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Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00008
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1909
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 7
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 8
    Main
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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        Page 30
        Page 31
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    Index
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Index 3
        Index 4
        Index 5
        Index 6
        Index 7
        Index 8
        Index 9
        Index 10
        Index 11
        Index 12
        Index 13
        Index 14
Full Text









































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hV 4







Florida

Agricultural Experiment

Station.






Report for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30,
1909.


Gainesvilk. Fla.:
Pepper Pub. and PIC. Co.









CONTENTS.

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO THE GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA --..---- vii
BOARD OF CONTROL - ..---------- -----------...----------.. ------- vii
EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF---------... ------------ -------- ---- ii
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN OF BOARD OF CONTROL.. ix
Lines of Work -------------.----------- ------------------------- ix
Changes in Station Staff -----.------------------------------------... xi
Evaporimeters---------. ------------------------------------------ xi
Bulletins ----....-------------- -- - -. xiii
Financial Report .-----------...... ----.. ------------------......--- xiv
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST-----------------..-- ------------- xv
Feeding Experiment with Steers ...----------------..--------- xv
Feeding Experiments with Cows -..------------..-----------... xvi
Breeding Experiments -----------..--------..-----.---------------xviii
Hogs .--------- ----......--------------------------.. ------------ xviii
Field Crops .... ..... ......-----------------...........----------------------. xviii
Donations .--------.__-------------....------...---...--------........----------- xx
REPORT OF CHEMIST ...----...--------------------------- -------------..
Pineapple Experiments.-----. ------------------------------- xxv
-Citrus Experiments -------......------------------ ...------------- xxvi
Analyses of Florida Sweet Oranges --------------------- --- xxx
Other Analyses ---------. ------------------- ..-------------- xxxiil
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOUIST ------. ------------- ------------- xx
Investigations of the Citrus Whitefly ............ ....----- xxxv
The Fifagus Diseases of the Whitefly ....--.....----------- xxxvi
Soaps and Spraying Mixtures.---------.------- -------.... xliii
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGIST ---------------- ------- xlvi
Sealy Bark .....-------------------- .. --..... --------- xlvi
Gunmiosis ... .l..__ Ivii
Scab --- .--------------- ---- -- ---------------------. lvii
Buckskin ...--------------. ...------- --------- ---------- lix
Cabbage Diseases --.......------------ ------------- --..... lix
Cowpea Disease -----.--------------......------.--------.... Ix
Pecan Diseases.----------------------- -- Ix
Roselle Disease --------. ----------------- -. -------- ----.. xil
REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PHYSIOLa)GIST ------------------- xiii
The Tissues of the Citrus Tree ---. .--...-- ...... ...------- lxiii
Cellulose and Pectins in Citrus Wood------------------------ 1xiii
Laboratory Experiments with Dieback---- ---.-------....-... xiii
Maximum Fertilization ------------------------------ ----- lxvi
Yellow Spotting of Citrus Leaves --------------------------- xix
Chlorosis of Cassava ------.... .. ----........-------------- Ilxxvi
REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN BOTANY ------------------------------- xxix
Celery Damp-off .........----.------....------------... -------............-------------. ........ Ilxxix
Celery Blight -----........------.......-------------- lxxix
Vegetable Variety Tests......-------------..----------. xxix
REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN HORTICULTURE .---...-..-.....------------------- xxxvi
Guava-...----..-..---------........ .-----------------.....-----------....--------- lxxxvi
Sugar-cane.--.--..------------------_________________..-------- lxxxvi
Indexing .._-____-- ------________- ___-- - --.. .-______-. _____- Ixxxvi
Mailing List ---___ ...._... -- ____- .-.--. _-_ -______ ________ lxxxvii
Editorial --------................ ... .- ... ........___- __- _...._ Ixxxvii
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN -----....-............---------------------------...------...._______... Ixxxviii
List of Periodioal-._ --_.._ ___.. .... _.......... ..... x. xix






