? -Ba s kind of reading background .


W: I don't know. He just wasn't a book worm. He read -ings he A you see. But

aS
he didn't yout I know, often ties people that aren't the best students


are the most successful. And in this case it turned out to be.-, He read what he liked


to read, you see, politics. And he was good in those subjects. But not in math and


science and those kind of things.


P: He was not a troublesome studentthough, was he?


W: Ohno, no.


P: He got into no trouble.Adv?


W: Never any of that.


P: Were there any people on the faculty as you remember that he was issa-closely


identified with in those early days?


W; Wellhe thought a lot of Dr. Leek, who has passed on...Dean Trussler and Archie

.. +ikese.
Robertsonr hk-very good friend--tw *.it l'all -~is: old-timers you know.


P: That he took work from and that he remained friendly with after he left the University.?


W: Uh-huh. Ohyes.


P: How about his extra curriculars on campus.


19








W: Wellyou see, he was I don't know if he was president of the student body,


but I think he might have been .


P: He was cheerleader.


W: Cheerleader. And then he was in everything: Blue Key,I think he helped organize


Blue Key, and I believe they attribute the first Gator Growl to his organizational


ability. He helped organize that, and many ac-?Ttraditions -e- ae~-e University


045 now.


P: Did he work as a student on the campus?


W: No, he didn't work. I think he might have waited on tables at one time, but not


throughout his career because he was the youngest person who ever was elected to the

Iof
legislature, see when he was in college.


P: Uh-huh.

from 6t
W: He went back and ran /M/ his home base in Blontstown. And while .


P: Oh, he established himself there?

A/Wd Wo, &wciAy-one,
W: Yes. :w-.Mi-le^,--. e kept his voting there. Cu when he was ;s soon as he


could, he was representing his county in the legislature.


P: Now what motivated that? He must have always been politically oriented, wasn't he?


W: He always wanted to be governor, yes. He started as a page in the legislature.


P: When?


W: Oh he was, you'd have to be in your early teens I imagine. I don't remember just now.


20







you see, d
But he was brought up/around a lot of people in government. In Blantstown people


have time for children. There was more communication. A lot of people in our home


were XXI/%% politically oriented, you know.


P: I was going to ask you about that. To what degree was your home an area where


politicians or politically-minded people gathered?


W: Well it was quite a even here in Gainesville we've had a lot of people over,


drop in,you know. Our house was just kind of open house. In Blantstown, too. And

because Ixe_
people encouraged him7gj-4 was an unusual person, spoke well, and he got a lot of his

Fpron)
speaking ability ..$-working in the BYTU and getting up before groups as a youngster.

make
And then his reading and all helped to --. .


P: What is the BYTU?


W: What?


P: What is the BYTU?


W: It's the Baptist Youth Union. You get up and talk about ,u trni-' things based on


the Bible, you know. So he's pretty well steeped in all kinds of literature and this


helped X him, you see, in his speaking, because he has all these allusions that he


can pull out, literary allusions. So his reading did pay off, you see. He's used all


his back log of reading in his speaking.


P: Were there any particular individuals in Gainesville when he was going here to the

encouroaqd
University, or in the Gainesville community that iea4amg- this political drive?


21








W: No, I think he got it earlier than that. At the time he was growing up as a boy


there was a senator in our area--I believe he was the first one who got him in as a

.-,-- .-.-- ., -.i .m i, .
page--is namre occLpes me rihlit now. rbut he i.'s in the senate for many years, and he

AfOt
said/Fuller had the potential for politics, and so he encouraged him and helped to


shape him a good bit. And then my father's interest, you see too, continued...,


P: Continued to encourage him.


W: That's right. And of course I think too there is even a more subtle influence there--

see. He
the fact that my father did not become a big time politician, you 4 -.he didn't realize


his real ambition. As high as he went was the County Judge. Some of this rubbed off


on Fuller, you see, and he wanted to go on for the big prize.


P: Uh-huh.


W: The governorship. And how he decided that he wanted to be governor, I don't know.


But he said it one time when he was speaking that he'd been running for governor for


thirty years, since he was ten years old. You know he was elected in his early forties.


P: Uh-huh.

+ beeiJ
W: So 4-had dAL a- life-time dedication there.


P: He had always been preparing himself for this achievement which he finally succeeded


in getting.


W: Yes, and he went to Jacksonville and practiced law for about twenty years and made

4P'ieL4s
lots of t~hiag there. He was on the city council. Each thing was a stepping stone,


22









you see. And then he represented Duval County in the legislature.


P: This niust have created quite a stir in the state, his being elected at the age of


21 to go to the state legislature.


W: Uh-huh. Yes, that was the first, you see. Since that time I believe Commissioner


Connor has had that honor too. But I don't think there are but two people who have.


P: Was he already graduated from the University at the time?


W: No, you see, he was in the University at the time.


P: Is he a graduate of the University?


W: He is not a graduate, no. He finished his law school he went to Cumberland

law school
X/XX//,// and finished up.


P: Now this was after he was elected to the legislature.


W: Yes.

?
P: But before he moved to Jacksonville.


W: Yes, because he had to get his law degree, you see.


P: He moved to Jacksonville in 1929.


W: Did he? I'm not sure.


P: And he organized a law firm there or he went into a law firm?


W: He-went into a law firm, but now which one it was I'm not sure. Oh yes, one


interesting thing about Fuller tooA When he was a student here at the University he

wovef r tnoIr
was a good friend of g& Martin/'S- In fact he used to visit him a good bit. He took
?1








an interest in Fuller. I don't know how he met him, but Fuller has a way of knowing


everybody and meeting people. And he used to visit at the governor mansion and had


some encouragement from Governor Martin. And so I think Governor Martin encouraged


him to come to Jacksonville.


P: Since Martin lived in Jacksonville himself.


W: That's right. But I believe he was in with someone,~but not very long because he


always said he wanted to have his own firm., So it might have been a two year period


where he was sort of apprenticing, you know there.


P: Who was taking care of Fuller at this time? Was he married?


W: Well he wasn't married, He must have married when he was about twenty-five, I


suppose.


P: So he went to Jacksonville as a bachelor?


W: Yes, uh-huh. He married a Congressman's daughter from Alabama that he had met

LF(aA SCfc CIo1103, ''r Ww'c I
at FSCW, it was in those days. You know how the boys used to go to Tallahassee to
JT3
meet the girls. There were no girls here. And he married Congressman Stegall's


daughter. But this was oh several years after he was out of school.


P: What was her name?


W: Her name was Sally Mae Siea.


P: Is she living?








W: Yes, she lives in Washington, v'1o,


P: She's remarried?


W: Yes, she's remarried, uh-huh.


