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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 149
Title: Some diseases of the fig
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005204/00001
 Material Information
Title: Some diseases of the fig
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 11 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Matz, J ( Julius ), b. 1886
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1918
 Subjects
Subject: Fig -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J. Matz.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005204
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922769
oclc - 18162280
notis - AEN3278

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Full Text


August, 1918


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station











SOME DISEASES OF THE FIG

By J. MATZ


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 149



























CONTENTS

Page
A nthracnose ................ ..-..-.... ................... ... ... 3
Leaf Blight ...... ---.......... ......................... ..--..... ... 3
Fig Rust ........:..... ---- ........-....... ............. ........... -..... 6
Root-Knot .---------...............................--........... 7
Sclerotium Blight .... ------.................. : ............ ...... ........ -- 8
Lim b Blight ................ ..... ............. ........................... 9
Dieback .. ---............--... ...... ---- ..........----- ---- -.......----------. --. 9
D dropping of Fruit ...... ......... .... ... ...................................... .... 10






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and causes the leaves to shrivel and die. In early stages of in-
fection small areas in the leaves become yellowish and appear
watersoaked, the upper surfaces of such areas usually being
darker. Later, t h e s e
diseased areas extend
and become silvery
white on the upper sur-
face of the leaf, while
the under surface re-
mains light brown and
usually covered with
a thin web of fun-
gus growth. Ordinar-
ily, there is one large
diseased area in a leaf;
the remaining g re en
part may turn brown,
shrivel and die, espec-
ially when the disease
is progressing from the
petiole. (Fig. 2.) The
more seriously diseas-
ed leaves are shed, but
in some cases they are
held to the twigs in
a dry and crumpled
condition by the fine
threads of the fungus.
S.. (Fig. 3.) Diseased
Fig. .--Anthracnose on lower surface of fig leaves in falling from
leaf the twigs often become
attached by the fungus threads to healthy leaves, thereby spread-
ing the disease to hitherto unaffected parts of the tree.
Upon a close examination of infected twigs one may find num-
erous small brownish bodies held loosely by fine fungus threads.
These bodies, sclerotia, which are parts belonging to the blight
fungus, are easily detached from the surface of a twig and are
more resistant than the cottony growth of the same blight fun-
gus on the dead leaves. In its form on the twigs the fungus is
able to withstand the winter and to start new outbreaks of
blight the following summer. The disease is usually most no-






Bulletin 149, Some Diseases of the Fig


ticeable on the tips of the branches. The fruit may sometimes
become overgrown by the fungus and be covered with numerous
small sclerotia as on the twigs.

CONTROL
In the summer or fall, locate the defoliated twigs and remove
-- -1'


Fig. 2.-Fig leaf affected with Rhizoctonia sp.


them, cutting back as far as any signs of the fungus growth can
be observed. Also, rake up all fallen leaves and destroy them.






Bulletin 149, Some Diseases of the Fig


small, raised, reddish-brown spots which are covered with a
golden yellow powder, the rust spores, on the under surface of
the leaves. On the upper surface of the leaves the small spots
are dark brown and more or less smooth. (Figs. 4 and 5.) Since
the disease usually
appears on the leaves
at the stage when
the figs have reached
nearly full growth it
is doubtful whether
it materially inter-
feres with the pro-
duction of frui t.

reasonable to sup-
pose that in cases
where a large pro-
portion of the foli-
age is discolored the
tree as a whole must
suffer, tho the tree
does not show mate-
rially the injurious
effects.
CONTROL
Rake up and de-
stroy all fallen "
leaves, and, if con- .
venient, spray the
foliage with bor- Fig. 4.-Fig rust on lower surface of fig leaf
deaux mixture early in the summer before the disease appears.
Another spraying should be made when the first rust spots ap-
pear.
ROOT-KNOT

