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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Methodology
 Results
 Florida golf course survey...






Group Title: Economic information report - University of Florida. Department of Food and Resource Economics ; EIR 02-4
Title: Economic impacts of the Florida golf course industry
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 Material Information
Title: Economic impacts of the Florida golf course industry
Series Title: Economic information report
Alternate Title: Economic impact of the Florida golf course industry
Physical Description: iv, 30 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Haydu, John J
Hodges, Alan W ( Alan Wade ), 1959-
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Mid-Florida Research & Education Center
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Food and Resource Economics Dept., Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Mid-Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Apopka FL ;
Publication Date: <2002>
 Subjects
Subject: Turfgrasses industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Golf courses -- Management -- Evaluation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Golf courses -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 27).
Statement of Responsibility: John J. Haydu, Alan W. Hodges.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 2002."
General Note: Includes golf course survey questionnaire.
Funding: Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
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Volume ID: VID00001
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oclc - 50189296
notis - ANV9974
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Executive summary
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Methodology
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Results
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Florida golf course survey questionnaire
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text


John J. Haydu
Alan W. Hodges


Economic Information
Report EIR 02-4


Economic Impacts of the Florida Golf

Course Industry


UNIVERSITY OF

SFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Food & Resource Economics Department
Mid-Florida Research and Education Center


June 2002

























Economic Impacts of the Florida Golf Course Industry


by John J. Haydu, Ph.D. and Alan W. Hodges, Ph.D.
University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
Food & Resource Economics Department, PO Box 110250, Gainesville, FL 32611
and Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Apopka
Telephone 407-884-2034 x156 (Haydu); 352-392-1881 x312 (Hodges)
Email: JJH(~)mail.ifas.ufl.edu; AWHodges@ufl.edu


Economic Information Report EIR02-4
Revised June 13. 2002








Table of Contents


Executive Summary .................................... ..................... ........ 1


Acknowledgments ...........................................................2


Introduction .................................................................... 3


Methodology .............. ..........4..............................................
Survey ................... ................... .............................. 4
Revenues ........... ... ...................... ........................ ............ 5
Property Values ........... .... ...................................... .......... 5
Economic Impact Analysis ............ ............................................... 6


Results ................................................................... 8
Golf Course Characteristics ................................... ..................... 8
Golf Course Area, Turf Varieties and Water Use ................. ................. 9
Golf Play ................ ................................................12
Florida Golf Visitors and Expenditure Impacts ................ ........................ 13
Golf Course Revenues ................................... ........................ 15
Golf Course Expenses ........... .................................................. 16
Golf Course Employment ............ ............................................... 17
Golf Course Assets ........... .................................................... 18
Regional and COint\ Economic Characteristics .............................. .... .. ... 19
Impact of Golf Courses on Real Estate Values .......................................... 21


Appendix A: Florida Golf Course Survey Questionnaire ....................................... 28


List of Figures


Figure 1. Economic regions of Florida ................................... ................... 7
Figure 2. Sources of irrigation water for Florida golf courses, as a percentage of total water use, 2000. ..... 10
Figure 3. Sources of revenue for Florida golf courses in 2000. ................................. 16
Figure 4. Distribution of expenses for Florida golf facilities in 2000. ............................. 16
Figure 5. Distribution of Florida golf course assets as a percentage of total assets, 2000. ................ 18
Figure 6. Share of economic impacts of golf courses in Florida regions, 2000 ........................ 19
Figure 7. Share of economic impacts of golf courses in the top ten Florida counties, 2000 ................ 20








List of Tables


Table 1. Florida golf course population, survey respondents, and expansion factor. ..................... .5
Table 2. Annual revenue categories, estimated sales, and number of respondents, Florida golf course survey,
2000. .......................................................................5
Table 3. Implan multipliers for Florida golf tourism sectors (1999). ........ ..................... 6
Table 4. Economic regions for the state of Florida ................. ............................ 6
Table 5. Ownership of Florida golf courses, 2000 ................. ............................. 8
Table 6. Number of golf holes for Florida golf courses, 2000. ................. ................... 8
Table 7. Year of establishment of Florida golf courses univ %c\c ed. ................... ................ 9
Table 8. Golf course area in Florida, 2000. ................. .................................. 9
Table 9. Turfgrass varieties used by Florida golf courses, 2000. ........... ..................... 10
Table 10. Water used for irrigation of Florida golf courses, by source, 2000. .......................... 11
Table 11. Changes in Florida golf course consumption of water and fertilizer use, 2000 .................. 11
Table 12. Seasonal distribution of golf play in Florida, 2000. ..................................... 12
Table 13. Geographic origin of golfers playing golf in Florida, 2000. ........... .................. 12
Table 14. Descriptive characteristics for golf course travelers in the United States, 1998 ................. 13
Table 15. Estimated golf-playing visitor activity in Florida, 2000. ........... ..................... 13
Table 16. Travel expenditures by Florida golf visitors, 2000. ................. ................... 14
Table 17. Total economic impacts of golf visitor expenditures in Florida, by major industry sector, 2000. 15
Table 18. Distribution of golf course respondents based on revenue, 2000. ........................ 15
Table 19. Revenues to Florida golf courses, by business activity, 2000. ............................. 16
Table 20. Expenses for golf course operations and related business activities, 2000. .................... 17
Table 21. Employment by Florida golf courses, 2000. ................. ......................... 18
Table 22. Value of total assets owned by Florida golf course facilities as of December 2000. ............. 18
Table 23. Economic characteristics of golf courses in Florida regions, 2000. ....................... 20
Table 24. Economic characteristics of Florida golf courses, by county, 2000 .......................... 21
Table 25. Average difference in total values for properties with respect to Florida golf courses, by land use and
county, 1999 ..................................................................22
Table 26. Average difference in land values for properties with respect to Florida golf courses, by land use and
county, 1999 ..................................................................23
Table 27. Weighted average property values with respect to Florida golf courses, 1999 ................. 24
Table 28. Difference in property tax values associated with golf courses, for adjacent land sections, by land use
and Florida county, 1999 .......... ................................................ 25
Table 29. Difference in assessed value associated with golf courses and total property tax implications in
selected Florida counties, 1999 ............. ................... ................... 26








Economic Impacts of the Florida Golf Course Industry
by John J. Haydu, Ph.D. and Alan W. Hodges, Ph.D.
University of Florida, Food & Resource Economics Department


Executive Summary

Economic impacts of the Florida golf industry were estimated for year 2000 based upon a survey of
golf courses, together with other published data and regional economic models. A survey questionnaire was
mailed to 1,334 golf courses. Responses were received from 223 firms, representing a 17 percent response rate,
and results for survey respondents were extrapolated to estimate values for the entire population. The
respondent golf courses were classified as private (50%), semi-private (27%), public (14%), municipal (9%),
resort (5%), and military (1%). Residential developments were part of 54 percent of Florida golf courses, with
some 756,000 residential units, which had an average value of $366,000 and a total value of $158Bn. Florida
golf courses had 27,718 golf holes.
Total annual revenues amounted to $4.44 billion (Bn), including membership and initiation fees (38%),
playing fees (27%), food and beverage services (18%), retail sales (6%), lodging (4%), and miscellaneous other
activities (9%). The revenues for year 2000 were 49 percent higher than a previous estimate of $3.0Bn in
1991-92, representing an average annual growth rate of 5 percent in nominal dollar terms. Florida counties with
golf course revenues in excess of $100 million (Mn) were Palm Beach ($664Mn), Collier ($476Mn), Dade
($288Mn), Broward ($261Mn), Indian River ($211Mn), Lee ($196Mn), Hillsborough ($193M), Pinellas
($145Mn), Orange ($131Mn), Martin ($115Mn), and Duval ($11OMn). Results were also summarized for 8
economic regions of Florida.
Golf industry employment was 73,000 persons, including clubhouse personnel (68%), and golf course
maintenance personnel (32%), with 71 percent as full-time and 29 percent as part-time, temporary or seasonal
employees. Annual expenses amounted to $3.70Bn, including golf course maintenance (29%), food and
beverage service (20%), golf operations (13%), administrative overhead (12%), clubhouse (10%), capital (9%),
tennis, fitness and other recreation services (4%), and miscellaneous other expenses (4%). Charitable
contributions made by golf courses amounted to $12Mn in cash and $25Mn in-kind. The book value of assets
owned by golf courses was $10.8Bn, including land (58%), buildings and installations (26%), vehicles and
equipment (10%) and golf course irrigation systems (6%).
Area owned by golf courses was 205,000 acres, with 147,000 acres in maintained turf, and 140,000
acres irrigated. Bermudagrass was the predominant type of turfgrass used on golf courses, representing 93
percent of maintained turf area. Water used for irrigation amounted to 173 billion gallons, of which recycled
water was the dominant source (49%), with lesser amounts from surface waters (29%) and wells (21%).
Compared to 5 years ago, water use per acre was increased by 9 percent of firms, decreased by 42 percent, and
remained the same for 42 percent. Fertilizer use per acre was increased by 29 percent of firms, decreased by 18
percent, and remained the same for 47 percent. The irrigation control system was automated by 94 percent of
courses.
Rounds of golf played in Florida totaled 58.6 million in 2000, with 33 percent by out of state visitors,
14 percent by non-local Florida residents, and 54 percent by local residents. There were 26,298 tournament
events hosted by Florida golf courses, with attendance of 2.11 million spectators. Travel expenses in Florida by
golf playing visitors were estimated at $22.9Bn, of which $5.4Bn may be attributed directly to the golf
experience, based upon national average golf travel data. These expenditures had an impact on the Florida








economy of $9.2Bn in personal and business net income (value added) and 226,000 jobs.
The study evaluated the effect of golf courses on property values in 18 counties. Value measures
included assessed value, tax value, land value, sale price, and total value, and types of properties examined
included residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, government, and utility. Overall, the influence of golf
courses on property values appeared to be very positive. In 13 of the 18 counties, total values and land values
across all land use types were significantly greater within the same square mile section as golf courses.
Differentials were as high as $46,537 for residential properties near golf courses in Martin COiunt\. Collier
Cuint\ had the highest differential value for the commercial ($184,244) and agricultural ($386,866) land uses.
Total county property taxes attributed with golf courses in the selected counties, based on average county
millage rates in 1999, were estimated at $214Mn.


