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Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00024
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1925
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Index
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Index 3
        Index 4
Full Text







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT

STATION





REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1925








CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA................................. 3R
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STATION STAFF ......................- ..............--....... 4R
REPORT OF DIRECTOR ..--.............-............ ....... ..- ....----... -----------.... 5R
Introduction, 5R; Changes in Staff, 5R; Publications, 6R.
REPORT OF A UDITOR .................................. ......... .-.-.- ............--.....-...-..... 8R
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST ...-- ....................... ... .......... ....-... ... 11R
The Dairy Herd, 11R; Experiment in Producing Sour Cream,
12R; Corn vs. Napier Grass for Silage, 13R; Alfalfa Meal vs.
Beet Pulp, 14R; Herd Record, 15R; Soft-pork Investigations, 16R;
Swine Feeding Experiments, 16R.
REPORT OF GRASS AND, FORAGE CROPS .INVESTIGATOR......................--.... 19R
Changes in Projects, 19R; Progress of the Year's Work, 19R;
Peanut Variety Test, 21R; Winter Legume Tests, 22R; Rice Var-
iety Test, 23R; Soybean Variety Tests, 23R; Crotalarias, 23R;
Plant Breeding, 24R; Fertilizer 'Experiments. 24R; Further
Spanish Peanut Fertilizer Work, 25R; Pasture Grass Studies,
26R; Lawn Grass Studies, 27R; Miscellaneous, 27R.
REPORT OF CHEMIST ....-------------------------------------............ ................. -------28R
Dieback of Citrus, 28R; Nutrition Studies, 30R; Soft-pork Inves-
tigations, 35R.
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST ............................... ..--------- ......-- .....-- .... .....- 36R
New Citrus Aphis, 36R; Nematode Control, 37R; Tests of Cal-
cium Cyanide for Peach Borers, 38R; Celery Leaf-tyer, 38R; Pe-
can Insects, 39R; Bean Jassid, 41R.
REPORT OF THE PLANT PATHOLOGIST ................. ....................--........ 42R
Citrus Canker, 42R; Melanose, 43R; Coloring of Citrus Fruits,
43R; Pecan Scab, 43R; Scaly Bark, 45R; Coconut Diseases, 45R;
Aphis Diseases, 46R; Truck-Crop Diseases, 49R; Citrus Blight,
52R; Potato Diseases, 58R; Cotton Diseases, 60R; Tobacco Dis-
eases, 64R.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST ........................----......----......--. 65R
Citrus, 65R; Tung-Oil, 65R; Berries, 66R; Grapes, 67R; Miscel-
laneous Fruits, 67R; Propagation, 69R; Improvements, 71R.
REPORT OF THE PECAN CULTURIST ...-.................. .............------- ...--- 72R
Nut Growth, 72R; Variety and Stock Tests, 74R; Fertilizer Ex-
periment, 75R; Rosette Experiment, 76R; Disease Control, 76R;
Insect Control, 77R; Cover Crop Experiments, 78R; Nut Collec-
tion, 78R.
REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN ..................................-.... .. .................- 79R
REPORT OF THE TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION ........................................ 81R
Improvements, 81R; Fertilizer Experiments, 81R; Tobacco Dis-
ease Investigations, 82R.
RZPORT OF THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION ...........-.............................- 88R
Source of Humus, 88R; Cost of Producing a Grove, 89R; Irriga-
tion for Control of June Bloom, 89R; Water vs. No Water, 90R;
Source of Potash, 90R; Pathological Work, 90R; Bud Supply
Progeny Grove, 90R; Equipment, 90R.
REPORT OF THE EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION .........................---- 91R
Buildings and Improvements, 91R; Field Experiments, 93R; Live-
stock Diseases, 95R; Drainage Studies and Records, 97R.























Hon. John W. Martin,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, the annual report
of the director of the University of Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.







BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman...........................-...... ........... Pensacola
E. L. W ARTMANN.-......-....-...............................--- ........... Citra
J. C. COOPER, JR.--... --..-................-...... ........---.... ......... Jacksonville
A. H. BLANDING---.....-... ...--........--- ......-------................-Tampa
W B. DAVIS-... ---..-..-.. -----... ..-........... .........-..............---Perry
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary..........------............................. Tallahassee
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor .......................-..................-. Tallahassee
STATION STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Vice Director and Animal Industrialist
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
O. F. BURGER, D.Sc., Plant Pathologist
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist Tobacco Ex-
periment Station (Quincy)
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B. S. A., Editor
G. F. WEBER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent Citrus Experiment Station
(Lake Alfred)
A. H. BEYER, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant Chemist
W. E. STOKES, M.S., Grass and Forage Crops Specialist
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant Chemist
HAROLD MOWRY, Assistant Horticulturist
L. O. GRATZ, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station
(Belle Glade)
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
A. W. LELAND, Farm Foreman
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. G. KELLEY, B.S.A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
R. E. NOLEN, B.S.A., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology
H. E. BRATLEY, B. S. A. E., Asst. in Entomology.
J. L. SEAL, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
K. W. LOUCKS, A.B., Laboratory Assistant, Plant Pathology
ERDMAN WEST, B.S., Laboratory Assistant, Plant Pathology
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist
G. H. BLACKMON, B. S. A., Pecan Culturist
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor











Report For The Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1925

Hon. P. K. Yonge, .
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the
work and investigations of the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations, together with the reports of the
heads of the several departments, for the fiscal year end-
ing June 30, 1925; and I request that you transmit the same,
in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Flor-
ida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
A summary of the activities of the various departments in
the Experiment Station and Branch Stations are given on the
following pages.
The fiscal year just closed has been the second year of the bien-
nium and the resources have been practically the same as during
the preceding year.
The financial resources of the Experiment Stations for the
fiscal year just closed, have been as follows:
A dam s Fund ........................ ......- ..... ....... ........ $15,000.00
Hatch Fund ....................... --...... .............. ....... ..-- 15,000.00
Main Station, Gainesville ....................... ........... 55,000.00
Citrus Station ....................................... ............ .. .... 10,000.00
Tobacco Station ............................................................. 10,000.00
Everglades Station ...................- .......... ......... 26,029.06
Proceeds from Sales .............................. .. ..... 8,927.76

Total ......... ............... .... ... ............ $139,956.82

CHANGES IN STAFF
H. E. Bratley was appointed Laboratory Assistant in Ento-
mology, pecan insects, effective September 1, 1924.
A. H. Beyer resigned his position as Assistant Entomologist,
effective June 30, 1925.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


J. Francis Cooper was appointed to fill the position as Edi-
tor, effective February 1, 1925, filling the vacancy created by the
resignation of Ralph Stoutamire on that date.
Ed. L. Ayers, Agriculturist, resigned October 10, 1924.
L. E. Dupont was made Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pa-
thology on July 1, 1924, and is working on coloring of citrus
fruits and its relation to decay in transit.
C. T. Link, Assistant in Citrus Canker Work for the State
Plant Board, resigned November 1, 1924, and was succeeded on
November 27, 1924 by Kenneth W. Loucks, who is working
in cooperation with the Department of Plant Pathology.
W. G. Wells resigned as Assistant Plant Pathologist on Scaly
Bark Investigations January 31, 1925 and Erdman West was
appointed to fill the place April 22, 1925.
D. G. A. Kelbert was appointed Assistant Plant Patholo-
gist in Tomato Nailhead Rust Investigations January 1, 1925
and was stationed part of the year at Miami.
Dr. A. F. Camp was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist
in charge of Cotton Disease Investigations July 1, 1924.
W. A. Kuntz was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist of
the State Plant Board, March 1, 1925, and is working on fun-
gous parasites of the citrus aphis, in cooperation with the De-
partment of Plant Pathology of the Experiment Station.
J. L. Seal was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist in charge
of Coconut Disease Investigations, January 1, 1925, and was
stationed at Miami.

PUBLICATIONS

Following is a list of the publications issued by the Experi.
men Station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925:

BULLETINS
No. Title Pages Edition
172 Hedges for Florida .........................................20
173 Celery Diseases in Florida ..............................58
174 Controlling the Citrus Aphis...........................18







Annual Report, 1925


SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
No. 172, Hedges for Florida: (Harold Mowry), pp. 20. Figs.
13. This bulletin discusses the selection of plants, planting
and care, and varieties of both native and introduced hedge
plants for Florida.
No. 173, Celery Diseases in Florida: (A. C. Foster and G. F.
Weber), pp. 58. Figs. 34. All of the more common diseases
of celery are discussed, together with methods for their con-
trol. The selection of celery seed and the disinfection thereof
play an important part in the control of celery diseases. Soil
sterilization and field sanitation is absolutely necessary to in-
sure a good crop of celery.
No. 174, Controlling the Citrus Aphis: (J. R. Watson and A.
H. Beyer). pp. 20. Figs. 9. Describes character of damage by
this new citrus pest, tells of host plants, methods of identifica-
tion, means of spread, enemies, and control measures. Also
gives a life history of the aphis.


PRESS BULLETINS
No. Title Author
362 Controlling Chinch Bugs With Calcium Cya-
nide ............---..........---- -------.......... .. A. H. Beyer
363 What Are Good Seed Potatoes ?..............-.........L. O. Gratz
364 Varieties of Pecans for Florida.--................- G. H. Blackmon
365 New Citrus Aphis Controlled by Spot Dusting
........---- .------------.. ....J. R. Watson and E. W. Berger
366 Blight Diseases of Irish Potatoes -..--........----L. 0. Gratz
367 Double-Blossom of Blackberry..........................G: F. Weber









8R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

REPORT OF AUDITOR

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the amounts received
and expenditures vouchered out of various Experiment Sta-
tion funds for the year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully, K. H. GRAHAM,
Auditor.
MAIN EXPERIMENT STATION, 1924-25
Receipts .....--.............-..-- ...------- .........---.......---...... $55,000.00
EXPENDITURES
Salaries ...........--------.. --........-----........................ $16,753.77
Labor .............. ... .... ................ ... .. 11,619.40
Stationery & Office Supplies ................................. 1,225.56
Scientific Supplies ..................................................... 1,400.05
Feed ......................-..........- -.. ..- .--.. ..................... -1,089.37
Sundry Supplies .................. .................................. 1,835.53
Fertilizers ....................----.......... .................... ........ 1,808.97
Communication Service ............................................. 1,215.67
Travel ......-...............-...........-... .......- .........-- ....-- 5,236.19
Transportation of Things ........................................ 744.82
Publications .......................................--- ...-- ... --2,650.24
Heat, Light & Power .........................................- 942.68
Furniture & Fixtures ........................................... 2,423.72
Library ....................................................................... 1,553.58
Scientific Equipment ............................................... 617.69
Livestock ...... .....-- .. ................................................ 2.00
Tools and M achinery ............................................. 1,962.03
Buildings ........................-- ............... .--.. ........... 1,663.29
Contingent ....................-- .............. ......-.................... 255.44
Balance .... ................-----. _- ......... .........
$55,000.00
TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION FUND, 1924-25
Receipts ... ..................... ........................ ................ $10,000.00
EXPENDITURES
Salaries .....-....................... .... .---..... .-..................... $ 6,000.00
Labor ........................................ .... -- -....--- .....-- 1,266.17
Stationery & Office Supplies ..............................---.... 44.18
Scientific Supplies ................-.......... ....-................---- 94.05
Feed ....................................... ......... .. ........--- 136.15
Sundry Supplies .................................. ...................... 374.32
Fertilizers ....................--........--.. ...........-.--- ..---. 426.93
Communication Service .................................-........ 63.08
Travel ...........................................-----..- .. .. 400.00
Transportation of Things ................................--.....- 160.92
Publications .......................................................... ....
Heat, Light & Power ............................---........... .. 171.32
Furniture & Fixtures ................................................ 10.51
Library ........................................ ... ........ ............. 15.96
Scientific Equipment .....................................-- ....---59.87
Livestock ............................................... ................... 20.00
Tools & M achinery .................................................... 156.37
Buildings .....................--.....---........................-- 595.17
Contingent ..................................... ....... ..... ..... 5.00
Balance ...................... .. ....-...- ......--.---.--


(Livestock $20.00-exchange of mules)


$10,000.00









Annual Report, 1925 9eI

CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION FUND, 1924-25
Receipts ....--------........----........................---.........- $10,000.00

EXPENDITURES
Salaries .. ---................................... ................... 2,950.00
Labor ....- --....-.... ... ------........................................ 2,875.72
Stationery & Office Supplies ...................................-... 60.20
Scientific Supplies -- ---------................................. 26.96
Feed .....--------- --- ---........ -- .........----... 435.60
Sundry Supplies ..........- ----- ---------.... ....... ..... 577.71
Fertilizers ..-...........-........-..--- .......--- .. 276.03
Communication Service ...........................- .. ........ 41.73
Travel ............................................................... 204.37
Transportation Service .................................. ......... 88.78
Publications ............... ............................ ..............
Heat, Light & Power .......-..... ........-......-..-- -- ...- 53.52
Furniture & Fixtures .......................................... .. 526.83
Library ..................................... ..........--... 5.44
Scientific Equipment ............................... ........
Livestock .............................. ... ... ................
Tools, Machinery & Appliances .............................----......... 820.13
Buildings, including repairs .......................................... 1,046.98
Contingent ....................... ....... --.........- ...... 10.00
Balance .............................. ......... ..........................

$10,000.00

EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION, 1924-25
Balance .....................-- ....-------.... --- ...---- -$12,338.80
Receipts .......... -----..............-- ...................... 5,000.00
Incidental .................... ............ .......... 8,690.26

Total .............................................. .......... .............. $26,029.06

EXPENDITURES
Salaries .............................................................................$ 4,388.33
Labor .............................................................. 5,218.83
Stationery & Office Supplies ........................-............... 93.11
Scientific Supplies ...........----............... ... -- -- ... 38.52
Feed .....---.. ......... .................. ........... 32.35
Sundry Supplies ...................... ......... -.------- 635.87
Fertilizers ..............----........ -- .....------ 95.46
Communication Service .....--................. .............------ 81.26
Travel ..................................-- -- .- --- 625.78
Transportation of Things -----.....................------.................. 584.45
Publications ........ .............. ......... ................
Heat, Light & Power -......................-.................. 860.36
Furniture & Fixtures ............----...........--.....-- -...... 316.15
Library ....... ............. .....-...--- .......---. ..... 112.55
Scientific Equipment ..................-....--..---- ..-- --. 41.25
Livestock ....--........... -----.......----.....- 6.00
Tools & Machinery .................... ..........--- .....--... 1,955.03
Buildings .......................... ............... ....... 5,338.58
Contingent ........................ ...... .... ............. 101.01
Balance -....--........................ ----. .---- 5,504.17

$26,029.06









10R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

STATION INCIDENTAL (SALES) FUND, 1924-25
Balance ......................----- ....... ........$ 8.....$ 801.52
Receipts ............................................. ................................. 9,989.91

Total ............................... .... .................. $10,791.43
EXPENDITURES
Salaries ................................ ................................. $ 325.00
Labor ....................................... ........- 923.58
Stationery & Office Supplies ...................... .. ....-............
Scientific Supplies ..... .................... ..................... ... 20.41
Feed .......... ............................................................ 6,934.29
Sundry Supplies ................................................ .......... 272.29
Fertilizers .. ................. ......... .............
Communication Service .................................. ................
Travel ..................................... ............... ......... 21.75
Transportation of Things ..................... .............. 9.00
Publications ....--. .-........... ..............
Heat, Light & Power ............. ........ .....
Furniture & Fixtures ................... ........... ...............
Library ...- ------ ....---.....................-- .
Scientific Equipment ..... ............. ................. ........
Livestock ...................................... 309.50
Tools & Machinery -------........-..... 44.70
Buildings (repairs) ............................ 63.12
Contingent ....................................... 3.75
Balance ......................................... 1,864.04
$10,791.43

BOARD OF CONTROL, NUT BEARING INDUSTRY, 1924-25
Balance ..................--............................ .......... $2,274.32
Receipts ....................................----- ----................ 7,500.00
Total.. ..................-- --------------.......$9,774.32

EXPENDITURES
Salaries .....................-- -- ... ..................$4,900.00
Labor ...............-.. ...........----- -- 127.11
Stationery & Office Equipment ....................... -----........ 2.50
Scientific Equipment ............................- 203.25
Feed .......................................-- 354.71
Sundry Supplies ........... .....-------- ------ 432.43
Fertilizers .........--- ......-.. -- ---- ..........138.29
Communication Service ..................... ........... ............... 256.50
Travel -------.......................--------- 1,709.56
Transportation of Things .......-................------ 141.65
Publications .......-.....-....-- ..--- ..----------- --------
Heat, Light & Power ... -. .....................--- ----- --------
Furniture & Fixtures ------................ ...--- ---- 119.73
Library ............................... 37.01
Scientific Equipment ......................--....--.-----------.... 150.15
Livestock ............-.............. .....................
Tools and Machinery .....................---- .... .--- 564.46
Buildings (repairs) ....................... 529.47
Contingent ........................... 107.50
Balance ........... ............................
$9,774.32








Annual Repbrt, 1925


REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST
Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Animal Industrial-
ist for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully, JOHN M., SCOTT,
Animal Industrialist.

THE DAIRY HERD
There has been but little change in the dairy herd during
the year. Heifer calves from the best producing cows have
been retained. The best of the bull calves have been sold to
farmers and dairymen in the state.
No animals have been added to the herd by purchase dur-
ing the year; however two Jersey females were donated. M.
D. Wilson, of Bartow, Fla., donated the Jersey calf Gipsy Fairy
of Prairie View 619003 on August 16, 1924. Henry S. Pennock,
Jupiter, Fla., donated the imported Jersey Cow March Hare's
So Shi 392341 in June, 1925.
A part of the dairy herd was exhibited at the South Flor-
ida Fair at Tampa, February 3-14, 1925. The following pre-
miums were awarded the animals shown:
Grand champion Jersey bull, Jersey cow, Guernsey cow, Ayr-
shire cow, and Dutch Belt cow; senior champion Jersey bull,
and senior and junior champion Jersey cow, junior champion
Dutch Belt cow; first prize on the following Jerseys: bull
three years old and over, bull two years old and under three,
bull calf under six months, cow five years old and over, cow
three years old and under five, cow two years old and under
three, senior yearling heifer (dry), junior yearling heifer (dry),
heifer calf six months old and under twelve, and heifer calf
under six months; second prize on the following Jerseys:
senior yearling heifer (dry), junior yearling heifer (dry),
and heifer calf under six months old.
Four awards were taken on Guernseys as follows: senior
champion cow, junior champion cow, cow three years old and
over, and senior heifer calf.
In the Ayrshires, the Experiment Station exhibit took awards
as follows: Junior champion heifer calf, and first and sec-
ond on senior heifer calf.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Our exhibits also took first on aged herd, young herd, calf
herd, get-of-sire, produce-of-cow, and four females over one
year old, get-of-sire, two in milk, exhibited by breeder; and sec-
ond on get-of-sire.

EXPERIMENT IN PRODUCING SOUR CREAM
During the past few years there has been considerable agi-
tation for the establishment of creameries in the state-these
creameries to purchase sour cream from the farmers. For
the purpose of finding out just what the returns would be
from the sale of sour cream, three cows were selected. The
milk from these three cows was disposed of by separating the
cream and selling it to the creamery, and the skimmilk was fed to
hogs.
The cows selected for this experiment were about average
cows such as would be found on good farms in the state. The
milk was separated each morning and night just after milk-
ing. The cream was sent to the creamery every three or four
days. No ice was used in trying to keep the cream sweet.
This experiment was started August 1, 1924, and continued
until December 18, 1924, or nearly five months. Table I
gives the dates the cream was sent to the creamery, the pounds
of cream, the percentage of butterfat, the pounds of fat, the
price per pound on date of each delivery of cream to the cream-
ery, and the value.
During the experiment the cows were fed a grain mixture
made up of wheat bran, 100 pounds; corn meal, 100 pounds;
ground oats, 100 pounds; cottonseed meal, 100 pounds; and
alfalfa meal, 50 pounds.
Each cow was fed 10 pounds per day of the above grain
mixture. From early in October until the close of the experi-
ment they were fed about 20 pounds of silage per head per
day. Tables I and II show the results in detail.
TABLE I.-SHOWING POUNDS OF MILK PRODUCED EACH MONTH
BY EACH Cow
Date Cow "A" I Cow "B" Cow "C"
1924 i Pounds of Milk Pounds of Milk Pounds of Milk
Aug ....................................... 427.3 492.3 506.1
Sept ..................................... 375.7 479.1 485.4
Oct. ........................................ 321.6 473.7 414.0
Nov. ........................................ 256.5 363.5 339.4
Dec. 1-18.................................. 166.2 192.0 216.0
TOTAL MILK .................... 1,547.3 I 2,000.6 1,960.9


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Annual Report, 1925


TABLE II.-DAIRY RECORD OF THREE COWS IN THE DAIRY HERD FROM
AUG. 1, TO DEC. 18, 1924
Amount of cream and butterfat produced and its value
Pounds Percent Pounds Price per
Date of of of pound for Value
Cream Fat I Fat Fat


Dec.


TOTAL
*Average.


11.0
16.0
14.0
11.0
10.0
13.0
13.0
10.0
15.0
11.0
15.0
10.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
13.0
17.0
15.0
12.0
24.0
24.0
39.0
21.0
35.0
42.0
41.0
42.0
26.0
21.0
18.0
1 596.0


6.38
8.96
8.10
6.38
5.60
7.80
7.40
5.70
8.10
6.10
8.55
6.00
8.26
7.80
6.40
8.25
6.37
9.86
8.10
6.80
11.70
10.30
17.90
7.35
11.90
5.88
7.79
7.98
7.80
9.45
8.10
253.06


$0.40
.40
.39
.39
.40
.40
.39
.39
.39
.38
.39
.39
.38
.37
.37
.36
.37
.38
.39
.38
.37
.36
.39
.38
.40
.42
.46
.48
.46
.39
.39
$0.39


$ 2.55
3.58
3.17
2.49
2.24
3.12
2.89
2.22
3.16
2.34
3.34
2.34
3.14
2.89
2.38
2.97
2.36
3.75
3.16
2.58
4.35
3.71
6.98
2.79
4.76
2.47
3.58
3.83
3.59
3.68
3.16
$99.57


CORN VS. NAPIER GRASS FOR SILAGE

This experiment started November 2, 1924. Eight cows were
used. The test was a comparison of corn silage and Napier
grass silage for milk production. Four of the cows were fed
corn silage plus the regular grain ration, and four of the cows
were fed Napier grass silage plus the regular grain ration.
Cows number 20, 151, 178, and 213 were fed corn silage dur-
ing the first period of 28 days. During the same period cows
number 85, 99, 113, and 160 were fed Napier grass silage.
During the second period the cows that had received the corn
silage were fed Napier grass silage, and the cows that had
received Napier grass silage were given corn silage.