P: Were there any children from that marriage?

has
W: No children--Fuller

P: And he lived in Jacksonville. He practiced law in Jacksonville. He continued his


interest in politics.


W: That's right.


P: And he was elected to the city council in Jacksonville and served, according to the


records, for three terms.


W: Oh, he didF I wasn't sure about that.


P: Now did he then go back to Tallahassee? You said that he represented Duval County


in the state legislature.


W: Yes, he did.


P: As a representative or as a senator?


W: No, as a representative. It was a ^sa year I was in-college and it was in 1939


I believe.


P: This would have been during Governor Collinsi administration.


W: I think so, uh-huh. These dates I'm not as good on as you are. Ba he ran for


governor, you know, shortly thereafter that.


25








P: In 1940?


W: Yes.
< you kavw?

P: Now this is where I want to move into. What motivated this Do you remember


discussing this with him?


W: No, not especially. It was just, you know he wanted to be a young governor, I


suppose, you know. He was in his thirties, which was his first opportunity. You have


to be a certain age, don't you, to run for governor.


P: As you look back on it, what was his political base at this time.


W: I don't know just what you mean by that.


P: Well I was just wondering where he was getting, where he expected to get his


strength from, and the voter support from, and so on.


W: Well, I wonder too. It was rather a ash- thing to do that young, and then to come


in third as he did with such a strong vote. It's rather hard. I think it's something


that he just had a lot of confidence and he wanted to try. And you know, often governors ,


would-be governors run to see how strong they are, to see whee they will come in. And


usually in Florida, I believe you'll agree with me, you have to run twice before you're


governor. And in years past this has been true. A lot of our governors have run once

jnoi^
to become -kXep and then run again and won.


P: Where did the money come from? He must have been the poor man's candidate in 1940.

VWe I^e htUSTf
W: ff have been, because it didn't take much to run for governor then.


26







by/
P: Certainly not i-fcomparison with what it costs in the 1960s.
1
yoV kouo)J-
W: No, that's right. I don't know, I suppose small contributions like people make.


P: What about his political philosophy in that particular day and time7


W: I don't remember his political philosophy in the 1940s. \V o- -<.ii..,,.


P: Do you recall the issues in the campaign in 1940, whether it was a tax issue or this


kind of thing.


W: Don't think we we e i*o-that @~a then. Don't remember the issues at all.


P: It was mainly a race between personalities, I think in the thirties...


W: Yes, I think it was.


P: rather than issues, political issues.


W: I think you're right.

d+
P: Were you particularly surprised a his announcing for the governorship?


W: No, no I wasn't. I was surprised that he ran so strong. I didn't think he'd


make a showing.


P: Did you help with the campaign?


W: Not really,/not in 1940, because I was just out of college and IXadi' really/gotten

kown d'uwriJa1 4/ut );X
my feet on the ground. But that's when he becameW 4oi you see.


E: Now he had already begun doing some writing during the 1930s.


W: 1Iome books on politics.


P: That's right. Now were you at all helpful to him in this regard?








W: No, just would read the things sometimes and comment on it.


P: Was y.".s mother a help ..


W: I think so, uh-huh.


P: as far as his writing?


W: She was rather a literary person.


P: What was she, a sounding board?


W: Yes, uh-huh. We were a family that talked things over a good bit, you know, sat


around and batted ideas back and forth. This was before the days of other entertainment.


You know, TV ad2.'<;'; It was a day when you would really sit down and try your ideas


out on others.


P: How close was Fuller with his family in those days, the 1930s?


W: Always quite close.

frequently
P: Did he come over from Jacksonville to visit?


W: Uh-huh, Very much.


P: And did the family go to Jacksonville?


W: Oh yes. We've always been a close-knit family.


P: And his wife and he did a lot of visiting back and forth. And your mother was close


with Fuller and he was close with all of you people.


W: That's right.


P: So that when he planned to do something, he sort of tried it out on the family first?


28








W: Well~to some extent, uh-huh. It was always a family enterprise. We would always


back him.


P: Now what about his going into the military. World War II, came along shortly after


his failure to win the governship in 1940.


W: That's right.


P: What did he do in the war?


W: He was in the Navy. I think he made twenty crossings, I believe. Thatwas &-T r; e


Atlantic, he was in the Atlantic theater.


P: What was his rank in the Navy?


W: I'don't think he got any higher than a lieutenant, not J. G. but the next one up.

as5
P: I remember kind of vaguely, that he sent dispatches back which were printed/almost


like a syndicated political column.


W: I think he did, uh-huh. Because -th~n he intended to run the next time, you see.


P: 1944.


W: Yes, but he was not he was of the right age to go in service "rcd so he went.
L beev e da wrie.
And he wanted to keep in touch,you know, while he was away.i One of his books, by the


way, is used here at the University, in some course in political science I believe.


P: Now.were you in touch with him very much during the time he was in the military?
Swrye uIte oh-hut of e
W: wrote, yes, uh-huh He loveeto get letters and he likes to write letters.









P: Is this still a continuing thing?


W: Oh yes. Uh-huh, fI write him most every week and he's a good corresponded.


P: I hope you're saving all of these letters .


W: Wellllllllll, I should.


P' So rcan make them part of the Warren collection here at the University of Florida'


W: Should do it, shouldn't I? And he often encloses things, you know, clippings and


things, that he wants to pass on and share. He encloses letters from other people that


he gets. He has a terrific correspondence, you know.


P: Now he came back from the military, and he settled where?


W: He settled in Jacksonville.


P: He went back into the law firm that he had left in 1940-41.


W: Yes, he surely did.


P: And how did he re-establish himself as far as politics were concerned?


W: Well now let's see. I don't believe he was in any city or county positions then.


The next step was gewvra campaign.


P: Governorship.


W: Uh-huh. His partner s a very highly regarded man in Jacksonville, Abe Iithstein,


you probably know him. And Abe had kept the firm together.


P: 1 Ws he went back in it was Warren and 2othstein was the name of the firm?


W: Yes, they were in quite awhile together.


30








P: And so t~- Duval Count /became the launching pad ehis efforts to win the


governorship in 1948.


W: A second laughing pad I think--he was launched from there before.


P: Xhen did you learn of his intentions to try again?

we.td W d1/ rca{, /J a
W: Wellhe came over...'e eA always thought he4tg ag ~- when he returned. It wasn't


any/. .

7
P: Surprise.


W : .r special time, no. Because R\you wnofyou have a -l3EfiOe dream, you want to


keep working f- it and you don't let the disappointments and the setbacks stop you.


P: Can you remember any specific thing, ~Alma,\during this period 1946-47, in terms of


his make-up and his personality. and his outlook on life that we ought to put in here.
/.

