The Baldwin Library
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE
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THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
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DRUIDS, OR BRITISH PRIESTS.
AN ANCIENT BRITON IN HIS BOAT.
THE ROMANS CONQUER BRITAIN.
BOADICEA AND HER ARMY.
SAINT AUGUSTINE AND THE SAXONS.
THE POPE AND THE SAXON CHILDREN.
KING ALFRED AND THE CAKES.
ALFRED IN THE DANISH CAMP.
THE WICKED QUEEN ELFRIDA.
CANUTE AND HIS COURTIERS.
THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS.
THE TOWER OF LONDON.
QUEEN MATILDA AND HER TAPESTRY.
DEATH OF WILLIAM THE SECOND.
DUKE ROBERT GOES TO PALESTINE.
WRECK OF THE "WHITE SHIP."
FLIGHT OF THE EMPRESS MADE.
MURDER OF THOMAS A BECKET.
RICHARD THE FIRST AND A LION.
BLONDEL AT RICHARD'S PRISON.
DEATH OF RICHARD THE FIRST.
KING JOHN AND MAGNA CHARTA.
HENRY III. AND THE BARONS.
PRINCE EDWARD AND HIS WIFE.
EDWARD I. ATTACKS SCOTLAND.
DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON.
THE BLACK PRINCE AT CRICY.
AFTER THE BATTLE OF CRtCY.
BATTLE AT POICTIERS.
RICHARD II. ABDICATES.
THE RED AND WHITE ROSES.
THE WARS OF THE ROSES.
THE BATTLE OF AGINCOURT.
MARRIAGE OF HENRY V.
BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY.
THE FIRST ENGLISH PRINTER.
MURDER OF THE LITTLE PRINCES.
DEATH OF RICHARD THE THIRD.
MARRIAGE OF HENRY SEVENTH.
FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD.
KING EDWARD THE SIXTH.
EXECUTION OF LADY JANE GREY.
DEATH OF RIDLEY AND LATIMER.
THE BURNING OF CRANMER.
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S ACCESSION.
EXECUTION OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS.
THE SPANISH ARMADA.
QUEEN ELIZABETH AND SHAKSPEARE.
THE CAPTURE OF GUY FAWKES.
THE MURDER OF BUCKINGHAM.
EXECUTION OF LORD STAFFORD.
THE DEATH OF JOHN HAMPDEN.
THE BATTLE OF NASEBY.
EXECUTION OF CHARLES I.
CROMWELL TURNS OUT PARLIAMENT.
DEFEAT OF THE DUTCH FLEET.
CHARLES II. AND GENERAL MONK.
THE GREAT PLAGUE OF 1665.
GREAT FIRE OF LONDON (1666).
LORD W. RUSSELL CONDEMNED.
LANDING OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE.
THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE.
THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH.
THE BATTLE OF CULLODEN.
CLIVE'S VICTORIES IN INDIA.
DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE.
CORONATION OF GEORGE III.
BURKE, THE GREAT ORATOR.
LORD HOWE'S VICTORY.
CAPTURE OF SERINGAPATAM.
ABERCROMBIE IN EGYPT.
THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR.
DEATH OF SIR JOHN MOORE.
WELLINGTON AT MADRID.
THE CHESAPEAKE AND SHANNON.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
NAPOLEON IN THE BELLEROPHON.
CORONATION OF GEORGE IV.
THE REFORM BILL.
CORONATION OF VICTORIA.
MARRIAGE OF QUEEN VICTORIA.
BAPTISM OF THE PRINCE OF WALES.
GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851.
BATTLE OF THE ALMA.
THE SIEGE OF SEBASTOPOL.
THE BATTLE OF INKERMANN.
THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW.
THE VOLUNTEER REVIEW.
I. DRUIDS, OR BRITISH PRIESTS.
The people who lived in England many
hundreds of years ago were called Britons.