Florida Agricultural.Experiment Station


During the third period all cows were fed the sameas in the
first period. During the fourth period they were all fed the same
as in the second period.
The grain mixture fed was made up of wheat bran, 100
pounds; corn meal, 100 pounds; ground oats, 100 pounds;
cottonseed meal, 100 pounds; and alfalfa meal, 50 pounds. The
cows were fed 10 pounds per day of this grain mixture and
about 25 pounds of silage per day.
During the first period, November 2-29, 1924, Group I, fed
corn silage plus grain mixture produced, 1,163.2 pounds milk;
Group II, fed Napier grass silage plus grain mixture produced,
1,656.0 pounds milk.
During the second period, December 4-31, 1924, Group II, on
corn silage produced, 1,768.0 pounds milk; Group I, on Na-
pier grass silage, produced, 924.8 pounds milk.
During the third period, January 5-February 1, 1925, Group
I, on corn silage, produced, 1,004.6 pounds milk; Group II,
on Napier grass silage, produced, 1,605.1 pounds milk.
During the fourth period, February 5-March 4, 1925, Group
II, on corn silage, produced, 1,795.4 pounds milk; Group I,
on Napier grass silage produced, 1,123.4 pounds milk.
Total milk produced by cows fed grain and corn silage was
5,731.2 pounds.
Total milk produced by cows fed grain and Napier grass
silage was 5,309.3 pounds.
The difference in favor of corn silage was 421.9 pounds.

ALFALFA MEAL VS. BEET PULP
A test for the comparison of alfalfa meal and beet pulp for
milk production began November 1, 1924, and closed March 3,
1925. All cows were fed the same grain mixture. The alfalfa
meal and beet pulp were alternated with each group of cows
every 28 days. The grain mixture fed was: wheat bran, 100
pounds; corn meal, 100 pounds; ground oats, 100 pounds;
cottonseed meal, 100 pounds; and alfalfa meal, 50 pounds. Each
cow was fed 10 pounds per day of the above grain mixture, and
in addition, one group was fed four pounds of alfalfa meal and
the other group was fed four pounds of beet pulp.
Four cows were used in this test. These cows were divided
into two groups of two cows each.


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Annual Report, 1925


15R


During the first period, November 1-28, 1924, Group I, fed the
grain mixture plus alfalfa meal produced, 1,190.2 pounds milk;
Group II, fed the grain mixture plus beet pulp, produced, 903.7
pounds milk.
During the second period, December 2-30, 1924, Group II,
on alfalfa meal, produced, 995.5 pounds milk; group I, on beet
pulp, produced, 1,256.3 pounds milk,
During the third period, January 3-30, 1925, Group I, on
alfalfa meal, produced, 1,211.5 pounds milk; Group II, on beet
pulp, produced, 1,009.5 pounds milk.
During the fourth period, February 4-March 3, 1925, Group
II, on alfalfa meal, produced, 1,000.5 pounds milk; Group I,
on beet pulp, produced, 1,204.3 pounds milk.
Total milk produced by cows fed alfalfa meal, 4,397.7 pounds.
Total milk produced by cows fed beet pulp, 4,373.8 pounds.

HERD RECORD
Table III gives the dairy record of the herd. It gives the
cow's number, number of days in milk from July 1, 1924, to
June 30, 1925, pounds of milk produced, percentage of butter-
fat, and pounds of butterfat.
TABLE III.-MILK RECORD OF THE DAIRY HERD, JULY 1, 1924,
TO JUNE 30, 1925.


IDaysinMilk PoundsofMilk
246 3471.8
284 5216.6
283 4877.7
320 5146.0
267 3826.1
309 4691.9
238 1814.5
279 3402.3
286 6852.3
298 4679.6
290 4678.2
303 5268.0
300 3935.5
260 3559.6
294 6214.7
305 4128.9
309 5934.9
256 5359.7
199 3402.5
280 4716.7
297 3279.6
290 3839.0
263 2306.4
202 1637.8
309 3469.0
262 4250.5


Percent of Pounds of
butterfat butterfat
4.2 145.8
4.4 229.5
4.4 214.6
4.4 226.4
4.6 176.0
4.6 215.8
4.9 88.9
4.9 166.7
4.6 315.2
3.9 229.3
5.2 243.3
4.3 226.5
4.8 188.9
4.5 160.2
4.8 298.3
5.3 218.8
5.8 344.2
3.8 203.7
4.0 136.1
4.9 231.1
5.4 177.1
4.7 180.4
5.1 117.6
5.3 86.8
4.5 156.1
5.0 212.5


Cow No.
20...............
53-.................
59-................-
81 -..............--
85.................
98..-...........
99............ ...
113.................
118-..............
120..............
236............
141...............
151.................
152..................
153-............-...
155-...............
156-......... .....
160...............
163..................
171 --..........
172............-.....
175..................
178..................
182................
213................
225................-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOFT-PORK INVESTIGATIONS
The soft-pork breeding work, as given in previous reports,
is being continued along the same line.

SWINE FEEDING EXPERIMENTS
Skimmilk as a Hog Feed
The first feeding experiment was a comparison of the follow-
ing rations:
Hogs in Lot I were fed shelled corn, skimmilk, and fish meal.
Hogs in Lot II were fed shelled corn and fish meal. The shelled
corn and fish meal were fed in the proportion of 9 parts shelled
corn to 1 part fish meal by weight. The only difference in the
feed of the two lots was the addition of skimmilk for Lot I.
Sixteen head of hogs were used in this test; eight hogs in
each lot. Table IV shows the results in detail.

TABLE IV.-WEIGHTS, GAINS AND FEEDS (HOGS).
Lot I Lot II
Pounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of test (8 head),
Aug. 9, 1924.....................--... .................. ........... 1,438.00 1,435.00
Weight at end of test, Oct. 8, 1924.................. 2,356.00 2,161.00
Gain in 61 days --- ........................ ............ 918.00 726.00
Average daily gain per head..................... ....... 1.88 1.48
Pounds of corn to make 100 pounds gain.............. 312.74 395.45
Fish meal to make 100 pounds gain...................... 34.74 43.93
Skimmilk to make 100 pounds gain........................ 275.38
Total grain to make 100 pounds gain .......... 347.48 439.38
Feeds Consumed, Pounds
Corn, shelled ................................ ... .. ... ......... 2,871.00 2,871.00
Fish m eal ............................ ...... ......... ................. 319.00 319.00
Skim m ilk ........... ............ ............ ... ...... ...... 2,528.00

The results of this test indicate quite clearly the value of
skimmilk as a feed for hogs being fattened for market. The ad-
dition of skimmilk to the ration increased the average gain per
head .4 pound per day, and reduced the amount of grain re-
quired to make 100 pounds of gain by 64.9 pounds.

Dried Buttermilk as a Feed
The next feeding experiment with hogs was a comparison
of rations as follows:
Lot I. Fed shelled corn, fish meal, and skimmilk
Lot II. Fed shelled corn, fish meal, and dried buttermilk
Lot III. Fed shelled corn, fish meal, and shorts
Lot IV. Fed shelled corn and shorts.


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Annual Report, 1925


The dried buttermilk was mixed with water, 1 pound dried
buttermilk to 9 pounds of water. The buttermilk and skim-
milk were fed in equal amounts.
Thirty-two hogs were used in this, test; eight hogs in each of
four lots.

TABLE V.-WEIGHTS, GAINS AND FEEDS (HOGS)
Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV
Pounds Pounds Poundsj Pounds
Weight at beginning of test (8 head)
October 18, 1924 ....................................! 786.60 810.00 763.30 786.60
Weight at end of test (8 head)
December 18, 1924 ........................ 1,348.30 1,356.60 1,170.00 1,076.60
Gain in 61 days.......................................... 561.70 546.60 406.70 290.00
Average daily gain per head................ 1.15 1.12 .83 .59
Corn to make 100 pounds gain............... 318.85 327.66 224.10 314.39
Fish meal to make 100 pounds .gain........ 35.42 36.41 24.77 ............
Shorts to make 100 pounds gain......................................... 224.10 314.39
Skimmillk to make 100 pounds gain......... 276.03 .............. ............. .........
Dried buttermilk to make 100
pounds gain ............................................ 282.19 ....... .. ....- ..
Feeds Consumed, Pounds
Shelled corn ...................................... ......... 1,791.00 1,791.00 911.75 911.75
Shorts ............ ......................................... ........ .............. 911.75 911.75
Fish M eal ........................................ ........... 199.00 199.00 100.75......
Skimm ilk ..................................... ......... 1,550.50 ............,. I.............. ..
Dried butter ilk .... ........ ............ ......................... 1,550.50 .............. .......

The results from feeding skimmilk and dried buttermilk were
practically equal.
In comparing results from feeding corn, shorts, and fish meal
with corn and shorts, it will be seen that the addition of 5 per-
cent fish meal to the ration increased the average daily gain 0.24
pound. The addition of 5 percent of fish meal to the ration
saved 155.7 pounds of grain for each 100 pounds of gain. To
put it another way, 24.77 pounds of fish meal saved 155.7 pounds
of grain for each 100 pounds of gain.

Fish Meal vs. Meat Meal
The next feeding test was a comparison of shelled corn and
fish meal with shelled corn and meat meal. Eighteen hogs
were used in this test. They were fed in two lots, with nine
hogs in each lot. The feeding test began March 10, 1925, and
continued for 30 days. The feeds were fed in about the fol-
lowing proportion: Lot I, 1 pound of fish meal to each 9 pounds
of shelled corn; Lot II, 11/3 pounds of meat meal to each 9








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pounds of shelled corn. From Table VI it will be seen that
the hogs fed shelled corn and fish meal made 50 percent more
gain than did the hogs fed shelled corn and meat meal.
TABLE VI.-WEIGHTS, GAINS AND FEEDS (HOGS)
Lot I Lot II
SPounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of test March 10, 1925,
(9 head) ........................................--.......................... .741.6 736.6
Weight at end of test April 8, (30 days), (9 head)...... 330.0 850.0
Gain in 30 days ........................................--........... ............ 188.4 113.4
Average daily gain per head .-...........-.....-................... .697 .42
Corn to make 100 pounds gain............................................ 382.7 635.8
Fish meal to make 100 pounds gain.................................... 42.25
Meat meal to make 100 pounds gain.................................. ............ 93.47
FEEDS CONSUMED, POUNDS


Corn ............... ................ ........................
Fish m eal -...........-............... .. ................. ........................
Meat meal .. -----------...................-- ..--.....................


721.0 j 721.0
79.6 ..........
............I 106.0


Fish Meal, Meat Meal and Cottonseed Meal
The next feeding test was a comparison of shelled corn and
fish meal with shelled corn, meat meal, and cottonseed meal.
Eighteen hogs were used in this test. They were fed in two
lots, with nine in each lot. The test began April 9, 1925, and
continued for 30 days. The feeds were fed in about the follow-
ing proportions: To each 9 pounds of shelled corn 1 pound
of fish meal was fed to hogs in Lot IL The meat meal and cot-
tonseed meal were mixed equally by weight, and for each 9
pounds of shelled corn 1 1/3 pounds of the meat meal and cot-
tonseed meal mixture was fed to hogs in Lot II. The results
of this feeding test would ,indicate that better gains will be pro-
duced .by feeding a mixture of meat meal and cottonseed meal.
TABLE VII.-WEIGHTS, GAINS AND FEEDS (HOGS)
SLot I Lot II
I IPounds Pounds
Weight at beginning of test April 9, 1925
(9 head) ..-.--............... -----.----- 930.0 850.0
Weight at close of test, May 8, 1925, (9 head)-.. 1,140.0 1,088.3
Gain in 30 days ....----......... ------------....- 210.0 238.3
Average daily gain per head .--.....-....------- .777 .882
Corn to make 100 pounds gain .....---....--.. ----- 434.57 382.96
Fish meal to make 100 pounds gain----.. ..--...-.. 50.95 ..
Meat meal and cottonseed meal to make
100 pounds gain ........---...........................--. ...- ..--- 56.06
FEEDS CONSUMED, POUNDS
Corn --- -.............. ----- --. .-----. ..--- 912.6 912.6
Fish meal ....,.........;...;:..;.......-... --- --- 107.0, ..
Fi ---ea-----------------------------0.
Meat meal ----..........--.................------------..---- ------- --- 66.8
Cottonseed meal '.........-- ... ....----- -- ----..... .. .. ............ 66.8


18R







Annual Report, 1925


REPORT OF GRASS AND FORAGE
CROPS INVESTIGATOR

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of Grass
and Forage Crops Investigations for the fiscal year ending June
,30, 1925.
Respectfully,
W. E. STOKES,
Grass and Forage Crops Investigator.

As last year the investigational work of the department has
been carried on in cooperation with the Office of Forage Crop
Investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United
States Department of Agriculture.

CHANGES IN PROJECTS
No material changes in projects have been made except that
in several instances projects have been enlarged and extended
so as to be able to do work of a similar nature at the branch ex-
periment stations. For example, cover crop experimental work
as outlined in the previous annual report has been started
at the Citrus Experiment Station, at Lake Alfred, using cit-
rus as the check-up crop; while crop adaptation tests with vari-
ous pasture and forage crops, as well as variety tests of a num-
ber of forage crops, have been put in at the Tobacco Experi-
ment Station, at Quincy.

PROGRESS OF THE YEAR'S WORK
During the year seed and vegetative material of 165 differ-
ent species of possible forage plants were received from the
Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of
Agriculture for trial. Of this lot of seed and vegetative mater-
ial, 74 were grasses, 87 legumes, and 4 miscellaneous plants.
All of this material was planted either in greenhouse grass
garden or plot fields for study.
The test of bush velvet beans, soybeans, Mung beans, cow-
peas, and beggarweed as leguminous hay crops shows that on
high pine land, classed as Norfolk sand by the Bureau of Soils,
Brabham cowpeas gave the highest yield of hay, followed by


19R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Otootan soybeans., The Otootan soybean also gave the highest
yield of seed of any crop in this test.
Grazing experiments with Napier grass (Pennisetum pur-
pureum), as outlined in the 1923 annual report, have been con-
tinued and, as in previous reports, Napier grass intermittent-
ly grazed has continued to give good grazing,,and cultivation
of the grass continues to pay.
Crops tested for-silage this year on Norfolk sandy soil were
corn, sorghum, Napier grass, and Japanese cane. Napier grass
gave the highest acre yield of silage, followed by Japanese cane,
sorghum, and corn in the order named.
The test of Japanese cane and Napier grass irrigated with
overflow from the University septic tanks, irrigated with city
water, and no irrigation is a joint project carried on in coop-
eration with the Engineering Division of the Office of Pub-
lic Roads of the United States Department of Agriculture.
The yields for the season of 1924 are as follows:

Crop I Acre yield in tons
SSewage No | City water
Irrigation irrigation irrigation
Japanese cane .............................. 15.86 9.33 .
Napier grass ............... ................ 39.54 14.08 20.34

These yields are lower than for 1923, partially due to the fact
that frost hit the crop in the fall before it was cut and caused
drying out of some of the top growth.
The sorghum variety test for 1924 included 16 varieties
grown on high pine land, Norfolk sandy soil. The highest yield-
ing variety was Honey Sorghum,, S. P. I. 6605, which produced
9.43 tons of silage per acre in one cutting, The second growth
was frosted, so no yields were taken.
Corn variety test work was started this year with a view
to learning something of the silage and seed corn yielding
power of Florida corns, with the hope of finally doing corn breed-
ing work for high yielding strains adapted to this state. The
corn was planted on high pine land, classed by the Bureau of
Soils as Norfolk sand. Varieties in the test were as follows:
Florida Flint, Cuban Flint, Gist, Seminole, White Dent, Mosby's
Prolific, Florida Corn from the Thomas Co., Tisdale, Hasting's
Prolific, and W. N. Smith Corn. The corn giving the highest


20R








Annual Report, 1925


yield per acre of silage was Tisdale with 9.43 tons. The corn
giving the highest acre yield of shelled corn was Florida Flint
with 25 bushels.

PEANUT VARIETY TEST
The peanut variety test this year was planted with seed
grown on the Experiment Station grounds the previous year.
Each variety was planted in plots 1/145 acre, and repeated
twice, making triplicate plots. No fertilizer was applied, but,
as last year, at blooming time the north half of each variety
plot was treated with land plaster at the rate of 600 pounds
to the acre. A study of Table VIII, showing the yield of each
variety with and without land plaster, is interesting.

TABLE VIII.-PEANUT VARIETY TEST, 1924


'Pounds of nuts per acre
Variety t Land plaster no land plaster
Florida Spanish ........................................ 329.0 265.8
Va. Bunch (Hawthorne) ..................... 761.3 465.1
Va. Bunch (Wash.) .............................. 697.8 528.6
Jum bo ........................................- -............. 637.4 456.1
African .--..........--- ..---- .....-- ...--------- 664.6 496.9
V alencia ...................................................... 314.1 148.0
Imp. Spanish (Wash. '22) .................... 235.6 156.0
Imp. Spanish (S. C. '22) .................... 247.7 126.8
Va. Runner (Wash. '23) .................... 596.4 509.7
Va. Bunch (Wash. '23) ......................... 586.0 457.6
Chinese No. 1 .............---................... ...... 480.3 380.6
Chinese No. 2 ....................................... 450.1 312.6
Chinese No. 3 .----....................................... 290.0 268.8
Chinese No. 4 .......................................... 534.6 495.0
Chinese No. 5 .......................................... 607.1 344.3*
Chinese No. 6 ......................................-... .540.7 335.3
Note.-Above figured from the average of 3 1/290 acre plots except as noted.
No fertilizer was used.
*Average of two 1/290 acre plots.

The following oats were grown in the variety test this
season: Fulghum, Red Rustproof C. I. 1008; Lee C. I. 2042;
Algerian C. I. 1571; Hatchett C. I. 838; Red Rustproof C.
I. 1450; Red Rustproof C. I. 518-5; Red Rustproof C. I. 1815;
Curtis C. I. 2041; Kanota C. I. 839. These varieties were planted
on high pine land, Norfolk sand, and on flatwoods land, Ports-
mouth sandy loam. On the former land all varieties were prac-
tically a failure due either to rust, unproductive land, or lack of
moisture in March and April. On the flatwoods land all varie-
ties made some oats except Curtis, Hatchett, and Lee, which
were total failures due to rust. Of the others, Fulghum, Red


21R








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rustproof C. I. 518-5, C. I. 1815, C. I. 1008, and Algerian C. I.
1571 showed least rust and produced a fair to good crop.
Sulfate of ammonia applied to the above oats at the rate
of 100 pounds to the acre on March 7 materially increased the
yield of hay and grain of all planted on the flatwoods land,
except those which were a total failure due to rust., A similar
application of sulfate of ammonia at the same time to the same
kind of oats planted on high pine land did not have much, if
any, effect on the crop, due to the extremely dry weather of
spring.
WINTER LEGUME TESTS
The following winter legumes were inoculated and planted
on flatwoods land, Portsmouth sandy loam soil: Annual yel-
low sweet clover, hairy vetch, woolly pod vetch, Oregon vetch,
bitter vetch, Hungarian vetch, narrow leaf vetch, alfalfa, three
species of bur clover, white clover, and Crimson clover. None
of these legumes made a satisfactory growth.
The following winter legumes were inoculated and planted
on high pine land, classed by the Bureau of Soils as Norfolk
sand: Annual yellow sweet clover; the following field peas:
Peluschka, Chang, Blue Prussian, Kiser, Grey Winter; and
all of the' vetches and clovers which were planted on the flat-
woods land. None of these legumes made a satisfactory growth
on the high pine land, except hairy and common vetch, and
their growth was only fair.
A winter legume test in Duval County on flatwoods land
classed by the Bureau of Soils as Bladen fine sandy loam yielded
interesting results. In this test good growth was made by each
of the following legumes: Hairy vetch, common vetch, wool-
ly pod vetch, black medic, Canada field pea, Grey Winter field
pea, Hubam clover, Annual Yellow sweet clover, and bur clover.
Bitter vetch, alfalfa, and crimson clover did not make a satis--
factory growth.
In another winter legume test in Duval County on a fine,
white sandy soil known as a scrub oak ridge, and classed by the
Bureau of Soils as Norfolk fine sand, the same legumes were
used as in the above test. Hairy vetch and Woolly Pod vetch
made a very satisfactory growth in this test, while all other
legumes failed.
Winter legume tests were located on three farms in Alachua


22R







Annual Report,, 1925


County, two on soils of the Norfolk series, well drained sandy
lands with yellow sandy subsoil, and one on a rather poor phase
of Portsmouth soil, known locally as flatwoods land, a black
surface soil with a white sandy subsoil. On one of the first
two locations bur clover (Medicago arabica) and hairy vetch
(Vicia villosa) made satisfactory growth, especially the bur
clover, while on the other only bur clover looked promising. On
the flatwoods land hairy vetch and toothed bur clover (Medi-
cago hispida) were the only winter legumes at all promising.
Winter legumes were planted on the Tobacco Experiment
Station. On an Orangeburg soil, a gray surface soil with a
red friable sandy clay subsoil, Canada field peas, hairy vetch,
Woolly Pod vetch, and some of the species of bur clover made
fairly satisfactory growth. All vetches and Canada peas in
with oats were a failure, apparently due to a lack of water for
both crops, as the oats in every instance made a satisfactory
crop.
RICE VARIETY TEST
Twenty-two lots of rice, representing varieties, strains, and
selections, were grown during the year, but unfortunately just
as they were heading cattle broke into the field and destroyed
the crop,
SOYBEAN VARIETY TESTS
Soybean variety tests have been placed in nine counties of
northern and western Florida this year with a view to finding
varieties which will be good forage crops as well as a new
zash crop.
CROTALARIAS
A number of species of Crotalaria were under observation
at the Experiment Station during the year. The most promis-
ing species were Crotalaria striata, Crotalaria sericea,- Crota-
laria usaramoensis, Crotalaria incana, and Crotalaria anagy-
roides, about in the order named.
On the high pine land, Norfolk sand, of the Experiment Sta-
tion farm, a test was run comparing Crotalaria with Brabham
cowpeas, bunch velvet beans, and beggarweed as a cover and
green manure crop and the Crotalaria produced more pounds
of material per acre to turn back to the soil than any. of the


23R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


other three crops, altho it was later in reaching its maximum
stage of growth.
Crotalaria was tested for us by 86 cooperative experiment-
ers thruout the citrus and pecan belt during the past season
with favorable results.