Root-knot often becomes one of the commonest troubles of a
great many plants grown on sandy soils. It forms small galls
on the roots of the fig. The galls contain minute worms which
live on the roots of the plant. When the galls become numerous
they interfere with the normal functioning of the roots and the
plant takes on an unhealthy and stunted appearance.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CONTROL
It has been found that the worm which causes root-knot must
have access to living roots and also that it needs air for its exist-
ence. Loose sandy soils as a rule are favorable to the develop-
ment of root-knot,
While in heavy and
clay soils it sel-
dom becomes trou-
blesome. On a
small scale, it may
be possible to cor-
rect soil condi-
tions to the extent
that the soil will
retain a maxi-
mum amount of
moisture and be
rendered more or
less compact by
the liberal addi-
tion of organic
matter. Stunted
and sickly trees
affected with root-
knot should be
dug up and the
ground allowed to
remain fallow for
at least one year
Fig. 5.-Fig rust on upper surface of fig leaf in order to free
the soil from root-knot infestation. In that time no weeds sus-
ceptible to the disease should be permitted to occupy the land.

SCLEROTIUM BLIGHT
Sclerotium rolfsii Sac.

Sclerotium blight is caused by a fungus. The disease occurs
on fig trees during some seasons, attacking mainly the trunk of
the tree. A yellowish-white mat of fungus growth is formed
around the base of the trunk near the ground. Some round,
hard, yellowish to'brown bodies, sclerotia, the size of a mustard
seed are found scattered on the fungus growth. This fungus is






Bulletin 149, Some Diseases of the Fig


known to attack a large number of plants in seasonal conditions.
The fungus lives in the soil on vegetable remains and often at-
tacks the roots and stems of healthy plants.
CONTROL
Since the causal fungus inhabits the soil it is necessary to
spray the ground immediately around the infected tree with a
4-4-50 bordeaux mixture. This spray should also be applied to
the affected trunk of the tree. The soil must be more or less
saturated with the mixture, as a surface sprinkling would not
penetrate sufficiently to reach all of the fungus which may live
underneath the decaying leaves or other vegetable matter in
the soil.
LIMB BLIGHT
Corticum salmonicolor Karst.
Limb blight of the fig is a fungus disease which causes wilting
and dying of the leaves. The fungus forms a pale pink-colored
mantle of growth often completely encircling the affected parts
of branches and small twigs. The leaves of the attacked twigs
wilt and die, apparently because the fungus interferes with the
supply of elements essential to the growth and life of the fol-
iage. The fungus often gets a starting point at a dead tip of a
branch, then gradually extends toward the healthy part of the
branch, causing a sudden wilting of the leaves.
CONTROL
Keep the trees free from dead wood to prevent the fungus
getting a start in the tree. All affected branches should be cut
out and destroyed.
DIEBACK
Fig trees are often injured by early or late frosts that kill
back the younger twigs. This injury does not seem to have a
directly deleterious effect on the tree. However, by allowing
the dead wood to remain in the tree it becomes a source of food
and shelter for a number of insects and fungi. These organisms
may not be able to cause initial injury to healthy trees, but
when given a start on the dead or weakened wood they tend
gradually to devitalize the tree and sometimes introduce other
injurious organisms which may cause further decay in the tree.
CONTROL
The trees should be kept free from 'dead wood. It may be well
to cut out the dead wood in the fall and again the following
spring.











BOARD OF CONTROL
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee, Fla.

STATION STAFF
P. H. ROLFS, M. S., Director
J. M. SCOTT, B. S., Vice-Director and Animal Industrialist
B. F. FLOYD, A. M., Plant Physiologist
S. E. COLLISION, M. S., Chemist
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
H. E. STEVENS, M. S., Plant Pathologist
E. G. SHAW, Secretary
*J. MATZ, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology
T. VAN HYNING, Librarian
C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. NEWHALL, Mailing Clerk
F. G. BENDING, Stenographer
O. W. WEAVER, B. S., Agricultural Editor
M. NOTHNAGEL, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
J. B. THOMPSON, B. S., Forage Crop Specialist
G. C. OBERHOLTZER, Farm Foreman
G. UMLAUF, Gardener
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper


*Resigned, May, 1918




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