Contents il

BULLETIN 94.-FUNGUS DISEASES OF SCALE INSECTS AND WaHrImTY.
PAGES 1-18.
PAGE.
Favorable Conditions in Florida ...................................... 5
Scale Fungi Do Not Attack Trees .................................... 5
Care Necessary for Success ......................................... 6
Time Necessary to Secure Infection ................................. 7
A Private Enterprise ............................................... 7
The Experiment Station Cannot Supply Fungi ........................ 7
Where Fungi May Be Bought ................................. 7
The Red-headed Fungus ............................................. 8
Species of Insects Infected ................................... 10
How to Apply the Fungus ..................................... 10
The White-headed Fungus ........................................... 11
Species of Insects Infected ................................... 12
How to Apply the Fungus .................................... 12
The Black Fungus .................................................. 13
Scale Insects Attacked ........................................ 14
How to Apply the Fungus .................................... 14
The Yellow Fungus of the Whitefly .................................. 14
How to Apply the Fungus ..................................... 14
The Red Fungus of the Whitefly ..................................... 16
How to Apply the Fungus ..................................... 15
The Brown Fungus of the Whitefly .................................. 16
How to Apply the Fungus ...................................... 16
References .......................................................... 17
BULLETIN 95.-DWARF ESSEX RAPE FOR WINTER FORAGE.
Pages 19-26.
Introduction ................................................ ......... 21
A Winter Crop ...................................................... 21
The Soil for Rape .................................................... 21
Fertilizers ........................................................... 22
Preparation of Soil ................................................. 22
How to Plant ....................................................... 22
How to Feed Rape ................................................... 24
Yield per Acre ........................................................ 24
Rape Test, 1907-8 ................................................... 24
BULLETIN 96.-STEER-FEEDING. PAGES 27-38.
Cattle Feeding in the South .......................................... 29
Cattle Feeding In Florida ............................................ 29
Need of More Beef and Better Cattle ................................. 29
Improved Blood Increases Meat Yield ............................... 30
Grading-up Not Difficult ............................................... 30
Feeding Experiment ................................................. 30
How the Experiment was Conducted ................................. 31
The Feeds Which were Compared ................................... 31
Results of the Experiment ........................................... 34
Financial Results ..................................................... 3
BULLETIN 97.-WHTEFLY STUDIES IN 1908.
PAGES 39-72.
Introduction .......................................................... 43
Means of Control .................................................. 43
Fungus Parasites of Whitefly ....................................... 48
How Fungi Propagate .............................................. 44
Methods for Introducing Whitefly Fungi .............................. 46
Spore-spraying Method ........................................ 46
Leaf-pinning Method ........................................... 46
Tree-planting Method .......................................... 47
Conditions Favorable for the Fungi ................................. 47
When to Introduce the Fungi ......................................... 48
Success in Introducing the Fungi ..................................... 49




iv Contents

Emelf ncy of the Fungi .............................................. 50
Plan of Cam paign .......... ....................................... 50
Where Fungi Can iHe Obtained ..................................... 51
T he F ungi ........................................................... 51
Red Fungus or Whitefly ... ................................... 51
Yellow Fungus of Whitefly .................................... 52
Brown Fungus of Whitefly ................................... 53
White-fringe Fungus of Whitelly .............................. 54
Cinnamon Fungus of Whitefly ................................. 55
Sporotrichum Fungus of Whitefly .............................. 56
Fungus Super-Parasites .............................. ......... 56
Sooty Mold ....................... ........................... 57
Artificial Memis of Control ........................................ 58
Quarantine .............................. .............................. 59
Food Plants of W hitefly ............................................... 60
Plants to be Condemned ............................................. 61
Whitefly Living on Fallen Leaves .................................... 62
Results of Defoliation ............... ........................... 63
H oneydew ......................................................... ... 6
Life-history of W hitefly ............................................... 64
Two Species of Citrus Whitefly in Florida ............................ 67
References ............................................................ 70
BULLrMTIN 98.-SCALY BARK OF CITRUS.
PAurs 73-80.
ntroducn tion ........................................................... 75
Description ............................................................ "
Scaly Bark of Branches ......................................... 15
Scaly Bark of Trunk ..................................... ... 77
Scaly Bark on the Fruit .................................... .. 77
The Disease Infectious ............................................... 78
Technical Study ............. ....................................... 78
Remedies Suggested .................................................. 79
Toil-Working Affected Trees .................................. 79
H leading Back .................. .............................. 7.. i
Pruning Out ................................................... 80
Bordeaux M ixture .............................................. 80

PRtESS I'lULLETrINS.
Press Bulletin 94.-A Dip or Spray for Cattle.
Injury by Ticks.
Loss of Milk.
Eradication of Ticks.
Spraying and Dipping.
Press Bulletin 95.-Celery Seed-Beds.
Time to Sow Celery.
Selecting the Land.
Preparation of Beds.
Sowing.
Shade.
Press bulletin 96.-Citrus Foot-Rot.
Remedy.
Press Bulletin 97.-Whitefly Control by Fungi.
When to Apply the Fungi.
Precautions to be Taken.
Two Species of Whitefly Which Require Different Fungi.
Press Itulletin 98.-Bulletins and Reports on Hand for Distribution.
Press Ilulletin 99.-Fattening Cattle in Florida.
Object of the Experiment.
What Feeds Were Used.
Results Obtained.
Press Bulletin 100.-Care of Celery Seed-Beds.
Transplanting.