Acknowledgments

This study was made possible by a sponsored research project funded by the Florida Turfgrass Association,
WCI Communities, Inc., Florida Golf Alliance, Florida Golf Course Superintendents Association, Everglades
Golf Course Superintendents Association, Taylor Woodrow, Bonita Bay Group, Meadowbrook Golf Group,
Masterlink Club Services, Calusa Golf Course Superintendents Association, and North Florida Golf Course
Superintendents Association. Guidance on the study objectives and survey design was provided by golf industry
professionals including Ken Plonski and Lou Conzelmann, WCI Communities, Roy Bates, Florida Turfgrass
Association, Ron Garl, Florida GolfAlliance, Geoff Coggan and Joel Jackson, Florida Golf Course
Superintendent's Association, Michael Fiddelke, Florida Club Managers Association, Ken Hylkema, FPCA,
Jack Brennan, Paladin GolfMarketing, Amy Courson, PGA Tour, Stephanie Gordon, Florida Golf Course
Owners Association, Matt Taylor, Royal Poinciana Golf Club, and Bill Wert TruGreen C/L miLa, vn. University
of Florida personnel who assisted in preparation of this report were Effie Philippakos, Carolyn Brown, David
Mulkey, P.J. van Blokland, John Reynolds, Chris Fooshee and Loretta Satterthwaite. Cover photos by Curt
Carlson (www.golfcoursepics.com).








Introduction


Golf is a highly popular recreational activity in the United States. In 2000, there were over 15,000 golf
facilities in the country (NGF, 2001). Florida has over 1,300 public and private golf courses, more than any
other state. Numerous acclaimed golf courses in Florida are host to prestigious tournaments, including the PGA
tour, which is headquartered in the state. Golf courses in the Ft. Myers, Naples, and Ft. Pierce/St. Lucie areas
of Florida are among the top five specific golf destinations in the U.S. Florida's warm climate allows golf play
throughout the year, and golf is a primary activity for many of the millions of tourists who visit the state each
year.
Florida's golf industry is large and robust. According to a 1991 economic study (Hodges et al, 1994),
there were about 1,100 golf facilities in Florida. Sixty percent were privately owned, 17 percent semi-private,
12 percent public, with the remainder either resort, municipal, or military. Nearly 80 percent of the facilities
were 18-hole courses on which nearly 40 million rounds of golf were played. This translates into 45,000
rounds of golf played per course in 1991. In terms of economic activity, Florida's golf industry generated
$3.01Bn in sales and $2.92Bn in economic value added, employed 13,400 full-time equivalent persons in golf
course maintenance, spent $469Mn for labor, equipment, materials and services, had total assets of $1.07Bn,
and managed 131,000 acres of land.
The present study updates this information for year 2000 to reflect the growth in the industry and to
assess the impact of golf tourism to Florida. Because out-of-state visitors bring new money into the Florida
economy, their impact on the golf industry and tourism sector is associated with an economic multiplier effect.
This involves three levels of economic activity: direct expenditures by tourists, indirect expenditures by golf
facilities on inputs used in operations and maintenance, and induced impacts resulting from personal
consumption expenditures by industry employees and allied suppliers.
Water use for landscape irrigation is a critical and growing issue in Florida. Many golf course
superintendents are aware of the increasing political pressures to reduce consumption or switch to alternative
water sources, such as reclaimed water. Mounting urban populations are placing unprecedented pressures on the
natural resource base in many regions of the United States. At the same time, heightened environmental
awareness by the public is focusing attention on heavy consumers of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. These
pressures are being felt increasingly by agricultural interests and commercial users of these inputs. Golf
courses, which are generally located close to or within urban centers, are particularly prone to public scrutiny of
resource use practices. With more golf courses than any other state, and with a rapidly expanding urban
population, the Florida golf course industry is often in the spot light with regard to water consumption
practices. This is particularly true during periods of drought, which Florida has experienced in recent years,
according to a study that examined water and chemical use patterns by Florida golf courses over the past twenty
years (Haydu et al, 1997).
There is a need for information to better inform policy makers about the economic value of water use
by golf courses and the potential economic impacts of water use restrictions. Some of the key questions in this
regard include:
* What is the history and projected future water use by golf courses?
* What sources of water do golf courses use and what share of total use does each represent? (e.g. potable
groundwater, treated effluent, de-salinated
* What are the capital and operating costs for golf course irrigation?
* How many golf courses have upgraded to new higher efficiency irrigation systems?








Increasingly, golf courses are being constructed as part of larger residential community development
projects. In fact, interviews with developers in Florida indicated that the majority of new golf courses
constructed are located within residential settings. Golf course communities are typically viewed as a highly
desirable place to live for their enhanced aesthetic qualities, recreational sport activities, and the amenities
derived from clubhouse and dining facilities. Because of the premiums people typically pay to enjoy these
amenities, it is anticipated that golf facilities may significantly influence overall real estate values in the
community. An objective of this research is to document these potential impacts.



Methodology


Survey
Information to be collected from Florida golf courses and issues of concern to the golf industry were
determined based on comments received in two focus group sessions with golf course owners and managers at
Apopka and Naples, Florida in July, 2001. These sessions included a total of 12 industry professionals,
representing industry associations, individual golf course owners, managers, and superintendents. Based on
their recommendations it was decided to use a mail survey approach rather than a telephone or internet survey,
since typically several people in each organization would be required to provide different types of information.
Information collected in this survey was for year 2000 and included two major categories:
1. Financial Information
Business revenues
Financial expenditures
Employment
Value of assets managed
2. Descriptive, Operational and Cultural Information
Type of golf course
Number of golf rounds played
Geographic origin of golfers
Number and value of associated residential developments
Golf course area managed
Types of turfgrass maintained
Volume and source of irrigation water consumption.


Survey questionnaires were mailed to a list of golf courses that was compiled from three different
sources: 1) the membership of the Florida Golf Course Superintendents Association, 2) the subscribers to
Florida Golf News magazine, and 3) Florida firms listed in the Reference USA database under Standard
Industrial Code 7992 (public golf courses) and 7997 (private membership sports clubs). These lists were
combined, sorted and checked to eliminate duplicates, resulting in a list of 1,334 firms. Surveys were mailed to
the listed firms two times, in October and November 2001, with a followup reminder postcard mailed one week
later. Completed survey questionnaires were received from 223 firms, representing a 17 percent response rate.
Results for survey respondents were extrapolated to estimate values for the entire population using expansion
factors computed as the number of qualified courses divided by the number of respondents for each major type
of variable (Table 1). The overall expansion factor was 5.8, which meant, for example, that each acre of golf
course land reported by respondents represented an estimated 5.8 acres industry-wide.








Table 1. Florida golf course population, survey
respondents, and expansion factor.
Item Description Number
Golf course population 1,334
Number undeliverable questionnaires 40
Number qualified golf courses 1,294
Number survey respondents 223
Overall expansion factor 5.8


Revenues
Revenues for golf courses were reported by responding firms in the categories shown in Table 2. From
this information, actual sales were estimated for the purpose of computing total industry revenues by using the
midpoint value of each revenue range in conjunction with the appropriate expansion factor.

Table 2. Annual revenue categories, estimated sales, and number of
respondents, Florida golf course survey, 2000.
Revenue Category Estimated Sales Number Survey
(midpoint of range) Respondents
Less than $500,000 $250,000 15
$500,000 to $999,999 $750,000 24
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 $1,500,000 42
$2,000,000 to $2,999,999 $2,500,000 46
$3,000,000 to $3,999,999 $3,500,000 22
$4,000,000 to $4,999,999 $4,500,000 24
$5,000,000 to $7,499,999 $6,250,000 16
$7,500,000 to $9,999,999 $8,750,000 4
$10,000,000 to $14,999,999 $12,500,000 5
$15,000,000 to $19,999,999 $17,500,000 4
$20,000,000 to $24,999,999 $22,500,000 1
$25,000,000 or greater $27,500,000 1

Property Values
Data on property values in proximity to golf courses was obtained from a database of county property
tax records for 1999 from the Florida Department of Revenue (Tallahassee). The data were analyzed for 18 of
the top Florida counties that collectively accounted for 71 percent of all golf courses in the state. These data
were then segmented into two basic groups areas that contained golf course facilities and similar areas that
did not contain golf course facilities. The spatial resolution of analysis was a one-square mile area of the Public
Land Survey System (section, township, range). Properties in each respective group and land use type were
then compared to assess the likelihood of significant differences in property values. Land use categories
included residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, utility and government. Measures of value examined
were market values, assessed tax values and land values of each parcel. For example, values of residential
properties in Collier Count\ that fell within a defined one-square mile section and that contained a golf course
were compared with values of residential properties in sections that did not contain a golf course. Statistical
tests were conducted on the difference in values with respect to presence or absence of a golf course (t-test,
SAS) to determine the statistical significance.








Economic Impact Analysis
The total economic impacts of the Florida golf industry were evaluated using the Implan input-output
analysis and social accounting software package and data for Florida counties (MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN). A
regional economic model was developed for the state of Florida. Economic multipliers from the regional model
were used to estimate the secondary economic effects of inter-industry purchases, investment, and consumer
expenditures by industry employees. Economic impact measures included output, employment, value added,
personal income, and indirect business taxes (Table 3). Impact measures were expressed on the basis of per acre
of golf course area and per million gallons water consumed to enable comparisons of economic efficiency with
other economic sectors and to other major golf states.