W: Well he hasn't changed too much through the years, his enthusiasm. Always helping


people anjd being very quiet about it. He has a great sensitivity to people/ W the


human condition really.


P: Was he physically in good health? Did he come out of the military unharmed?


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: There was nothing, no disability at all that might stand in the way of a rigorous


campaign?


W: No, he had Oamazing vitality.








P: How did he set up this campaign? I mean, are you knowledgeable about the contacts


that he had in the various sections.of Florida?


W: No,1 but --raw-E ea- I think he picked up his old contacts from 1940. You see, there


was just an eight year gap. So .


P: Were many of these old school friends that go back to the 1920s?


W: Yes, uh-huh. Old school friends and other friends that he had made, because he was


in great demand as a speaker and he would go all over the state and meet peopl9~through


his speaking at different clubs and organizations.


P: Was he already divorced at~ ki time?


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: Was this something that happened before he went into the military?


W:, des, uh-huh.


P: So the marriage was really \Vshort duration.


W: No, it was not too short. It was maybe ten years.


P: Not just a couple of years, or anything like that?


W: No.


P: But he went into the military as a bachelor. He came out as a bachelor and he goes


into this campaign now as a single person, unencumbered by wife or children or anything


like that. That in itselfIwas something of a detriment, because we always have the


image of a politician as a family man.








W: Yes, that's right.


P: Did your mother,)ffill this sort of a female role?


W: Yes, she went over, moved over to Jacksonville to be with him. And she was his


hostess at his home at Riverside there. Not at Riverside, but he lived over San Mateo,


you know, over in that area. And she was there, of course you know, until she became


quite ill.

7
P: Where were you in the meantime.


W: I was here. I worked in Gainesville.


P: What were you doing?


W: I was in the Post Office here in Gainesville.


P: Now were you involved in the 1948 campaign?


W: Yes, uh-huh. I resigned. I left my work and went campaigning with him all over


the state.


P: Now what did you do?


W: I would make talks to women's clubs and I once made a talk in Miami at Bay Front


Park. Just from small groups to large groups.


P: Was there anyone in charge of the women's end of things in the 1948 campaign?


W: No, they didn't have it that w oTV.,,


P: Organized?


W: No they didn't do it that way in those days.


33









P: There was a state committee that operated out of Jacksonville and you got your


traveling directions from them?


W: No, not really. I didn't have anything to do with the state organization. People


wrote to me. I received a lot of publicity when I went over to help him. And you know,


people read the paper and they would write to me.


P: Did you move to Jacksonville?


W: I kept my home here but I went over and stayed with him. I thought I went over just


to help him with the campaign but theft I didn't return for about fifteen years.


P: You and your mother then lived with Fuller in his home in Jacksonville.


W: My mother lived with him until she came back over here when she was ill. She was


there a few months.


P: What about your brothers--what were their roles in the campaign?


W: Well my youngest brother, who is a little older than I, who is the lawyer. Julian S&


/ -4had come back from the service and gotten his law degree here. So he was just starting


out but he dropped everything and ,J1went out to campaign too. The other brothers


helped him in their way but they didn't give up their work like Julian and I did.


P: You went full force. You were really full time as far as the campaign was con@


cerned. Well) the campaign was a success then?


W: Yes. It was quite strange. We had an interesting thing happen. Fuller had an









tv family servant who had been with him qAttie-a-nAcMtr f years and she came in the morning


after the election and she was so sad. Annie Golden was her name. She saidaGt Mr.

/' I
Warren lost the race. She had read the paper that morning. And we said:ell Annie how


did you get that news. So she pulled the paper out. And we saidla-1 Annie,the paper


came out before the final returns came in and so she was so overjoyed. 4I will always


remember the night of the election. I didn't go down to the headquarters because, you


know, I was kind of apprehensive. I didn't know how it was going to come out. And I


stayed home. I had calls from friends here at the University who were cheering me up.


Then it looked pretty bad there for awhile, but then the tide turned and as some people


say, it's kind of hard sweating it out, if you've ever been through one.


PI During the campaign, Alma, as you went out to talk to these women's groups, what


kind of things were you talking about? Were you getting down to particular issues





W: No, noI didn't go into that. Maybe I would just meet them informally. ...


P: At a tea or coffee.


W: Yes, and just invite them to come to the mansion if we were elected but we ..


P: You didn't actually get down to the grit part of a political campaign.


W: No, no.


P: You didn't talk about no-fence laws and sales taxes and this type of thing.








W: No, it wasn't that kind at all. It was just meeting, hand-shaking, and maybe making

sAort
a I er speech about come to Tallahassee.
representative
P: Sort of the typical southern, the gentle southern woman presenting herself as aA


W: Uh-huh. Just to let the people know what kind of family he had--they always like to


see, you know, who is going to be there too. Since he had no wife, as you said, to go


with him. And he thought this would be well to have the women's side represented.


P: So you feel that from this point of view ou were very helpful. You ee-eedt some


of the votes for him.


W: No, he said I was. But he said my mother was the greater help to him because she had


built up such a good name here in Gainesville.


P: Uh-huh.


W: So many people did say they voted for him because of her. And then she was known


around the state. She had many friends. So even though/ge- even--th+ugh she


didn't see it through, she had a greater influence than anyone.


P: He credited her probably with having the greatest influence of all.


W: Oh yes, yes. She did.


P: I think he has said this publicly.


W: Ohyes, yes. And I think it's quite true because so many people have said that just
3overaor: S0
recently and eaSyears past, even after he was govern 'that's why I voted for


your brother.








P: Now you didn't go down to election headquarters, you say.


W: No, I didn't go.


P: You stayed home. So when did the news come to you?


W: Well the news didn't come to me until Fuller got in. I remember some friends here


at the University called and said don't despair, you know, it's going to turn when


we get to the last voting you know and all. But I didn't want I don't know, I

t Co down ,.A d
just didn't want ~fehave everybody buzzing around and fussing over you, you know. So


I was at home by myself, listening to the returns.


P: But the next day now, everything changed because the final returns were in and it


was a strong victory that he had scored. Who did he defeat^ in 1948.


W: He defeated Dan McCarty, who was the next governor after.


P: Who was he running against in the first primary?


W: He was running against Senator Holland and ..


P: Senator Shanas ran in 1948.


W: Yes, but you said in the first one, in the 1940s. Holland and Whitehair ran.


P: In 1940.


W: Yes, uh-huh. Of course they were older and very well financed. And then in 1948,

d CAobiv C.lin
Shanas was running and Ca-Iad English. Shanqs ran fifth, I believe, and rlbnd


English was, maybe he was third that time. 4.Jaye there was another in there. And


Dan, he made good race, Dan did.
1








r
P: That was his chief opponent, Dan McCarty.