Contents


Press Bulletin 101.-Cabbage Black Rot.
How to Prevent Black Rot.
Press Bulletin 102.-Whitefly Control by Fumigation, Spraying, and Quaran-
tine.
Fumigation With Hydrocyanic Acid Gas.
Spraying With Contact Insecticides.
Quarantine.
Press Bulletin 103.-Labor Savers.
Increased Cost of Labor.
Labor-saving Methods.
Labor-saving Implements.
Narrow Margin between Profit and I.oss.
Press Bulletin 104.- Yellow Spotting of C'itrns leaves.
Varieties Affected.
Description.
Press Bulletin t105.-A Spring Balance in the Dairy.
The Unprofitable Cow.
The Best-paying Cow.
The Record.
Press Bulletin 106.-Soil Preparation.
Early Plowing.
The Soil Mulch.
Preventing Waste of Fertilizer.
The Advantages of Early Plowing.
Press Bulletin 107.-Sonie unfavorable Soil Conditions.
1Hardpan.
Iron Salts.
Excess of Water.
Lack of Water.
Organic Acids.
Press Bulletin 10i.-The Whitefi. in Chinalhrry and Umbrella Trees.
What Becomes of the Whitefly.
What is to be Done.
Press Bulletin li.- The Treatmeni of Muck Soils.
Drainage.
Cultivation.
Correcting Acidity.
Fertilizers.
Press Bulletin 110.-Producing Fertilizer on the Farm.
Increased Cost of Crop Production.
How Fertilizer May Be Saved.
Press Bulletin 111.-The Formation of Nitrates in the Soil.
How Nitrates are Formed.
Conditions Favoring the Formation of Nitrates.
Press Bulletin 112.-The Loss of Lime in Drainage Waters.
Loss through Bacterial Action.
.oss Due to Sulphate of Ammonia.
Occasional Applications of Lime Required.
Press Bulletin 113.-The Melon Aphis and Other Plant Lice.
Insecticides Recommended.
Useful Precautions.
Timely Preparation.
Press Bulletin 114.-Cleanliness in the Dairy.
Water and Food.
The Cow-Shed, Stable, or Barn.
Milking.
The Milker.
Dirty Milk.
Press Bulletin 115.-The Whitefly in April.
Introducing Fungus Early.
Spraying.
Chinaberry and Umbrella Trees.
A State Law.




yi Contents

Press Bulletin 116.-The Air In the SoIL
Air for the Roots.
Aeration by Plowing or Draining.
excessive Aeration.
Press Bulletin 117.--Russeting of Citrus Fruits.
How to Detect Rust Mites.
How to Prevent Rusting.
Irrigation.
INDEX.

























Hon. A. W. Gikchrist, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Ha.

SIR: I have the honor to herewith transmit the Annual Report of the
Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, lot the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1909. Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.















BOARD OF CONTROL.


N. P. BRYAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE, Pensacola, Fla.
A. L. BROWN, Eustis, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
J. C. BAISDEN, Live Oak. Fla.


STATION STAFF.

P. H. ROLFS, M. S., Director.
A. W. BLAIR, A. M., Chemist.
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Animal Industrialist.
E. W. BERGER, PH. D., Entomologist.
H. S. FAWCETT, M.S., Plant Pathologist.
B. F. FLOYD, A. M., Assistant Plant Physiologist.
R. Y. WINTERS, B. S., Assistant in Botany.
*R. N. WILSON, A. B., Assistant Chemist.
JOHN BELLING, B. SC., Assistant in Horticulture.
MRS. E W. BERGER, Librarian.
+THOS. HAMILTON, B. S., Laboratory Asst. in Plant Pathology.
E. P. GREENE, B. S., Laboratory Assistant in Entomology.
0. F. BURGER, A. B., Laboratory Asst. in Plant Pathology.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper.
M. CREWS, Farm Foreman.
ALFRED DICKINSON, Gardener.


*Temporary Assistant.
tResigned, February 4, 1909.




Report for Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1909.