PLANT BREEDING
The breeding work with Spanish peanuts was continued during
the year with good results. After this year the Experiment

















Fig. 1.-Left: Young Crotalaria plant showing root system. Right: Cro-
talaria as a cover crop in a young grove.

Station will probably have a limited supply of one or two high
yielding strains of Spanish peanuts for distribution. Other
strains of Spanish peanuts are also under test now and will
be ready for distribution as soon as they have been tested a
sufficient length of time to determine their yielding power com-
pared with the best strains now available.
Individual plants of Napier grass are being harvested each
year and yield records kept with a view of selecting some high
yielding strains for propagation.

FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
The fertilizer experimental work with Napier grass as out-
lined in the 1924 annual report was continued. The complete
fertilizer plots gave higher yields to the acre of silage than any


24R







Annual Report, 1925


other treatments, either of single elements or combinations of
two elements.
The peanut fertilizer experimental work as outlined in the
1924 annual report was continued. The most striking thing
brought out in this work up to date is the very deleterious
effect of ground limestone on the growth of Spanish peanuts
on Norfolk sand, high pine land. This is shown very clearly
in Fig. 2.
Corn and velvet beans, following the variously fertilized Span-
ish peanuts to get the residual effect of the fertilizer and ground
limestone, continue to show the bad effects of lime as is brought
out clearly in Fig. 2.

FURTHER SPANISH PEANUT FERTILIZER WORK
The regular systematic fertilizer experiment with Spanish
peanuts, started in 1922 and outlined in the 1924 annual re-
port, was continued. Land plaster applied to one-half of the
variously fertilized as well as the check plots continued to give
an increase in yield in all but four instances, the increases
or decreases varying somewhat with the different fertilizer
treatments. Out of 20 check plots which received no treat-


UZ.- A-lfc


Fig. 2.-Foreground: Spanish peanuts, limed on left, unlimed
Background: Corn, unlimed on left, limed on right.


25R


.il uIPhLr,


on right.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ment except one-half of each plot treated with land plaster,
16 gave the highest yield of peanuts on the land plastered part.

PASTURE GRASS STUDIES
The pasture experiments were continued as last year. The
outstanding features of the investigations are as follows: The
date of seeding tests with five pasture mixtures have yielded
results which lead us to believe that the kind of pasture mix-
ture used and the kind of land on which it is planted largely
determine the best date for seeding within certain limits. Sea-
sons of frequent rainfall also seem to have a great deal to do
with determining best dates for planting.
Covering versus no covering of pasture grass seed when plant-
ing on some Florida soils has been tried with many mixtures
every month in the year now for over two years, and in most
instances the evidence seems in favor of a very light cover-
ing.
In the test of methods of preparation of land previous to
seeding pasture mixtures this past season, thoro preparation
in every instance on high pine land and on flatwoods land gave
best stands and growth. Pasture grass mixtures planted on
native sods composed mostly of wire grass on both high pine
land and flatwoods land were failures even where the area was
grazed lightly or mowed frequently after planting. Plantings
made on the same classes of land as above mentioned, which
were disked lightly previous to seeding the pasture grass
mixtures, gave only a fair stand and growth on the flatwoods
land, while on the high pine land the stand was poor and growth
a failure.
Of the new pasture grasses under observation, Bahia grass
(Paspalum notatum), Centipede grass (Eremockloa ophiuro-
ides)! and Panicum repens appear most promising. In fact, our
tests Ihave gone far enough, we think, to warrant us in recom-
mending Bahia grass for permanent pasture purposes almost
anywhere in Florida where pastures might be expected to grow.
Planted on high pine land, Norfolk sandy soil, and moist flat-
woods land, Portsmouth sandy loam, Centipede grass (Eremoch-
loa ophiuroides) has made a greater spread of good sod than
any of the other grasses, including Bermuda, Bahia, Carpet,
St. Augustine and others planted on the same soils at the same
time.


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Annual Report, 1925


Twenty acres of magnolia hammock land have been cleared of
trees and undergrowth and are now being broken preparatory
to putting out six different kinds of permanent pastures to de-
termine carrying capacity, forage value, and some other points
on which we lack information.

LAWN GRASS STUDIES
Lawn grass studies were continued during the year. Fif-
teen different kinds of grasses, and one plant of the Vervain
family (Lippia repens), have been kept under lawn conditions
and observed. closely. Studies have also been started looking
to the control of weed growth in lawns by the use of certain
fertilizers which at the same time give a good growth of the
grass.
Of the new grasses in the lawn tests, Centipede grass (Ere-
mochloa ophiuroides) is the most promising. It has been under
observation at the Experiment Station since 1919 and no disease
nor insect seems to bother it. Kept under lawn conditions since
1922 it has been free from insect and disease injury.
Lippia repens has not proved of much value as a lawn plant
under the conditions existing at the Experiment Station at
Gainesville. A flea beetle has repeatedly partially destroyed the
leaves.
Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) has been found sat-
isfactory for greening up the lawns in winter, but it tends to
retard the spring and summer growth of most of the grasses
in the test, especially the Bermudas. This tendency is less pro-
nounced with St. Augustine and Centipede grass.

WORK AT THE BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Report of the work at the branch Experiment Stations will
be found under the report of these respective stations.

MISCELLANEOUS
Many plant identifications have been made for correspond-
ents, and much material has been distributed for testing. Dis-
tribution of individual packages of material upon request for
testing for lawn purposes has been especially heavy, indicat-
ing a desire for beautification of home grounds.
Correspondence relating to pasture, forage crop, and cover
crop problems has greatly increased over last year.


27R








Florida Agricultuiral Experiment Station


REPORT OF CHEMIST

Wilmon Newell, Director,
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of
Chemistry for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
R. W. RUPRECHT,
Chemist.

DIEBACK OF CITRUS
The work on this project was continued as outlined in pre-
vious annual reports. The experimental grove at Lake Alfred
made good growth and bore a good crop of fruit. No die-
back developed on any of the plots.
The trees at Gainesville made a normal growth with no signs
of dieback developing in any of them. Drainage waters were
collected from the eight tank trees on 19 different dates. On
only seven of these however was a full set of eight samples
taken, on five dates. seven samples and on the remaining seven
dates the number taken varied between one and five. Tank
1 was the only one from which a sample was collected on each
occasion.
In tanks 2 and 8 the source of ammonia was changed from
manure to cottonseed meal as the soil in the tanks was too
high to permit the use of manure. Table IX gives the analy-
sis of the drainage waters.
The total amount of drainage was about the same as in the
previous year. The same general differences in the composi-
tion of the drainage waters from the different tanks that was
found in the past two years was again found. The tanks re-
ceiving manure or cottonseed meal as a source of ammonia
have lost a smaller amount of plant food. The sulfate of
ammonia tanks are still losing more sulfates and calcium while
the nitrate tanks lose more sodium. The high loss of nitrates
from the tanks receiving sulfate of ammonia and blood indi-
cates rapid nitrification in these soils, as no nitrates were added
to these tanks. It will also be noted that the use of sulfate
of ammonia causes increased loss of iron. As our soils are
rather low in this element, the long continued use of sulfate
of ammonia might cause a deficiency of iron.


28R








TABLE IX.-TOTAL AMOUNT OF DRAINAGE DURING THE YEAR AND THE AMOUNT OF PLANT FOOD REMOVED FROM EACH
TANK. FIGURES ARE IN GRAMS, EXCEPT AS NOTED.

Tank No.. No. 1- No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7 No. 8

0
o







Total drainage in liters 1016.55 858.76 666.20 729.62 594.45 979.82 523.16 765.20
Total solids .................... 2939.84 1147.48 1574.00 224.41 831.07 1,368.08 872.52 724.63
Fixed solids .................... 2121.96 1003.84 1325.26 1819.17 582.67 969.30 624.79 569.73
Ammonia .......................... 27.27 .196 .459 .29 .367 22.13 1.75 .507
Nitrites ............................ .447 .023 .027 .073 .125 1.49 .123 .0832

Sulphates .......................... 1227.65 499.62 697.42 859.05 175.92 447.23 219.43 244.23
Chlorine ........................... 20.855 26.17 19.99 48.756 17.52 27.18 28.22 27.98
Calcium oxide .................. .563.85 194.05 350.81 388.05 32.08 125.29 107.64 45.54
Sodium oxide ................ 67.66 I 60.99 69.37 331.96 204.21 58.11 85.67 59.90
0 ,0 C

O a I I 0 1


Total drainage in liters 1016.55 858.76 666.20 729.62 594.45 979.82 523.16 765.20




otassium oxide .............. 172939.84 1147.48 1574.00 22 4.41 831.07 1,368.08 872.52 724.63
Fixed solids ................. 2121.96 1003.84 1325.26 1819.17 582.67 969.30 624.79 569.73



Ammon oxide ................... 27.27 .196 .459 .29 .099 .252 .081 .507
Nitritesium oxide .................. 4.447 .023 .027 .073 1.125 1.49 .123 .08325.65
Nitrates ......................... 238.19 13.84 85.90 295.95 229.65 210.13 121.11 100.76
Phos. acid ................ 1.315 .606 .663 .59 .302 .708 .339 .535
Sulphates ...................... 1 227.65 499.62 697.42 859.05 175.92 447.23 219.43 244.23
Chlorine .................20.855 26.17 19.99 48.756 17.52 27.18 28.22 27.98
Calcium oxide ................. 563.85 194.05 350.81 388.05 32.08 125.29 107.64 45.54
Sodium oxide.......... 67.66 60.99 69.37 331.96 204.21 58.11 85.67 59.90
Potassium oxide ........... 173.10 140.81 115.90 151.68 94.45 146.01 110.73 153.01
Iron oxide ..................... .680 .179 .194 .189 .099 .252 .081 .1158
Magnesium oxide 48.02 4 30.77 22.53 12.13 26.22 27.43 35.65







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The work with the small soil tanks in the greenhouse was
continued. The trees in the first series were so badly injured
by disease and scale insects that they were pulled up and a new
set of trees planted.
The 10 tanks in the second series are receiving the follow-
ing treatment:
2-water table within 15 inches of surface
2-water table within 24 inches of surface
2-normal fertilizer
2-normal fertilizer plus calcium carbonate
2-normal fertilizer with all ammonia from organic sources.
The object is to induce dieback in the trees and to study
the changes that have taken place in the soil on the advent
of the disease. As yet no dieback symptoms have developed
on any of the trees.
Attempts were also made to grow grapefruit seedlings in
aqueous nutrient solutions in order to study the action of cop-
per salts, but without success. The seedlings make only a
small growth and then stop growing, tho they do not die.

NUTRITION STUDIES
The work on this project was somewhat enlarged this year.
In cooperation with the United States Department of Agri-
culture and tomato growers, two cooperative fertilizer experi-
ments were conducted in Dade County with tomatoes. The
object of these experiments was to determine what relation
if any there was between fertilizer treatments and the preva-
lence of nailhead rust. A crop of tomatoes was harvested but
showed no marked or consistent differences due to the vari-
ous fertilizers used. It is planned to continue these experi-
ments another year.
A new citrus potash fertilizer experiment was begun at the
Citrus Station at Lake Alfred. This is a duplicate of the ex-
periment started last year at Vero, comparing the muriate of
potash, sulfate of potash and sulfate of potash and magnesia
as sources of potash for tree growth and their effect on the
fruit. A total of 352 trees are used in the experiment as fol-
lows: 112 Dancey tangerines, 120 Norris seedless oranges
and 120 Marsh seedless grapefruit all on rough lemon stock.
These trees were planted in February, 1925, and received their
first application of fertilizer on June 20, 1925. All of the trees
are growing nicely.


30R








Annual Report, 1925


The pecan fertilizer experiments were increased by the ad-
dition of another experiment at Pensacola, the object being to
determine the best formula and whether one or two applications
of fertilizer are best.
Three fertilizer experiments were begun at the Everglades
Experiment Station, one with Irish potatoes, one with toma-
toes, and one with corn, The potato and tomato experiments
were conducted on muck in the "weed" type, while the corn
was grown on a field that had grown a good crop of corn the
previous year. The long period during which this land was
flooded last winter had a tendency to change all of it back
to the saw grass type.
In all three of these experiments various fertilizer elements
are used singly and in combinations and such soil amendments
as lime, gypsum or land plaster, sulphur, copper sulfate and
stable manure. These experiments were started with the idea
of obtaining information for further fertilizer studies rather
than as complete fertilizer tests.
The crop of tomatoes was almost a failure, due to wet wea-
ther. No differences that could be attributed to fertilizer were
found.
The potatoes made a fair crop. Table X shows the yield
and quality of the potatoes made on each plot..

TABLE X.-YIELD IN POUNDS OF POTATOES AND TREATMENT OF EACH PLOT.
I Total Fertilizer
Plot 1 2 3 Culls marketable Itreatment
1 241.0 85.0 28.5 10 354 no fert.
2 275.0 85.0 24.0 13 384 ammonia alone
3 277.0 109.0 34.5 17 420 phos. acid
4 254.5 90.0 29.5 15 373 potash
5 165.0 66.0 19.5 11 250 no fert.
6 216.5 103.0 27.5 12 347 ammonia & phos. a.
7 278.0 80.0 21.5 9 379 phos. acid & pot.
8 340.5 121.0 28.5 14 490 ammonia & potash
9 218.5 80.0 23.5 13 322 no fert.
10 373.5 123.5 29.5 13 526 complete fert.
11 291.0 96.0 27.0 12 414 manure
12 302.0 105.0 24.0 14 431 manure & complete
13 296.0 95.0 29.0 14 420 no fert.
14 288.0 99.0 29.0 13 416 sulphur
15 -247.0 100.0 21.0 9 .368 land plaster
*16 92.0 30.0 7.0 4 127 copper sulfate'
*17 86.0 42.0 14.0 10 142 no fert.
*Different varieties from balance of plots.


31R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


While the complete fertilizer gave the highest yields, the
complete fertilizer plus manure gave but a slightly higher yield
than the adjacent no fertilizer plot. The yields from the first
15 plots seem to indicate that fertilizer brings up the yield but
that no one source or combination is greatly superior to an-
other. This experiment will 'be repeated next year on the
same plots and may give more decided results.
The corn is making a good growth but has not as yet been
harvested.
The pecan experiments were continued as outlined in the
last annual report. A fair crop of nuts was harvested from
some of the orchards but as the experiment has been running
only one year no conclusions can be drawn from the crop pro-
duced.
The experiments with satsuma oranges at Round Lake and
Panama City were continued. No fruit was obtained but all
the trees made a good growth and have made a good recov-
ery from the effects of the cold of the previous year. Several
trees at Round Lake had to be replaced as they were badly
injured by cold.
The potash experiment with citrus at Vero was continued. A
good crop of grapefruit was harvested but, due to a misunder-
standing, no records of tree yields were obtained. The orange
crop was light and a count was made of each tree. Samples of
the grapefruit were obtained and analyzed, but no differences
were found.
The phosphate experiment at Lake Alfred was continued as
heretofore (see 1918 annual report, Page 39 R, and 1922 annual
report for description of the experiment). The yields per tree
of grapefruit on the various plots are shown below.
Yields Per Tree of Grapefruit
I Old grove Young grove
Acid phosphate ........ 364.72 143.75 182.06
Steamed bone ........... 349.17 172.52 156.48
Soft phosphate ......... 380.67 220.63 208.89
Pebble phosphate ........ 371.44-335.56 188.70 215.77
It will be noted that in both the old and the young grove
the soft phosphate plot gave the highest yield. In both plots
in the young grove the pebble phosphate gave second largest
yield. The high yield from these two sources of phosphoric acid


32R







Annual Report, 1925


may in part be explained by the fact that the total amount of
phosphoric acid added from these sources is three times as
great as the amount added in acid phosphate. The yield of
oranges was too light to give any indication as to the effect of
the various phosphates.
The high vs. low potash experiment at the Citrus Station
was continued as outlined in last year's annual report.
The marked difference between the 3 percent and 10 per-
cent plots noticed last year have disappeared. The yields from
all of the plots were much the same. Fruit from each plot
was analyzed but no differences due to different amounts of
potash used were found.
In order to determine whether the source of ammonia played
a part in the time of ripening of grapefruit, samples were taken
at approximately weekly intervals from the plots in the die-
back grove and analyzed.
Table XI gives the results of the analyses.
These results were presented before the Florida Horticul-
tural Society at its annual meeting in Eustis.
Glancing at the table as a whole, it will be noticed that no
striking differences exist. A closer study of each determina-
tion, however, shows some differences. In the first column,
"weight of fruit", there is a gradual increase from the first
to the last picking. In the next column, the juice content also
is gradually getting higher. Toward the end all had over 50
percent. The Brix readings showed the same trend as the
other two determinations, a gradual increase. The sugar or
sucrose column does not show steady increase except in plot
2. The total sugars, however, do show an increase as the
season progressed. Just why the sucrose content did not keep
pace with the total sugars is hard to explain, unless it was
due to some of the sucrose being inverted before the fruits were
analyzed. This could easily have been the case, as the time
the oranges were on the road varied considerably.
Coming now to the acidity column, we find very little change
in the percentage during the six weeks covered by the test.
The last column gives the ratio of acid to solids. Here we
find a gradual change from ratio of less than 1 to 7 to one
above that figure.


33R










TABLE XI.-ANALYSES OF GRAPEFRUIT


Plot 1. 11/3 437.6 49.9 8.9 2.64 3.77 641 1.41 1/6.2

11/8 410.0 45.7 8.9 2.78 3.59 6.37 1.21 1/7.4 Sulphate
11/17 421.3 51.7 9.3 2.76 3.97 6.73 1.33 1/6.9 of
51.8 8.8 2.80 4.09 6.89 1.29 1/6.9

12/6 441.3 50.3 9.4 2.54 3.87 6.41 1.37 1/6.9 ammonma
12/16 383.8 50.0 9.7 2.63 4.70 7.38 1.25 1/7.9
1.0 3.8 6.85 1.26 1/8
12/6 469.1 50.6 9.2 3.01 4.02 7.03 1.30 1/7.0
Plot 1. 11/3 1437. 498. 8.9 2.61 3.771 6.90 1.43 1/6.2
11/8 340.0 45.7 98.9 2.78 3.59 6.37 1.21 1/7.4 S hate




11/8 355.0 51.9 8.6 2.71 4.02 6.73 1.31 1/6.5
11/17 421.3 51.7 9.0 2.76 3.97 6.73 1.33 1/6.9 loo


11/22 55434.7 51.2 8. 2.80 4.3309 6.89 1.2930 1/6.9
12/6 441.3 50.3 9.4 2.54 3.87 6.41 1.37 1/6.9
12/16 383.8 50.0 9.7 2.63 4.70 7.38 1.25 1/7.9
Plot 2 10/27 407.5 47.9 8.7 2.90 3.65 6.553 1.34 1/6.5
11/3 442.5 49.9 8.3 2.80 3.43 6.23 1.33 1/6.2
11/8 440.0 48.6 8.5 2.90 3.49 6.39 1.21 1/7.0 Nitrate
11/17 445.8 51.7 I8.8 2.88 3.50 6.38 1.29 1/7.0 of
11/22 555.0 51.2 8.5 3.05 3.80 6.85 1.26 1/6.8 soda
12/6 469.1 50.6 9.2 3.01 4.02 7.03 1.30 1/7.0
12/16 472.8 51.2 9.6 3.05 4.32 7.37 1.32 1/7.3
Plot 3 10/27 361.1 48.4 8.9 2.71 4.19 6.90 1.43 1/6.2 Ii
11/3 345.8 48.9 9.1 2.65 4.08 6.73 1.40 1/6.5 '
11/8 355.0 51.9 8.6 2.71 4.02 6.73 1.31 1/6.5
11/17 380.5 51.7 9.0 2.54 4.20 6.74 1.38 1/6.5 Blood
11/22 434.7 52.2 8.7 2.86 4.33 7.19 1.30 1/6.7
12/6 378.3 52.6 9.1 2.41 4.35 6.76 1.34 1-/6.8
12/16 375.3 50.9 9.3 '2.45 4.98 7.43 1.33 1/7.0








Annual Report, 1925


So far as our analyses show, the changes have been as fol-
lows: an increase in juice content to 50 percent or better
and increase in the total solids as indicated by the Brix read-
ings and an increase in total sugars. These changes, for the
most part, have been very small, however, and a slight error
in either the reading of the hydrometer or in the titration of
the juice would change the ratio sufficiently to change the
classification of the fruit.
The experiments at the Tbbacco Station were continued (see
1923 annual report for outline of experiments).
The pecan experiments in cooperation with the Bureau of
Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, were
continued as heretofore. A fair crop of nuts was harvested
from the Jacksonville experiment but only a very light one
from the trees at Baldwin.
Two crops of celery, early and late, and a crop of lettuce
were harvested from the celery experiment at Sanford con-
ducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture. The lettuce was planted
on the same ground as the late celery. The yields from all
of the crops were good. This experiment is being continued.