W: Yes, they were in the run-off.


P: And McCarty emerged as sort of the conservative candidate, and Fuller/lthe liberal


candidatein 1948,as I remember the difference between the two.


W: Uh-huh, and Dan ran a real good race.


P: But Fuller, coming from a small town, Blantstown, and having been raisedin a way


in Gainesville .


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: really appealed more to the urban areas of the state, didn't he, than Dan


McCarty?


W: I don't remember the vote actually. I don't know who got the vote now in Miami. I


imagine Dan did, because he was from that area. But Fuller almost took this end of the


state, you know.


P: Everything in north Florida, from Duval County west to Escambia County and on down


into the central part of the state.


W: yes, they used in his campaign that image of the country boy, you know, the rural


touch. And of course they were *. ,


P: It was an interesting combination though, because from a political philosophy point


of view, he actually was a liberal.


W: That's right.








P: eter than the conservative which you expect to emerge from the country and from


the rural areas and from the small towns.


W: Yes, it is. oTha~ oL COc piV-


P: So actually he had sort of a foot in both camps, didn't he?


W: He really did. By moving to Jacksonville I guess that was helpful to get the city


background as well as the rural, you see. And when he moved to Jacksonville it was 4I


guess it was a good base as you say for anyone in office, wanting to get into office.


P: And Dade County wasn't nearly as populous, nor was it as important in the 1940s as


it has become since.


W: No, that's right. And then Fuller had a spell-I n way of speaking, that in that


day 3. was quite the thing,you know, to be able to speak like he did without notes and to


just be able to make people listen to what you say and enjoy it.


P: He/sort of like the old time Evangelist, the Billy Sunday kind of an orator, wasn't


he?


W: Uh-huh, yes, that's right.


P: I suppose the closest that we would have to that would be maybe Billy Graham .


W: Billy Graham, uh-huh.


P: .4r-this kind of a thing. Fuller was a spell-binder and I'm sure that he was cognizant


of this, wasn't he, as he went out?


W: Yes. He worked on it. He worked. He studied. It was not easy. It was not just


39








aga8-l p I think he had a talent for this, but he worked and polished it up quite a


bit.


P: vWhat do you mean by working? How did he build it up?

tsak ever/
W: Well, he e 1c4= -f opportunity to speak when he was invited, you know, and he


was good in courtroom argument and good in conversation.


P: And he had a fund of stories.


W: Uh-huh. He doesn't tell any off-color stories, but he always tells stories that


appeal to people.


P: Sort of like the Aesop fable type of thing, a sort of moral planted somewhere in


the story that he's trying to draw.


W: Yes, he's a great believer in humor and you know something that's light and gay,


not the sad things.


P: Now you say he doesn't tell off-color stories. He doesn't publically, not how


about privately?


W: No, he doesn't. He doesn't seem to have a taste for that.


P: Is there much profanity that is woven into his ordinary conversation?


W: No, he wouldn't have to resort to that. He has a rather remarkable vocabulary--no


poverty of words, so he doesn't he always has the right word for things.


P: I don't remember--was he a smoker?








W: Not a smoker. He's taken up cigars in his old age, and I believe he used to smoke


some when he was in office. And he's a great advocate of orange juice. Never has been

Seem io C1Y","It -1,,s
a drinker. He just doesn't need these simulate~ much.


P: He's kind of fastidious/as far as his dress is concerned.


W: Yes, uh-huh.


P: Has he always been something of a clothes-horse?


W: As a youngster he was always had to have his clothes just so. He still does.


I suppose these are habits you form young, you know.


P: But he's never looked sloppy on thelplatform at all.


W: No, he wouldn't go into that.


P: Now the campaign was over in Jacksonville and what was the next move? This was


the primary so you still had the general election ahead.


W: That was in November, I believe. Oh, there was a little apprehension but nothing


developed. I forget who was 4ke opponent.


P: Of course in those days the democratic nomination was aft to election/,


so you could afford to ignore, really, the general election. Just make your plans for


the move to Tallahassee and the inauguration.


W: That's right.


P: When did you move to Tallahassee?








CT Calioweils
W: Wellwe went out to Tallahassee to visit the GaCeB.Ae in the fall and you know look


the mansion over.


P: You went on this visit?


W: Uh-huh. After the November election was in the bag. So we went up and dined with


him and spent the day with him and toured the mansion. Then we got ready, you know,


packing up at home getting ready to go.


P: For the inauguration, which took place in JanuaryA 1949.


W: That's right.


P: And tell us about your role in the inauguration.


W: Well I was r4ightShere)on the front raw, you know, and then I had to attend about


six balls and, t.n have a reception ( this is all in one day ) at the mansion and give


a breakfast. It was just a continual round of festivities. All very exciting kinds.


P: Who did all this planning and arranging for you?


W: Well you have a lot of committees, you know. You have an inaugural committee, and


they decide who is going to sit where and everything is worked out. A master plan.


P: So all you had to do was just make an appearance.


W: Well that was about it, uh-huh. We had lots of company for the inaugural dinner


and people from all over came, you know.


P: Where'd your clothes come from?


W: I had clothes from New York and just everywhere.


42








P: You had gone up to buy these things?


W: Well no, I didn't have to go. I just wrote and got what I wanted. I had to change


clothes several times a day.


P: And you were living in Tallahassee before you moved into the mansion.


W: Yes.


P: Where?


W: Well we went up right after Christmas. We moved right into the mansion. The


Gs s had a plantation home; they just moved out to their home. And that is the


custom, that you vacated in time for the new family.


P: Even before the inauguration?

seVe Ver (
W: Ohzyes, we were there the.e ee-4ear days before, maybe before New Years, if I recall


correctly.


P: Were you satisfied with the mansion when you first moved in?


W: Oh, I thought it was lovely. You know I had been there, ieff times before and


thought it was a beautiful place. It was in bad repair, but it was a charming place.


P: I was going to say, you ran into housekeeping problems,though shortly after you


moved in. What were they?


W: Well it was painted for us before we moved in, but we had some leaks to patch


and wall paper to put up.,.,


P: What about the servant problem in 1949 in Tallahassee?


43








W: No problem. We had, let me see how many servants. We had two cooks, three butlers


and three maids. I believe we had a launderess. So ---b.lie e we had more servants than


we had people in the mansion because Fuller and I were the only two there, you see,


for awhile. Of course we had company coming and going and this and that. O how


many rooms, let's see, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen"around


twenty rooms.


P: And it was your responsibility to be the housekeeper, and the hostess, and the


greeter and this kind of thing.