Hon. P. K. Yonge, Chairman Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the work and con-
dition of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1909, and I respectfully request you to transmit the same, in accord-
ance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFs,
Director.
LINES OF WORK.
During the past fiscal year the lines of work, as laid down by the projects
of last year, were essentially carried out. In some cases the work was extend-
ed, but no new work has been taken up. The principal lines of work as car-
ried out may be grouped under the following heads: (1) Horticulture. (2)
Animal Industry, (3) Agronomy, (4) Chemistry, (5) Entomology, (6) Plant
Pathology, (7) Plant Physiology, (8) Co-operative work with the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
HORTICULTURE.-The horticultural grounds have been further improved
and put into better shape for experiment work. Several distinct lines of hor-
ticulture have been worked on. In the vegetable garden, variety tests of rad-
ishes, lettuce, eggplants, tomatoes, and peppers, have been carried out. The
point in mind in carrying out these variety tests has been not so much to de-
termine what variety will do best, as to find out what are the weaknesses of
some varieties and what the specially strong points in other varieties. It the
case of lettuce, resistance to the lettuce drop has been the point uppermost in
mind. Experiments have been carried on to secure a variety that is more re-
sistant to this serious trouble. In the case of radishes, individual work has
been done toward securing a variety that will have better keeping qualities
than those now obtainable on the market.
A number of varieties of plums and kaki have been planted out in the
deciduous orchard. This orchard will be needed for careful and systematic
work on the deciduous fruits. Such work cannot be well done co-operatively,
because important varieties from a breeder's standpoint will always be lacking
on the grounds of commercial growers.
In the citrus orchard considerable numbers of early and more hardy vari-
eties of citrus fruits have been planted out. While the Experiment Station is
located too far north for the best work in citrus orchards, certain important
work must be left undone if the orchard is removed to a considerable distance
from the laboratories.
A portion of the horticultural grounds has been set aside for miscellane-
ous crops, to receive novelties and to collect odds and ends, such as should
not go into the regular grounds.
The propagating house which was erected three years ago, measuring 22
by 88 feet, is for the most part devoted to technical studies by the Plant Path-
ologist and Plant Physiologist, only a portion of it being used for general prop-
agating purposes.




x Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Over five hundred numbers of legumes and grasses have been tested on
the horticultural grounds. The seeds of these were obtained for the most part
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, through the courtesy of Prof. C.
V. Piper. The object of these tests is to determine which are suitable for
planting in Florida. During the first three years such plants are tested in small
plots, giving them the best opportunities possible. Special care is taken to
determine technically what the cause of failure is. Where the cause of failure
is due to some condition which is not easily controlled, that number is discard-
ed, and careful note of the condition made. Only a small percentage of the
plants tested prove at all promising. One notably good thing has already
been secured in this way the Lyon bean. This is a close relative of the vel-
vet bean, but promises to be a more vigorous grower and a better producer.
As soon as this bean had established its ability to grow and make a large crop,
a considerable area was planted out on the Experiment Station plot ground for
further and thorough testing. It is now thought that this bean has been suffi-
ciently tested to warrant giving it a general trial over the State.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY.-The principal line of work carried out in this de-
partment has been the feeding of Florida-grown crops to cattle and hogs,
using either commercial or northern-grown products as checks. This work has
been productive of a large amount of good results, showing us exactly what
we may expect from crops grown in Florida. Various grasses and forage plants
that were thought to be valuable have also been tested, both in the field and
as food for stock.
AGRONOMY.-The work in cotton breeding, started four years ago, has
been continued. Much seed was distributed. Our work on this line has
shown clearly that Florida-bred seed is equal to that bred in other cotton-growing
sections. The corn-breeding work has been continued. Many valuable data
have been collected in this connection, showing us the direction in which
breeding work must be carried on to make it successful. Northern varieties of
corn have been grown for a number of years by the Experiment Station.
These have shown that they are not so well adapted to the ordinary field con-
ditions as are the home-grown varieties. The home-grown varieties, however,
are for the most part so poorly selected and produce so many inferior stalks.
that much breeding and selection will be necessary to secure the maximum
production under our conditions. Sorghum selection and propagation have
been carried forward. Varieties of sweet potatoes have again been tested,
with a view to establishing the general characters which make a successful
variety. The work of breeding velvet beans toward a vineless variety has
been continued.
CHEMISTRY. The work in the pineapple field has been continued, thus
making eight consecutive years of work in that particular experiment plot. It
is now thought that the work in this particular line may be discontinued with-
out loss. A similar line of work has been taken up with an orange orchard of
480 trees. This orchard has been planted out and carefully mapped. The
soil has been carefully sampled, and analyses made.
ENTOMOLOGY. -The principal line of work in Entomology has been on
the whitefly of citrus, special attention being directed toward the use of con-
tact insecticides and of parasitic fungi. These observations and experiments
have given us some valuable information, which will be especially useful for
carrying on future lines of investigation, with a view of finally controlling this
pest.