SOFT-PORK INVESTIGATIONS
The chemical work on this subject was curtailed due to the
ravages of disease which killed a large number of the hogs
under test. A total of only 17 fat samples were tested dur-
ing the year.
The study of the mineral content of Florida-grown grasses,
forage crops and grains was continued. Thru the coopera-
tion of the Grass and Forage Crops Investigator a large num-
ber of samples were obtained from the Everglades Experi-
ment Station and from the various experiments conducted by
him on the station farm. Thru cooperation with the Ani-
mal Industrialist a number of samples of grain and dairy
feeds were obtained from out of the state, for comparison of
their mineral content with Florida-grown mixtures.
As heretofore a considerable number of analyses were made
for various departments of the station on a wide variety of
materials such as peanuts, pecans, fertilizers, soils, etc.


35R








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST
Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I hereby submit the report of the entomology depart-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
J. R. WATSON,
Entomologist.

NEW CITRUS APHIS
Natural Enemies
Practically all of the time of the entire entomological staff
from the first of February to the end of the year was devoted
to the new citrus aphis, now commonly called by the growers
"the green aphid." The complete report of this work will
appear in the Quarterly Bulletin of the State Plant Board,
and it is only necessary here to make a brief summary of
the same.
Intensive studies were conducted on the life history of the
aphis, and also that of the chief parasites and predators such
as syrphus fly larvae and lady beetles. Studies were made of
the life history of these insects, their super-parasites, the num-
ber of aphids they would eat, rate of multiplication, etc. On
the whole they are totally incapable of controlling the citrus
aphis in the field. Doubtless when the aphis is largely disap-
pearing from lack of proper food they will account for many,
and they are of importance in cleaning up the remnant of
aphids that may escape the artificial control methods. If the
grower will kill 95 percent of the aphids on his trees the preda-
tors will undoubtedly 'be of considerable help in keeping the
remaining 5 percent from increasing.
Fortunately the common insecticide used against aphids, to-
bacco in various forms, does not ordinarily kill these predators.
Our studies showed that these predators could live three days
without food. This means that if the aphids on a tree ;are
killed the enemies have three days in which to hunt up any
that may have escaped, or to wait for a reinfestation.
A new species of lady beetle was introduced from California,
and it is hoped that it will be less susceptible to fungous and
insect parasites than are the native species.


36R







Annual Report, 1925


Control Measures
An exhaustive study of control measures was undertaken.
It was found that the nicotine sulphate-lime dusts were very
effective in cleaning a tree of aphids if they could be applied
in calm weather. The difficulty of finding such conditions,
however, led to extensive experiments in dusting under tents.
These experiments indicate that, at least on small trees, this
is the most satisfactory method of dealing with the pest. Many
types of tents were made and tried out, and preliminary ex-
periments in combining control of the aphis and scale insects
were conducted. These look very promising, but the investi-
gations must be continued.
Spraying was found effective only early in the flush of growth
before the leaves had curled.
Dipping the ends of infested branches into insecticides was
found to be the cheapest and most thoro method of dealing
with the pest on very young trees and before infestation had
become general.
Spot dusting every day, irrespective of wind, was found to
be very expensive and on the whole inefficient.
After the first of March this aphid work was carried on in
cooperation with the State Plant Board under a special emer-
gency appropriation released for that purpose. The entire ex-
pense, with the exception of the salaries of the entomologist
and assistant entomologist, was borne by the State Plant Board.

NEMATODE CONTROL
Next to the new citrus aphis, the root-knot nematode received
the largest amount of attention.
Further studies with calcium cyanide indicate that this mater-
ial may be successfully substituted for the double treatment of
sodium cyanide and ammonium sulphate, which has heretofore
proved about the best method of controlling the pest in seed-
beds. However, preliminary tests would indicate that about
twice the amount of calcium cyanide is required as of sodium
cyanide, so that there will be practically no saving in the cost
of the vermicide. However, the labor cost in applying the cal-
cium cyanide is distinctly less than in applying sodium cyanide
and ammonium sulphate, in that it can all be applied at the
one application and no water is necessary.


37R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


An experiment in cooperation with Carl B. James, horticul-
turist for the L. & N. Railroad, was started in a peach orchard
at DeFuniak Springs, to test the value of applications of cal-
cium cyanide on peach trees. These tests look very encourag-
ing, tho they must be carried over a number of years before
we can consider the matter as settled.
Different blocks were treated with different amounts of
cyanide, varying from 1,000 pounds to 250 pounds per acre
and at different periods. Applications of one-half ton per
acre were found to be too heavy and resulted in injury to the
trees. The trees receiving applications of from 500 to 750
pounds per acre presented the best appearance. They were
larger, more thrifty and more productive than those receiving
more or less of the cyanide. It was found more advantageous
to apply the cyanide in two (March 1 and July 1) or four
(March, May, July, and September) applications than in one
large amount once per season. In the latter case the applica-
tion was made the first of March. It is possible that the first
of April would have been better for this purpose.
Two cooperative experiments have been started with grow-
ers in other parts of the state in controlling nematodes on
peaches. One is at Gainesville and the other is at the State
Prison Farm at Raiford.
Experiments in mulching both figs and peaches with tarred
paper to control nematodes do not look very promising. Treated
trees seem to be just as severely infested as the check trees.
TESTS OF CALCIUM CYANIDE FOR PEACH BORERS
Calcium cyanide, varying in amount from 1 to 3 percent,
was tried on four-year-old peach trees as a fumigant for borers.
Preliminary experiments would seem to indicate that it can
be used to replace paradichlorobenzine, but further tests are
desirable before any conclusions can be definitely stated. One
tree receiving 2 ounces was apparently injured.,

CELERY LEAF-TYER
The celery leaf-tyer, which did so much damage in the San-
ford regions in the spring of 1923, again appeared in destructive
numbers the present year. In cooperation with the truck pest
Entomologist of Agricultural Extension Division, some work was
done in changing the spray rigs used for applying the insecti-


38R







Annual Report, 1925


cides to the celery, as it was felt that the satisfactory control
of the celery leaf-tyer was largely a question of the proper dis-
tribution of the poison.
Further tests with the poisoned bran baits indicated that they
could be used very effectively in the control of the celery leaf-
tyer. These baits were made up both with and without nitroben-
zine, and with and without fruit juice. Little difference in the con-
trol obtained from these different baits could be noticed. It is
essential that some pains be taken to get the bait down to the
heart of the bunch where the worms are found. This can be
done by hand, rather a back-breaking process, or more easily by
first dropping it on top of the celery and then knocking it down
by a stick or pole drawn across the celery.

REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST
Following is the report of the Assistant Entomologist, A. H.
Beyer, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
The work of the Assistant Entomologist, in addition to the rou-
tine work of the office and the special investigations on citrus
aphis, may be outlined under the following subjects: Life his-
tory studies of insects of economic importance on the pecan;
parasitic and other enemies, control measures from the stand-
point of efficiency and economy; life history and methods of
attack of chinch bugs on St. Augustine grass, with methods of
control; continuation of work done in previous years on the
bean jassid, including additional studies on habits and further
results in control measures; and an intensive study during the
past few months of the aphid new to citrus, including feed-
ing habits, dispersion, natural enemies, host plants, and the most
effective and economical methods of control.

PECAN INSECTS
Biological studies have been conducted with relation to the
life history and parasites of the most important insects injurious
to pecan trees. These have been divided into three groups: In-
sects injurious to the foliage, those injurious to the trunk and
limbs of the tree, and those injurious to the nuts.
Among those injurious to the foliage which have been studied
under laboratory conditions are the leaf case bearer, cigar case
bearer, bud moth, fall webworm, and the pecan caterpillar; those
injurious to the trunk and limbs are the hickory cossid, termites


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


or white ants, flat-headed borer, shot-hole borer, and twig gird-
ler; while those studied that are injurious to the nuts included
the nut case bearer and the pecan weevil.
In cooperation with the Pecan Investigation Department a
complete file is being kept of insect infestations reported by the
growers as being of economic importance. By this method the
Assistant Entomologist is enabled to keep in close touch with the
needs of the pecan growers.
A series of experiments in the control of leaf case bearer, cigar
case bearer, bud moth, nut case bearer, and scab, is being con-
ducted in the grove of H. H. Simmons, Jacksonville, Duval County
and James H. Wells of Baldwin, Duval County. The varieties
being used in this experiment include the Stuart, Moore, Money-
maker, James, Schley, Frotscher, Van Deman, Simmons and
Teche. The first application of spray was applied the latter part
of March, just as the foliage was beginning to appear, the fol-
lowing formula being used: 4 pounds of lead arsenate, 12
pounds of lime, 2 pounds Kayso, 200 gallons water. A sprayer
was used with a pressure of 300 pounds, the spray being de-
livered to the foliage of the tree with a spray gun, and thoroly
applied to both sides of the foliage. On varieties known to be
susceptible to scab the above formula was used in a 4-4-50 Bor-
deaux mixture instead of water.
On the last of April an inspection of these sprayed trees
showed the following percentage of infestation: leaf case bearer,
9 percent; cigar case bearer, 19 percent; scab, scarcely notice-
able. A second application was made on the same date, using
the formula previously mentioned. On June 29 another inspec-
tion of the experiment showed practically no trace of leaf or
cigar case bearer. Scab was also very scarce.
It has been planned to conduct these experiments thruout a
series of years with others added from time to time, such as
experiments in the control of the spittle bug, scale insects, Phyl-
loxera and hickory aphis, the latter being an important economic
pest the past year, by means of oil emulsion, nicotine sulphate
and other contact insecticides. A series of dusting experiments
will also be conducted to test out the value of calcium arsenate,
nicotine dust and calcium cyanide as contact insecticides, as well
as copper-lime dusts as repellants for sucking insects in the con-
trol of scab and other diseases.


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Annual Report, 1925 41R

BEAN JASSID
The experiments of this year centered around the use of the
new device which had previously been found so efficient when
used in spraying experiments with nicotine sulphate and Bor-
deaux mixture, for the application of dusts as well as sprays.
A series of comparative experiments was conducted with cop-
per-lime dusts to which was added 3 percent nicotine. In these
experiments the following results were obtained: when the
copper-lime dusts were applied thoroly to the foliage it was found
that they did not adhere as well as the Bordeaux mixture. When
the nicotine dusts were under the enclosure or hood in the spray-
ing device mentioned above, the percentage of kill was about the
same as that with the spray. The effects of the copper-lime dust
were not as lasting as those of the Bordeaux, which acts as a re-
pellant for the bean leaf hopper.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE PLANT PATHOLOGIST

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Plant Pathologist
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
O. F. BURGER,
Plant Pathologist.

During the past year the Department of Plant Pathology has
been working in cooperation with the State Plant Board on
scaly bark of citrus, citrus canker, fungous control of citrus
aphis and diseases of coconuts. Also we have cooperated with
the Office of Truck, Cotton and Forage Crop Diseases of the
United States Department of Agriculture and the growers of
southern Dade County on the control of tomato nailhead rust.
Cooperation with Brevard County citrus growers on citrus wilt
was carried on, Dr. A. S. Rhoads being in charge of the work.
The regular problems of the department were taken care of
by the various members in the department and their respective
reports are incorporated in this report.
One new project was added during the past year which is
the coloring of citrus fruits and its relation to decay in transit.
This spring when there occurred a severe outbreak of the
citrus aphis, Dr. E. M. Gilbert of the University of Wisconsin,
who was on Sabbatical leave, offered his services to the State
Plant Board and the Experiment Station to study fungous par-
asites of the aphid.
CITRUS CANKER
There occurred a slight outbreak of canker at Boynton in Palm
Beach County. The Pathologist visited the place and learned
that only four "rough lemon trees were found infected. These
trees were isolated from other citrus trees and were growing on
a city lot. It is believed that the outbreak was due to a hold-
over in the trees which had not been detected by the inspectors
at their previous inspection.
The laboratory work, which is being done by Kenneth W.
Loucks, consisted mainly of studies of the bacterium, Pseudo-
monas citri, and its reactions to various media. It was found
that it thrives best on potato glucose agar, but that its shape


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Annual Report, 1925


and size changed with age. This work is being carried on for
the purpose of finding its various forms produced by growth on
different media and at different temperatures in relation to its
ability to infect citrus trees.

MELANOSE
Several groves were sprayed in the spring of 1924 with 3-3-50
Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion to control melanose.
These groves are scattered in different counties over the state.
Good results were obtained in spraying oranges in every grove.
The grapefruit groves on the East Coast, however, did ndt show
up as well as in other portions of the state. The results of the
orange spraying compare with those published in Bulletin 167.
The grapefruit do not show up as well. As yet we have not
been able to account for the poor results obtained with the
grapefruit.
COLORING OF CITRUS FRUITS
L. E. DuPont is working on this problem. On account of the
peculiar nature of the work, some time was spent getting ac-
quainted with the commercial coloring rooms and constructing
suitable laboratory apparatus. Various gases were tried, but
the best results were obtained from the gas from lighted kero-
sene stoves.
PECAN SCAB
Pecan scab project was given to R. E. Nolen, who worked on
it for the last two years. The following is a summary of his
work.
Beginning November 1, 1923 the study of pecan scab, Fusi-
cladium effuzum Wint., was undertaken. It has consisted of a
laboratory study of the fungus, aided by field observations.
Very few spores were secured in the fall and winter and be-
cause of their non-vitality no isolations were secured until the
spring when pure cultures of the organism were isolated from
both Schley and seedling pecans.
Germination tests conducted during the fall and winter gave
negative results, while practically 100 percent of the spores in
the tests conducted during the spring months germinated.
Cultural studies were conducted and it was found that the fun-
gus has an incubation period of from four to nine days, accord-


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ing to the temperature and medium used, that it grows best at
250C. and slowly at 150C. and 30C. It grows and sporulates
more quickly on cornmeal agar and nutrient cornmeal agar than
on other media. It grows readily but does not sporulate abund-
antly on potato dextrose agar, 2 percent dextrose. Sporulation
on cornmeal agar was secured in eight days at 250C.
Inoculation experiments were successfully conducted in the
field of both Van Deman and seedling trees after an incuba-
tion period of from 5 to 21 days.
A great deal of difference was found in the susceptibility of
the several varieties. The more susceptible varieties in the order
of their susceptibility in Florida, with the exception of the West-
ern varieties and Georgia Giant, which are not grown to any ex-
tent, are: Delmas, Van Deman, Schley, Alley, Pabst, Moore,
Kennedy and Curtis. The more resistant varieties are: Teche,
Frotscher, Stuart and Moneymaker.
A series of spore measurements were made in an effort to de-
termine the possible existence of several strains of the fungus.
With the exception of Delmas, but very little variation was
found. In the case of Delmas considerable variation was found
but it may be a possible locality strain.
The spores measure from 10.4-28.6M x 3.9-9.1M, averaging
18.2 x 6.5 microns.
The disease is found on the leaves, twigs and nuts and is prob-
ably carried thru the winter on old infected husks and twigs
and old leaves on the ground.
The mycelium lives thru the winter, renewing sporulation in
the spring. Infected husks, showing no spores in the fall, were
kept thru the winter in the laboratory. In the spring infected
spots were sporulating and the spores were viable.
The leaves are susceptible for two weeks after unfolding. The
nuts are susceptible from three weeks after setting until the milk
stage. Nuts badly infected when young drop before they are
half grown.
Nursery stock of resistant varieties may be extremely suscep-
tible to scab; such as Curtis, President and Kennedy.
The presence of moisture increases the severity of infection.
San Saba, Halbert and Delmas, which are extremely suscepti-
ble in Florida, are practically immune to scab in western Texas.


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Annual Report, 1925


SCALY BARK
Scaly bark of citrus was being handled by W. G. Wells. When
he resigned Erdman West took up the work. The nature of this
work is the histological study of the disease.
During the year a survey was made of the state in company
with the Nursery Inspector of the State Plant Board. The fol-
lowing is the summary of the findings.
Scaly bark is not as severe in many places as it used to be.
The disease in many groves has not spread in the last five
years and is easily controlled by pruning and spraying.
Of 20,000 trees sent out from nurseries in scaly bark terri-
tory, only one showed evidences of scaly bark. Therefore it
seems that scaly bark can be handled like any other of the cit-
rus diseases, and nursery inspection will be sufficient to keep
it under control.
COCONUT DISEASES
This work was done in cooperation with the State Plant Board.
J. L. Seal, Assistant Pathologist, was placed in charge of the
work January 1, 1925. The following is his report of the work.
The work on the coconut budrot has been confined almost
entirely to making isolations from various suspicious budrotted
and dead plants. Specimens of coconut plants have been re-
ceived in all stages of decay and frequently have been in such
condition that it is very doubtful whether Phytophthora could
have been isolated even if present. Consequently the results
have been very variable, isolations often yielding other forms of
organisms than Phytophthora. In plates such organisms as Bac-
terium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicil-
lium sp., Oidium sp., Phytophthora sp., Pythium sp., Thielaviop-
sis sp., Colletotrichum sp., and a few unidentified forms have oc-
curred in about the order named. From January 27 to date,
some 760 specimens from 245 different properties have been re-
ceived arid isolations made from these specimens. About 70 of
these specimens have yielded Phytophthora faberi, in which 32
properties are concerned. From the above findings the budrot
infested area on the East Coast has been extended from the im-
mediate vicinity of Miami as far north as Ft. Pierce.
Various media have been used, such as potato dextrose, corn-
meal, prune, carrot, oatmeal and extract of coconut stems. The


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


first two of these agars have been used more extensively and
seem to be better suited. Most fungi grow well on potato dex-
trose and their growth is rapid. Cornmeal agar permits a rather
slow growth for most of the organisms and retards the growth
of bacteria to such an extent that Phytophthora faberi may be
rather more readily freed from them, especially if the culture
is allowed to grow in a low temperature. Prune agar may be
used with about equal results.
The morphology of the Phytophthora isolated from coconut
specimens collected on the East Coast agrees very closely with
the records of Reinking for Phytophthora faberi.
Attempts have been made to isolate Phytophthora faberi from
soil from infected nurseries, but without success. Isolations from
other palms and from papaya have yielded negative results.
Just where and how Phytophthora faberi lives from year to
year has yet to be determined. When and how this fungus was
introduced into Florida has not been determined. The infec-
tion from its general distribution would, appear to have been
here for some time. Budrot caused by Phytophthora faberi
seems to be confined to nursery and young palms, as it has not
been found in bearing palms. Budrot in bearing palms has in
almost every case been due to Thielaviopsis. From data on
hand, the spread of the disease may be traced to man, water
and possibly the wind, but the former two are the chief means.

APHIS DISEASES
The aphis diseases are being studied by W. A. Kuntz, As-
sistant Pathologist of the State Plant Board, with whom we
have been cooperating. The following is a report of the status
of the work.
In a preliminary report it has been stated that four distinct
groups of organisms may be the cause of death to the aphis on
citrus. These organisms are two species of entomogenous fungi
belonging to the genus Empusa, several species of Cladosporium,
bacterial parasites and a fungus collected from Fort Myers,
Florida. Some studies on certain of these organisms have pro-
gressed to the point where a general summary is advisable.

GENERAL FIELD SURVEY
The data from field collections and laboratory examinatiosis
of citrus aphids in this state are summarized in Table XII. It


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Annual Report, 1925


will be noted that the Fort Myers fungus is omitted from this
table, since it has been collected only in that locality twice dur-
ing April of this year.
While the table indicates in an empirical way the organisms
associated with dead aphids, the proportionate total of these
organisms as the cause of death to this aphis is not shown in
an exacting way. This is primarily due to the fact that the
period after infection and the length of time the aphids were
dead, before the examinations took place, was not known for
the various collections.

TABLE XII.-ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH DEAD APHIS POMI ON CITRUS
Date Locality Empusa Clado- Bacterial Emp.' and
-1925 Fresenii sporium Type Clado.
3-12 Conway 32 53 3 6
3-16 Temple Terrace 62 26 8
3-18 Conway 57 175 28
3-18 Conway 10 33 76
3-25 Temple Terrace 18 242 3 75
3-29 IPunta Gorda 28 19 174 4
3-30 Valrico 127 74 5 60
4-1 Lake Alfred 180 49 22
4-1 Eagle Lake 94 106 8 10
4-2 Wauchula 124 52 6 23
4-2 Zellwood 120 9 4 12
4-2 Lakeland 392 969 ...... 322
4-2 Conway 345 259 21 12
4-2 IValrico 172 14 4 7
4-3 ILaBelle 110 52 4 19
4-3 Wauchula 96 5 3 8
4-10 Fort Myers 28 3 61 2
4-20 Tavares 32 178 18 7
4-21 Lake Alfred 476 42 27
4-22 Lake Alfred 184 206 18 29
4-28 IClearwater 129 73 8 10
4-30 Tavares 24 47 2
5-18 Lake Alfred 178 61 0 36
5-21 Lake Alfred 376 143 0 52
5-24 Lake Alfred 427 124 0 32
5-26 St. Cloud 87 274 2 40
5-27 Paisley 18 90 0 11
5-27 DeLand 82 20
5-27 DeLand 216 74 0 61
5-28 IPolk City 64 8 0 2
5-28 Leesburg 41 ........
Totals 4,329 3,480 505 840

It is now known from repeated examinations of the material
from the same groves and the same trees that as a general rule
aphids killed with Empusa are overrun with species of Cladospo-
riwm and in a week or 10 days may hide all evidence of the


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Empusa infection. The last column of Table XII is thus evi-
dent and possibly shows some progression of this condition.
Further it may be estimated that between 10 and 30 percent
of the general run of aphid material from the groves, when
showing good Empusa infections, is contaminated in moist cham-
ber with an abundant outgrowth of Cladosporium, quite fre-
quently altogether preventing spore production of the Empusa.
Such material we have been calling "old." In Table XII the
extreme condition of such is best shown in the examinations
on April 2, from Lakeland. That about 75 percent of any
death should have occurred to the aphis on citrus from Clado-
sporium is absurd. The comparative effectiveness of these or-
ganisms as the cause of death shown in Table XII will be taken
up under the discussion of each type of organism found later
in this report.
Rapidity of Death Under Natural Conditions
To many it may seem that no natural mortality of the aphis
takes place. Repeated instances of reports of "plenty of aphids"
on the part of the grove owner or caretaker show on inspec-
tion hardly a live aphis in the grove. This is not because of
lack of recognition of the aphis, but rather because of the
lack of very recent inspection of the condition of the grove.
One of the earliest instances of abundant natural mortality
of aphids brought to our attention this spring was in the grove
of Mr. Tuttle at Conway, Florida; The younger plantings in
this grove were of Temple and Valencia oranges. At the time
of our first visit aphis infection on both the Temples and Valen-
cias was extremely heavy. On March 18, in order to observe
the progress of the aphis in the field and to check evidence of
natural mortality over a period of time, two trees of Temple
oranges in this grove were completely screened with fine cheese-
cloth. In Table XIII are tabulated the results of counts of
marked twigs on these two trees over a period of approximate-
ly two weeks. The living and dead aphids on these twigs are
taken into account only at the start and at the termination of the
observations. In the two central columns of Table XIII are rep-
resented the progressive increase in dead aphids. Tree 2 was
at the beginning heavily colonized with aphids, but somewhat
more advanced in growth condition of the foliage than tree


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Annual Report, 1925


1. Correspondingly, the -age of the aphid colonies on tree 2
was greater than on tree 1.
While the comparative data show a rapid decrease in live
aphids for this two weeks period, there is also a marked dis-
crepancy of total aphids for each twig. This discrepancy must
be apparent since the data do not take into account the rapidity
of increase with births of young aphids, nor the percentage
of winged forms that may have developed, nor the number of
dead aphids that must have dropped from.the foliage and twigs
after death.