W: That's right. And right after you get there, you see, you have the legislature


and so you have to give a great big reception. And we had a lovely one that first


year. We had the mansion oh lighted beautifully aet-t-41 y even underwater lighting


in the fountains and pools around the mansion. We did it a little differentlfrom


what they had done in the past, and it was in April when all the flowers were out.


Then we had to have luncheons for the ladies, and just a round of parties.


P: Did you enjoy all this?


W: Yes, I did.


P: You didn't find it taxing?


W: Well you get a little tired of it after awhile. Mny groups come into the mansion,


and there's hard-shaking and greeting, but you enjoy the people quite a bit.


P: L5f about your relationship with Fuller? He's emerging now. He is the governor

44








now so this means he's pretty busy. Did you have much time to talk and did he use


you as a sounding board? You were probably the only really friendly face there. You


were the only one;'he could absolutely trust.


W: Well we talked a good bit and then my brothers were coming into visit a lot too.


And close friends of his were there.


P: Were you a political confidant of Fuller?


W: Not particularly, no. I didn't want to know too much, you see. I'd\have\rather


been more an observer. You know, if he wanted to tell me something, fine, but ..


P: Have you been a political animal kind of a person?


W: Not particularly. I rather like politics, you know, because this kind of an


opportunity comes to so few people that I thought well you know.I'm pretty lucky to


be in here helping make history, you see.


P: That's right, you were on the scene.


W: Yes, and this is something many people yearn for and never have the opportunity...


P: But you stood away from it a little bit, as much as you could, didn't you?


W: Yes, kind of look on.


g: Why?


W: WellI didn't want to just become too involved. I didn't think it was my role.


I was not elected to office; I was just there by the grace of my brother, you see.








I mean, it was rather unusual that he would select me to help him. It's not too


many brothers who would. And so I played the social role, which was my role.


P: Uh-huh. There are some women though you know who would like to move onto the


political scene. You never envision yourself becoming a politician?


W: No, never did.


P: You had no ambitions yourself to run for the state legislature or to become the


first woman, Florida woman, to go into the cabinet or anything like that?


W: Nothing like that. I thought maybe one, you know, in the family was sufficient.


P: Sufficient.


W: And you have to be, you know you do have to be trained and qualified for these

~teoffe ra 1we At
things, I think, and prepare yourself for it. And that was not my Aep ereaot,. really.


P: Fuller came in for a lot of criticism almost right from the very beginning, as


any governor does.


W: Yes.


P: Particularly if they endorse unpopular proposals. How did this affect you?


W: Well I figured that this was this happens to people, the top men in the


state, you know. You're going to get a lot of criticism. And of course he came in


with an empty treasury, so he had to be rather smart to pull the chesnuts out of the


fire, so to speak. And I rather admired his way of taking 4f criticism. He got
7/








hot under the collar sometimes, you know.


P: How did you react to newspaper criticism?


W: Well I read it. I've been a newspaper person. It didn't cut too deeply. You know,


I didn't want him to be criticized, but I could realize that the papers/you know\had to


have their say too.

C, kc4l s A^/ 1V
P: What about all this publicity yeo-al~iaf-a-al addn you know, sort of a small


town girl, suddenly you're the spotlight is shining on you. Did you resent this


invasion of your privacy?


W: No, I found the newspaper people very easy to work with. I had had a little oh.


-it-i ~ -'-initiation into this before I went there because the year before during the


campaign I had gotten adjusted to this. And I didn't mind. I didn't find it too, oh,


tedious. It wasn't too bad.


P: Did you find that you had a private life at all anymore in Tallahassee?


W: Oh yes, it wasn't too bad.


P: You could go and come as you wanted to?


W: 4-0yes. People recognized you on the street and all. It was kind of nice. They'd


say.ei I know you, I've seen your picture in the paper. You got used to that you see.


P: You see today it seems to me the first lady goes out and you know there's a picture


of her, sometimes an unflattering picture of her that appears in the paper and so on.


That didn't bother you at all.







and things
W: No, it didn't because we got lots more pictures/in then than we you don't see


so many in now. It's mostly the governor in these days.


P: Uh-huh.


W: But you just kind of got used to it.


P: What about travel, Alma, when you were in Tallahassee. To what degree did you have


to leave Tallahassee and move around the state and country?


W: Well I went to governor's mansions,you know, I mean governor'sa _:
A









Interview with Miss Alma Warren conducted by Samuel Proctor


P: Tell me about your visit to the Truman inaugural as an official representative of


Florida.


W: Wellyou were just one of many, you know thousands there and I remember it was


pretty cold weather. I was impressed, though, because thereagain you were seeing


history made. The functions, receptions and balls were on a larger scale than we had


had of course but I enjoyed it. It was fascinating.


P: What national celebrities did you entertain in Tallahassee?


W: Oh, we just had everybody from the Duke and Duchess of Windsor to/ you could just


almost name it.


P: What, did you have the Duke and Duchess for lunch?


W: Uh-huh, we had them for lunch. The Duke was made a colonel, you know, that wets the

i~ L ujketJ yV&k made- c61OVIeiJ.
4a aEde -he ma4ee-honorary c~olaon,- We had lots of movie stars there. They were


making ~ -mfP movies in .Floida and they would come by and visit.


P: Describe the Duke and Duchess' visit to the mansion.


W: Well, they frequently wintered in Tallahassee on one of the plantations there and


so Fuller invited them to come for lunch one day and come up to the office. I think


maybe this was his first year, 1949,wasn't it? Andas I remember they were dressed


in sort of hunting clothes, you know,they wore tweeds, British tweeds. They were


Tape #// Side B








very easy to talk to.


P: ,hat do you feed a former TKirg?


W: Well I think we had, maybe we had :I believe beef .


P: Just an ordinary lunch.


W: Just an ordinary lunch. What you'd have in Tallahassee, spoon bread, and something .


maybe a little unusual like strawberries out of season, or something like that.


P: You brought your mother's recipes over to Tallahassee?


W: Yes, and many people contributed, gave me rec ipes. People were always bringing

t \,Tikere ? 4^4e.
per good dishes there too. ahry Jl-t a lot of hunting going onA .- avo a lzt o&-

People oulOU
Iae~pie bring game/ ;i.
-?
P: How about any presidents that were entertained during your .


W: I was trying to think. I don't believe so though. Strom Thurmond was there, ir*

ke
Didn't he 4f' ran for president, didn't he?


P: In 1948, yes.


W: He was there several times. In fact, I think he visited Fuller in Jacksonville


before he was came over to Tallahassee. Most everybody in the public eye, then,


who comes to Florida)would stop off in Tallahassee.


P: Did you have to sleep any of these people?