Table 3. Implan multipliers for Florida golf tourism sectors (1999).
Indirect
Value Labor business Employment
Industry (Implan Sector) Added Income Taxes (jobs per $Mn
output)
$ per $ output output)
Hotels and Lodging Places 2.418 1.580 1.008 0.143 36.2
Transportation Services 2.393 1.614 1.222 0.076 37.6
Eating & Drinking 2.306 1.404 0.935 0.137 42.3
Amusement and Recreation Services, N.E.C. 2.377 1.577 1.003 0.124 39.7
Membership Sports and Recreation Clubs 2.501 1.537 1.127 0.115 46.3
Miscellaneous Retail 2.407 1.746 1.102 0.229 44.5
Source: MIG, Inc, Stillwater, MN

Results were also reported for eight areas of the state (Table 4 and Figure 1) that represent functional
economic regions, defined on the basis of worker commuting patterns by the U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).


Table 4. Economic regions for the state of Florida.
BEA Region Region Name, Central Place Counties Included
31 Miami-Ft. Lauderdale Indian River, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Glades, Hendry, Palm
Beach, Broward, Dade, Monroe, Martin
32 Ft. Myers-Cape Coral (Naples) Lee, Collier
34 Tampa-St. Petersburg- Hemando, Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough,
Clearwater
33 Sarasota-Bradenton Sarasota, Manatee, Charlotte, Desoto
30 Orlando Flagler, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Lake, Polk, Hardee,
Highlands, Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Brevard, Volusia
29 Jacksonville Hamilton, Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Levy, Gilchrist,
Columbia, Alachua, Baker, Union, Bradford, Nassau, Duval,
Clay, Putnam, St. Johns
35 Tallahassee Bay, Jackson, Calhoun, Gulf, Liberty, Franklin, Gadsden,
Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Madison, Taylor
81 Pensacola Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes*,
Washington*
Counties from adjacent Dothan, Alabama economic region
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis









Figure 1. Economic regions of Florida


Tallahassee
^____ 1---,,
p Jacksonville



Orlando


Tam pa,
St. Petersburg,
Clearwater


Sarasota,
Bradenton

Ft. Myers,
Cape Coral
(Naples)


Miami,
Ft. Lauderdale,
!Palm Beach








Results


Golf Course Characteristics
Florida golf courses fall into eight main categories, but are dominated by three major types private,
semi-private and public. From the survey sample, half (50 percent) of the golf courses were privately owned, an
additional quarter (27 percent) were semi-private, and 14 percent were public facilities (Table 5). The
remainder was comprised of municipal, residential development, resort and miscellaneous other types. These
percentages differ moderately from estimates in the 1991 study that showed 60 percent of courses were
classified as private, 17 percent semi-private, and 12 percent were classified as resort. The decline in the
percent of courses that are private is consistent with the findings of the National Golf Foundation (NGF). Their
2000 study showed that fully 87 percent of all new openings nationwide were public access facilities, and they
expect this trend to continue in the coming years.


Table 5. Ownership of Florida golf courses, 2000.
Course Type Number Percent
Survey Respondents
Respondents (%)
Private 112 50
Semi-Private 61 27
Resort 12 5
Public 31 14
Military 2 1
Residential Development 17 8
Municipal 20 9
Other 1 <1
Note: percent does not sum to 100 because some respondents
checked more than one category.


From a sample of 221 golf courses, 8 percent had 9 golf holes or less, 70 percent had 18 holes, 8
percent had 27 holes, 11 percent had 36 holes, and 3 percent had more than 36 holes (Table 6). The overall
average number of golf holes per course in 2000 was 21, which represented an estimated 27,683 holes for all
courses statewide. Par for the typical course was 76 strokes, and the par value of all golf course holes was
98,541 strokes.


Table 6. Number of golf holes for Florida
golf courses, 2000.

Number of golf Number Percent
holes Survey Respondents
Respondents (%)
9 or less 17 8
18 155 70
27 18 8
36 24 11
more than 36 7 3
Total 221 99








Most golf course facilities in Florida are relatively new. The vast majority (83 percent) were built since
1960 and a full one-quarter of existing courses were established in the last 10 years (Table 7). This increase in
new golf facilities parallels the state's rapidly growing population, which mushroomed from 4.9 million in 1960
to nearly 16 million in 2000. The increase is also indicative of the growing popularity of golf as a recreational
sport, not only in Florida, but around the country. For instance, the number of new facility openings nationwide
in 2000 was 20 percent higher than five years earlier, and Florida led the nation with 41 new openings. This
growth in supply has been driven by demand. Since 1986, although the overall golf participation rate has
declined, the number of golfers has increased 34 percent, from 19.9 million to 26.7 million (NGF, 2001).

Table 7. Year of establishment of Florida golf
courses uI\ C\l cld.
Year Number Survey Percent
Respondents Respondents
(%)
Before 1910 2 1
1910-19 2 1
1920-29 12 6
1930-39 2 1
1940-49 5 2
1950-59 10 5
1960-69 31 15
1970-79 44 21
1980-89 48 23
1990-99 51 24
2000 or later 6 3
All 212 95


Golf Course Area, Turf Varieties and Water Use
Total acreage devoted to Florida golf facilities in year 2000 was 207,582 acres, of which 147,927 acres
(95%) were maintained in turfgrass playing areas, and 140,274 acres (70%) were irrigated (Table 8). The
maintained turf area (fertilized and mowed) was up from 131,300 acres in 1991, a 13 percent increase for the
ten years. The average area per course in year 2000 was 108 acres irrigated and 114 acres maintained turf,
down from 125 acres in 1991.


Table 8. Golf course area in Florida, 2000.
Number Mean Per Course Expanded
Survey +/- Standard Total
Respondents Error (Acres) (Acres)

Land owned 214 160+/- 11 207,582
Turf area maintained 217 114 +/- 5 147,927
Area irrigated 217 108 +/- 5 140,274








Although more than half a dozen varieties of turfgrass are used on Florida golf courses, by far the most
predominant was bermudagrass (Table 9). Roughly 92 percent of the 147,927 acres of maintained turf area was
planted in bermudagrass, or 102 acres per course. This grass is preferred in Florida for its drought resistance,
tolerance to heavy traffic, and utility in either the fairways or rough. Far down the list in second place was
bahiagrass with 5,251 acres, representing 3.5 percent of the total, or 4 acres per course. Bahiagrass is typically
limited to the golf course rough. St. Augustinegrass was the only other turf variety that was of significance,
with 2.7 percent of the total acreage planted. Each of the remaining varieties constituted less than 1 percent, and
are generally limited to the special tee and greens areas.

Table 9. Turfgrass varieties used by Florida golf courses, 2000.
Turfgrass Variety Survey Respondents Mean Per Share of Expanded
Course +/- Total Area Total Area
Number Percent Standard Error (Percent) (Acres)
(Acres)
Bermudagrass 214 96 102 +/-5 93 136,773
Bahiagrass 67 30 4+/-2 4 5,251
St. Augustinegrass 89 40 3 +/- 1 3 3,996
Mixed/other grasses 25 11 1 +/- 1 1 1,351
Zoysiagrass 25 11 <1 +/- 0 <1 257
Centipedegrass 6 3 <1 +/- 1 <1 299
Specific other type(s) 26 12
Total 100 147,927

This study examined several aspects of management practices used by golf courses: 1) sources of
irrigation water, 2) changes in water use per acre, 3) changes in fertilizer use per acre, and 4) whether or not the
golf course had installed an automated irrigation control system.
Total water use by Florida
golf courses in 2000 was estimated at Figure 2. Sources of irrigation water for Florida golf courses as a
172 billion gallons. Average water percentage of total water use, 2000
use per golf course was 133 million
Mmicidpal Ot(er
gallons per year, plus or minus 30 11% -1%
million gallons (95% confidence Vnls
interval). Information related to
water sources is shown in Table 10 cy1kdP
and Figure 2. Nearly 85 billion
gallons of water came from recycled
water, compared to 49 billion for
surface water, 35 billion from wells,
23%
and 1.5 billion from municipal
sources. Taking total irrigated acres
and dividing it into the total amount
consumed from all water sources, average consumption by Florida golf courses was 1.23 million gallons per
acre, or 3.75 acre feet applied in 2000.
The use of recycled water was the primary source for almost half of all golf facilities and has grown
from 8 percent in 1974 to 21 percent in 1994 and to 49 percent in 2000. The second most common source was








surface water such as canals and lakes (29 percent), followed by groundwater (21 percent) from wells. Use of
surface water rose from 23 percent of golf courses in 1974 to 37 percent in 1994, but then declined to 29
percent in 2000. Groundwater as a source declined from 61 percent in 1974 to 41 percent in 1994, falling
further to 21 percent in 2000. Clearly, much of the shift from surface and groundwater has been replaced by the
dramatic growth in the use of recycled water to irrigate Florida's golf courses.