TABLE XIII.-FIELD SCREENS AT CONWAY, FLORIDA. INCREASE IN DEAD
APHIDS; CAUSE NOT INDICATED
Tree 1.
Date 3-18-25 13-21-2513-28-25 [ 4-2-25
I Dead Alive Dead I Dead I Dead 'I Alive
Twig A ....--.........................- 6 564 12 162 333 57
Twig B .................................... 6 681 7 34 203 92
Twig C ............ ..... 2 548 3 64 Clado. t 0
Twig D ..................... ...... 12 253 12 26 148 0
Twig E .................................... 14 410 5 39 87 15
Tree 2.
Date 3-18-25 3-21-25*( 3-28-25 I 4-2-25
Dead Alive I Dead I Dead I Dead I Alive
Twig A ................ 51 23 38 41 42 39
Twig B ............... 61 88 66 87 92 9
Leaf C ............ 12 107 14 31 28 2
Twig D ............. 8 274 9 48 57 27
Twig E ........... 2 152 2 14 70 0
Leaf F ..........-... 9 70 15 27 20 18
*Aphids tending toward winged forms.
tEntirely overrun with Cladosporium sp., no count possible.
Also laboratory work is being carried on studying aphis in-
fection with various fungi and maintaining cultures of fungi
and bacteria isolated from the insect. It is hoped that there
will be found a fungus or bacterium which can be cultured
and distributed among the growers, this fungus to be applied
to the trees early in the spring or when the aphids begin their
attack.
TRUCK CROP DISEASES
General truck diseases are being worked by Dr. G. F. Weber,
Associate Pathologist, located at Gainesville.
The increased correspondence and identification of fungi caus-
ing plant diseases have of necessity required considerable time
of the Associate Plant Pathologist.


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Several farmers' meetings were attended, contributions being
made toward the programs. Some extension calls were answered
during emergencies.
The Conference of Southern Agricultural Workers, held in
Atlanta, Georgia, during the month of February was attended.

Downy Mildew of Cucumber, Pseudoperonospora cubensis
(B & C) Rostow
The control work of this disease has been conducted during
the past season along two specific lines: (1) attempt to select
resistant varieties and (2) to control the disease by the use of
fungicides. The results with cucumber disease work are cov-
ered fully in Bulletin 177, soon to be published.
Nailhead Rust of Tomatoes, Macrosporium solani E. & M.
The necessity for the control of this disease was again empha-
sized by the severe losses to the growers during the past season.
The disease was not so severe as last year, probably due to
weather conditions.
Tomato variety plots were planted at Vero and at the Ever-
glades Substation. At Vero 80 varieties and strains were
planted while at the Substation 52 varieties and strains were
planted. The varieties showing the most resistance to the
disease were the same that showed the most resistance during
the previous year, namely, Marglobe, Marvel, Norton, also Mar-
vana and several non-commercial varieties.
The control work conducted with the use of fungicides ap-
plied to the plants during their growing period showed con-
clusively that whether liquid spray or dust was used the best
control was obtained where the fungicide had a metallic cop-
per content; that in a comparison of sprays and dusts con-
taining metallic copper the liquid sprays were superior to the
dusts; that homemade Bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50 formula, gave
the best results of the five copper sprays used. It also proved
to be the cheapest.
Control of Corticium stevensii (Noack) Burt on Pear
During 1924 spraying experiments were conducted in which
4-4-50 Bordeaux mixture was applied to five old pear trees
While a sixth was reserved as a check. The annual report of last
year reported part of the results but covered only observations


50R







Annual Report, 1925


for four weeks after the final application of spray. Further ob-
servations made after July 1, 1924, showed that the sprayed trees
were practically free of the disease during the remainder of
the growing season. The check tree was badly affected by
July 1, after that, defoliation was exceptionally rapid and by
the middle of August it was two-thirds complete. The drop-
ping of the leaves was most severe on the lower branches.
Liquid Bordeaux (4-4-50) spray will control this disease on
pear trees in Florida.

Control of Rust (Physopella fici (Cost.) Arth.) on Fig.
The spraying experiments begun during 1923 were followed
up during the past season and it was found that the disease was
again controlled even more efficiently than during the previ-
ous season. In fact the disease was very scarce on the sprayed
trees and was in no way a serious factor.

Seedling Infection of Millet (Chaetochloa magna) by
Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola (Saac) Schr.).
During the fall of 1924 several healthy seed heads contain-
ing mature seed were collected and taken to Gainesville. Sev-
eral collections of diseased material containing an abundance
of oospores were also made.
The diseased tissue was used as inoculum in inoculating two
flats of sterilized soil. The healthy seed were then planted in
this inoculated soil. A definite count of the seedlings was made
24 days after the seed were planted and showed that 94 per-
cent of the seedlings, which were then about two inches tall,
were infected by fungus, showing typical symptoms of the
disease. The infection was probably caused by hibernating my-
celium as no germinated oospores were found after diligent
search.
Seed Treatment
Thirty thousand cucumber seed of 12 different varieties were
treated for different lengths of time in a number of commercial
disinfectants and corrosive sublimate, in an effort to determine
the best disinfectant to use and recommend. Check plats were
planted with all seed treatments. The seed were planted under
field conditions.
It was found that the time seed could be safely treated varied


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


considerably, but that ,10 minutes was absolutely safe and could
be recommended. No stimulation to germination was recorded
in any instance. Generally the disinfectant retarded germina-
tion and also caused an average reduction in percent of germi-
nation of 3 to 10 percent. Corrosive sublimate which has been
previously recommended gave as good results or better than
any of the other disinfectants mentioned above.

CITRUS BLIGHT
Dr. A. S. Rhoads, Assistant Pathologist, is in charge of
citrus blight investigations.
The investigations on citrus blight, wilt or leaf-curl, which
were begun at the Cocoa laboratory in December, 1924, have
been continued with the hope of determining the nature and
cause of this obscure trouble, together with remedial measures.
The experiments in budding and grafting citrus trees with
material secured from typically blighted trees have been contin-
ued. The buds and grafts successfully made approximately a
year ago thus far show no evidence that the trouble can be
transmitted by this means. Fifty of the young sour orange
trees budded last year with buds secured from various typi-
cally blighted trees were set out in January, 1925, in one of the
groves at Bonaventure, Brevard County, where this trouble is
particularly prevalent, in places where blighted trees had been
removed and the underlying coquina rock blasted out prepara-
tory to replanting. Five other such budded trees were set
out at the same time in a newly-planted area of grove on Mer-
rits Island.
In view of the fact that the Bonaventure grove has been sold
for a subdivision, and of the rapidity with which the groves
along the Indian River in the vicinity of Cocoa are being cut
up into subdivisions, two acres of land on Merrits Island have
been leased for a period of years sufficient to assure the contin-
uance of the experiment as long as may be deemed desirable.
This area has been cleared and is now being prepared for plant-
ing to these experimental trees in grove formation so that the
question of whether or not blight is transmissible by budding
can be determined. It is planned to set out on this tract, in
alternating rows, trees budded with buds from various blighted
trees and those budded with buds from healthy trees, the lat-
ter serving as checks.


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AnnUal Report, 1925


It has been found "that there is a definite correlation be-
tween the occurrence' of blight and the season of the year,
and that the occurrence of this trouble and the rapidity with
which it develops is directly related to the moisture content of
the soil. Not only is blight most strongly in evidence dur-
ing the winter, or dry season, but it is during this season that
virtually all new cases of blight develop and that trees exhib-
iting this trouble decline most rapidly.
It is of interest to note that many growers distinguish be-
tween what they term drought wilt and blight wilt and con-
sider that these two forms of wilting are entirely different. In
the former case the foliage may wilt and curl, even to the
point of more or less extensive defoliation, but the tree re-
covers after the advent of rains. This form of wilting oc-
curs frequently in dry seasons in many of the groves thruout
the citrus section of the state, even in groves on deep sandy
soils that have been intensively cultivated during the dry sea-
son, as is the general practice in most citrus sections of this
state except Brevard County. In the groves of this county,
when the foliage wilts and curls to the point of more or less
extensive dofoliation, the wilt, as a rule, becomes chronic and
the affected trees continue to decline regardless of the amount
of rainfall that may occur subsequently until they are virtual-
ly dead or worthless from a commercial standpoint within
a few months or a year or two from the time the trouble first
became evident. This type of wilt is of very general occurrence
in many of the groves of Brevard County, especially on those
types of soils more or less closely underlaid by coquina rock,
and on the limestone lands of Dade County.
Blight is also of more or less extensive occurrence in cer-
tain groves in Lake County, on deep sandy soils. Here it usual-
ly occurs on slopes or in groves where soil has become com-
pacted beneath the superficial layer stirred by cultivation. The
results of a recently conducted field reconnaissance .show that
in the balance of the citrus section of the state the trouble
known as blight is of very rare and sporadic occurrence and
that when present, generally but from one to a few trees in
occasional groves are involved.
On the other hand, vigorously growing trees that were defi-
nitely known to have had their root systems more or less
severely injured suddenly by a prolonged saturation of the soil


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


following periods of unusually heavy -rainfall, which usually
occur during the late summer or fall, often developed a marked
wilting and curling of the foliage a few weeks after the root sys-
tems were so injured. Water injury in such cases may vary
greatly in degree of severity and extent of symptoms, ranging
from cases where the trees are killed outright within from
four to eight weeks to cases where, save for occasional branches
which die suddenly, the foliage of affected trees may develop
a more or less chronic case of wilt and curl, accompanied by
more or less yellowing, gradual defoliation and symptoms of
starvation akin to those ensuing after girdling, and to cases
where the crowns may show no apparent injury until later
when the soil begins to become rather dry, after which a more
or less temporary wilted condition of the foliage may develop.
This may disappear when the soil regains a favorable moisture
content, providing this be not delayed too long.
Trees that develop a pronounced chronic case of wilting and
curling of the foliage as a result of water injury are often ab-
solutely indistinguishable from well-advanced cases of blight
except that they usually exhibit more yellowing of the foliage
and symptoms of starvation. If the roots have been injured to
a marked degree, such trees are very late in developing a new
flush of growth in the spring and after the regular period of
blooming is over they begin to bloom more or less profuse-
ly, this abnormal period of blooming often extending over a
period of several weeks. If the roots have been seriously in-
jured such trees soon exhibit starvation and extensive defolia-
tion and subsequently die after blooming profusely.
In cases of water-injured trees where the soil subsequent-
ly becomes excessively dry, or where the water injury may be
repeated the following year, the decline of the affected trees
may be greatly expedited. Water-injured trees, when not killed
or seriously defoliated outright but merely injured to the ex-
tent of developing a chronic case of wilt, are often designated
as blighted trees by growers who have not closely observed
the conditions in their groves. The same growers, however,
probably would not fail to recognize water-injury either in its
more rapid form or in its slower and more frequently seen
form on poorly drained areas of groves, where the trees ex-
hibit a chronic yellow and sickly appearance, with a weak growth
and many dead branches..


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Annual Report, 1925


We thus have two distinct groups of trees exhibiting a more
or less identical wilting and curling of the foliage, namely trees
whose roots have been injured more or less severely by pro-
longed saturation of the soil and which are suffering from
drought induced indirectly, and trees on higher and well-drained
land that never becomes too wet and which trees often suffer
from drought induced directly by a deficiency of soil moisture.
Trees of all ages from young nursery stock up may be involved in
either case. In the case of older trees that have come into more
or less full bearing and develop a chronic wilted condition of
the foliage and die back more or less rapidly the trouble is not
considered by the growers to be due to drought but is termed
"blight".
The great range of variation in the susceptibility of citrus
trees to the chronic form of wilt known as blight demonstrates a
very definite and clean-cut relationship between the occurrence
of this trouble and the water-holding capacity of the soil type,
altho this of course is influenced greatly by the supply of organic
matter in the soil and the intensity of cultivation. The close
proximity of coquina rock in soils with a relatively low water-
holding capacity, which is especially noticeable in the soils of
the Gainesville series so prevalent in Brevard County, beyond
the shadow of a doubt is strongly conducive to the occurrence
of blight. Groves on such soils exhibit a high degree of mor-
tality from blight after the trees have attained an age of from
12 to 14 years. On such soils the trees that have come into more
or less full bearing rarely recover if they develop a case of wilt,
since the trouble almost invariably becomes chronic and the
trees develop what is termed blight.
Contrary to what might be expected, when a bearing tree
once develops a chronic case of wilt, or blight, no amount of
water applied to it, even systematically over a period of a year
or more, seems to restore the tree to a healthy condition, altho
it greatly prolongs its life. Blighted trees pruned up, watered
in this way and further stimulated by applications of fertil-
izers appear to be staging a come-back for a time but ultimate-
ly relapse and continue to die back.
Particular attention has been paid during the past year
to the types of soils on which citrus blight occurs. In this
work the identification of the soil type has not been limited
to such extremely general classifications as high hammock, flat-


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


woods, etc., but the soil types as recognized in the surveys
made by the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department
of Agriculture have been used.
Not talking into consideration the form of this trouble clear-
ly caused by prolonged saturation of the soil following periods
of excessive rainfall, citrus blight is of by far most frequent
occurrence on the soils of the Gainesville series, which, in Bre-
vard County, are more or less closely underlaid by coquina rock.
It is of extremely frequent occurrence on both members of
this series present in Brevard County, namely Gainesville sand
and Gainesville loamy fine sand. Citrus blight is also of fair-
ly frequent occurrence on the soils of the Dade series, which are
also underlaid by coquina rock but at greater depth than in
the case of the Gainesville series, occurring on the Dade fine
sand. It is also of fairly frequent occurrence on the St. Lucie
series, occurring on the St. Lucie sand, including the scrub,
flat, hammock, and yellow subsoil phases and on the St. Lucie
fine sand, including the yellow subsoil phase. Citrus blight
occurs still less frequently on the soils of the Norfolk series,
hammock and shell phases and on Norfolk fine sand. This trou-
ble also occurs on certain types of the Parkwood series of soils
but is of comparatively rare occurrence on the soils of this
series. It has also been observed to occur in rare instances on
the hammock phase of Portsmouth sand and on Portsmouth
fine sand. A single case of blight has also been noted on one
of the types of the Fellowship series. A further study of the
soils on which citrus blight occurs undoubtedly will add still
other soil types to this list. From the foregoing it is evident
that citrus blight occurs on a great diversity of soil types but
by far the most frequently on soils more or less closely under-
laid by rock.
From the investigations thus far conducted the chronic wilt,
or blight, of citrus trees is believed to be a purely physiological
trouble caused by extremes in soil moisture conditions rather
than by a disease in the usual sense of the word, that is, one
caused by an organism. The cultures and microscopic studies
thus far made have failed to demonstrate the presence of a
causal organism in the wood or bark of either the roots, trunks
or branches of blighted trees. The trouble known as citrus
blight appears to be caused most frequently by a deficiency in
the supply of soil moisture available during the dry season of


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Annual Report, 1925


the year, but often also by an excessive amount of soil moisture
resulting from the prolonged saturation of areas of grove lack-
ing adequate drainage and may be intensified by the occurrence
of the former condition after the latter one. The occurrence of
citrus blight clearly is greatly expedited by neglect in care for
the grove.
Granting that the problem is a physiological one, as appears
to be the case, it is certain that no remedy will be found that
will be inexpensive and quick and easy of application, these
criteria constituting the qualifications of a remedy in the minds
of most growers. Citrus blight appears to be a trouble, con-
trol of which must be effected primarily by the application of
preventive measures rather than of remedial measures after the
trouble has made its appearance. It is believed to be entirely
preventable by confining the planting of new groves to the
more desirable types of soils and properly maintaining them.
In groves already established on the less desirable types of
soils it is believed that the occurrence of wilt can be greatly
mitigated, but by no means entirely prevented, by the adop-
tion of such cultural practices as contribute to the maintenance
of an adequate supply of organic matter in the soil, the con-
servation of soil moisture during the dry season, and the avoid-
ance of irregularities and extremes in the application of fer-
tilizers. The increased cultivation of the soil during the dry
season and the use of cover crops during the rainy season as
means of conserving the soil moisture and building up the or-
ganic matter in citrus groves are practices which the writer
believes should be practiced vastly more than they now are, es-
pecially in many of the groves of Brevard County. It is also
believed that irrigation would be of decided value in prevent-
ing the occurrence of blight and a number of other troubles
in the bargain in those groves where the type of soil does not
retain moisture well during the dry season.. Many of the soils
planted to citrus trees unfortunately have that peculiarity of
becoming too dry during the dry season and too wet during the
rainy season. This is particularly true in the case of groves
established on flatwoods land. Most growers, however, would
consider the cost of irrigation plants prohibitive.


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


POTATO DISEASES
This project is being carried on by Dr. L. O. Gratz, who is
located at Hastings.
The work was devoted to seed potato improvement, seed
potato troubles, blight control, variety tests and field observa-
tions and investigations on potato diseases in general.

The Seed Potatoes
In the Irish potato disease control work one of the most im-
portant questions is that of good seed potatoes. This is a prob-
lem for the Northern growers and pathologists, but in the solu-
tion of which the Southern planters and investigators should
closely cooperate. The assistant pathologist investigating Irish
potato diseases in this state spent August and September of
1924 in the potato fields of Aroostook County, Maine, where
most of our seed potatoes are grown. He was thus permitted
to observe the growing conditions and the diseases at close
range.
Good quality potatoes were produced in Maine last year. Con-
sequently the seed potatoes planted by the Florida growers were
considered the best for many years. Probably 85 to 90 per-
cent of the potatoes planted here were from certified stock.

The Season
Several inspection trips were taken thru the important potato
growing sections of the state. The season was ideal from plant-
ing until digging time in the Hastings belt. At Wabasso the
yield was decreased by almost one-half, particularly in the late
planted sections, by late blight (caused by Phytophthora infes-
tans De Bary). In the Vero section the yield was likewise ma-
terially reduced by heavy rains in January followed by late
blight. At Ft. Pierce the crop was almost a total failure be-
cause of heavy rains. At De Leon Springs the yield was but
average. This was partly because uncertified seed stock was
planted and partly because late blight was very severe. The
stand in the Samsula section was good, promising a high yield.
This was not realized because of the ravages of late blight.
A good crop was produced in the LaCrosse section without
the serious interference of much disease. Several different
varieties were planted at the Everglades Experiment Station


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Annual Report, 1925


at Belle Glade and good yields were obtained, indicating that
potatoes can be grown successfully in that type of soil. These
tests will be repeated another year.
The failure to control "fungus blight" is due to the mistaken
idea of the growers that it can be' cured. Many wait until the
disease can be seen in the field before they make their first
application of the fungicide. One of our chief problems is to
educate the growers that such a failure to control is not the
fault of the dust or spray but the failure to start soon enough
with its application, and possibly, a lack of thoroness of ap-
plication.
Over 200 disease counts, consisting of the examination of
100 plants per count, were made in 24 strains of certified Spaul-
ding Rose No. 4 seed stock in the Hastings belt. In several
fields planted with an uncertified, and supposedly good strain
of the same variety, the amount of disease was considerably
greater. Following are the percentages:
Percent affected
Certified Uncertified
Spindle tuber ................. 3.1 8.0
M osaic ................................ 1.7 12.0
Rhizoctonia ........................ 0.5 3.5
Blackleg ......................... .03 4.5
Blackleg .............................. 0.3 4.5
Leafroll .............................. 0.1 0.0
Fusarium wilt .................. 0.2 0.0
These percentages may appear low, especially for the mosaic
in the certified strains. It is true that much more mottling was
observed in the early planted fields earlier in the season. This
disappeared as the warm weather advanced, giving a com-
paratively low average.
Field observations were made thruout the season for bacterial
wilt. Very little of this disease was evident until digging time
and then it was found only here and there. Very often it was
found only when the tubers were cut, no symptoms having been
observed in the vines. The actual loss caused by this disease was
very small.
These problems, such as certified versus uncertified seed stock,
"early blight" spotting of potatoes when they arrive, the rot-
ting of seed pieces in the soil soon after planting, seed treat-
ment, variety tests, and blight control are fully discussed from
an experimental standpoint in Bulletin 176 which is soon to
be published.