They did not know the one true God,
but were heathens. They had priests
whom they called Druids. These Druids
wore long, white garments, and lived in
the forests. They also wore ornaments
of gold, and wreaths of oak-leaves on
their heads ; and the people treated them
with great respect, and believed what
they said; for they thought them very
II. AN ANCIENT BRITON IN HIS BOAT.
The old Britons were savage people.
Many of them wore no clothes, but painted
their bodies blue, with the juice of a plant
called woad. They had little boats called
coracles, made of basket-work, covered
with skins. In these boats they went
out fishing on the broad rivers that ran
through their country. In some parts of
Britain the people were not so savage as
in the others, but wore clothes, kept
herds of cattle, and had good strong wea-
pons for battle.
III. THE ROMANS CONQUER BRITAIN.
The Romans were a mighty nation.
After fighting in many countries, their
army came to conquer Britain. The
name of the leader was Julius Caesar.
It was from France the Roman ships
of war came to Britain. The Britons
soon came together on the shore to pre-
vent the Romans from landing. They
were armed with swords, spears, and
shields; and they had also war-chariots,
with sharp blades fastened to the wheels,
and fine horses to draw them.
IV. BOADICEA AND HER ARMY.
Though the Britons fought bravely,
the Romans conquered them at last.
But the Britons wanted to be free. They
had a queen named Boadicea, who had
two daughters. The Romans treated
Boadicea and her daughters very badly.
So Boadicea got together a great army
to drive the Romans out of the country.
But the Romans beat her army, and
Boadicea killed herself, to avoid being
made a prisoner, and ill-treated by the
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V. SAINT AUGUSTINE AND THE SAXONS.
After governing Britain for hundreds
of years, the Romans gave up the country
and went away. Then there came across
the sea some nations called Angles,
Jutes and Saxons. They founded seven
kingdoms in Britain. The Saxons were
heathens, until a good man, Saint Augus-
tine, came over to Kent, and taught
Ethelbert the king and his people to
know the Lord, and the Saviour, Jesus
Christ. And in time all the Saxons
VI. THE POPE AND THE SAXON CHILDREN.
Saint Augustine was sent to England
by a good Bishop of Rome. This Bishop
had seen some beautiful children who
came from England, standing in the
market-place. He had asked who they
were; and on being told that they were
Angles, he said that if they were Chris-
tians, they would be not Angles, but
Angels. So he sent Saint Augustine to
England, that the Angles and Saxons
might learn to be Christians, and pray
no more to false gods.
VII. KING ALFRED AND THE CAKES.
Alfred was a great and good Saxon
King. In his time fierce warriors, called
Danes, came to England in ships. Alfred
was obliged to hide from these enemies.
He lived for a time in a farmer's house,
and no one knew who he was. The farm-
er's wife set him to watch some cakes
that were baking. Alfred let the cakes
burn; and the farmer's wife, who did
not know he was the king, gave him a
good scolding. She said he could eat
caKes, but was too lazy to watch them.
VIII. ALFRED IN THE DANISH CAMP.
The Danes were masters of England;
but Alfred felt sure he could drive them
out. He dressed himself like a harper
or musician. Then he took a harp, and
went into the camp of the Danes. The
Danish leader and his men were glad to
hear Alfred sing and play. They did not
know who he was, or why he came to
their camp. Alfred saw that the Danes
had grown careless,-and soon he col-
lected an army, and beat them in a great
IX. THE WICKED QUEEN ELFRIDA.
After good King Alfred died, many
Saxon Kings ruled in England. At last
a youth named Edward was king. This
Edward had a wicked step-mother named
Elfrida, who hated him, because she
wanted her own son Ethelred to be King.
One day Edward came to see her at
Corfe Castle, where she lived. Then the
wicked Elfrida made one of her servants
stab Edward in the back with a dagger.
So he died ; and the son of Elfrida be-
came King in his stead.
X. CANUTE AND HIS COURTIERS.
Canute was a wise King of England.