Table 10. Water used for irrigation of Florida golf courses, by source, 2000.
Water Source Survey Respondents Mean Per Course Share of Expanded
+/- Standard Error Total Total Amount
Number Percent (Million gallons) (Percent) (Billion
gallons)
Recycled 71 32 51 +/-22 49 85
Surface Water 75 34 30 +/- 8 29 49
Wells 85 38 21 +/-5 21 36
Municipal 8 4 1 +/-3 1 2
Other (desalination, ASR, etc.) 3 1 1 +/- 4 1 1
Total Water Used 169 76 133 +/- 16 173

Other surveys of water and fertilizer use indicate that Florida golf courses have markedly reduced
consumption of fertilizers and pesticides on a per acre basis and were increasingly shifting sources of water
from ground to recycled. From a water policy and efficiency standpoint, perhaps even more important than total
consumption per acre are changes in water use patterns over time. To address this issue, golf course
superintendents were asked whether irrigation water use per acre over the past five years had increased,
decreased or remained the same (Table 11). If it increased or decreased, respondents were asked to specify how
much it had changed. About 42 percent of respondents indicated that their water consumption had decreased,
and the same share (42%) said that per acre use remained the same. For those who indicated a reduction in
water use, the amount of decrease averaged 37 percent. Nine percent of respondents indicated per acre water
use actually increased over the past five years and that it increased by roughly 8 percent.

Table 11. Changes in Florida golf course
consumption of water and fertilizer use, 2000.
Change Variable Survey Respondents
SNumber Percent
Irrigation water use per acre over past 5 years
Increased 20 9
Decreased 94 42
Remained same 93 42
Amount increased 18 8
Amount decreased 83 37
Fertilizer use per acre over past 5 years
Increased 64 29
Decreased 39 18
Remained same 104 47
Amount increased 64 29
Amount decreased 39 18








A similar set of questions was asked about fertilizer use patterns over the past five years. Nearly half
(46%) of all respondents stated that fertilizer use per acre remained the same. More than a quarter (29%)
indicated that it had increased and that the average percentage increase was 28 percent. Almost a fifth (18 %)
stated fertilizer use had declined, with the magnitude of reduction a similar percentage (18%).
Finally, respondents were asked whether or not the golf course had automated irrigation systems
installed, and whether they were original or retrofitted from a manual system. Nearly all (94%) stated that their
course had an automated system and more than half (53%) indicated it was installed at the time of original
construction.

Golf Play
Total golf play on Florida golf courses in 2000 was estimated at nearly 59 million rounds. As a
percentage of total rounds played, nearly half (49%) occurred during the January through April period (Table
12). Fall was the second most popular period with 28 percent, or 16 million rounds being played, followed
lastly by the May through September period with just under one-quarter, or 14 million rounds.


Table 12. Seasonal distribution of golf play in Florida, 2000.
Season Survey Respondents Mean Per Course +/-
Number Percent Standard Error
Number Percent
(Rounds)
January-April 198 89 19,763 +/- 962
May-September 195 87 9,468 +/- 574
October-December 199 89 11,150 +/-591
Total 205 92 45,259 +/- 1,715


Share of Expanded Total
Total (Million
(Percent) Rounds)
49 28.7
23 13.7
28 16.2
58.6


Florida is well known for its large influx of winter visitors from many northern states as well as
international locations, particularly Europe and South America. The geographic origin of golfers in general
tends to be associated with distance to the course. At 54 percent or 31.4 million rounds, local county residents
were the group most frequently playing golf (Table 13). The second most common group were U.S. residents
from outside Florida, representing 27 percent of total rounds played. Non-local Florida residents were the third-
ranked group with 14 percent or 8 million rounds, followed lastly by international visitors who accounted for
just over 5 percent or 3.2 million rounds of golf. A total of over 19 million rounds (32%) were played by out-of-
state visitors to Florida.

Table 13. Geographic origin of golfers playing golf in Florida, 2000.
Geographic Origin Survey Mean Per Course Share of Expanded Total
Respondents +/- Standard Error Total (Million
Number Percent (Rounds) (Percent) Rounds)

Local (county) residents 184 83 20,372 +/- 1,315 54 31.5
International visitors 133 60 2,049 +/- 347 5 3.2
U S residents outside Florida 175 79 10,277 +/- 980 27 15.9
Non-local Florida residents 146 66 5,209 +/- 663 14 8.1
Total 100 58.6








Florida Golf Visitors and Expenditure Impacts
One of the objectives of this research was to estimate the total economic impact of golf visitors to the
state of Florida. The tourism industry publishes information regarding the impact of tourism to the state, but not
estimates of the impact of golf-related recreation. Information was obtained from the National Golf Foundation
on golf traveler characteristics in the United States, such as the average number of rounds played per day and
per year, the number of days spent annually in golf-related travel, the average number of golf trips per year, and
average expenditures per trip. The typical U.S. golf traveler makes 6.6 golf-related trips per year with an
average of 3.95 days per trip, or a total of 26 days each year in golf-related travel (Table 14), and spends an
average of $1,114 per trip or $282 per day on lodging, local transportation, food, entertainment, golf lessons,
gifts, and miscellaneous other expenses (NGF, 1999). This excludes transportation expenses to the destination
since these expenditures were not necessarily made in Florida.

Table 14. Descriptive characteristics for golf course
travelers in the United States, 1998.
Description Average
Number
Rounds played per year played by golf travelers 6.1
Days spent in golf-related travel 26.1
Golf-related trips per year 6.6
Rounds played per trip 0.92
Days per trip 3.95
Rounds played per day 0.23
Source: National Golf Foundation, 1999. "The U.S. Golf Travel
Market, 1998 edition", Pub. 99MR002, Jupiter, FL.

The U.S. travel data were used together with survey data from the present study to estimate the travel
characteristics of Florida golf visitors. It is reasonable to assume that the U.S. average golf travel data are
representative of golf travelers to Florida since this state is the largest golf travel market in the United States.
Based on 19.04 million rounds of golf played in Florida by out-of-state visitors, it is estimated that there were
3.12 million golf-playing visitors to Florida in 2000, who made 20.6 million golf-related trips and spent a total
of 81.5 million visitor days in Florida (Table 15).

Table 15. Estimated golf-playing visitor activity
in Florida, 2000.
Description Number
(million)
Golf rounds played by visitors 19.04
Golf travelers 3.12
Golf traveler-days 81.48
Golf trips 20.60

Based on the U.S. average golf-travel expenses per day and the estimated number of golf-visitor days in
Florida, total golf-travel expenditures by Florida visitors amounted to nearly $23 billion (Table 16). Of this
amount, about 23 percent of the total trip expenditures, or $5.4Bn, may be attributed to golf, based on the
number of travel days and number of rounds of golf played.








Table 16. Travel expenditures by Florida golf visitors, 2000.
Type of Expenditure Average Average Estimated Total Expenses
Per Trip' Per Day2 Expenses Attributable to
Golf4
$ $Million
Lodging 403 102 8,303 1,941
Transportation 87 22 1,793 419
Food 203 51 4,183 978
Entertainment 113 29 2,328 544
Golf lessons 106 27 2,184 510
Gifts 87 22 1,793 419
Other 115 29 2,369 554
Total expenses5 1,114 282 22,953 5,364
1 National Golf Foundation, 1999. "The U.S. Golf Travel Market, 1998 Edition".
Publication 99MR002.
2 Average per trip divided by average number travel days per trip.
3 Average expenditure per day multiplied by estimated number of traveler-days.
4 Share of trip expenses attributable to golf (23%).
5Excludes transportation expenses to destination of $227 per trip.


As noted earlier, visitors to Florida impact the economy at three levels directly on expenditures such
as food, recreation, lodging and entertainment, indirectly by the receiving industries of those dollars as they in
turn spend money to purchase goods and services to operate their businesses, and induced impacts from
personal consumption expenditures by the employees of these companies and their allied suppliers. The cross-
section of industries influenced by tourism spending for the major sectors of the Florida economy, and the three
levels of economic impact, are shown in Table 17. The impacts were estimated for the measures of output,
value added, and employment.
Output represents total revenues generated from the three levels of economic activity. The output
impact from golf tourism spending totaled $12.86Bn. It was dominated by three sectors services, which
accounted for $5.06Bn, or 39 percent of the total; trade with $3.05Bn, or 24 percent; and finance, insurance and
real estate, which comprised $1.36Bn or 10 percent. Combined, these three sectors represented more than four-
fifths of the total output impact. Direct impacts represented 41 percent of the total output impacts, indirect
effects constituted 11 percent, and induced effects made up 47 percent.
Value-added is a measure of net industry income after cost of goods sold have been subtracted from
total sales. Of the $8.46Bn in total value added impact, the services sector accounted for $3.27Bn (39%), trade
for $2.14Bn (25%), and finance, insurance and real estate comprised $984Mn (12%). Value added included
impacts on labor income of $5.58Bn and on indirect business taxes paid to local, state, and federal governments
of $792Mn.
Finally, the total employment impact represents the jobs that are generated from all economic activities
due to golf visitor spending, which totaled 215,873 in 2000. The component responsible for the majority of
employment was the service sector with 96,000 jobs, followed by trade with 72,000 jobs, and third was the
government, which accounted for nearly 17,000 jobs.








Table 17. Total economic impacts of golf visitor expenditures in Florida, by major industry
sector, 2000.
Total Output Total Value Total
Industry Sector Impact Added Impact Employment
($million) ($million) Impact (jobs)
Services 5,060 3,268 95,641
Trade 3,049 2,144 71,574
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 1,355 984 7,092
Transportation, Communication, Public Utilities 1,031 649 11,229
Government 971 886 17,109
Construction 779 282 7,509
Manufacturing 534 192 3,321
Agriculture 63 36 1,385
Other 11 11 958
Mining 6 3 55
Total 12,860 8,455 215,873



Golf Course Revenues
Total revenues for Florida golf courses in 2000 were estimated at $4.44Bn. Golf courses ranged widely
in financial size from a less than $500,000 to greater than $25Mn in annual revenues (Table 18). Golf courses
in the $1 to $3Mn size range represented the largest share of respondents (44%). About 86 percent of all
respondent firms had annual revenues under $5Mn. Golf courses with revenues in the $2 to $3Mn range
represented the largest share of total industry revenues (16%).