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Florida Agriciltural Experiient Station


COTTON DISEASES
Dr. A. F. Camp is in charge of cotton disease investigations
and is located at Gainesville.
Due to the reorganization of the cotton work during the past
year, so much time had to be spent on other lines of work and in
general organization work that pathology has progressed rather
slowly. However, some important lines of investigation have
been started.
Cotton wilt (Fusarium vasinfectum Atk.) has been found dis-
tributed over the cotton growing area in sufficient quantities
to warn against the growing of non-resistant cottons and for
this reason special attention has been paid to the resistant varie-
ties. A variety test was run on wilt-infected land at Madison,
Florida, using resistant varieties, and field observations were
made on a large number of varieties planted in infected fields.
Of the varieties available Cooke 307-6 and Council Toole looked
most promising as to both yield and resistance. These and
other varieties which exhibited a high degree of wilt resistance
are as follows:
Variety Source
Cooke 307-6 Alabama Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.
Council Toole DeSoto Seed Farm, Americus, Ga.
Petty Toole H. A. Petty, Bronwood, Ga.
Dixie Triumph L. 0. Watson, Florence, S. C.
Dixie No. 3. Pedigreed Seed Co., Hartsville, S. C.
Webber 49-101-3-3 Pedigreed Seed Co., Hartsville, S. C.
Among those exhibiting a fair amount of resistance and which
have other good qualities were:
Lightning Express No. 4 Pedigreed Seed Co., Hartsville, S. C.
Covington Toole W. F. Covington, Headland, Ala.
Lewis 63 Dr. William Rawlings, Sandersville, Ga.
Altho Lightning Express No. 4 had only a scattering of plants
in its plots, due to poor germination, and consequently made
a low yield, yet its performance stamped it as a very valuable
cotton and it is hoped that a strain of high resistance may be
developed. In Tables XIV and XV the number of plants per
row in the worst infected part of the Madison field is given
for May 22 and August 2.
These tables serve as a general guide to the amount of kill-
ing due to wilt.
In planning for breeding work the need of a wilt-resistant
variety is being taken into consideration. Reciprocal crosses


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Annual Report, 1925


TABLE XIV.-EFFECT OF WILT IN VARIETY TEST AT MADISON
(SOUTH BLOCK)
Variety Stand* Stand*
I May 22 Aug. 2
Council Toole ..-----.-..............--- ----.......... 208 225
Cleveland --- --............................----- 125 81
Covington Toole ..--..........---............... 235 191
Cleveland .-------.. ......--...----........ .... ... 123
Petty Toole ....--.................................... ... 338 350
Cleveland ........- .-----... .. ..................... 125 57
Dixie-Triumph ...............------------..... .......... .. 333 320
Cleveland ....... -----------.................- ............. 152 112
Cook 307-6 .........................- ..-................. 446 446
Cleveland .-----------.................... ..-........- 142 105
Salisbury ----------------------........... .......... 369 241
Cleveland ......----.........-- .......... .............. 162 137
Dixie No. 3...-...................... ................. 310 279
Cleveland ................................. ..... 111 68
Lightning Express No. 4.............................. 85 75
Cleveland .............------......1....... ............. 152 116
W ebber 49-101-3-3 ........................................ 233 233
Cleveland ................................. ....... ......... 143 113
Cleveland ...................................-. ............... 142 90
Lewis 63 ..............----..--................. 408 353
Cleveland ..................... ...................... 209 167 (3
rows, outside row
omitted)
*Figures given represent total number of plants in each block on that
date.
TABLE XV.-EFFECT OF WILT IN VARIETY TEST AT MADISON
(CENTER BLOCK)
Variety I Stand* Stand*
SMay 22 Aug. 2
Council Toole ..........----............ ..................... 196 180
Cleveland ......................... .. ................... 138 106
Covington Toole ....................... .................. 261 226
Cleveland ........................ ........................... 120 82
Petty Toole .............................-........ .... 280 276
Cleveland ....................................................... 155 103
Dixie-Triumph .............................-............ 316 284
Cleveland ............................................... .... 132 110
Cook 307-6 ..................................................... 343 296
Cleveland ......-......................... ...................... 125 102
Salisbury ......-...... -------------............................ 289 237
Cleveland .................................. .................. 157 110
Dixie No. 3 ................................ ............ 234 216
Cleveland ......-...--........--- ...--- .........- .... 169 106
Lightning Express ...................................... 95 83
Cleveland ......................---- .................. 159 126
W ebber 49-101-3-3 ........................................ 232 186
Cleveland ..........-.............-......- ................. 148 .110
Cleveland ...............------....... ...............145 129
Lewis 63 ........-...........---- ......... ...-...... 300 248
,Cleveland ..................................-..... .......... 136 107
Lightning Express No. 4........---.................... 6 ....


in each block on that


*Figure given represents total number of plants
date.


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


were made, using Council Toole and Lightning Express No. 4
and Council Toole and Lightning Express Nu. 3. The Fl gen-
eration is now being grown and the F2 generation will be
planted on wilt-infected soil in 1926. The Council Toole pos-
sesses excellent wilt resistance but is lacking in earliness and
lint quality. The latter qualities are strongly exemplified in
Lightning Express and it is hoped that a good selection can be
made from the progeny of this cross which combines wilt re-
sistance with earliness and long lint.
The seedling disease work received a major part of the time
devoted to pathological problems. The damage due to anthrac-
nose (Glomerella gossypii Edgerton) has not been nearly as bad
this season (1925) as it was last and this is probably accounted
for by the fact that the summer of 1924 was much drier than
that of 1923, and consequently there was a much lower per-
centage of infected seed.
Rhizoctonia made a late appearance in the field this year,
killing plants which were 8 to 12 inches high, girdling them
just below the level of the soil during a rainy spell in May.
The Alternaria leaf spot was very general thruout all the fields,
appearing freely on plots planted with delinted seed, indicat-
ing that it is either indigenous pr else grows into the seed coat
sufficiently to resist the delinting process. Angular leaf spot
was not bad on the seedlings tho it was present in the fields
planted with undelinted seed.
Work on sulphuric acid delinting during the 1924 season pro-
duced very gratifying results. Several tests were run in Madi-
son County in cooperation with C. P. Wright of the Smith-
Hughes work at Madison. From the farms where results were
recorded properly we obtained roughly about 25 percent in-
crease in yields from the treated plots. The stand was much
better where delinted seed were used and it is probable that the
increased yield was due at least in part to the better stand,
while some of it was probably due to disease control eliminat-
ing the stunting of the seedling plants.
During the present year a careful test is being run at Gaines-
ville, in which the stand factor is being eliminated. It was
found that a real advantage was gained in dry soil by using
delinted seed in a plate planter as compared with undelinted seed
.in the ordinary cotton planter. The plate type of planter covers
the seed with moist soil whereas the ordinary cotton planter


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Annual Report, 1925


covers with dry soil and when the weather is dry there may be
several days difference in germination. It was found that the
saving in seed when used in this manner more than equaled the
cost of the process.
Work is also being carried on with a number of dust poisons
in an attempt to control anthracnose and angular leaf spot with-
out delinting and at the same time the possibility exists of ob-
taining some residual effect on Rhizoctonia aid other soil fungi.
The difficulties of employing acid for delinting on a farm where
the labor is not used to handling it are considered, by many,
a barrier to its use, tho its dangers are greatly magnified. It is
hoped that we may obtain something more simple and possibly
more effective.
The soil thermostat was put into operation in the fall and a
series of experiments using seed inoculated with anthracnose
were carried out. This work is temporarily suspended pending
the installation of a new refrigerating apparatus and the com-
pletion of this season's field work, but plans are being made to
round out the work on this phase during the coming winter.
The results of these preliminary experiments were exceedingly
interesting but are as yet incomplete, since it was found that
the soil temperature in the first 3 to 5 inches of field soil
went considerably higher than did the soil temperature in the
hottest tank of the thermostat. When the thermostat is again
put in operation, however, it will be adjusted to a range suf-
ficiently high to more than cover field conditions. The measure-
ment of soil temperature in the field was carried out with
thermocouples, using the potentiometer system of measuring. The
difficulties connected with this method led to the purchase of
some soil thermographs for future use.
Angular leaf spot and Diplodia boll rot caused considerable
damage during the fall of 1924, some of the varieties hav-
ing a large percentage of the bolls destroyed. It is intended
to carry out a survey during the coming fall to determine how
much damage is done by these and other boll rots. What is
to be done along this line will depend upon the results of this
survey.
Some manifestations of the physiological condition known
as "rust" were observed. One of the worst outbreaks was in
a field at Madison, which had been heavily fertilized at plant-
ing time. Following the appearance of the chlorotic condition


63R







64R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

there was an extremely heavy infection of Macrosporium and
Alternaria resulting in almost complete defoliation of the af-
fected plants. Other such fields were observed, tho the sec-
ondary infections in these were not so destructive. If this
condition occurs again this year, work will be attempted upon
it as soon as the work on the seedling diseases is well under way,
so that some time can be spared for it. It is probable that this
problem is tied up closely with the nutrition of the plant and
will have to be worked on in connection with the fertilizer work.

TOBACCO DISEASES
Tobacco diseases are being investigated by Dr. W. B. Tisdale,
who is located at Quincy. His report will be found in connec-
tion with the report of the Tobacco Station.







Annual Report, 1925


REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Department of Hor-
ticulture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
HAROLD MOWRY,
Assistant Horticulturist.

The work of this department for the past year has been con-
fined largely to the projects as outlined in the last year's re-
port. These projects include work with pears, persimmons,
citrus fruits mainly the satsuma oranges -, tung-oil, ber-
ries, grapes, hardy avocados, ornamentals and miscellaneous
fruits. Owing to the lack of the necessary acreage and very
limited greenhouse facilities it has not been possible to make
substantial increases in any of the plantings.

CITRUS
Thirty satsuma orange trees, Improved Owari and Wase varie-
ties, have been planted in grove formation in the satsuma root-
stock project. Rootstocks on which these are budded include
Citrus trifoliata, sour orange, and Cleopatra tangerine. Addi-
tional buds on Rusk citrange, Morton citrange, calamondin, and
citrangequat are now growing in the nursery for later trans-
planting. Thru the courtesy of T. Ralph Robinson, the bud-
wood and some of the rootstock material for these tests were
obtained from the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United
States Department of Agriculture.

TUNG OIL (Aleurites Fordi HEMSL.)
Fertilizer experiments, including 14 different fertilizers, or
combinations, have been continued on the six-acre planting of
tung-oil trees. A small number of budded trees, the buds from
selected trees, have been added to the plantings.
Some of the buds inserted on two-year stock in the spring of
1924 have fruited this season. The results of this fruiting tend
to show that the desired fruiting habit of some trees in pro-
ducing more than' one fruit to the twig can be transmitted by


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


budding or grafting, altho these tests have not proceeded for
a length of time sufficient to give conclusive evidence.
In some instances the trees have shown a tendency to make
a. growth of several feet before any lateral branching occurs.
Pinching out the terminal bud or cutting back of the tops has
not always given the desired results, the terminal buds, on
that portion of the trunk which remains, putting out shoots
which in turn will grow vertically several feet before branch-
ing. This results in a top-heavy tree devoid of lateral branches
for several feet from the ground. The removal of a very nar-
now crosswise section of bark, from one-half to one inch in
length, directly above a bud where a branch is desired has been
found to induce that bud to start growth. When this opera-
tion is performed in early spring, after growth has started, the
resulting wound soon heals over and the branch remains in ac-
tive growth.
Buds of the tung-oil tree (Aleurites fordi Hemsl.) inserted
in the Mu-oil trees (Aleurites montana (Lour) Wils.) have
formed a union and are making a satisfactory growth. The
Mu-oil tree has shown itself to be a very vigorous grower but
somewhat more susceptible to cold injury than the tung-oil tree.
Unhulled, dried fruits (nuts) from different trees have been
found to vary in number from 340 to 450 to the bushel. Of
several bushel lots which were weighed and counted, the weights,
regardless of number of fruits required to make a bushel, were
almost identical-the average being 30%3/ pounds. The average
bushel contained 17 pounds 10 ounces seeds and 13 pounds 2
ounces hulls. The number of seeds obtained from a bushel of
fruits in hull varied from 1,780 to 2,000, with an approximate
average of 1,900. One pound of such seeds varied in number
from 108 to 142.
Tests of seed viability have shown that seeds must be planted
during the season following that of their maturity.
During the year 75 pounds of seeds and over 1,900 trees were
distributed for testing purposes to 70 growers thruout the. state.
BERRIES (Rubus spp.)
Varieties added to the berry plantings include the Young,
Lucretia, Manatee, and Thornless Austin dewberries; and Cory
Thornless and one unknown variety of blackberries; and the
Van Fleet raspberry.


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Annual Report, 1925


Of the varieties planted early in 1924 the Ness, Haupt, Dal-
las, Marvel, McDonald and Austin (Mays) fruited in 1925. Those
giving most promise at this time, in vigor of growth together
with amounts of fruit produced, are the Marvel, McDonald and
Dallas. The season of ripening of the Marvel and McDonald
is practically the same; that of the Dallas following a week
to 10 days later.

GRAPES
Of the 44 varieties planted in the test vineyard in 1923, 33
bloomed and 22 ripened fruit in 1924. During the current sea-
son 41 bloomed and 38 have set fruit. Three applications of
a 4-4-50 Bordeaux spray and one of copper acetate have held
diseases well under control until fruit ripened.
At present age, of varieties which are fruiting, the Cham-
panel, Salem, R. W. Munson, W. B. Munson, Lukfata, Ronalda,
Nitodel, Valhallah, Marguerite, Armalaga, Manito, Elvicand,
Hermann Jaeger, Ericson, Albania and Extra show the most
vigor and greatest growth of vine, both in cane length and
girth of trunk. Those which are showing the most promise
from the standpoint of fruitfulness, either in quantity or qual-
ity, are the Extra, Hermann Jaeger, Salem, Brilliant, Ericson,
Albania, Husmann, Neva, Minnie, Muench, Valhallah and Arma-
laga.
Varieties added to the plantings the past season include the
Beacon, Morrill and "Italian Concord".

MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS
FIG: Several Ficus species have been tested as stocks in an
endeavor to find a rootstock for figs which would prove adapt-
able and at the same time more resistant to nematode attack
than the fig. One, an undetermined species introduced from
North Queensland, Australia, by the Office of Foreign Seed and
Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agri-
culture and given their S. P. I. number 53406, has thus far
given promising results. Figs grafted or budded on this stock
have formed a congenial union with a most satisfactory growth
following. A fig tree on this root within 15 months from time
of grafting attained a maximum height of 41/2 feet with an
extreme spread of 5 feet and calipered 21/ inches just above


67R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


bud union. (See Fig. 3). During this time the tree ripened
nearly 100 fruits. A check tree of same age on its own roots
attained a maximum height of 21/2 feet and ripened but one
fruit in the same period. Thus far this rootstock has shown
itself to be decidedly more resistant to root-knot attack than


Fig. 3.-Fig, Ischia variety, budded on Ficus sp. S. P. I. No. 53406, in
dormant state. Photographed at end of first season's growth.

the fig. Owing to its susceptibility to cold injury it is prob-
able that, if used, plantings would be restricted to. the penin-
sular portion of the state.


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Annual Report, 1925


AVOCADO: Eighteen varieties, including seedlings and com-
binations of variety on various rootstocks, are now planted in
the avocado plot. All are supposedly hardy types.
PEAR: One variety, the Mendel, has been added to the per-
manent planting of pears. Eleven additional varieties, un-
named, are now growing in the nursery for orchard planting
during the next season.
PERSIMMON: Small plants of a wild Kaki (Diospyros sp.)
have been obtained from the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant
Introduction, United States Department of Agriculture. These
and plants of like age of the native persimmon (Diospyros vir-
giniana) are growing in the nursery and will be grafted to de-
sirable varieties of the Japanese persimmon for purpose of de-
termining comparative value of the two species as rootstocks.

PROPAGATION
In propagation experiments a very interesting result has been
obtained with leaves of the rough lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck).
Leaves of this plant, with only petiole attached, were rooted
within 12 days in sand in a solar propagating frame. After
rooting they were potted in ordinary potting soil and. placed in
greenhouse. Eight months from the time of insertion in sand,
growth started from the root, producing a normal plant. Altho
the leaf in itself was incapable of producing buds, by its abil-
ity to produce roots which in turn were able to put forth an
adventitious bud, the desired result was attained in the repro-
duction of a normal plant. (See Fig. 4).
Leaves of the croton (Codaeum spp.) were rooted in the same
manner as the rough lemon. These rooted leaves, however,
after a lapse of 12 months, show no growth other than an in-
creasing root system.
Present evidence indicates that the Quihou privet (Ligustrum
quihoui) will prove valuable as a rootstock for the Wax or Glossy
privet (Ligustrum lucidum). The former, after, having been
planted for two years in a light sandy soil, has shown no root-
knot. This stock is readily propagated by seeds or cuttings.
Scions of the Wax privet grafted on this stock have made a very
satisfactory union and growth.


69R

































































Fig. 4.-Rough lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck) plant grown from a leaf cut-
ting, the leaf from which plant was grown being shown at right. Photo-
graphed 111 months from date of placing leaf in propagation box.







Annual Report, 1925 71R

IMPROVEMENTS
Permanent improvements of the past fiscal year consist in
the construction of a soil sterilizer in which all soil for potted
plants and seed pans is sterilized, an additional line of over-
head irrigation in the nursery, and completion of construction
of an all-metal non-climbable fence around the horticultural
grounds.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE PECAN CULTURIST

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the pecan culturist for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
G. H. BLACKMON,
Pecan Culturist.

The work of the department during the year has been de-
voted largely to a study of the projects that were outlined in the
report for 1924, enlarging on some and adding more details
to others.
Much valuable information has been gathered regarding the
behavior of many varieties of pecans as to their adaptability
to different parts of the state, various soil types, disease and
insect resistance, and the sections of the state to which the pe-
can is best adapted.

NUT GROWTH
During the growing season of 1924, measurements to de-
termine the rate of growth in diameter of pecan nuts, as. well as
the time that the greatest growth takes place, were taken of three
varieties, Schley, Success, and Curtis. The nuts of the Curtis
variety were produced on trees of two different ages, namely
four and ten years. By doing this it was possible to determine
if there was any variation in the process of growth develop-
ment of nuts on trees of the same variety, treated in the same
manner, but of different ages. It is significant to note that the
nuts on the older trees were not influenced to as great an ex-
tent by seasonal changes as were those on the younger ones.
The number of nuts measured of each variety, with the date
and the averages, are given in table XVI.
By referring to Table XVI and the chart in Fig. 5 it will
be noticed that following heavy rains between the dates of
August 9 and 31 inclusive, there was a very decided increase
in the rate of growth from August 31 to September 8 inclu-
sive, as compared with the time just preceding with the. two
varieties measured, trees of which were only four years old,
while the Curtis that was 10 years old gave a gradual increase


72R









Annual Report, 1925


TABLE XVI.-MEASUREMENTS OF PECANS


Q)

5/11/24


6/16/24


7/ 1/24


7/14/24


7/26/24


8/ 9/24


8/31/24


9/ 8/24


9/23/24


10/11/24


4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.
4 yr.
4 yr.
10 yr.


3.48
3.29
3.44
3.07
7.32
7.51
7.56
6.72
11.4
10.37
10.65
9.12
15.62
13.55
14.13
11.12
20.58
17.24
18.3
15.4
27.4
20.53
24.19
20.98
29.9
21.35
26.71
25.43
32.71
21.4
29.73
26.27
33.7
28.21
27.9
35.65
28.52
28.9


3.84
4.22
4.12
3.65
4.08
2.86
3.09
2.40
4.22
3.18
3.48
2.00
4.96
3.69
4.17
4.28
6.82
3.29
5.89
5.58
2.5
.82
2.52
4.45
2.81
.05
3.02
.84
.99
-1.52
1.63
1.95
.31
1.00


during the entire time,
as subject to a change
are the younger ones.


indicating that the older


trees are not


in the moisture content of the soil as


When the measurements were taken on July 26 all the nuts
on the Schley variety were scabbing badly and continued until
they turned completely black and dropped off or became dry
and in a mummied condition. Measurements of the Schley nuts


Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Schley
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Curtis
Curtis
Success
Curtis
Curtis


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74R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

were discontinued on September 8, as instead of the growth
continuing in the same relation with the Success as it should
have, it began to show less rapid development and from August
9 there was only a very slight increase.

I 4 -8 4 1 I3



















Fig. 5-Chart Showing Rate of Growth of Pecan Nuts
Maximum growth took place from about June 15 to about.
cated by the measurements are normal. This work is not com-




ly.
--~


with the Assistant Horticulturist 4 been added to until now
-i,- -_ ,- : .- -l:rtl l | --._
I .5 i ..." i '
.. I .

S-- ------- ,


Fig. 5.-Chart Showing Rate of Growth of Pecan Nuts
Maximum growth took place from about June 15 to about
August 10 or 15. The sizes of the Success and Curtis as indi-
cated by the measurements are normal. This work is not com-
pleted, but will be continued with a greater number of varie-
ties treated similarly as well as with many treated different-
ly.

VARIETY AND STOCK TESTS
The variety and stock tests being conducted in cooperation
with the Assistant Horticulturist have been added to until now
there are being tested five trees each of 21 varieties of pecans
(Hicoria pecan), three trees of six varieties and two and one
trees of two other varieties English Walnuts (Juglans regia),
three trees of Japanese walnut (Juglans sieboldiana) and three
trees each of four varieties of black walnut (Juglans nigra.) The
two walnut trees (Juglans reaia No. 56091) from the Bureau








Annual Report, 1925


of Seed and Plant Introduction, United States Department of
Agriculture did not live thru the year of 1924, as they de-
veloped walnut blight to such an extent that the tops died back
to the ground and the roots failed to force out new growth.
A heavy growth of cowpeas and crop of rye were turned into
the soil in the fall of 1924 and the spring of 1925 respectively.
The cultural methods employed are the same over the entire
orchard so that all varieties being tested will have an equal
showing.
The pecan nursery has been enlarged until it now contains
seedlings of pecans, hickories and walnuts from 21 different
sources. These are being grown for the purpose of studying
rootstocks, testing varieties and methods of propagation. A co-
operative stock test is also being conducted in the muck soils
at Davie.
At the Everglades Station there are three varieties of pe-
cans and one hickory being tested.

FERTILIZER EXPERIMENT

In cooperation with the Chemist, the fertilizer experiments
started in 1924 are being continued. Sufficient time has not
yet elapsed to give any definite results.
Two experiments have just been started this year. One of
these is the testing of various combinations of ammonia, phos-
phoric acid and potash, starting with young trees planted dur-
ing January of the present year. The other is the comparison
of various combinations of phosphoric acid, potash, and am-
monia as well as ammonia alone, applied at different dates dur-
ing the growing season.
An experiment was started in May of the present year to
determine the best sources of ammonia, as well as the best
methods of orchard management to be employed, in bringing
into profitable production an old neglected pecan orchard when
it is composed of varieties that are productive in well man-
aged orchards.
In further cooperation with the Chemist and the Bureau of
Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture,
the two cooperative fertilizer experiments in Duval County are
being continued.