Annual Report, 1909


PLANT PATHOLOGY.-The principal line of work carried on in this
laboratory has been on the scaly bark of oranges. The field experiments and
laboratory investigations now lead us to believe that the work is sufficiently
advanced to enable the citrus growers to combat the disease successfully.
Withertip has also received considerable attention. To a less degree attention
has been paid to the study of vegetable diseases, especially in co-operation
with the variety-test work.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY.-The principal line of work carried on under this
head has been the testing of the effects of various chemicals upon the citrus
tree, using especially those chemicals that are ordinarily employed for fertil-
izers. Much valuable information of a technical character has been secured.
Especial attention has been given to the study of dieback. frenching, and cit-
rus yellow-spotting. These disorders are believed to be due to soil conditions,
and it is probable that they must be avoided or corrected by treatment of the
soil.
CO-OPERATIVE WORK WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL-
TURE.-In all cases where officers of the Department of Agriculture have
asked for our co-operation, it has been cheerfully and freely given. This line
of co-operation is especially valuable to the State. and also to the workers of
the Department of Agriculture. For the most part the workers of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture find that our knowledge of the local conditions is of value
to them. We also find their assistance of great value, in that we need many
times more work done in the State than our present funds will permit. Con-
sequently this co-operative work is more than mutually advantageous.
During the last four years we have been carrying on co-operative work
with the Bureau of Chemistry in connection with sweet corn experiments.
The Bureau of Chemistry now consider that they have about concluded their
work in this line, and will probably be ready to report their results in publi-
cations. Co-operative work has also been carried on with the Bureau of Plant
Industry, especially in planting out and testing a large number of legumes
and grasses, other than those referred to in the work of the Horticultural De-
partment.
Special attention has been given to the work carried on by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture in their diversification and demonstration work in
the State. Every effort has been made to facilitate this work as much as pos-
sible.
CHANGES IN STATION STAFF.
The changes in the Station Staff during the present fiscal year have been
few and unimportant. On July 1, H. S. Fawcett, formerly Assistant Plant
Pathologist, was promoted to the position of Plant Pathologist. Alfred Dick-
inson accepted the position as Gardener on July 7, 1908. On August 1, Thos.
Hamilton accepted the place of Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology, re-
signing the same position on February 4, 1909. On September 21, E. P.
Green accepted the position as Laboratory Assistant in Entomology, which
place he resigned on June 9, 1909, to accept a position as Assistant State
Chemist. On April 1, 1909, Owen F. Burger accepted the position of Lab-
oratory Assistant in Plant Pathology.
EVAPORIMETERS.
These instruments were placed on the Horticultural grounds of the Exper-
imental Station. The distances between the different instruments were rather




ii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

small, and were purposely made small, so that this factor of distance could
not come in to vary the conditions.
The open field was formerly a hammock. The trees had been cleared
off, and the land used for vegetable grounds. The soil was cultivated at the
usual irregular intervals. In the vicinity of the instrument, regular crops
were being grown. A radius of about 10 feet around the instrument was
kept free from weeds or crop.
The instrument in the pine woods was located within about 500 feet of
the former instrument. The pine trees were still standing, and the ground
was covered more or less with wire-grass and other native plants. This land
would usually be considered second-grade pine land.
The evaporimeter in the hammock was about 500 feet from the first and
second instruments. It was in the shade of the trees, between which was a
considerable growth of underbrush, sufficiently open, however, to permit
ease of access, or to allow one to ride through on horseback.
The fourth instrument was near the rim of the pond at the bottom of
one of our numerous limestone sinks, about eight feet below the general level
of the surface at that end. It was about four feet from the water's edge,
away from the water-soaked rim that usually occurs around the sink. The sink
was fringed by trees, which shaded the rim of the pond.
The readings given for any date are the numbers of cubic centimeters of
water evaporated during the past week.
EVAPORIMETER RECORDS.

Reading at 9 A. M. for
Week Ending Open Field Pine Wood Hammock Sink

July 20, 1908 ............. 100 77 23 ....
27. ............. .... 110 50 29
Aug. 3, ............ .. .. .... .... ....
10, . ........ .... ........
17, ............. 211 118 63 84
24. ............. .... 110 45 63
31, . ..... .. .... .... 100 40 58
Sept. 7. ............. .... 154 14 55
14, ............ 111 25 48
21, ........... .... 100 18 46
28 ............ ... 68 10 15
Oct. 5, ............ .... 125 77 88
12. ........... 75 22 32
19, ............ .... 138 87 69
26, ............ .... 106 72 50
Nov. 2. ...... .. .... 95 60 53
9, ............ .... 73 33 38
16, .......... .... 75 44 46
23, ............. .... 93 72 59
30, .... ..... .... 116 72 51
Dec. 7, ............ 89 68 60 43
14. ............. 104 179 88 52 .
21, ............ 135 110 64 44
28, ............. 122 100 97 85
Jan. 4, 1909............. .... 78 100 55
11. ............. 59 20 42
18, ............ 121 100 70 33
25, ............. 120 87 83 37






Anuial Report, 1909 xiii

EVAPORIMETER RECORDS (C(btinueJ).