Table 18. Distribution of golf course respondents based on revenue, 2000.
Annual revenue range Survey Respondents Share of Expanded Total
Total Revenues
Number Percent Revenues ($ million)
(Percent)
Less than $500,000 15 7 1 22
$500,000 to $999,999 24 12 3 120
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 42 21 9 384
$2,000,000 to $2,999,999 46 23 16 727
$3,000,000 to $3,999,999 22 11 11 491
$4,000,000 to $4,999,999 24 12 15 659
$5,000,000 to $7,499,999 16 8 15 647
$7,500,000 to $9,999,999 4 2 5 212
$10,000,000 to $14,999,999 5 3 9 387
$15,000,000 to $19,999,999 4 2 10 454
$20,000,000 to $24,999,999 1 1 3 143
$25,000,000 or greater 1 1 4 190
Total/All 204 100 100 4,437








Sources of revenue and their
relative importance are presented in Table
19 and Figure 3. The primary source of
revenue was membership and initiation
fees, which accounted for $1.7Bn or 38
percent of total revenues. The second most
important revenue generating source was
golf course playing fees, accounting for at
$1.2Bn or 27 percent of total revenues.
Restaurant, food and beverage services
accounted for $794Mn or 18 percent, retail
sales (proshop and gift shops) accounted
for $267Mn or 6 percent, lodging
represented $164Mn or 4 percent, and
miscellaneous other revenues comprised
$366Mn, for the remaining 8 percent.


Figure 3. Sources of revenue for Florida golf courses in 2000.


Lodingm
4%J
Pirtail
6%6


Food A
Fum all
hew wage
18%


Othe
8%


membrship
fees
37%


Playing fees
27%


Table 19. Revenues to Florida golf courses, by business activity, 2000.
Business Activity Respondents Mean Revenues Expanded
Per Course +/- Total
Number Percent Standard Error Revenues
($1000) ($ million)
Golf course membership and initiation fees 173 78 1,135 +/- 137 1,665
Golf course playing fees (greens, carts, dues) 198 89 808 +/- 61 1,186
Restaurant, food and beverage services 176 79 542 +/- 66 794
Other 79 35 249 +/- 149 366
Retail sales (pro shop, gift shop) 161 72 182 +/- 21 267
Lodging 12 5 112 +/-304 164
Total 3,429 +/- 272 4,437



Golf Course Expenses
Expenses to operate Florida Figure 4. Distribution of expenses for Florida golf facilities in 2000.
golf course facilities averaged
$2.86Mn for the sample of
responding firms (Table 20). hucreai..u
Expanding this to represent the entire cap.al their
population of Florida golf courses, s% 4% Manten..ce
industry-wide expenses totaled ceu-.se.%
$3.7Bn in 2000. Eight expense
categories were identified in this
study. The most significant expense e-bd_
was golf course maintenance, Food A
representing 29 percent of the total ati ase
(Figure 4). Average maintenance








expenses were $677,000 per firm or $7,139 per acre of turf area. The second largest category was expenses
associated with food and beverage services, which averaged $464,000 per firm or 20 percent of total expenses.
Golf operations was the third most significant category at $301,000 per facility or 13 percent of total expenses.
This was followed closely by administrative overhead accounting for 12 percent of expenses ($283,000),
clubhouse operations at 10 percent or $244,000, capital expenditures (purchases, interest, and depreciation) at 9
percent or $222,000, and lastly by recreational services such as tennis and fitness training, accounting for 4
percent or $82,000 per facility. Florida golf courses purchased a total of $511Mn in goods and services, or 14
percent of total expenses, from vendors outside the state.
Golf courses are frequently asked for charitable contributions for local schools, civic organizations, and
other non-profit organization. In 2000 the average golf course provided $9,000 worth of cash contributions and
in-kind contributions, including golf rounds valued at $19,000. Total contributions averaged $28,000 per golf
facility or $36 million for the industry as a whole.

Table 20. Expenses for golf course operations and related business activities, 2000.
Expense Category Survey Respondents Mean Expense Per Expanded
Course +/- Total
Number Percent Standard Error Expenses
($1,000) ($ million)
Golf course maintenance 183 82 677 +/- 47 1,056
Food & beverage service 155 70 464 +/- 63 725
Golf operations 169 76 301 +/-28 470
Administrative overhead 146 66 283 +/- 36 441
Clubhouse 152 68 244 +/-37 381
Capital (purchases, interest, depreciation) 118 53 222 +/- 64 347
Other 47 21 94 +/- 57 147
Tennis/fitness, other recreation services 82 37 82 +/- 27 129
Total costs 187 84 2,856 +/- 230 3,696

Purchases from vendors outside Florida 119 53 395 +/- 78 511



Golf Course Employment
Employment is an important indicator of an industry's contribution to a local, regional, or national
economy. Wages paid to employees stimulate an economy when they are spent locally in the purchase of other
goods and services. In 2000, Florida's golf course industry employed an estimated 72,038 people, including
51,375 full-time workers and 20,663 part-time workers (Table 21). One-third (33%) of these full and part-time
employees worked on golf course maintenance activities, while the remaining two-thirds (67%) worked for the
golf course clubhouse and/or related food service or recreational concerns.
The average golf course employed 16 full-time and three part-time people for its highly intensive
maintenance work, which includes both the care of the course and the equipment used to maintain the turfgrass.
On a per acre basis, this translates into roughly one person for every 5 acres of maintained grass. At two-thirds
of the total, the clubhouse component of the golf facility utilizes the larger share of total employment, due
primarily to the larger number of separate business activities. For example, depending on the size of the facility,
services may include hotel operations, restaurant management and service, and recreational services such as golf
and tennis instruction. The average golf course employed 27 full-time people and 19 part-time or seasonal labor
for clubhouse related activities. On average, total facility employment translates into one employee for every








$150,000 of financial assets in land, vehicles and equipment, irrigation systems, and golf-owned buildings and
installations. These figures attest to the substantial employment impact Florida's golf course industry has on the
state's economy. Put in different perspective, golf course industry employment was close to the 80,000 people
that work for all the theme and amusement parks in the state and greatly exceeded the 50,000 wage and salaried
employees in production agriculture (Florida Statistical Abstract 2000).


Course maintenance, full-time 221 99 16 +/- 1 21,205
Course maintenance, part-time/seasonal 156 70 3 +/- 0 2,396
Clubhouse/other, full-time 190 85 27 +/-3 30,170
Clubhouse/other, part-time/seasonal 167 75 19+/-2 18,268
Total Employment 222 100 56 +/- 4 72,038


Golf Course Assets
In 2000, Florida's 1,334 golf
courses owned assets with an
estimated value of$10.8Bn (Table
22). Asset categories include land,
vehicles and equipment, irrigation
systems and golf-owned buildings
and equipment. Land comprised the
largest share of total industry assets,
at $6.2Bn or 58 percent of the total
(Figure 5). Golf-owned buildings and
equipment accounted for the second


Figure 5. Distribution of Florida golf course assets as a percentage
of total assets, 2000.


Veides 8
eqipmeUa
elt r


ex


winss a I
ims2Ctioms
26%


'Lail
5rX


largest share (26%), valued at
$2.8Bn, followed by vehicles and
equipment valued at $1.1Bn (10%),
and irrigation systems valued at $684Mn (6%). At the firm level, the average golf facility owned $8.3Mn of total
assets, comprised of land ($5.2Mn), buildings and installations ($2.3Mn), vehicles and equipment ($848,000),
and irrigation systems ($570,000). The average golf course owned $29,995 worth of assets on a per acre basis.


Table 22. Value of total assets owned by Florida golf course facilities as of December 2000.
Asset Type Survey Respondents Mean Per Course Expanded
Number Percent +/- Standard Error Total Assets
($1000) ($ million)
Land 134 60 5,180 +/- 872 6,226
Golf-owned buildings & installations 135 61 2,323 +/- 231 2,813
Vehicles and equipment 142 64 848 +/- 72 1,080
Irrigation systems 134 60 570 +/-59 685
Total 147 66 8,350 +/- 926 10,805








Regional and County Economic Characteristics
Economic characteristics and impact estimates for the Florida golf course industry were also developed
for counties and regions of the state, to support local policy analysis. Table 23 shows economic characteristics
for eight regions defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis, including the
number of golf courses, revenues, employment, assets, rounds of gold played, and turfgrass area maintained. The
share of total statewide economic activity in each region is summarized in Figure 6.
The most prominent region was
Figure 6. Share of economic impacts of golf courses in Florida
the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale economic area, regions, 2000 (see region definitions in Table 4).
which comprised 27 percent of the state's
0% 10% 203% 30% 40% 5&0
golf courses (363), generated 41 percent
of total industry revenues ($1.6Bn), Mami, R. Lauderdale
employed 39 percent of the industry....
R. Myrs, Naples, C~pe Car ..............
workforce (28,759 workers), comprised R,....a.
nearly 44 percent of capital assets ($3Bn), olardo .. g...
golf play of 16.5 million rounds, and T ,Ce t .
Tampa, St. Pete., Clearvte ....'......
48,450 acres ofturfgrass maintained. Revenues
The Orlando area and the Ft. Jackscnille 3Employment
Myers-Cape Coral (Naples) economic Srasca, Braderton EAssels
areas vied closely for second and third E Tuwfrf ea
place, depending on the indicator being Tallhasse Il Rounds Played
examined. The Orlando area had nearly Pensacola
twice as many golf courses as Ft. Meyers
(341 vs.173) but generated 20 percent less
revenue ($610Mn vs $738Mn). Orlando also employed more people (14,561 vs 10,144), but owned fewer assets
($1.OBn vs $1.5Bn). Golfers in the Orlando area played three times as many rounds of golf (15.1Mn vs 5.8Mn)
and had about twice the acreage (32,526 acres vs 18,755) of maintained turf. This pattern of substantially fewer
courses, fewer rounds of golf played and less turf area, yet greater revenues and capital assets reflects the higher
income levels associated with residents in Florida's southwest region compared to residents in the state's central
region.
The Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater economic area was the fourth most prominent region with 151
courses, $400Mn in revenues, 8,400 employees, $558Mn in assets, 8.2Mn rounds of golf played, and nearly
20,000 acres of maintained turf. Sarasota-Bradenton followed closely behind in the number of courses, but
generated half the revenues ($201Mn), employed half the people (4,652), owned 20 percent fewer capital assets,
played 40 percent fewer golf rounds and maintained roughly 30 percent less turf area. Jacksonville was ranked
next with 7 percent of the courses and a comparable share of the other economic indices. The Tallahassee area
comprised 3 percent of courses, 2 percent of industry revenues, 3 percent of industry employment (1,838 jobs),
and $41Mn in assets. The Pensacola area had more golf courses, golf rounds and maintained turf area than
Tallahassee, but less revenues, jobs and capital assets.