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ROSETTE EXPERIMENT
The experiment in cooperation with the Chemist and the
Plant Pathologist in the orchard of N. D. Wainwright, Starke,
Bradford County, to determine the most satisfactory method
of treating pecan trees for rosette is being continued. No defi-
nite results can be reported at this time.

DISEASE CONTROL
In cooperation with the Department of Plant Pathology the
study of the organism causing pecan scab has been continued.
A very carefully planned spraying experiment was put into
effect and carried out during 1924 in the orchard of J. H.
Wells, Baldwin, Duval County. Owing to the fact that there
was a very light crop of nuts in this orchard the percentage of
control could not be worked out as accurately as was hoped.
However, from the information obtained it is very evident
that scab can be controlled by the proper number of applica-
tions of 4-4-50 Bordeaux. The variety selected for this work
was Schley, as it is very susceptible to pecan scab, and it is a
nut that will pay for the extra expense of spraying. All trees
in the experiment, except those receiving the Bordeaux every
two, three, and four weeks, developed scab to a large degree,
many shedding the few nuts that were set before date of ma-
turity, while those receiving the Bordeaux frequently as indi-
cated, developed very little scab on the new growth and on the
few nuts on the trees.
The dormant spray of copper sulphate was made March 5,
and the applications of Bordeaux were begun as soon as the
nuts were set, which was May 2.
Acting upon the definite information obtained from this ex-
periment that the foliage, twigs and nuts of the Schley variety
could not be kept clean by one or two applications, but that
good results were had by four or five, it was decided to con-
tinue the scab control experiment in this and one other orchard,
as well as to have three others in different parts of the state
treated in a similar way, using the same varieties, in order that
results may be checked against each orchard.


76R








Annual Report, 1925


TABLE XVII.-OUTLINE OF THE SPRAYING EXPERIMENT AS CONDUCTED
IN THE WELLS' ORCHARD
Variety-Schley
Trees set 1914-Partly top-worked '24
Experiment started February 1924
DSC-Dormant Spray of Copper Sulphate
DSB-Dormant Spray of 4-4-50 Bordeaux
B-4-4-50 Bordeaux
C-Check


Treatment No. trees Treated
No. treated
1 2 DSC only
2 2 DSC and B
3 2 DSC and B
4 2 DSC and B
5 2 DSC and B
6 2 DSC only
7 2 DSB and B
8 2 DSB and B
9 2 DSB and B
10 2 DSB and B
11 2 DSC and B
12 2 B
13 2 B
14 2 B
15 2 B
16 2 DSC and B
17 2 B
18 2 B
19 2 B
20 2 B
21 2 DSC and B
22 2 B
23 2 B
24 2 B
25 2 B


12 trees left
26
27


Time of application.

Just before buds swell.
Nuts set.
Nuts /4 grown.
Nuts % grown.
Nuts % grown.
Just before buds swell.
Nuts set.
Nuts /4 grown.
Nuts % grown.
Nuts % grown.
Two weeks.
Nuts set-two weeks.
Nuts ,4 grown-2 weeks.
Nuts % grown-2 weeks.
Nuts %3 grown-2 weeks.
Three weeks.
Nuts set-3 weeks.
Nuts 1/ grown-3 weeks.
Nuts 1% grown-3 weeks.
Nuts % grown-3 weeks.
Four weeks.
Nuts set-4 weeks.
Nuts 1/4 grown-4 weeks.
Nuts /z grown-4 weeks.
Nuts %3 grown-4 weeks.


unsprayed as checks.
1 DSC 91bs. to 50 g. Just before buds swell.
2 DSC 91bs. to 50 g. Just before buds swell.
And B every 4 wks.


The following dusts were also applied.
28 2 Copper Lime Nuts set-2 wks.
29 2 Copper Lime Nuts set-3 wks.
30 2 Copper Lime Nuts set-4 wks.
It was found necessary to discontinue the dusting part of the experi-
ment on account of lack of proper equipment.

INSECT CONTROL

In cooperation with the Department of Entomology, a study
of the life history and control methods of certain pecan in-
sects is being made. The work has been handled by H. E. Brat-
ley, a graduate student, who devoted half time to this part
of the work. Encouraging results were obtained in the spray-
ing experiments. The work is being continued in the orchard


77R







78R Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

of H. H. Simmons, Jacksonville, Duval County, as well as in
three other orchards that are being sprayed in a similar man-
ner in different parts of the pecan belt.

COVER CROP EXPERIMENTS
In cooperation with the Grass and Forage Crops Investi-
gator, the cover crop work started in 1924 has been continued
and enlarged until it now embraces the testing of winter cover
crops including those commonly planted such as oats and rye,
as well as the testing of 14 winter legumes.

NUT COLLECTION
A very complete collection of nuts of a large number of dif-
ferent varieties and seedlings, is being preserved in the of-
fice of this department in the Experiment Station Building.







Annual Report, 1925


REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Librarian for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
IDA KEELING CRESAP,
Librarian.

The work for the year has been largely confined to the
daily routine of attending to patrons, classifying and shelving
new material, ordering missing numbers of various serials and
publications to keep files complete, and preparing material for
the bindery. Classifying, cataloging and indexing have been
carried on as rapidly as possible. With printed cards the lit-
erature of the various Experiment Stations is indexed thru
1917. This is being extended as time permits. The Experi-
ment Station Record also indexes this material. The publica-
tions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture are indexed with
Library of Congress dictionary-catalog cards. Nothing has
been done towards the indexing of the foreign literature. This
is greatly needed but requires more time than has as yet been
available for that purpose.
Believing that the extension workers thruout the state should
have access to the literature in the library as an aid in their
work, a system of loans has been effected. Advantage of this
has been taken by several, but not to the extent desired. Fur-
ther efforts to bring the use of the library to the individual are
to be made.
All purchases made have been in relation to their importance.
Completing broken sets of scientific periodicals already on the
shelves, and subscribing for a number of the leading scientific
journals, have materially added to the value of the library. The
citrus industry being one of the most important of the state,
a complete library on the subject is required for the research
work being carried on. Three important, old, foreign works
on citrus culture have been added, which are to form the be-
ginning of a foreign collection.
Thru the gift of Hon. J. Y. Detwiler, pioneer beekeeper, of
Ohio and Florida, 41 bound volumes on bees and a number of


79R?







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


very valuable old bee journals have been presented the library.
These volumes make a notable collection, which it is hoped to in-
crease as opportunity affords.
In addition to the staffs of the Experiment Station'and Ex-
tension Division, faculty and students of the College of Agri-
culture, the library has served a large number of other patrons,
particularly interested in agricultural literature.
With the return of more nearly normal conditions in foreign
countries, publications, stopped by the war, are being resumed.
Many of these are now being received in the library.
The library now contains 4,500 bound volumes and several
thousand unbound bulletins, periodicals, journals, etc. One hun-
dred and seventy-one volumes were sent to the bindery and 121
other new volumes secured thru gift, exchange and purchase.
This makes a total of 292 volumes accessioned for the year,
which number does not include much of the year's accumulation
of new, unbound material.
One double-faced book stack was placed, relieving slightly the
crowded shelf room.
A matter requiring considerable attention has been the ef-
fecting of a system whereby a card catalog of all literature in
the Station may be retained in the library. Under the present
arrangements the librarian cannot keep a record of the con-
tents of the various departmental libraries. An effort was
made to have this done but was only partly successful. It is dif-
ficult to avoid needless duplication and makes it impossible to
furnish a complete record of all literature contained in the Sta-
tion. It is most necessary that a plan or system be effected
by which all this material may be catalogued for the library
and records of same be kept up to date.


80R







Annual Report, 1925


REPORT OF THE TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Associate Plant
Pathologist in charge of the Tobacco Experiment Station at
Quincy, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
W. B. TISDALE,
Assoc. Plant Pathologist.

The work this year has been, with few exceptions, a con-
tinuation of the problems reported upon last year.

IMPROVEMENTS
Deep Well.-At the beginning of the year the deep well was
equipped with a good pumping engine and a 31/4 x 36 inches ball
cylinder. The total cost of the outfit, including freight, mater-
ials and labor for installation, was $445.85.
Heating Plant for Greenhouse.-A hot water heating system
has been installed in the greenhouse. The cost of installing
the system was $350.00. Brick and labor for constructing the
flue cost an additional $50.00, making the total cost $400.00.
This heating system permitted the growth of tobacco plants
during the winter without injury from frost.
Park.-The park in front of.the main laboratory building has
been seeded with a mixture of lespedeza, Carpet and Bahia grass.
On account of the prolonged dry weather during April and May
a poor stand was obtained, but there appears to be sufficient
plants to eventually produce a good sod.

FERTILIZER ,EXPERIMENTS
The fertilizer experiments with shade tobacco are in the third
year. Since black shank appeared in several of the plots in
1924, it was necessary to substitute one of the partially resistant
strains for the susceptible Big Cuba which had been used in the
experiments the two preceding years. The strain used was
three generations removed from the original selections made in
1922 and is known as P-25-4. Besides being partially resistant


81R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to black'shank this 'strain is a very uniform type of the Big
Cuba variety.
The plants were set on March 26 this year, as contrasted
with April 12 in 1923 and April 15 in 1924. The plants started
well and grew vigorously until about April 20'when they be-
gan to show effects of lack of rain. There was no rainfall be-
tween April 4 and May 12, and only a light shower on the lat-
ter date. Other light showers fell during the first 10 days of
June, but the soil was not thoroly wet before June 26. As a
result of the prevailing dry weather thruout the growing sea-
son the yield and quality of the leaf will be poor., A great part
of the reduction in yield was due to the complete loss of from.
four to six of the lowest leaves. 'The next few leaves in suc-
cession were greatly stunted and, consequently, are of poor
quality. The first leaves were harvested 89 days after the plants
were set, as contrasted with 60 days in previous years.
'Black shank caused light loss in yield on the plots. The: Crop
remained practically free from the disease until after the Shower
on May 12. Within a week after that date several plants had
succumbed to the disease and a few others died during the re-
mainder of the season. However the diseased plants did not
occur in groups, even on the plots where the disease was most
severe last year, thus indicating that the select strain, P-25-4,
is.more resistant than the commercial type of Big Cuba.
Several plots suffered heavy injury from nematode infesta-
tion. This loss was most pronounced in the plots where there
was an'accumulation of dirt from the overflow caused by the
heavy rains last autumn. Several small infested areas occurred
in other plots: The total injury caused by nematode was greater
than' that resulting from black shank infection. There is also
evidence in the fertilizer plots, as well as in other fields, that
nematode infestation predisposes tobacco plants to black shank.
When the knots on the roots begin to rot open roads are left
for the invasion by Phytophthora.

.TOBACCO DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS
Black Shank
Practically all of the work reported upon last year has been
completed except the development of a strain of tobacco resistant
to the disease. The results are being published in Experiment


82R







Annual Report, 1925


Station Bulletin 179. Additional work has been done to de-
termine whether any plants other than tobacco and potato are
susceptible to the disease. In these experiments castor oil plant
was found to be very susceptible to black shank. Leaves of
castor oil plant seedlings 6 to 8 inches high were complete-
ly invaded within three days when sprayed with a water sus-
pension of zoospores of the Phytophthora of tobacco and placed
under a bell jar in the laboratory.: Seedlings were also at-
tacked when transplanted to infested soil.
A culture of Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan has final-
ly been obtained from Java. This organism is being compared
with the Black shank Phytophthora of tobacco in Florida as to
physiology, morphology and pathogenicity. All phases of the
work have not been completed but it has been found that the
two organisms produce the same disease symptoms in tobacco
and castor oil plant.

Cooperative Experiments
The cooperative experiments were for the purpose of test-
ing selections of tobacco for resistance to black shank. Two
acres of land were used in the experiments, one acre on each
of two farms. The soil was of the Tifton series and was thoroly
infested with the black shank Phytophthora, as indicated.by the
complete failure of the tobacco crop in 1924. All told, about
105 different selections and hybrids were tested on these plots,
all strains being planted on each plot..
Most of the selections of Big Cuba were three generations
removed from the original selections made in 1922. The only
exceptions were a few selections made at Dade City in 1924 and
a few which had gained a year by being grown in the green-
house during the winter of 1924-25. Six of the oldest selec-
tions were more than 60 percent resistant to black-shank, two
of which were about 85 percent resistant. Also two of the
selections made at Dade City showed a high percentage of re-
sistance. These results are a considerable improvement over the
results obtained last year and indicate progress in the con-
trol of black shank by the selection method.
During the last few years the Big Cuba variety of tobacco
has been losing favor among the cigar manufacturers and con-
sequently among the growers in this section, while the Con-


83R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


necticut Round Tip and Cuban have been gaining popularity.
The culture of Connecticut Round Tip is greatly handicapped by
the complete susceptibility of the variety. The Cuban (locally
known as Little Cuba) is more resistant but the leaf is too small
to meet the demands of the manufacturers. Therefore, crosses
were made of the partially resistant Big Cuba on the Connecticut
Round Tip and on the Cuban in the hope that a new type could be
obtained which would possess the combined characters of re-
sistance of Big Cuba and the more desirable quality of Connecti-
cut Round Tip and Cuban. The first crosses were made in the
summer of 1924 and the Fl was grown in the greenhouse dur-
ing the following winter. The progeny of several of these plants,
F2, were tested in the cooperative plots this year. Practical-
ly all of the Connecticut Round Tip-Big Cuba progeny were
100 percent susceptible, while all of the F2 of the Big Cuba-
Cuban were partially resistant. Also several new types of
tobacco appeared among the latter cross. Leaves of the healthy
individuals of these types are being cured separately in
order to determine the quality for wrappers. It is hoped that
one or more of these types will possess good quality in combi-
nation with resistance to black shank.

Wildfire
An attempt was made this year to determine whether the
wildfire organism (Bacterium tabacum Wolf & Foster) survives
the winter in the soil of infected plant beds. For these experi-
ments small beds were made in the middle of a commercial bed
which was severely infected in 1924 and planted with seed
known to be free from the wildfire organism. New or disin-
fected materials were used in the construction of covers for the
beds. All trash was removed from the ground before the beds
were made, thereby eliminating all harbors for the organism
except the soil. No wildfire developed in any of the beds planted
under these conditions. However, the prevailing dry weather
was unfavorable for the development of wildfire and these re-
sults are not considered conclusive. Also a supplementary ex-
periment was conducted in which tobacco leaves infected with
wildfire were worked into the soil in the summer of 1924. The
same precautions were observed as in the preceding experiment
to eliminate all sources of infection except the soil. No in-
fection developed in the beds made on this soil.


84R







Annual Report, 1925


Root-rot
Trials for resistance to root-rot (Thielavia basicola (B. & Br.)
Zopf.) were continued this year on a small scale. The dry warm
weather was unfavorable for development of the disease and
the results were not as marked as in 1924. However, the prog-
eny of strains which showed a high resistance to the disease
in 1924 made more uniform growth and matured about two
weeks earlier than the commercial type.

Poison Injury to Tobacco Stems

There were several reports this year of a new disease at..
tacking both shade and bright tobacco. The disease began to
appear about May 20 when the plants were from one to three
feet high. The first symptom of the disease manifest to the
casual observer was a yellow and spotted condition of the lower
leaves. Affected leaves were limited to one side of the stem in
some cases, while all of the lower leaves showed injury on other
plants. In several cases the entire plant died. Careful examina-
tion of affected plants revealed a brown to black lesion on the
stem at the surface of the soil, which usually extended only
thru the cortex. The pith and roots were normal. In cases
where the affected leaves were limited to one side of the plant
the stem lesion occurred immediately below the affected leaves.
On the other hand, where all lower leaves were involved the basal
stem would be entirely girdled. Most of the plants affected to
this extent eventually died. Actual counts in one eight-acre
field of bright tobacco showed 18 percent of the plants with
affected leaves and 3 percent of the plants were dead. In one
15-acre field of shade tobacco 38 percent of the plants had af-
fected leaves and about 8 percent dead plants. A second 10-
acre field of shade tobacco showed 22 percent of the plants with
affected leaves with practically none dead. Also many plants
in these fields which showed no leaf injury were found to have
small lesions on the stems. A few plants with these symp-
toms have been observed in several fields each year since 1922
but no pathogenic organism could ever be associated with the
disease.
This year, while removing affected plants for examination,
a cake or lump of the corn meal-arsenate of lead mixture ap-
plied to the buds for control of the budworm was noticed around


85R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the base of the stems. This mixture was overrun by fungi and
the lump exhibited colors varying from pink to almost black.
This fermented: mixture was suspected as the cause of the stem
injury, and an experiment was begun to prove the hypothesis.
About a teaspoonful of the corn meal-arsenate of lead mix-
ture was placed around each of several plants. Other plants
were treated with pure corn meal. The material was then slight-
ly wet to simulate the light rain which fell on May 12. After
eight days characteristic lesions were present on the stems of
both sets of plants. It thus appears that the injury to the stems
is due to the fermenting meal and not to the arsenate of
lead.
This is the first occurrence of a high percentage of injury re-
sulting from the use of corn meal-arsenate of. lead mixture,
altho it has been in general use in this section for years. Dur-
ing normal seasons rains are sufficiently frequent to wash away
each small portion of the mixture which falls from the bud to
the base of the stem. This year, in the absence of rains dur-
ing April and the first half of May, the mixture from about
10 or 12 applications to the buds accumulated around the base
of stems and was then wet just enough to stimulate fermenta-
tion. After the favorable rains during the early part of June
all affected plants, except the ones which died, made good
growth and no new signs of the trouble developed. Except for
the small percentage of plants which died, a comparatively slight
loss was incurred.

General Survey
On account of the prevalence of black shank in this district
and an unstable market, the acreage of shade tobacco was re-
duced this year to at least one third of previous plantings..
About half of the acreage was set with Connecticut Round
Tip and the crop suffered heavy loss on several plantations
from black shank. With few exceptions the quality of leaf has
been impaired by the dry weather which prevailed for a greater
part of the season.
The acreage of bright tobacco was greatly increased over the
plantings of last year. It has been estimated that there are
about 4,000 acres in this district which will be marketed in
Quincy. This crop has also suffered from dry weather. In
addition many fields have .suffered heavily from nematode in-


86R







Annual Report, 1925


festation. Black shank caused considerable loss in a few fields
which were located near infested shades. Specimens of black
shank on bright tobacco were sent to the Tobacco Experiment
Station from several counties in Georgia.. It appears, there-
fore, that black shank is spreading northward.
Wildfire caused little or no loss in the fields this year. Three
infested beds were observed but where fields had been set with
plants from these beds the plants were plowed under and the
fields were reset with healthy plants. No reports have been
made of the disease reappearing in thesefields.
Blackfire was observed in only one plant bed. Several fields
were set with plants from this bed but the fields have not been
inspected. -It is quite probable, however, that the dry season
has held the disease in check, as no report of its development
has been received.
Root-knot has been more prevalent this year than usual on
both bright and shade tobacco. In several fields the yield was
reduced materially.
Mosaic has been observed in only a few fields and caused very
little loss, as usual. The disease appeared early in one of the
cooperative plots ard did not appear in the other. It seems, there-
fore, that insects were the agents of introduction of the virus
into the field.


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
JOHN H. JEFFERIES,
Superintendent.

The Citrus Experiment Station has made a very satisfactory
development since its establishment in 1921. It now has all the
land planted to citrus that is suited to it with the exception of
seven acres which are cleared and ready for planting. This will
make a total of 63 acres planted to citrus for experimental pur-
poses.
The acreage is divided into experiments as follows: 5 acres
devoted to determining the value of high and low content potash
fertilizers; 10 acres devoted to the testing of different forms
and quantity of fertilizers associated with dieback; 5 acres de-
voted to progeny grove for the production of high grade bud-
wood; 3 acres devoted to testing various varieties of different
rootstocks; 32 acres devoted to experiments along the follow-
ing lines: cover crops, irrigation, fertilization, intensive and
modified cultivation and non-cultivation.

CLEARING AND PREPARATION
The northern 20 acres of the Station ground was cleared in
the falls of 1923 and 1924 and planted to velvet beans in the
spring of 1925. In November these crops were used as green
manure. The growth was so heavy that it had to be disked be-
fore plowing with the two-horse plow. This is being used in a
test of the value of cover crops and thoro preparation of the
soil before planting the trees. This was checked against 12
acres in the same portion of the Station which was cleared in
the fall of 1924, and immediately planted to citrus trees with-
out first planting to a cover crop.
SOURCE OF HUMUS
Three and one-fourth acres have been divided into 13 one-
fourth acre plots, and planted to Pineapple orange on rough
lemon stock. This is to determine the value of the following


88R








Annual Report, 1925


as source of humus and nitrogen: cowpeas, velvet beans, croto-
laria and beggarweed. The Grass and Forage Investigator of
the Main Station is conducting this work.

COST OF PRODUCING A GROVE
Three blocks have been set aside to determine the cost of
producing a grove under hammock conditions, intensive and
modified cultivations, to a profitable stage. Strict account of
the expenses is kept in each case. They are divided and treated
as follows:
1. Modified Cultivation.
This one-acre block was cleared of all trees and underbrush
and plowed. Half of it was planted to Pineapple oranges and
the other half to Excelsior grapefruit. This grove is to receive
shallow cultivation and be planted to different cover crops in the
summer.
2. Intensive Cultivation.
On four acres of the land cleared in the fall of 1924, two acres
were planted to Pineapple oranges and two to Excelsior grape.
fruit. This grove will be given intensive cultivation as is prac-
ticed in the Ridge section.
3. Hammock Block.
This is a four-acre grove planted on good high grade pine
land. All of the oaks and underbrush have been removed, but
all of the pine trees were left. Two acres of this has been
planted to Pineapple oranges and two to Excelsior grapefruit.
The soil has not been plowed or harrowed. All grass and weeds
are kept down with a mower and left on the soil to decay.

IRRIGATION FOR CONTROL OF JUNE BLOOM
This experiment is divided into three plots of two acres each.
Each plot contains the same number of trees and the same va-
rieties. To determine the value of irrigation for controlling
amount and time of blooming, the plots are treated as follows:
1. Irrigated during the dry weather of the spring.
2. Irrigated in January so as to induce normal bloom at
normal time.
3. No irrigation.