W: Yes. We had lots of bedrooms there. ae&B-e was-plenty of room. ih_ _l&ae__ ace_,








the governor's mansion, was larger I believe... i-would accommodate more people than


the one now.


P: Uh-huh. I remember you entertained the Proctors there for lunch one day.


W:4iu: were there. jE sf course.


P: We were doing research Gn Governor Broward.

probably
W: Yes, and we /j1#y didn't have very much to eat that day. Just kind of a west


Florida dinner.


P: I remember it was good.


W: Probably turnip greens or something like that.


P: And you showed us all the silver in the mansion, all from the battleship Florida.


W: Oh, that was handsome.


P: All that problem of having to polish the stuffthough.


W: Oh yes, every peee. She--d;have to do it every month or so, but it was beautiful


stuff wasn't it?


P: You had the people thought do the polishing in those days.


W: Oh yes, we had all these people to wait on you there. Oh the yard men--we did


have three yard men. I don't know what that they probably have more now.


P: And lovely flowers.


W: A greenhouse. Flowers all the time.









P: And you enjoyed the life. How long did you stay as hostess, because Fuller got


married, didn't he?


W: He got married, and I was only there not quite a year. But I stayed on--hewanted


me to stay on. And I stayed on and helped. It was no different.


P: Did you live in the mansion,too?


W: Yes, I was right there.


P: Who was he married to the second time?


W: He married Barbara Manning of California.


P: And she's remarried. They're divorced and she's remarried isn't she?


W: Yes, that's right.


P: I remember that he was married after he was governor and I remember the pictures


but I had forgotten what her name was.


W: Yes, she was a lovely girl.


P: Very pretty.


W: Very, yes. Very good looking.


P: And they were married for how long?


W: Oh, they were married about ten years I guess.


P: And no children from that marriage, either?


W: No, no children.


P: And so Fuller is a bachelor, just like he started out years ago, living in Miami now.


52









W: Yes, living in Miami.


P: And you stayed on then with the Warren administration until the end of the admin-


istration.


W: Well I stayed there at the mansion for four years, uh-huh. At his request. He


didn't want me to leave, you know. Wanted me as company.

D'eyou s'-' $OwJ
P: /A~.tstill pretty much functiondrthe-i'im:e .w:y taking care of a lot of the house-


keeping details and so on.


W: Well we didn't have to do much housekeeping, but we did Aa lot of entertaining.


We had all these people that had worked there for years running the house for us.


P: What about the budget problems?


W: The budget problems--well it was kind of pinched at times and he'd have to dip into .,





P: His own personal funds.


W: Uh-huh. Because he always had somebody for meals, you know.


P: The legislature wasn't very generous with the mansion budget?


W: Well I guess they were, you know, for those times. I don't remember the figure,


but probably you could always use more, you know.


P: What about maintainence--was that a problem in the mansion as you remember it?


W: Oh yes.








P: Things got broken and so on?


W; Uh-huh.


P: And was there money to do this kind of repairing?


W: Yes. I don't believe we did any major oh yes, we did do some of the rooms

-ere wct oy 'ov ov 4A
over and ht- wzs-eounei.- You know, you'd buy a new piece, a new drapery, or something....


P: How do you ay-iethe Warren administration in Florida history, Alma?

progressive
W: I think that time has proven it, you know, that it was a quite a Xl4/04,444


administration. At the time I think you al need a few years to see it in


perspective. At the time, as you say, there was some criticism, as there is with all
see....... T: .a.yAs sa.

administrations, but as the years go by ... We 1 --ye- ee e-way -ea-this,


and so many of my friends4say too, that we're receiving so many benefits now from the


sales tax hr-e was so criticized in that day because it pays our salaries.


P: Uh-huh.


W: And as you know, it's the biggest revenue we have today. Well, his other
A

things, his Cows-Off-The-Road-Program avvc/ sc MtqI q VG his Pine Tree Prosperity;


his -rdqr*n--not stabilization but the Citrus Taste Test, which was one of the things

... cover
that's helped the citrus industry. You see it ~. ccieri'~f' so much of the economy of


Florida. So much of what he did is still going on/ benefits from it.


P: Why do you think that in so many instances Fuller is portrayed as something of a








comic figure?


W: I had never noticed that.


P: Well let me say not that so much as he's easily caricatured.


W: No, I haven't seen this either.


P: Even in the at the time when he was governor, you found, you know, unfriendly


newspaper people attempting sometimes to portray him almost as a buffoon.


W: Oh really. Well I think you find this with all governors. I don't think it was


anything that was peculiar to him, you know. I think this is part of the pattern,


don't you, for politicians?. You find it with Lyndon Johnson, Dick Nixon, anyone.


P: Of course he's more in, I suppose, the area of a Lyndon Johnson, rather than

tJ I)eofj.
a-i'c-;:' He's kind of a flamboyant, colorful kind of a personality.
A1 (

W: No, I had never thought about kt in that way. At the time I thought the criticism


was pretty harsh, but I noticed that v'r~n pti;, since have received just about as much.


P: Well I was thinking that back on the campus at the time that he was a student
)

here in the 1920s, there were a series, I guess today we would call them underground


newspapers that were/ at qih, S.s-t-~i like the Alligator,only without -I4-official
A tlP`--,-r-`` tkl

auspices. And one of these, and I have a copy of it, the whole issue--its a four page


issue--was about Fuller, but it never called him by his name.


W: Uh-huh.


P: It always referred to him as "The West Wind".


55








W: Oh?


P: But everybody knew' exactly who they were talking about.


W: Uh-huh?


P: And I wondered if this kind of a thing didn't continue, you know this kind of an


image didn't continue throughout Fuller's public career.

/ /
W: No, I don't think so. 2' )he/ ev e } ) "'i" ay'r


P: This kind of talking kind of a thing, kind of a person.

C
W: No, I don't think so. I wouldn't put too much credence in something that, you know,


came out from the campus anyway.


P: Well I'm just saying that this was sort of the beginnings of the thing.


W: No, I had never heard this before.


P: Do you think that he emerges in Florida history as a serious -.ohwell, sort of a


Spessard Holland type of a politician.


W: No, I wouldn't want him to emerge as a Spessard Holland, you know, sort of a fence


d Sti~ bo I think thatmaybe he was a man of more conviction.


P: Uh-huh.


W: You know, comes out for things he believes in kf MoE,


P: You think that he's really completely honest in the programs that he advanced?


W: Oh yes. I sure do.


P: These were things that he seriously believed in and these were not, you know,


56








political stepping stones.


W: Well, I don't know g about that--you'd have to ask ji-'" bf~tI think he did have


the good of the people in heart.


P: Uh-huh.


W: Maybe he was closer to people than a lot of our governors.