Table 23. Economic characteristics of golf courses in Florida


Number Number Revenues
Survey Golf ($ million)
Respondents Courses


Miami, Ft. Lauderdale
Ft. Myers,Cape Coral (Naples)
Orlando
Tampa, St. Pete., Clearwater
Sarasota, Bradenton
Jacksonville
Tallahassee
Pensacola


53 363
52 173
47 341
21 151
20 116
13 94
6 37
4 59


1,650
737
611
405
202
272
59
55


28,759 2,992 16,547 48,450
10,144 1,471 5,851 18,775
14,561 1,011 15,121 32,526
8,420 559 8,262 19,982
4,652 395 5,635 13,050
4,302 361 3,422 9,675
1,838 41 937 3,176
870 19 1.659 4.019


*Regions defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. See Table 4 for counties included.


Summary information is
presented for Florida counties in Table
24 and is graphically depicted for the
top ten counties in Figure 7. Palm
Beach was the top-ranked county in
Florida with $633Mn in revenues,
employment of 12,332 people, 18,120
acres of turf area, and golf play of 6.5
million rounds. Collier county had
$483Mn in revenues, 5,235 jobs, 9,550
acres of turf, and golf play of 2.7
million rounds. Miami-Dade CLint1\
had $288Mn in revenues, 2,364 jobs,
8,400 acres of turf, and golf play of 2.8
million rounds. Broward COinl\1
accounted for $261Mn in revenues,
5,075 employee positions, 11,847 acres
of turf, and its members played 4.2


Figure 7. Share of economic impacts of golf courses in the top ten
Florida counties, 2000


Palm Beach
Collier

Dade

Broward

Lee

Hillsborough

Pinellas

Orange

Martin

Duval


* Revenues
E3 Employment
mi Turf Area
Eil Rounds Played


million rounds of golf. Lee Cinnlt\ had $196 Mn in revenues, 4,814 employees, 9,118 acres of turf, and golf play
of 3.2 million rounds. A second tier of counties were Orange, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Martin and Duval, with
revenues ranging from $193Mn for Hillsborough to $11OMn for Duval. Employment varied from 4,651
(Orange) to 1,536 (Duval), turf area ranged from 7,800 acres (Hillsborough) to 3,634 acres (Duval), and rounds
played ranged from 2.7 million (Pinellas) to 1.4 million (Duval).


Region*


'


............................................................................ I . . . . .....
...........................


.................




............









Table 24. Economic characteristics of Florida golf courses, by county, 2000.
County Number Number of Revenues Employment Assets Golf Rounds Turf Area
Survey Golf ($Mn) jobs) ($Mn) Played Maintained
Respondents Courses (1000) (acres)


Palm Beach
Collier
Dade
Broward
Indian River
Lee
Hillsborough
Pinellas
Orange
Martin
Duval
Sarasota
Volusia
Pasco
Brevard
Lake
Charlotte
Manatee
Seminole
Polk
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Citrus
Alachua
Leon
Hernando
Marion


54 12,342
'6 5,235
!8 2,364
51 5,075
1 3,335
>6 4,814
>3 3,822
[5 1,826
31 4,651
5 2,354
0 1,536
>9 2,624
>3 1,989
'4 2,183
'3 1,717
58 599
54 1,040
53 1,011
50 1,417
[5 858
\0 706
;4 855
14 447
6 374
3 547
0 822
9 631


1,019
985
1,412
212
387
360
342
195
226
220
193
208
148
29
112
127
72
122
135
108
20
17
16
14
2
29


6,514
2,759
2,784
4,244
749
3,165
2,357
2,659
2,565
1,560
1,391
3,138
1,957
1,863
1,897
1,321
1,181
1,401
782
2,035
442
589
700
135
125
1,242


na 645 2,755


Impact of Golf Courses on Real Estate Values
This section examines the influence of golf courses on local real estate values in the 18 Florida counties
with the largest number of golf courses, which accounted for 71 percent of the golf courses in the state. The
analysis compares assessed property values using information from county property appraisers compiled by the
Florida Department of Revenue for 1999. The basic approach compares property values that are near a golf
course with similar properties in the same county that are not near a golf course. Properties "near" golf courses
were defined as those within the same one square mile section of the Public Land Survey System, and properties
"not near" fell outside these sections. The information is broken down by county, value measure, and land use

type. Land use categories include residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, institutional, government, and
utility. Value measures include assessed value, tax value, land value, sale price, and total value. Assessed value
is the value put on the property by the respective county property appraisers in each county for purposes of
property tax assessment. Tax value reflects the assessed value less exemptions, such as the homestead exemption
on residential property. Land value is the assessed value on the land alone, exclusive of buildings or other


18,120
9,550
8,400
11,847
3,672
9,118
7,800
4,794
7,627
3,703
3,634
7,524
4,320
4,420
3,658
3,563
2,903
2,492
1,513
2,445
1,335
1,552
1,305
788
720
3,090








improvements. Total value is an estimate of market value of the property, including any improvements. Means
were computed for each property type and differences in values between properties near vs. not-near golf
courses were subjected to a t-test to determine statistical significance.
Differences in total value, by land use and county are summarized in Table 25. Positive numbers
indicate that values were greater near golf courses, while negative values indicate that values were lower near
golf courses. Values denoted by an asterisk indicate that the difference was statistically significant at the 95
percent level of confidence; in other words, a difference this large would occur by chance only 5 times in 100
(p<0.05). In general, the number of positive values greatly exceeded negative values. In 12 of the 18 counties,
there was a positive difference in total values that was statistically significant across all land use types, while in
3 counties there was negative difference, and in 3 counties there was no significant difference. To this extent,
the influence of golf courses on property values appears to be favorable.


Table 25. Average difference in total values for properties with respect to Florida golf courses, by land use and
county, 1999.
County All Land Residential Commercial Industrial Agricultural Institutional Government Utility
Uses
dollars per parcel
Broward -34887* -22859* 347000* 535956* 213582 208406 -116657 -91289*
Collier 47933* 14179* 323081* 781000 1067982* 0 0 5104
Dade -3505 6884* -82972 -173922* -102558* -394392* -202385 423635
Duval 49957* 71280* 406477 -166525* 922976 46533 -727335* -125124*
Escambia -10677 -2721* 60884* 144433 31896* -59576* 67056 9739*
Hillsborough 9002* 32113* 220082* -87367 18447 -64422 -264544* -228099*
Lake 4703* 9281* 180852* 211204 -18234* 194324 -102124* -10196
Lee 48406* 52021* 199500* 11618 296024* 687000* 92300 3237
Manatee -6624* 541 88582* 144120 418055* 379669* 50060 -177772
Martin 71906* 72006* -144126* 173740 -103515* 130996 37471 -98842
Okaloosa 60171* 60961* 139581* 283630 8010 377384* 455000 129775
Orange 702* 46803* 13604 2260000* 236798 672000 -335379 -29352*
Palm Beach 37143* 39807* 609979* 593623* 36236 739000* 202000 -7089
Pasco 1051 7856* -31662* -98401* 39275 -41495 -10529 -126100
Pinellas 13886* 12774* 173383* 557106* -38504 303853 274000 -45432*
Polk 5387* -223 96933* 170697 65358 76714 57143 -151222*
Sarasota 32509* 38896* -126957* -41567 79062 42566 -819087* 7551
Volusia -4823* 1363* 14276 -10553 70690* 373634 -104182* 18695
Asterisks denote a statistically significant difference (p<.05)
Analysis conducted by square mile section (public land survey system section, township, range).
Data source: Florida Department of Revenue, Tallahassee; and University of Florida, Florida Geographic Data Library.


Perhaps a better measure of property values is the difference in value of the land alone, exclusive of the
value of improvements, as shown in Table 26. For residential properties, the positive difference in land values
was greatest for Martin COiunt\, averaging $46,537 per parcel, and there were also large positive differences for
Duval COuintl ($20,633), Okaloosa, Orange, and Palm Beach counties. Counties with a significant negative
residential land value associated with golf courses included Broward, Miami-Dade, Manatee Volusia and
Pinellas counties. Commercial property land values were generally positively related to golf courses, with 13 of
the 18 counties having statistically significant positive value. Collier Cunti\ had the highest differential value








for commercial land uses associated with golf courses at $184,244. However, commercial values were
negatively associated in Sarasota and Miami-Dade counties. Collier COiunt also had the largest positive
difference for agriculture land ($386,866). Orange CiMunt had the highest differential value for industrial
properties near golf courses ($722,000), more than twice that of the next closest county, Collier.