89R








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


WATER VS. NO WATER
This experiment is to determine how much more quickly a
crop can be produced by free use of water contrasted to no
water as is practiced in the Ridge section. Two acres are used
for this which are irrigated at every "excusable" opportunity.
This is checked with intensive cultivation as listed above.

SOURCE OF POTASH
Five and one-half acres have been planted to tangerines, Nor.
ris oranges and Marsh grapefruit to test the value of potash
fertilizers for citrus. This work is conducted by the Chemist.

PATHOLOGICAL WORK
One acre has been cleared west of the potash grove for the
study of citrus diseases by the 'Plant Pathologist. This is to
be planted to as large a variety of rootstocks and buds as pos-
sible for pathological study.

BUD SUPPLY PROGENY GROVE
This grove was budded in 1922 and commenced bearing this
year. A careful record and observation will be made of the
fruit. Without doubt this grove will be a great asset to the
citrus industry, as it represents the best and most prolific
strains of citrus fruits in the state.

EQUIPMENT
The Station is very well supplied with needed equipment, such
as power duster, two wagons, one pair mules, harrows, culti-
vators, plows, small tools, electric light plant, windmill and
permanent spraying outfit (which is still in the experimental
stage).
A temporary laboratory has been built, 12 x 24 feet, and fully
equipped by the Emergency Fund from the State Plant Board
for the study of citrus aphids and parasites attacking them. An
insectary 10 feet square has also been built from this fund for
the study of life history of citrus aphids and lady beetles at-
tacking them.
All buildings have received one or two coats of paint accord-
ing to their -need.


90R








Annual Report, 1925


REPORT OF THE EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION

Wilmon Newell, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the Everglades Experi-
ment Station, near Belle Glade, Palm Beach County, for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1925.
Respectfully,
GEORGE E. TEDDER,
Foreman.

Our last annual report described the preliminary work done
in establishing the Everglades Experiment Station, recounted
the methods used in preparing the land for cultivation, gave
the plot arrangement employed for field experiments and re-
viewed the work done to June 30, 1924.
The fiscal year just closed has presented a number of handi-
caps to the progress of the Station's work, the most serious one
being a flood which commenced on October 19, 1924, and kept
the land practically under water for 60 days thereafter.
The development of the research work at this Station is strict-
ly limited by the rate at which improvements and facilities
for it can be made. These include not only laboratory and
office facilities but also living quarters for all employees and
their families. The Station is isolated, being 41 miles from
West Palm Beach and connected with the latter by a road which
has become, thru neglect, almost impassable. This condition,
coupled with high prices for all materials and the scarcity and
high price for labor, has restricted the work of making improve-
ments.
However, substantial additions have been made to the equip-
ment and the appearance of the Station property has been ma-
terially improved during the year.

BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS
A system of rock roads to connect the public highway with
the grounds and Station buildings was commenced. For this
purpose rock and marl were secured during September and
October, 1924, at a point three miles above the Station, where
a dredge was deepening the Hillsboro Canal, and transported
by barge to the Station dock where it was unloaded by hand


91R







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and moved to position by wheel barrows. This method of
construction was found to be expensive and no more roadway
was built under these conditions than was absolutely required
for making the buildings accessible. Road building was re-
sumed during November and December, at which time the dredge
"Panama" was working opposite the Station property. Roads
9 feet in width were built to the residence and office buildings
and to the implement shelters and laborers' cottages. It is ex-
pected to increase the depth of rock on these roads to approx-
imately 18 inches and to widen the roads to 15 feet.
In August, 1924, the Chief Engineer of the Everglades Drain-
age District had installed at the Experiment Station a centri-
fugal pump with a rated capacity of 250,000 gallons an hour,
together with water control gates arranged so that water could
be pumped either onto or off of the Station lands. At first
the attempt was made to operate this pump with power sup-
plied by a tractor but the power thus afforded was insufficient
for satisfactory results.
Water levels were generally high during the autumn of 1924.
By using the pump and tractor described, the water table was
kept somewhat lowered and, on October 16, stood at 131/2 inches
below the land surface. Heavy rains commenced on October
18 and, altho the pump was operated day and night, the water
rose steadily until it was 5 inches above the surface by October
19. At this point operation of the pump was discontinued, as
the water was merely being churned up around the pump and
was not being moved from the property. The water reached
its maximum height on October 29, with 22 inches of water
above the land surface, as recorded on a permanent concrete
gauge-post located in the instrument yard near the buildings.
The water receded very slowly and did not reach the ground level
until December 25.
During this flood period efforts were directed to safeguarding
the Station buildings, implements and other property, keeping
meteorological records and also daily records on the effect of
the flood water on the various trees and plants at the Station.
Thus were valuable data secured as to the ability of a large
number of plants to resist flood conditions for varying periods.
of time.


92R







Annual Report, 1925


Water level remained high in the soil for some. time and it
was not until January 23, 1925, that a tractor could be operated
on the land at all. From that time until June 30, the water was
frequently so high and the land so wet that agricultural work
could not be pursued. However, the flood waters had distribu-
ted seed of Para and St. Lucie grasses over the entire premises
and much tedious work was necessary in hunting out and de-
stroying the young plants of these grasses in order to prevent
their permanent establishment, which would render the land use-
less for cropping purposes.
In June, 1925, the Everglades Drainage Board had a 15-H. P.,
heavy-duty gasoline engine installed for operation of the drain-
age pump and this is being operated as occasion requires. Pres-
ent plans call for the construction in the near future of a sub-
stantial levee around the Station property.
During the year a 5-room bungalow has been completed and
equipped with electric lights, sewage disposal and water-pip-
ing system. This bungalow is intended for the use of the fore-
man's family, in order that the two-story residence may be used
as a boarding house for the accommodation of the white em-
ployees. One cottage for colored laborers, 12 x 20 feet, with two
rooms, was built during the year and an older one remodeled.
One implement barn 24 x 30 feet was constructed. All new
buildings received two coats of paint and all other buildings
one coat.
During the year the water from the 16-foot well drilled in
1923 became so foul that it could not be used for any purpose
and, as bacteriological examination showed the water to be
contaminated from the sewage system, the well was abandoned.
At present water is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal into the
piping system for general purposes, while rain-water is the only
source of drinking water.
A light power hoe, two harrows and a number of smaller im-
plements and tools were purchased during the year.

FIELD EXPERIMENTS
The flood of October-December, 1924, caused the death of all
the orchard plantings of pears, ting-oil trees, avocados, bananas,
figsppeaches, plums and various citrus trees. The only orchard
trees surviving the flood conditions were the pecans and a few


93R








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the persimmons and guavas. Grasses, legumes and annual
plants in the crop adaptation test plots were killed by the flood
waters, with the exception of St. Lucie, St. Augustine, Echin-
ochloa crus-galli, Panicum aquaticum, Panicum altun, Para
(Panicum barbinode) and Carib (Eriochloa subglabra) grasses.
Prior to the' flood, field work was systematically carried on
during the summer of 1924, with the general result indicated
below.
Tests were made of Williamson's Pedigreed corn on elder land
and on saw-grass land, both in the northwest sector. Much
damage was experienced from birds, cutworms and budworms.
On elder land, the plants grew to a height of 10 feet and three
acres produced 40 bushels of grain. No grain was produced on
the saw-grass land. The same variety was used on two plots
of saw-grass land, one plowed five inches deep and the other
15 to 18 inches deep, .in advance of planting. The corn plants
on both plots were yellowish in appearance, did not attain a
height of over five feet and produced no grain.
A variety test of field corn during the summer of 1924 gave
the following yields:

Williamson's Pedigreed ..................... 7.7 bushels an acre
Martin's 7-ear ........ .... ...----...... ..-.... 12.8 bushels an acre
Duval Flint .................-........--------12.1 bushels an acre
Improved Golden Dent .................13.4 bushels an acre
Improved White Dent ..........--------11.7 bushels an acre
Reid's Yellow .... -....................---- 8.7 bushels an acre
Tennessee Red Cob ....--......................10.8 bushels an acre
Hickory King ...............................---14.6 bushels an acre
A variety test of garden corn gave the following yields of
green corn ("roasting ears"):
Truckers' Favorite ..................................--- 568 lbs. an acre
Adams Extra Early .........--....................-- 180 lbs. an acre
Adams Early ......................................... 1676 lbs. an acre
Snowflake --................................------1900 lbs. an acre
Country Gentleman ................................... 344 lbs. an acre
Stowell's Evergreen ......-........................ .... 652 lbs. an acre
In the case of all corn, the ravages of birds and cutworms
made it difficult to secure a good stand and the work of birds
and corn earworms resulted in the quality of corn and grain
being very poor.
Several varieties of sugar cane planted early in 1924 made
very little growth during the summer and most of them died


94R







Annual Report, 1925 95R

before the October flood. A few plants survived the flood but
died later.
In variety tests of sorghum, yields of from 1 to 10.23 tons
of green forage an acre were secured,i the last named from the
variety "Honey". All sorghums were killed by, the flood.
Eleven varieties of peanuts were planted and all made a
very poor growth, being yellow and unthrifty. On account of
the flood, yields could not be secured.
Eight varieties of velvet beans were included in a field test.
All grew well in the early part of the season but later became
yellow and unthrifty in appearance. None was mature enough
to harvest before the land was overflowed in October.
Soybeans showed a better growth than any other legume
planted and apparently would have matured creditable crops of
seed, had not the flood arrived before harvesting time.
Two varieties of alfalfa and eight clovers were planted, both
inoculated and not inoculated. Growth was best in the case
of inoculated plants and many nodules developed on their roots.
However, growth was not exceptionally good in any case.
Cotton was planted in the spring of 1924, but the stand was
almost entirely destroyed by various fungous diseases and by
cutworms. Only a few plants survived to produce blossoms and
bolls and these plants were of small growth, altho a few matured
a creditable number of bolls.
Other experimental plantings included pineapples, potatoes,
tomatoes, blackberries, ginger, papayas, tobacco, buckwheat,
rape, rice, cassava, chufas, millets, sunflowers, Crotalaria, many
legumes, chayotes, yams and a number of ornamentals. In the
case of all, growth was either unsatisfactory or the plantings
were destroyed by the autumn flood.
The permanent plantings of orchard trees, destroyed by the
October, 1924, flood, could not be replaced during the winter
of 1924-25, because the land was too wet for planting until
after the planting season had passed.

LIVESTOCK DISEASES
During the summer of 1924, a study of diseases of livestock
in the Everglades was made by Dr. A. L. .Shealy, of the Col-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lege of Agriculturel faculty,: under the auspices of the Ever-
glades Experiment Station.
The most prevalent diseased condition found was that of steril-
ity in cattle, fully 60 percent of the cows around the south and
southeast. shores, of Lake Okeechobee being found to be practi-
cally sterile. Studies were made in the attempt to discover the
cause of this condition. Chemical analysis of common Ever-
glades grasses showed that these were not deficient in calcium
but were low in iron content and the latter may be responsible
in part for the sterility. Feeding experiments, in which mineral
mixtures: and ovarian extract were used, were undertaken in
cooperation with livestock owners and, while the use of both
materials was followed in a number of instances by satisfac-
tory results, the cooperation secured was not complete enough
to warrant definite conclusions..
Malnutrition was found to occur in many cattle whose food
consisted solely of grazing crops, the animals being in un-
thrifty condition, emaciated and showing rough coats. Exam-
ination failed to show the presence of any intestinal parasites.
Supplementing the grass feeds with mineral mixtures and
a tonic of nux vomicaa and gentian was .found uniformly
helpful and full.recovery to normal condition.was secured in a
number of instances..
Horse flies (Tabanidae) 'were' troublesome to cttle 'during
the summer months. Several fly repellants 'were tested and
the following gave satisfactory results:
Powdered resin .................................. 2 lbs.
Laundry soap ....... ........ ..... .................. ...................... 2 Ibs.
Fish oil .................................... .............. ........................ 2 pints
Oil of tar-....:...... ........... .................................... ....... 2 pints
Kerosene ......... ....................................... .............. 3 pints
This is prepared by boiling the resin in two quarts of water,
to Which has- previously been added the soap. and fish oil. One
gallon of water is then added, 'followed by addition of the ker-
osene and oil of tar. The mixture is then boiled for 15 min-
utes. It should be thoroly agitated and applied as needed.
Several outbreaks of hemorrhagic septicemia were found in
the vicinity of Okeechobee City, West Palm Beach and Boynton.
The use of hemorrhagic septicemia bacterin was successful, no
new cases appearing in herds after its use.


96R







Annual Report, 1925


One bovine animal was found affected with "leeches". This
trouble is of rare occurrence in cattle.
Scours was reported as a prevalent trouble during rainy sea-
sons but no cases were encountered in the course of Dr. Shealy's
investigation.

DRAINAGE STUDIES AND RECORDS
In cooperation with the Chief Engineer of the Everglades
Drainage District, a series of comprehensive observations are
being made in connection with drainage. Observing stations
are located at varying distances from the open ditches and read-
ings on the height of water table at these stations are made
daily, both when drainage pump is in operation and when it
is not. Data are thus secured on the effect of pumping upon the
water table and the rate of horizontal movement of water in the
soil, also on the rate of upward movement of soil water follow-
ing rains.
Other records kept at the Everglades Station.included daily
maximum and minimum temperatures, humidity, evaporation,
rainfall, wind direction, storms, frosts, height of canal water
above sea-level, etc. The Everglades Experiment Station is
designated as an official observing station of the United States
Weather Bureau.


97R









INDEX


INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT, BULLETINS, AND PRESS BULLETINS


Aleurites fordi, 65R
montana, 66R .
Alfalfa meal vs. beet pulp, 14R
Alfalfa tests, 22R, 95R
Alternaria disease of cotton, 64R
Angular leaf spot, cotton, 63R
Animal industrialist, report of, 11R
Anthracnose, cotton, 62R
Aphis, citrus, 36R
diseases, 46R
Assistant entomologist, report of,
39R
horticulturist, report of, 65R
Auditor, report of, 8R
Avocado plot, 68R
Ayers, Ed L., resigned, 6R

Bacterium sp., 45R
tabacum, 84R
Bahia grass, 26R
Bean jassid, 41R
Beet pulp vs. alfalfa meal, 14R
Beggarweed for hay, 19R
Bermuda grass, 26R
Berry plantings, 66R
Beyer, A. H., resigned, 5R
Black medic tests, 22R
Blackberry, Double Blossom of, P B
367
Blackleg, potato, 59R
Blackmon, G. H., report of, 72R
Blackshank of tobacco, 82R .
Blight, citrus, 52R
potato, 58R,
Blight Diseases of Irish Potatoes,
P B 366[
Board of Control and Station staff,
4R
Boll rot, cotton, 63R
Borer, peach, 'control, 38R
Bratley, H. E., appointment of, 5R
Budrot of coconut, 45R
Bulletins, 6R
Burger, O. F., report of, 42R
Buttermilk, dried as hog feed, 16R
i


Calcium C y a n i d e, Controlling
Chinch Bugs With, P B 362
Calcium cyanide in peach borer con-
trol, 38R
Camp, A. F., appointed, 6R
work of, 60R
Canada field pea tests, 22R; 23R
Carib grass, 94R
Carpet grass, 26R
Cattle, sterility of, 96R
Celery Diseases in Florida (Bulle-
tin 173), 7R
Celery leaf-tyer, 38R
Celery work, 35R
Centipede grass, 26R, 27R
Chaetochloa 'magnd, 51R
Changes in staff, 5R
Chemist, report of, 28R
Chinch Bugs, Controlling with Cal-
cium Cyanide, P B 362
Citrus Aphis, Controlling the, (Bul-
letin 174), 7R '
Citrus Aphis, New, Controlled by
Spot Dusting, P B 365
Citrus aphis, 36R
control, 37R
natural enemies of, 36R
Citrus, blight, 52R
bud supply grove, 90R
canker outbreak, 42R
coloring work, 43R
dieback of, 28R '
fertilizer work, 2AR, 0R,i90R
melanose, 43R
rootstock work, 65R
scaly bark, 45R
Citrus limonia, 69R
Citrus Station fund, 9R
report, 88R
Cladosporium sp., 45R
on aphis, 46R
Clover tests, 22R, 23R, 95R
Coconut diseases, 45R
Codaeum spp., 69R
Colletotrichum sp., 45R.
Coloring of citrus fruits, 43R









Index


Controlling Chinch Bugs With Cal-
cium Cyanide, P B 362
Controlling the Citrus Aphis ,Bul-
letin 174), 7R
Cooper, J. Francis, appointed, 6R
Corn fertilizer tests, 25R, 31R
Corn for silage, 20R
Corn variety test, 20R, 94R
Corn with Napier grass for silage,
13R
Corticium stevensii on pear, 50R
Cost of producing a grove, 89R
Cotton diseases. 60R
variety test, Exerglades, 95R
Cottonseed meal for hogs, 18R
Cowpeas for hay, 19R
Cream, sour, producing, 12R
Cresap, Ida Keeling, report of, 79R
Crotalaria tests, 23R
Croton leaf rooting, 69R
Cucumber downy mildew, 50R
Dairy herd, 11R
record of, 15R
Delinting cotton seed, 62R
Dieback of citrus, 28R
Diospyros sp., 69R
virginiana, 69R
Diplodia boll rot, cotton, 63R
Director, report of, 5R
Double-Blossom of Blackberry, P B
367
Downy mildew of cucumber, 50R
Drainage studies, Everglades, 97R
Dried buttermilk as hog feed, 16R
Dupont, L. E., appointed, 6R
work of, 43R

Early blight of potatoes, 59R
Echinochloa crus-galli, 94R
Empusa on aphis, 46R
Entomologist, report of, 36R
Eremochloa ophiuroides, 26R
Eriochloa subglabra, 94R
Everglades Station fund, 9R
report, 91R

-Fertilizer experiments, 24R, 25R,
28R, 30R, 31R
Ficus spp., 67R


Fig rust, 51R
work, 67R
Financial resources, 5R
Fish meal vs. meat meal for hogs,
17R
Fly repellants, 96R
Forage crops investigations, 19R
"Fungus" blight of potatoes, 58R
Fusarium sp., 45R
vasinfectum, 60R
Fusarium wilt of potatoes, 59R
Fusicladium effusum, 43R

Gilbert, E. M., assistance, 42R
Glomerella gossypii, 62R
Governor, letter of transmittal to,
3R
Graham, K. H., report of, 8R
Grape work, 67R
Grapefruit ripening tests, 33R
Grass and forage crops investigator,
report of, 19R
Grass, lawn studies, 27R
mineral content studies, 35R
pasture, studies, 26R
work at Everglades, 94R
Gratz, L. O., work of, 58R
Grazing experiments, Napier grass,
20R
Grove, cost of producing, 89R

Hay crops, 19R
Hedges for Florida (Bulletin 172),
7R
Herd record, 15R
Hicoria pecan, 74R
Hemimorrhagic septicemia, 96R
Hog feed, dried buttermilk as, 16R
fish meal and meat meal, 17R
fish meal, meat meal and cotton-
seed meal, 18R
skimmilk as, 16R
Hog feeding experiments, 16R
Horse flies, 96R
Humus, source of, for citrus, 88R
Incidental (sales) fund, 10R
Irish Potatoes, Blight Diseases of,
P B 366
Irish potato fertilizer work, 31R








Index


Irrigation for control of June bloom,
88R
Italian rye grass, 27R
.
Japanese cane tests, 20R
Jassid, bean, 41R
Jefferies, John H., report of, 88R
Juglans nigra, 74R
regia, 74R
sieboldiana, 74R
June bloom, irrigation for control
of, 89R

Kelbert, D. G. A., appointed, 6R
Kuntz, W. A., appointed, 6R

Ladybeetles on aphids, 36R
Land plaster, effect on crops, 25R
Late blight of potatoes, 58R
Lawn grass studies, 27R
Leaf roll of potatoes, 59R
Leaf rooting work, 69R
Legume tests, 22R
Librarian, report of, 79R
Ligustrum lucidum, 69R
quihoui, 69R
Limestone, effect on crops, 25R
Link, C. T., resigned, 6R
Lippia repens, 27R
Livestock diseases in Everglades,
95R
Lolium multiflorum, 27R
Loucks, K. W., appointed, 6R
study of citrus canker, 42R

Macrosporium disease of cotton,
64R
Macrosporium solani, 50R
Main Station fund, 8R
Meat meal for hogs, 17R, 18R
Medicago arabica, 23R
hispidia, 23R
Melanose, 43R
Millet seedling infection, 51R
Mosaic of potatoes, 59R
Mowry, Harold, report of, 65R
Mucor sp., 45R
Mung beans for hay, 19R

Nailhead rust of tomatoes, 30R, 50R
Napier grass breeding work, 24R
fertilizing, 24R


Napier grass vs. corn for silage,
13R
Nematode control, 37R, 38R
New Citrus Aphis Controlled by
Spot Dusting, P B 365
Newell, Wilmon, report of, 5R
Nolen, R. E., work of, 43R
Nut bearing industry, Board of
Control, fund, 10R
Nutrition studies, 30R

Oat variety test, 21R
Oidium sp., 45R

Panicum altun, 94R
aquaticum, 94R
barbinode, 94R
repens, 26R
Para grass, 94R
Paspalum notatum, 26R
Pasture grass studies, 26R
Peach borer control with calcium
cyanide, 38R
Peanut breeding work, 24R
fertilizer work, 25R
variety test, 21R, 95R
Pear, Corticium stevensii on, 50R
planting, 69R
Pecan culturist, report of, 72R
Pecan, cover crops, 78R
diseases, 76R
insects, 39R, 77R
fertilizer work, 31R, 75R
nut collection, 78R
Rate of nut growth, 72R
rosette, 76R
scab, 43R, 76R
variety and stock tests, 74R
Pecans, Varieties for Florida, P B
364
Penicillium sp., 45R
Persimmon work, 69R
Physopella fici on fig, 51R
Phytophthora spp., 45R, 58R
nicotianae, 83R
Plant pathologist, report of, 42R
Potato diseases, 58R
fertilizer work, 31R
Potatoes, Seed, What are Good?
P B 363




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