P: This thinkJisjl ally the answer to the question, that he .


W: Because he gave us a very firm financial base here in Florida. You know, that's


why he was criticized a lot,ftlt sales tax thing, you see. But, he was proven right


on that. And he offered another alternative you know. He offered another alternative


but this _j what the legislature came up with.
4

P: Do you think that he still kept the common touch even after he sort of achieved the

i political 4a
pinnacle of success in ~e state?


: Oh yes. I think he had more humility because he had, you know, he had experienced


et these \iea f things.

...sort of a 66,
P: Did he always kind of think of himself as thepoor man's candidates he remembered


his background?

4L
W: No, no. I don't think so, because I don't think he was Itepoor man's candidate.


P: Which kind of J/1/$ a group do you think4he attempted to represent in the state?


W: Well I think he represented .. ..


P: Not the rich and affluent.








W: Oh no, no. I think just maybe all the people that he could. ; py-ay middle course A

C 7)
P: Maybe the silent majority.


W: Wellmaybe, I don't know. No, I don't think that either. I'm (o\lJust enough of


a political scientist to say.


P: What about his political ambitions after the governorshiprsince the constitution


would not allow him to -seode himself and he was a young man.
'1

W: Yes, uh-huh. Well it's nice to be elected governor while you're a young .nf then


you don't have to orry--you know, wait until your fifties.

+ n He v ....
P: Do you think though that he wanted to go beyond ,i;&e t'cs7t -

S
W: No. He ran for governor again, but he didn't care to go into the Senate or any-


thing.


P: This is what I was wondering. So many of our Florida governors, you can almost


name everyone of them, attempted to go onto the United States Senate. Very few


succeeded but all of them, almost all of them tried. And this has always been a question


in my mind. I was wondering how you viewed it.


W: No, he never wanted to be in Washington. No, because /Xyf////y being governor is


a much bigger job than being senator. There are only fifty governors and there are
5
how many, one hundred senators?


P: But the thing is he left the governorship now in 1952. And how old was kg, he


was born in 1905 he wasn't really out of his forties yet.

58








W: That's right.


P: He was a young man with really almost a whole life time ahead of him.


W: Well,, if you're going to run that's the time to run, you see.


P: Yes, there was nothing wrong with that, but I was just wondering about moving from


the governorship,//#/ from the state to the national level. Now I've always been


curious as to why.


W: He's never run for anything like that.


P: He's never talked about it?


W: No. He never cared to be out of Florida. He has always been, you know, a real


true Floridian. And he wouldn't want to live anywhere else ke sO-1S.


P: Why do you think he ran for governor a second time. Now,there the odds were very


much against him.


W: Against him. I wonder myself why he would even want to go back.


P: History has never really given us we've only had one governor who ever was


able to do this and that was ipatke nineteenth centuryA You lose your political base


so quickly.


W: Yes, you do. And you make a lot of enemies when you're governor. Any governor


does, you know.

1'
P: And I just wondered if you had any thoughts as to why.


W: I just don't know why he did. I was not, you know, just didn't talk to him about


59







we
too much. I just wondered why he wanted to since he'd had it, .tae experience once.
4

P: You didn't play a very active role in that other campaign.


W: No, -se-he was married then so there was no need for my help. Other than supporting


him and all.


P: Of course you were much more of a public figure, a known figure in Florida during

10
the second campaign than you were dt;ir the first.

We I(>
W: -ell I -wuL-o[ ttF-tIth. I wasn't taking part in the second one at all. But I


don't know. I guess maybe he just thought he'd try again to see, maybe because of


what you said, it had never been done, you see.


P: This you think was the challenge"


W: Might have been, acs-ncser knows. You know, you can't really say.


P: It'd be interesting to try to find out why he never attempted to make a senatorial


race.


W: Well that is because he did not want to be serving in Washington, aloof from the


people.


P: Do you know that there was any pressure, any efforts made /1)4// to encourage him


during the time that he was governor to look ahead?


W: I don't think so, no. J~E he had had a life time ambition to be governor and he


realized his ambition. And so few people do realize it, I think maybe he was just


satisfied that was it.








P: I've always heard though that once the political bug bites you .


W: Yes.


P: .. .you know, you never get rid of the virus in, your blood stream.


W: Well the odds are against you serving too long though, you know. I don't know,


you would have to ask him why, but I just he's never said, you know, why he didn't


want to go. He said he didn't want to go into the senate; some people have mentioned
A

that. He said that would have no appeal for him because you couldn't do as much good


up there, you know. You don't have as much power in the senate either, do you?


P: Well, I don't know. It's a pretty powerful body today.


W: Well, today yes. But as I said earlier, you know, the governor is really the ultimate.


I think I'd rather with thattoo. You'd have to be in Washington)away from your home


a lotgand then a governor you know, wants to make some money eventually when he gets


out. He's got to go back and make some money to recover his losses.


P: Lost fortunes.

I 4-klok
W: Because when Fuller was governor they were paying--thIn $10,000 a year, you know.


P: When Fuller left Tallahassee in 1952, where did he go?





P: He did not go back to Jacksonville?


W: Went to Aghs.an lc~q2 I


P: He went immediately there and established himself in a law firm and he is part


61








of this firm--this is his firm and he is in it today.


W: That's right.


P: He is'actively practicing attorney now?


W: Yes, has a wonderful business.


P: JWhere does he live in Miami?


W: He lives in Miami Beach.


P: Do you see him often?


W: Ohyes. He comes up every so often, usually at Christmas.


P: Was he here this year at Christmas?


W: No he was ill-this time, had a little back trouble.

-f-+fe.
P: Maybe we could 4ke-an interview with him when he comes up sometime.


W: You might be able to, uh-huh, you might.


P: And we could ask him all of these questions.


W: Yes, he might talk to you. You'd enjoy talking with him. You'd have a good inter-


view then because, you know, he could really give you some reasons maybe.


P: Alma, when you left Tallahasse where did you go? You came back to Gainesville?


W: Oh, I stayed in Tallahassee at Florida State for fifteen years.


P: Oh that's right. I had forgotten that you had stayed on there.


W: Until we moved our office here. I went into the University.


P: That's right, I remember that now. That's my fault. I knew that you had stayed


62








on in Tallahassee from 1952 on until .


W: Until just a few years ago. About five years ago.


P: So you would uh if you were asked by to give an unbiased opinion, you would
A

classify your brother as one of the outstanding governors in Florida history.
aybc ;4 4VoUd~ I

W: Ohnaturally. -I-dn-ot-knetw-ta-iu-uld-be unbiased. But ,comparing him with the


others I surely would, uh-huh. I think if you would)maybe evaluate the different


administrations you would find his surplus.