Table 26. Average difference in land values for properties with respect to Florida golf courses, by land use and
county, 1999.
County All Land Residential Commercial Industrial Agricultural Institutional Government Utility
Uses
Broward -21920* -15697* 158747* 164201* 72085 12531 -82893* -50903*
Collier 10741* -152 184244* 311227* 386866* 146882 481955* 2582
Dade -9257* -5634* -59352* -83142* -15850* -136943 17489 96604
Duval 14191* 20633* 112389* -33129 69001 108371 -147265* -25398*
Escambia -7166 18 41980* -5538 1674 58908* -111605 6801*
Hillsborough -1398 5657* 176598* 303 1672 -26520* 40607* -100961*
Lake -906 894 79818* 18871 -4270* 41371 -62463* 3746
Lee 6915* 7286* 117720* 21345 -1441 159277* 19236 -13524*
Manatee -5620* -3688* 44518* 15985* 145799 198239 -40046 -39591
Martin 46470* 46537* -37602 37059 -51223* 75611 151841 -21978
Okaloosa 22673* 16399* 137362* 108512 11207 207511* 734000 48248
Orange 787 13305* 159702* 722000* 98635 232665 -67805 -12874*
Palm Beach 9990* 11532* 243066* 270690* -43254* 383342* 38682 -12305
Pasco -869* 1567* -9926 -9099 3318 -14778 -26568* -13367
Pinellas -723 -2934* 78559* 262112* -12957 9431 365708 -28888*
Polk 2773* 546* 65589* 30905* 4081 11464 -25821* -62777*
Sarasota 5182* 4554* -36812 -48136* 66630 72639 -379516* 13172
Volusia -4989* -2359* 1791 -15438 7416 118151 -37583* 5277
Asterisks denote a statistically significant difference (p<.05)
Analysis conducted by square mile section (public land survey system section, township, range).
Data source: Florida Department of Revenue, Tallahassee; and University of Florida, Florida Geographic Data Library.


Overall weighted average differences in all property value measures across the 18 counties evaluated, by
land use type, are indicated in Table 27. Commercial, agricultural, industrial, institutional, and government land
use types all showed an increase in total value associated with golf courses averaging $10,942 per parcel, and
ranging from nearly $20,00 for residential properties, $70,000 for commercial properties, $114,000 for
industrial, to nearly $121,000 for agricultural land. Government and utility lands had a negative difference in
total value. Differences in land values were positive but smaller, averaging $464 across all property types, and
$2,871 for residential properties, but again were negative for utility properties. Assessed values showed a
positive value averaging $12,461 per parcel associated with golf courses, and tax values (net of exemptions)
averaged $17,981 greater. Sale prices had an average difference of about $9,000 per parcel.








Table 27. Weighted average property values with respect to Florida golf courses, 1999.
Near Golf Not-Near Difference,
Measure Land Use Course ($) Golf Course Near Minus
($) Not-Near ($)
Total Value All Land Uses 124,101 113,159 10,942
Residential 104,559 84,965 19,594
Commercial 526,518 456,838 69,681
Industrial 686,775 572,396 114,379
Agricultural 330,423 209,440 120,984
Institutional 587,227 504,902 82,325
Government 522,668 550,617 (27,949)
Utility 36,816 71,075 (34,259)
Land Value All Land Uses 38,398 37,935 464
Residential 28,709 25,837 2,871
Commercial 250,992 200,333 50,660
Industrial 251,119 208,984 42,135
Agricultural 56,992 34,626 22,366
Institutional 177,916 137,378 40,538
Government 278,535 234,695 43,839
Utility 20,249 30,757 (10,507)
Assessed Value All Land Uses 120,133 107,672 12,461
Tax Value 101,180 83,200 17,981
Sale Price (Most Recent) 144,986 135,590 9,396
Data source: Florida Department of Revenue, Tallahassee, and University of Florida, Florida
Geographic Data Library.



A more geographically focused analysis was conducted to compare property values near golf courses
with similar properties only in adjacent land sections for eight counties (Collier, Lee, Sarasota, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Lake, Orange, Duval). This was done to account for possible bias by eliminating from the analysis
properties in rural areas that may have inherently lower values. The results of this analysis, summarized in
Table 28, by county and land use, generally indicate somewhat lower differences in value. However, among the
eight counties and 19 different land use/property value measures, there were 43 instances in which values
associated with golf courses were significantly higher, while in 31 cases values were significantly lower. There
were mixed results across all counties, land use types, and value measures. Counties with overall positive
differences in value associated with golf courses included Lee, Duval, Sarasota, Pinellas and Lake, whereas
Collier, Hillsborough and Orange counties had generally negative values. The largest positive difference in total
value was in Lee Cinni\ ($31,426), while the largest negative difference was in Orange Cinlt1 (-$49,176).
These results confirm that the effect of golf courses on land values is rather localized, extending perhaps only a
few miles.









Table 28. Difference in property tax values associated with golf courses, for adjacent land sections, by land use


and Florida county, 1999
Land Use Value Measure
All Assessed Value
Tax Value
Land Value
Sale Price
Total Value
Residential Total Value
Land Value
Commercial Total Value
Land Value
Industrial Total Value
Land Value
Agricultural Total Value
Land Value
Institutional Total Value
Land Value
Government Total Value
Land Value
Utility Total Value
Land Value


Results represent ., !ticin c, c


Co
-2
-1
-2

-3
-3

-2
26
14
87
32
5
3.
5

4(
-2:
-1


in tax val


llier


Lee


Duval


Sarasota


Pinellas


Hillsborough


1813* 31913* 16648 21585* 14643* -6165
8327* 31893* 31674* 22753* 15840* 3167
3666* 4790* 8179* 3168* 1283 -7901*
-2981 61923* 55031* 11238* 14467* -19392
0644* 31426* 19266 21293* 14453* -8886*
1082* 35274* 45743* 30367* 13000* 13422*
22865* 5711* 14319* 3630* -980* -877*
69171* 90421 132384 -191890* 111415 160692*
44522* 59206* 27812 -65707* 43538* 166780*
14000* 3534 -577018* -20644 387853* -57556
1961* 10005 -163380* -32430 181091* 9761
35000 178475 589000 27914 45357 -20472
48311 1343 60796 64451 -15291 303
86000 602000* -264935 -146013 274765 -68908
86038 121057* -18953 67448 2371 -38317*
00000 -40201 -1860000 -639895* 369819 -371974*
26250 41 -191303 -250717* 413729 -146612*
14564 -10774 -8715* -14587 -33210* -255005
-4734 -22892* -6022* -4397 -20519* -87625*
ues for properties near golf courses minus not-near golf courses. 4r Ir;,r;. ii.


Lake Orange
3784 -47392*
4911* -33254*
67 -17796*
5563* 24645*
3275 -49176*
8721* 25255*
901 7251*
171831* -659082*
72421* -141234
214774 1050000
18629 318000
-8822* 82851
-1512 67502
104547 540000
15028 166377
-115376 -329931
-3541 -53729
-78904 -43132*
525 -16347*
significant t i c i L c,


noted by asterisk. Parcels "near golf course" are within the same square mile section (public land survey system section, township, range)
and parcels "not near" golf course are within sections adjacent to sections with golf courses.
Data source: Florida Department of Revenue, Tallahassee; and University of Florida, Florida Geographic Data Library.





The differences in property values associated with golf courses were used to estimate the share of local
property tax revenues that may be attributable to golf courses, as summarized in Table 29. First, the average
difference in assessed value per parcel associated with golf courses was multiplied by the number of parcels near
golf courses (within the same one square mile section), to determine the difference in total assessed value. This
calculation was applied only for those counties in which the differences were determined to be statistically
significant. The average ad valorem millage rate for each county was multiplied by the difference in assessed
value to estimate the difference in total property taxes, which was then expressed as a share of the total county
property tax collections for 1999. Ad valorem millage rates ranged from 11.9 to 20.7 (dollars per $1000 assessed
value). This analysis was conducted separately for all 18 of the counties evaluated, and for the 8 selected
counties in which the analysis of properties "not-near" golf courses was restricted to adjacent land sections.
For all counties and properties, the greatest difference in assessed value ($5.4Bn) occurred in Palm
Beach COtinl\, followed by Collier ($3.7Bn), Lee ($2.6Bn) and Martin Counties ($2.2Bn). Sarasota and
Okaloosa Counties also had a difference in total assessed value exceeding $1Bn, while Broward Cotin\I had a
decrease in assessed value of $3.8Bn associated with golf courses. Applying the county-specific millage rates
resulted in a difference in total property taxes of $87Mn in Palm Beach Ctin1l\, $44Mn in Collier, $40Mn in
Lee, $33Mn in Martin, and minus $66Mn in Broward. Among all 18 counties, there was a net increase in
property taxes of $214Mn. As a share of total county tax collections, this represented 8 percent in Palm Beach
COntnl\, 15 percent in Collier, 10 percent in Lee, 22 percent in Martin, and 15 percent in Okaloosa COinlt\.
For the restricted analysis of properties in adjacent land sections, again, differences in total property tax
collections were dramatically smaller, due to lower differences in average value per parcel. The difference in
total property taxes was $26Mn in Lee COtinl\, followed by $17Mn in Pinellas, and $11Mn in Sarasota, which


II V V









represented 3 to 7 percent of total county property tax collections. In Collier and Orange Counties there was a
decrease in property taxes of $18 and $22 Mn, respectively.