One day his Courtiers told him, to
flatter him, that he was Lord of the Land
and the Sea. Canute, to reprove them
for speaking so foolishly, caused his chair
to be placed by the sea-shore, and told
the waves not to wet his feet. But the
sea came up as usual and wetted him.
Then Canute reproved his foolish flat-
terers, and told them that no one but
God could say to the sea, "Thus far
shalt thou go, and no farther."
XI. THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS.
After many years there were two men,
each of whom wished to be king of
England. One was a Saxon named
Harold, and the other was William, Duke
or ruler of Normandy, in France. Harold
made himself King. Then William came
to England with an army of Normans.
Near the town of Hastings a great battle
was fought. Harold was killed by an
arrow, and William became King of
England. He was called William the
XII. DOMESDAY BOOK.
When William the First became King
of England, he took away the lands of
.the Saxons, and gave lands and houses
to his Norman soldiers, and many he
kept for himself. King William caused
a book to be written, called Domesday
Book. In it were the names of all the
estates in England, and the value of each
was set down. The Saxons were very
angry at losing their lands; but William
punished them severely when they re-
XIV. THE TOWER OF LONDON.
King William was a hard man, and
treated his Saxon subjects unkindly. He
pulled down many houses to make a forest,
that he might hunt the deer; and he
was very cruel to all who offended him.
He made every one put out the fires in
the houses at eight o'clock at night.
This rule was called the Curfew law; and
at eight o'clock a bell was sounded, called
the curfew bell, and guards went round to
see that all fires were out. A curfew bell
is still rung in some villages.
William the First built many strong
castles. These castles had very thick
and heavy walls; and the King and his
barons lived in these castles, and were
guarded by many armed men, so that no
one could come in to hurt them. A very
strong castle was called the Tower of
London. It was built beside the river
Thames, and King William often lived
in it. The Tower of London is still
standing, as strong as ever. Many kings
of England used it as a palace.
XV. QUEEN MATILDA AND HERTAPESTRY
William the Conqueror was married
to a princess named Matilda. In those
days ladies were very fond of working
and embroidering with the needle. The
work they made was called Tapestry;
and they used to work not only patterns,
but pictures, which were hung up on the
walls of the rooms in the castles. Queen
Matilda and her ladies worked pictures,
showing the story of the Conquest of
England. These pictures are still to be
seen at a town in France.
XVI. DEATH OF WILLIAM THE SECOND.
When the Conqueror died, his second
son, who was also named William, be-
came king. This King William was
called Rufus or Red, because he had red
hair. He was a rough cruel king, and
was not kind to his people. He spent
most of his time in hunting. At last,
when he was one day chasing the deer,
he was killed by an arrow shot by a ser-
vant of his, named Walter Tyrrel.
Whether Tyrrel did this on purpose, or
by accident, is not known.
XIII. THE CURFEW.
XVII. DUKE ROBERT GOES TO PALESTINE
William the Second had no son. There-
fore, Duke Robert, his younger brother,
had the next right to be King of Eng-
land. But Robert had led a great army
to fight in Palestine, which is also called
the Holy Land, because our Saviour,
Jesus Christ, was born there; and Henry,
the youngest son of William the First,
took advantage of Robert's being away to
make himself King of England. This
Henry ruled many years. He was called
Beauclerk, or fine scholar."
XVIII. WRECK OF THE "WHITE SHIP.'
Henry the First had a son named Wil-
liam, and Henry hoped this William
should be King after him. But once the
King was in Normandy, which also be-
longed to him, and the Prince was with
him. The King came back to England
in a ship; and the Prince, with a great
many friends, followed in another, called
the "White Ship." The "White Ship"
ran on a rock, and the young Prince and
his friends were drowned. This was a
great grief to King Henry.
XIX. FLIGHT OF THE EMPRESS MADE.
As Henry the First had no son except
the one who was drowned, he said that
his daughter, Maude, who had been mar-
ried to an Emperor of Germany, should
be Queen of England when he died. But
a nobleman, named Stephen, tried to
make himself King. He fought against
Maude, who once was taken prisoner.