P: Did hedevelope an amicable relationship with Dan McCarty?


W: Oh yes, they were always friends. They were in the legislature as friends. You


know politicians usually are friends even though they are running for office against one


another, they don't hold things against one another.


P: They forget things that they said during the campaign?


W: Well,you have to have some W/ yf/ ammunition during the campaign, you know.


Yes, he went to his funeral and everything. They were always good friends, I think.
BO as YCLL X ay,
You know, not close friends. +hey were just amicable.


P: But Dan McCarty was not his protegee--he did not .


W: Ohno, no. They were too near the same age. They served in the legislature


together. They were just about the same age I would imagine.


P: I suspect that he supported Dan McCarty in 1952.


W: I imagine he did, uh-huh.








P: Because I think from once again a political philosophy point of view, I think they


shared many of the same ideas. By 1952 actually, Dan McCarty inherited the Fuller


Warren support in FlOrida.


W: That's interesting. You know, he may well have. Maybe their philosophies were


similar. Dan was interested in some of the same things, you know, the citrus industry


and developing Florida. And Dan he was how long was he in, a year?


P: About a year, maybe a little bit more than a year.


W: He got a good bit done in his one year, I thought.


P: Uh-huh. And then we had trouble. Charley Johns became governor.


W: Well, Charley did his best, I think.


P: Uh-huh. Well I don't really know him. Maybe we'll sometime have an interview with


Charley Johns.


W: Why don't you interview him. You know, I think he's rather talented.


P: I don't know him but I suspect we could get a very good interview with hil.


W: Yes. Well fate just threw him into it.


P: Uh-huh.


W: And then we had ,t1' good governors in .


P: Leroy Collins.


W: Leroy Collins was very good. He had a lot of criticism.


P: Oh yes.








W: But you know,mud and all that thrown at him. But I thought Ferris Bryannt was an


excellent governor. And have I skipped one? Wa had a lot of democratS ....


P: Haydon Burns.


W: Well Haydon, you know, could have some good points too.


P: Yes, Jhat's right.


W: He was not a friend of the University'." Dr. Reitz told me that even Ferris was not.


He said that Fuller was a much better friend of the University.


P: I was going to get down to specifics awt-things like that and ask you about Fuller's


interest in his own alma mater, really, the University of Florida in Gainesville.


W: Well from what I understand, not from himbut from talking to Dr. Reitz and Dr.


Miller, he was a friend of the University.


P: The University I think,though was always sort of a soft spot in his heart, toward the

of Florida
University, more so than the college in Tallahassee and other institutions in the state.

Yes,
W: Oh I think so. ie had se-r very had s;.e-memories of it here because this is

As t, so a
what shaped ,|I=.-- the University you know. So many people say our statesmen and


politicians do get their start here. AD -' think of the ones we've had here.


P: Civil rights wasn't an issue during his administration, was it?


W: No it wasn't, but I recall the day of the inaugural we had some representatives


from the press who were Negroes and I think they ate breakfast there. And nothing


was said.








P: That might have been the first time that the mansion was integrated.


W: I thought it was. And you seethere were other press members there, but nothing


was made of it. It was just, you know, acceptable. You didn't think anything about it.


P: It'd be interesting if it was the first time, wouldn't it?


W: Yes it was. I mean it would be if you really knew, but of course there could have


been others that had come there.


P: Yes, uh-huh.


W: But you know, we had open house and they just came in.


P" The big issues of the time were taxes and road building. These were the issues


that wee associated with the Warren years in Tallahasse, aren't they.


W: Yes, putting the state on a sound basis, as I say again. I suppose that during ///
I
Caldwells tr
/~/// administration that there wa so many needs for funds that they were just .


there was nothing there when Fuller went in.


P: -ppse-1 the money accumulated during World War II h had been expended during


the Caldwell years.


W: So Fuller offered a tax program of on naval stores, taxing naval stores.


P: Severance tax.


W: Severance and land companies. Had a wonderful tax program but it was negated by


the legislature.


P: Wasn't Clem something of an advisor to Fuller on these tax matters?


66








W: Uh, Clem had written a leaflet on this. It was based on taxes and severances and so


forth.


P: And this was pretty much sort of the tax policy that Fuller thought would be wise


for the state.


W: Yes, uh-huh. And the legislature being of a porkchop nature did not take that, you


see.


P: Where did the decision come to get the cows off the highway? That had been talked


about for so long.


W: He and Dan had co-sponsored that in the legislature. It had been going on for years.

o'J bfeei
P: Andjbitterly fought by the cattleama po0 l-


W: They wereAfence sitters, either one of them. They kind of laid t&hr?-reputation on
I
rural
the line with this thing, against the cattle interest and the Xp interest which were


big in those days.


P: One of the things that we haven't mentioned Itl seems to me ought to be put into


the record is the degree to which Fuller advertised Florida.


W: That's right.


P: You know that hadn't been done very much. He really in some ways launched that kind


of a national /f////f international program, didn't he?


W: Yes, he did. He was one of the first to start brirg.inr industry down,too.


P: But he promoted the tourism of the state.








W: The tourism, that's right.

Ae clii r.UcA-
P: Do you thinkA pV in the way, and really I'm asking a question I know the answer to,


to encourage summer tourism, the development of this kind of touristlat a oonok-Vohy


W: I think so, year around, yes.


P: Which has become so important too as far as the state is concerned.


W: Yes.
1 os; ? s
P: How about the family in the years since the ? if'L Aa it remained a closely knit


family? You see your brothers and nieces and nephews, and this sort of thing. This is


a frequent .. .l get together at Christmas time?


W: Yes, we have family reunions quite often. We always had one every year in the mansion


and then we have had them not every year but we do get together and talk 6over.ol d tiresQ


you know.


P: Is there much of a Warren family other than your immediate family? Are there

and +4c4H so0c H
cousins(and auntstand unclesn a.L1 ani:nd ? d hi a~' nitPSw arcouv ?


W: No, I have some cousins on my mother's side but they're not living 1 hora




P: They're still in Georgia?


W: Alabama and Georgia, and ;ew Carolina.


P: But there hasn't been that kind of closeness. The family hasn't /yX extended itself?

We^e,
W: Wellno, not too much. But when we wnrt in Tallahassee they all visited. They all


68








came to the mansion.


P: They re-discovered you.


W: No, no. We have always kept in touch. But they came and we would go up And visit


them.

c/lose(/y-&r4
P: But the family has remained a cnaE- Tikf family, pretty much the way it was when


you were growing up?


W: Pretty much so. We don't have to, you know, see one another all the time, but we .


whenever we need one another we're always erknow like your family.


P: Yes, that's good.




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