Reading at 9 A. M. for
Week Ending

Feb. 1. 1909 .............
8, .............
15, .............
22, .............
Mar. 1, ............
S 8, .............
15, ............
22, .............
29. "" .............
Apr. 5, "" .............i
12, ...........
19, ...........
28, ". .............
May 3, .............
10, ............
17, ....... .....
24, .....
31, .............
June 7, ..............
14, .............
21, ...........
28, ............
Averages .................


Open Field Pine Wood Hammock


148

195
155
200
235
227
237
254
248
280
213
315
289
221
392
383
350
313
394
216
300
235


150
95
116
150
138
152
163
147
171
114
190
149
123
200
180
157
167
188
121
168
142


The averages were taken from Dec. 7 to June 28, omitting the four
dates when one or more of the instruments were injured by frost or other-
wise.

BuuLLrms.

The following press bulletins and bulletins, together with the annual
report, were published during the fiscal year.


PRESS BULLETINS.


Title.
A dip or spray for cattle.........July
Celery seed-beds ................ Aug.
Citrus foot-rot ...................Aug.
Whitefly control by fungi ........ Sept.
Bulletins and reports on hand..... Sept.
Fattening cattle in Florida.......Sept.
Care of celery seed-beds......... Oct.
Cabbage black-rot .............. Oct.
Whitefly control by fumigation,
spraying, and quarantine ...... Oct.
Labor savers ..................Nov.
Yellow spotting of citrus leaves... Nov.
A spring balance in the dairy.... Dec.
Soil preparation .................Jan.
Some unfavorable soil conditions. .Jan.
The whitefly in chinaberry and
umbrella trees .............. Feb.


Date.
18, 1908.
22, 1908.
29, 1908.
19, 1908.
26, 1908.
26, 1908.
10, 1908.
24, 1908.

31, 1908.
14, 1908.
21, 1908.
12, 1908.
23, 1909.
30, 1909.


Author.
John M. Scott.
R. Y. Winters.
P. H. Rolfs.
E. W. Berger.

John M. Scott.
R. Y. Winters.
H. S. Fawcett.

E. W. Berger.
John M. Scott.
B. F. Floyd.
John M. Scott
John M. Scott
A. W. Blair.


13, 1909. E. W. Berger.


Sink


94

114
73
106
125
112
112
124
120
138
8s
154
146
96
186
167
137
144
175
108
119




Florida Agricutural Experiment Station


109. The treatment of muck soils..... Feb. 20, 1909. A. W. Blair.
110. Producing fertilizer on the farm..Feb. 27, 1909. John M. Scott
111. The formation of nitrates in
the soil ......................Mar. 6, 1909. A. W. Blair.
112. The loss of lime in drainage
waters .................... ...Mar. 20, 1909. A. W'. Blair.
113. The melon aphis and other
plant lice ....................Mar. 27, 1909. E. W. Berger.
114. Cleanliness in the dairy .........Apr. 3, 1909. John M. Scott.
115. The whitefly in April ............... Apr. 10, 1909. E. W. Berger.
116. The air in the soil ..............Apr. 17, 1909. B. F. Floyd.
117. Russeting of citrus fruits........ .May 1, 1909. P. H. Rolfs.

BULLETINS.
94. Fungus Diseases of Scale In-
sects and Whitefly. 17 pp........... July, 1908. P. H. Rolfs, and
95. Dwarf Essex Rape for Winter H. S. Fawcett.
Forage, 7 pp.......................Aug. 1908. John M. Scott.
96. Steer-feeding, 11 pp..................Jan. 1909. John M. Scott.
97. Whitefly Studies in 1908, 33 pp........Feb. 1909. E. W. Berger.
98. Scaly Bark of Citrus, 8 pp......... .Mar. 1909. S. Fawcett.
ANNUAL REPORT, 1908, 150 pp., with index to all bulletins.