But she managed to escape on a dark,
snowy night. At last, Stephen conquered,
and he kept the throne for himself till he
XX. MURDER OF THOMAS A BECKET.
At last, Stephen died. Then Henry,
the son of the Empress Maude, became
King of England. He was called Henry
the Second. In his time there lived a
great man called Thomas a Becket. The
King made Becket Archbishop of Can-
terbury. But soon afterwards they quar-
relled. Then some wicked nobles, to
please King Henry, went and murdered
Becket in the great church or cathedral at
Canterbury. The people were very angry
at the murder of Becket.
XXI. RICHARD THE FIRST AND A LION.
King Richard the First, the son of
Hehiry the Second, was a very brave man.
He went to the Holy Land with an army,
and showed great courage in many bat-
tles. At last, he wished to come home
to attend to affairs in England. But a
German Duke caught him, and shut him
in a dungeon. It is said that one day a
great lion was put into this dungeon, but
King Richard, who was a very strong
and powerful man, seized the lion boldly-
and killed him.
XXII. BLONDEL AT RICHARD'S PRISON.
For a long time the people in England
did not know where King Richard was.
But, at last, a favourite musician of the
King's, named Blondel, went from castle
to castle, playing and singing a song that
only he and the King knew. And when
he sang this song opposite the castle
where Richard was, the King answered
from his prison, and the English paid a
great deal of money to get their King
back. And when King Richard arrived,
there was great rejoicing in England.
XXIII. DEATH OF RICHARD THE FIRST.
Richard the First was called the Lion-
hearted for his courage; but he was too
fond of war. He went to France, to fight
against a French noble who had offended
him; and he was wounded by an arrow,
shot by an archer named Bertrand. The
father and brother of this Bertrand had
been killed by Richard. So when Ber-
trand was taken prisoner, Richard, who
was dying from his wound, pardoned
him. But John, Richard's brother, had
XXIV. KING JOHN AND MAGNA CHARTA.
John, Richard's younger brother, was
the next King of England. He was a
very cruel man, and treated the English
badly. At last, the nobles would bear
John's tyranny no longer. They wrote
down a number of rules, called the Magna
Charta, and made John put his name to
them, as a promise that he would keep
these rules and govern well. But soon he
was as bad as ever, and no one was sorry
when he died. Perhaps John was the
worst King who ever reigned in England
XXV. HENRY III. AND THE BARONS.
Henry the Third, the son of King
John, was a weak, foolish man. He did
not rule the kingdom of England well.
His wife, a foreign Princess, brought
over many favourites from France, and
the King gave them much wealth. This
made the Barons very angry, and at last
many of them made war upon the King.
In the great battle of Evesham, King
Henry, and his son, Edward, were
taken prisoners; but Edward afterwards
XXVI. PRINCE EDWARD AND HIS WIFE.
Prince Edward, Henry the Third's
brave son, went to fight in the Holy
Land, as many valiant Knights were ac-
customed in those days to do. One day
he was wounded in the arm, with a dagger,
by a man who wanted to kill him. The
dagger had been dipped in poison; and
Edward would most likely have died if
his good wife, Eleanor, had not sucked
the poison from the wound in his arm.
This Prince Edward afterwards was a
very warlike King.
XXVII. EDWARD I. ATTACKS SCOTLAND.
After the weak King Henry was dead,
brave Prince Edward became King of
England. He conquered Wales, and
caused his son to be called Prince of
Wales. Afterwards he tried to conquer
Scotland also, and fought many battles
there. But there was in Scotland a brave
Knight, named Sir William Wallace.
This Wallace fought so valiantly against
Edward, that for a long time he had the
advantage, and Scotland remained free, in
spite of the efforts of Edward.
XXVIII. WALLACE EXECUTED.
Edward the First was very angry that
Sir William Wallace should fight against
him, and determined to revenge himself.