Table 29. Difference in assessed value associated with golf courses and total property tax
implications in selected Florida counties, 1999


County Difference in Number Difference Ad
Average parcels near in Total Valorem
Assessed golf courses Assessed Millage
Value Per Value Rate*
Parcel ($) ($Mn)
Analysis includes all parcels outside sections with golf courses


Palm Beach 38,442*
Collier 52,042*
Lee 48,778*
Martin 73,621*
Duval 46,276*
Sarasota 33,187*
Pinellas 14,302*
Okaloosa 61,588*
Hillsborough 12,730*
Polk 7,649*
Pasco 4,786*
Lake 5,897*
Volusia (3,111)*
Broward (32,699)*
Orange 2,718
Escambia (8,556)
Dade (1,004)
Manatee (1,098)
Total


140,000 5,382 16.1742
70,753 3,682 11.8633
52,595 2,566 15.5825
28,672 2,111 15.7687
17,134 793 20.6781
34,935 1,159 14.1164
67,517 966 16.8242
17,095 1,053 12.4824
33,063 421 18.0022
36,168 277 17.4710
26,159 125 18.7010
21,346 126 14.4595
56,478 (176) 16.8160
116,000 (3,791) 17.3663
32,426 na 14.3204
67,508 na 17.8170
36,895 na 17.0100
31,447 na 17.1601
886,191 14,691


Difference
in Total
Property
Taxes
($Mn)


Total
County Tax
Collections
($Mn)


87.0
43.7
40.0
33.3
16.4
16.4
16.2
13.1
7.6
4.8
2.3
1.8
(3.0)
(65.9)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
214


1,091
290
383
154
560
309
612
87
629
247
170
97
253
1,229
649
130
1,561
201
8,652


Share of
Total
County Tax
Collections
(%)


8.0%
15.1%
10.4%
21.6%
2.9%
5.3%
2.7%
15.1%
1.2%
2.0%
1.4%
1.9%
-1.2%
-5.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


Analysis includes only parcels in sections adjacent to sections with golf courses
Lee 31,913* 52,595 1,679 15.583 26.2 383 6.8%
Pinellas 14,643* 67,517 989 16.824 16.6 612 2.7%
Sarasota 21,585* 34,935 754 14.116 10.6 309 3.4%
Collier (21,813)* 70,753 (1,543) 11.863 (18.3) 290 -6.3%
Orange (47,392)* 32,426 (1,537) 14.320 (22.0) 649 -3.4%
Duval 16,648 17,134 na 20.678 0.0 560 0.0%
Hillsborough (6,165) 33,063 na 18.002 0.0 629 0.0%
Lake 3,784 21,346 na 14.460 0.0 97 0.0%
Total 329,769 341 13.1 3,528
Statistically significant differences (p<.05) denoted by asterisks.
Analysis compares values parcels within the same square mile section (public land survey system section,
township, range) as golf course, vs. not in same section.
* Data source: Florida Department of Revenue, Tallahassee
(http://sun6.dms.state.fl.us/dor/property/99FLpropdata.pdf)








Literature and Information Sources Cited


Florida Department of Revenue. 1999. Property tax report. Tallahassee. Available at
http://sun6.dms.state.fl.us/dor/property/99FLpropdata.pdf.
Haydu, J.J., A.W. Hodges, P.J. van Blokland and J.L. Cisar. 1997. Economic and environmental adaptations in
Florida's golf course industry: 1974-1994. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal
8:1109-1116.
Hodges, A.W., J.J. Haydu, P.J. van Blokland and A.P. Bell. 1994. Contribution of the turfgrass industry to
Florida's economy, 1991/92: A value added approach. University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Food & Resource Economics Dept., Economics Report ER 94-1.
InfoUSA, Inc. 2001. Reference USA. business directory, version 4.1. Omaha, NE.
National Golf Foundation (NGF). 1999. The U.S. Golf Travel Market, 1998 edition. Jupiter, FL, Publication
99MR002.
National Golf Foundation. 2001. Golf Facilities in the U.S., 2001 edition. Jupiter, FL.
Minnesota Implan Group. 2001. Implan Pro social accounting and impact analysis software, version 2, and
regional data for Florida counties, 1999. Stillwater, MN. http://www.implan.com.
University of Florida Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Florida Geographic Data Library.
Gainesville, FL. Available at http://www.geoplan.ufl.edu/fgdl/fgdl.htm.
University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research. Florida Statistical Abstract, 2000. 34th
edition. Gainesville, FL, 831 pp.










Appendix A: Florida Golf Course Survey

Questionnaire


Sponsored by a consortium of industry organizations, including the
Florida Turfgrass Association, Florida Golf Alliance, Florida Golf Course
Superintendents Association, Everglades Golf Course Superintendents
Association, WCI Communities, Taylor Woodrow, and Bonita Bay
Group.


Dear Florida Golf Course Superintendent, Owner, or Manager,

This survey is being conducted by the University of Florida's Institute of
Food & Agricultural Sciences, as part of a research project to document
the economic impact of the Florida golf industry. The survey is being
sent to all golf courses in the state of Florida. It is important that you
provide information for your golf course, so that your type of facility is
represented in this study.

All information obtained in this survey about your particular
business will be kept strictly confidential; only averages or totals
for all survey respondents will be disclosed. You do not have to
answer any questions that you do not wish to. There is no compensation
for participating in this survey, however, you may receive a copy of the
final project report if you wish. All questions in this survey pertain to the
most recent fiscal year (2000). If you have more than one golf course
under your management, please request an additional survey booklet or
copy this form and fill-out a separate survey for each golf course.

Please return the completed questionnaire to the investigators in the
postage-paid, return addressed envelope provided. If you have any
questions about this survey, you may contact the investigators (see
below). For questions about human subjects research approvals for this
project contact the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (PO
Box 112250, Gainesville FL 32611-2250). Thank you for your
cooperation!

Sincerely, Alan W. Hodges and John J. Haydu, University of Florida,
PO Box 110240, Gainesville, Fl 32611, tel 352-392-1881 x312,
AWHodges@ufl.edu. Survey revised October 4, 2001


Company and Respondent Information


Name and position of persons) filling out this form. Please sign below
that you have read the informed consent statement above, and you
agree to participate in the survey. Note: The Revenues, Expenditures
and Contributions, and Assets/Investments sections should be filled-out
by the comptroller or financial officer.


Name and Sianature


Position


Name of golf course:

Golf course owner:

Street address:

City, Zip code:

Florida county:

Telephone:





-___ Check here if you wish to receive a summary report on the
survey results









Golf Course Grounds Management


Type of golf course (check any that apply):
Private Semi-Private
Resort Public
Military __Residential development
Municipal
Other (specify)_______________

Total number of golf holes at this course (9, 18, 27, 36, etc): ______
Par for the course (number strokes): ___
Year that this golf course was established: _____

If this course is part of a residential development, how many units are in
the development, and what is the average value per unit?
Number of units:
Average value per unit ($1,000): ___


Golf Play and Events

Total number of golf rounds played on this course last year (may round
number to nearest 1,000): __

Geographic origin of golfers playing last year (percent of total play):
% International visitors
% U S residents from outside Florida
% Non-local Florida residents
% Local (county) Florida residents

Seasonal distribution of golf play last year (percent of total golf play):
% January-April:
% May-September:
% October-December:

Number of golf tournaments hosted last year: _____
Total number of spectators attending tournament events) last year:


Area used by the golf course last year
Total area of golf course:
Turfgrass area maintained:
Area irrigated:


acres
acres
acres


Turfgrass varieties used (percent of total turfgrass area maintained):
% St. Augustine
% Bahia
___% Centipede
___% Bermudagrass
% Zoysiagrass
__ % Mixed/other grasses
Specify other type(s) used

Amount of water used for golf course irrigation last year:
__ million gallons

Percent of total water used for irrigation, by source:
%_ Municipal
_____% Recycled
% Wells
% Surface Water
% Other Sources (desal, ASR, etc.)

Compared to five years ago, has your irrigation water use per acre
increased, decreased or remained the same? (check appropriate
response):
Increased Decreased Remained same
If increased or decreased, by what percent?: ____%

Compared to five years ago, has your fertilizer use per acre increased,
decreased, or remained the same? (check appropriate response):
Increased Decreased Remained same
If increased or decreased, by what percent? ____%

Does this golf course have an automated irrigation control system?
Yes No
If yes, was the automated system installed originally or as a
retrofit?


Golf Cou rse Ty pe


New construction


Retrofit









Expenditures and Contributions


Number of full-time and part-time or seasonal employees last year,
including management and administrative staff, for the golf course, and
for the clubhouse and other facilities:
Full-time Part-time/
seasonal
Golf course maintenance

Clubhouse/other facilities

Note: The remainder of the survey should be filled-out by the
comptroller or financial officer.

Revenues

Total revenues last year, including golf play, membership fees, dues,
and all other business activities (check appropriate range or give actual
amount):


Less than $500,000

$1.00 to $1.99 million

$3.00 to $3.99 million

$5.00 to $7.49 million

$10.00 to $14.99 million

$20.00 to $24.99 million


$500,000 to $999,999

$2.00 to $2.99 million

$4.00 to $4.99 million

$7.50 to $9.99 million

$15.00 to $19.99 million

$25.00 million or greater


Actual amount: $

Percent of total revenues obtained from each of the following business
activities last year
% Golf course playing fees (greens, carts, dues)
% Golf course membership and initiation fees
% Retail sales (pro shop, gift shop)
% Restaurant, food and beverage services
% Lodging
% Other (specify activities included)_


Total costs of operation last year for all golf course and related business
activities:
$

Percentage of total expenses, by category
% Golf course maintenance
% Clubhouse
___% Golf operations
% Food & beverage service
% Tennis/fitness and other recreation services
____% Capital (purchases, interest, depreciation)
% Administrative overhead
_____% Other (specify activities included)__

Percentage of total expenses for goods purchased from vendors outside
of Florida last year (percent of total): %


Value of charitable contributions last year
Cash contributions
In-kind contributions, including golf rounds


Assets/Investment


Current value of total assets owned at the end of last year (Dec. 2000)
and for the following categories:
Land: ____($)
Vehicles and equipment: _____($)
Irrigation systems: _______ ($)
Golf-owned buildings and installations: _______ ($)
Total: ____($)


Employment




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