FINANCIAL REPORT.
The following financial report has been prepared by Mr. K. H. Graham,
auditor:
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1909.
RECEIPTS.
Balance from last year incidental funds ...................... $ 16.50
Adams Fund Appropriation ................................... 11,000.00
Hatch Fund Appropriation ..................................... 15,000.00
Proceeds from sale of farm products and fees................... 913.91

Total ..................................................... $26,930.41
EXPENDITURES.
Other
Adams Hatch Sources
Salaries ......... ............... ... $ 8,051.17 $ 8,107.18
Labor ............................ 71.17 2,627.10 $ 81.02
Publications ......................... ........ 639.75 388.70
Postage and stationery ............. 13.02 471.35 68.25
Freight and express ................. 150.14 199.51 32.28
Heat, light, water, and power ........ 45.40 51.58 4.50
Chemical supplies .................... 913.92 55.39 .85
Seeds, plants, and sundry supplies.... 329.22 504.85 77.41
Fertilizers ...................... 61.83 363.80 1.43
Feeding stuffs ....................... ........ 1,164.98 71.75
Library ............................ 150.93 121.60 26.65
Tools, implements, and machinery ... 31.85 167.49 33.44
Furniture and fixtures ............... 126.48 71.50 ........
Scientific apparatus ................ 365.51 9.00 ........
Live stock ................... ... ........ 5.75
Traveling expenses ................. 626.54 310.74 79.29
Contingent expenses ................. ........ 17.50 .35
Buildings and land .................. 62.82 110.93 33.33
Balance ...... ..................... ... ..... ........ 31.16

$11,000.00 $15,000.09* $ 930.41
Total ............................................ $26,930.41





Annual Report, 1909


REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the department for the year end-
ing June 30, 1909.
The work of the past year has been quite satisfactory. Numerous data
relating to the feeding value of several Florida-grown feeds and to the grow-
ing of a number of field crops, have been collected. These will be a source
of information to the farmers of the State.
The dairy and beef herds remain the same as they were last year, except
for the increase of calves. One of the registered Jersey cows has a fine bull
calf, Royal's Golden, No. 84018. This calf is out of Royal Rosalie, No.
171371, by Fancy Golden of Biltmore, No. 69308. He is an exceptionally
good animal both in form and pedigree, and should prove a valuable breeder.
Three of the four Shorthorn cows have brought calves, one heifer and two
bulls. The calves from the dairy cows have not been kept, but have been
sold for veal. This year, however, these cows have been bred to a Jersey
bull, and the heifer calves from the best cows will be retained.

FEEDING EXPERIMENT WITH STEERS.
During the year two feeding experiments were conducted. The first was
a test of feeds for beef production. This was a continuation of the experiment
reported in Bulletin 96. The four steers used in this test were of poor quality
-in fact what would be called a common lot. They were two years of age at
the time the feeding experiment began. The test was divided into two
periods. During the first period the steers were fed a ration composed of
corn, velvet beans, and sweet potatoes. This ration proved to be unsatisfac-
tory. During the time it was fed, the animals barely maintained their initial
weight. The reason of this was that sweet potatoes when fed without some
dry roughage (such as Japanese cane, crab-grass hay, etc.), are too laxative.
As a result of the laxative effect it was not possible to feed a full ration. This
accounts for the unsatisfactory results. However, when Japanese cane was
added to the ration, the gains were satisfactory. The following tables show
in detail the results of the second period of feeding, which was continued for
60 days.

TABLE I.
FEEDS.
Daily Ration per Thousand Pounds Live Weight.
Pounds.
Corn ................................. .. ....................... 12.5
Velvet beans ......................................... ............ 18.75
Sweet potatoes ................................................... 20.83
Japanese cane ................. ...... ............................ 12.50
Total Feeds Consumed.
Corn ..... ........................ .............................. 1273.5
Velvet beans ..................................................... 1999.5
Sweet potatoes .................................... ............... 2387.5
Japanese cane .............................................. .......1562.0
Total .......................................................... 7222.5




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 11.
WEIGHTS AND GAINS.
Pounds.
Total weight at beginning of test ................................ 1923
Total weight at end of test ..................................... 2674
Total gain ................ .... .............................. 751
Average gain per head ........................................... 187.75
Average daily gain per head ................................... 3.13
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight.................... 6.51
Pounds of feed for one pound of gain ............................ 9.6
Cost of one pound of gain .................................... $0.0392

TABLE III.
FINANCIAL RESULTS.
By 4 steers, 2674 lbs. live weight, at $.036 per lb.............. ..... $96.26
To 4 steers, 1923 lbs. live weight, at $.025 per lb.............. $48.08
To 1273.5 Ibs. corn, at $1.60 per hundred*.................... 7.64
To 1999.6 lbs. velvet beans in pod, at $6.00 per ton ........... 6.00
To 2387.5 lbs. sweet potatoes, at $.50 per hundred ............ 11.94
To 1562 lbs. Japanese cane, at $5.00 per ton ................. 3.90 77.56
Gain ................................... ...................... $18.70

FEEDING EXPERIMENT WITH COWS.