At last, the brave Wallace was taken
prisoner, and carried to London. And
now Edward behaved very cruelly to him.
He caused Wallace to be condemned to
die as a traitor. And Wallace was dragged
on a hurdle to Smithfield, an open place
near London, and there hanged on a
gibbet. But he will always be remem-
bered as a hero.
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XXIX. DEATH OF PIERS GAVESTON.
Edward the Second, the son of Edward
the First, was not a warlike Prince. He
was foolish and slothful, and therefore
the Barons despised him. He had a fa-
vourite, a Frenchman, named Piers Gave-
ston, who gave him bad advice. Gaveston
was sent out of England, but he returned,
and Edward was more fond of him than
ever. Then the Barons took up arms.
They made Gaveston prisoner, and cut
off his head on a hill near Warwick. At
last Edward was imprisoned and killed.
XXX. THE BLACK PRINCE AT CRECY.
Edward the Third, the valiant son of
the weak Edward the Second, made war
against France. A great battle was fought
at a place in France called Crecy. The
English King had a son, Edward, who
was called the Black Prince. This Ed-
ward was quite young at the time of the
battle of Crecy. But he fought like a brave
Knight, and helped to gain the victory.
When the French had fled, the Prince came
and knelt to receive his father's blessing.
Edward the Third was very proud of him.
XXXI. AFTER THE BATTLE OF CRECY.
At Crdcy, the French army was much
greater in number than the English. The
victory was gained chiefly by the skill
and valour of the English archers. These
men had long bows of tough wood, and
shot their arrows with such force as to
drive them through the armour of their
foes. The English Knights and men-at-
arms pursued the French off the field,
and took as prisoners many great nobles
and dukes, who were afterwards obliged
to pay ransom.
XXXII. BATTLE AT POITIERS.
Ten years after the battle of Crecy,
another celebrated battle was fought in
France, at a place called Poitiers. At this
fight the Black Prince was the leader of
the English army. Here again the Eng-
lish were much fewer in number than the
French. But the Black Prince led them
so skilfully that they gained a complete
victory, and King John of France, who
led the French army, was obliged to yield
himself a prisoner to the Black Prince,
who brought him to England.
XXXIII. RICHARD II. ABDICATES.
The valiant Black Prince died before
his father. Therefore Richard, the son
of the Black Prince, became King of
England. He was foolish and weak. He
banished his cousin, Henry of Lancaster,
from England. But after a time Henry
returned, and managed to collect so many
friends in England, that he shut up
Richard in the Tower of London, and
compelled him to sign a parchment saying
that he would give up the throne. Then
Henry became King of England.
XXXIV. THE RED AND WHITE ROSES.
So Henry the Fourth reigned in Eng-
land; and after him his son and his grand-
son sat on the throne. But there were
many who said that Henry of Lancaster
and his descendants held the throne
wrongfully, for that the Duke of York's
family had the best right to it. One day
some Lords were quarrelling in a garden
on this subject, and some who declared
they would serve the Duke of York took
white roses and wore them, and the friends
of the House of Lancaster wore red roses.
XXXV. THE WARS OF THE ROSES.
At a later time there was a great war in
England between the House of York and
the House of Lancaster; and this was
called the War of the Roses, because the
friends of the House of Lancaster were
known by the red roses they wore, and
those of the House of York by their
white roses. Many battles were fought,
and a great number of people were slain.
This was a civil war,-that is, a war in
which the people of a country fight on
opposite sides against each other.
XXXVI. THE BATTLE OF AGINCOURT.
King Henry the Fifth, the second mo-
narch of the House of Lancaster, was
very wild and headstrong in his youth;
but when he became King he showed that
he could be a great warrior. He led an
army into France; for, like Edward the
Third, he declared he had a right to govern
that country. At Agincourt, not very far
from Crecy, a battle was fought. Before
the battle the English prayed for victory,
and they beat the French, and killed a
great number of them.
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