One feeding experiment was conducted with the dairy herd during the
year. This was a comparison of a ration of wheat bran, velvet beans in the
pod, and sorghum silage, with a ration of wheat bran, cottonseed meal, and
sorghum silage, for milk production. Six cows were used in this test. The
cows were divided into two lots of three each, so that the periods of lactation
ip each lot would be as nearly comparable as possible. The feeding time was
divided into three equal periods of twenty-one days each, with seven days'
preliminary feeding before each of the three periods, so as to change the
feeding gradually. Each lot received the same amount of bran. The cot-
tonseed meal and velvet beans were not fed in equal amounts, but in quanti-
ties which contained approximately equivalent amounts of nutrients.
This experiment shows clearly that velvet beans in the pod, when fed
with wheat bran and sorghum silage, will produce milk at less cost than will
cottonseed meal with wheat bran and sorghum silage. Pound for pound, of
course, these two feeds are not equal. Though one pound of cottonseed
meal is equal in feeding value to about 2.83 pounds of velvet beans in the
pod, yet one pound of cottonseed meal costs five times as much as does one
pound of velvet beans in the pod.
Cost of 2000 pounds of cottonseed meal ..----------.....----. $30.00
Cost of 5660 pounds of velvet beans in the pod, at 30 cents
per hundred--..---.. 16.98
Balance in favor of velvet beans... ------- $13.02
That is, if instead of feeding one ton of cottonseed meal, we should feed
5660 pounds of velvet beans in the pod, we would produce as many gallons
of milk, and would at the same time save $13.02 in the cost of the feed.
This experiment shows that farmers and dairymen have at their command
a dairy food that is much cheaper than cottonseed meal, and as good a milk





Annual Report, 1909


producer. Velvet beans are not only a cheaper feed than cottonseed meal for
milk production, but at the same time a valuable crop for the Florda farmers
to raise, when the fertilizer value is also considered (see Press Bulletin 110).
The tables which follow give the results of the test.
TABLE IV.
FEEDS, AND MILK PRODUCED.
First period-January 20 to February 9. 1909.
Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
Velvet beans in pod......... 267.75 Cottonseed meal ........... 94.5
Wheat bran ............... 630 Wheat bran ................ 630
Sorghum silage ............ 142 Sorghum silage ............ 1543.5
Milk produced ...........1069.3 Milk produced............ 879.2
Second Period-February 17 to March 9, 1909.
Lot 1 Lot 2
Cottonseed meal ........... 94.5 Velvet beans in pod........ 267.75
Wheat bran ............... 630 Wheat bran ............... 630
Sorghum silage ............1543.5 Sorghum silage ............2142
Milk produced ...........1077.3 Milk produced ........... 858.3
Third Period-March 17 to April 6. 1909.
Lot 1 Lot 2
Velvet beans in pod ........ 267.75 Cottonseed meal ........... 94.5
Wheat bran ............... 630 Wheat bran ............... 630
Sorghum silage ............ 2142 Sorghum silage ............ 1543.5
Milk produced .......... 952.5 Milk produced ............. 714.7
Pounds
of milk.
On the average 267.75 pounds of velvet beans in pod, fed with bran
and silage, produced ........ ........................... 934.6
And 94.5 pounds of cottonseed meal, fed with bran and less silage,
produced..................; ............................... 937.1
DAILY RATIONS PER HEAD.


Pounds
Wheat bran ................ 10
Velvet beans in pod ....... 4.25
Sorghum silage ............ 34


Pounds
Wheat bran ............... 10
Cottonseed meal ............ L5
Sorghum silage ............ 24.5


TABLE V.
WEIGHTS OF Cows.
Jan. 20, 1909-Beginning of first period.
Lot 1. Pounds Lot 2. Pounds
Cow No. 6 ................... 675 Cow No. 2 ................... 797
Cow No. 8 ................... 717 Cow No. 5 ................... 704
Cow No. 10 .................. 797 Cow No. 13 .................. 788
February 9, 1909-End of first period.
Cow No. 6 ................... 650 Cow No. 2 ................... 844
Cow No. 8 ................... 727 Cow No. 5 ................... 692
Cow No. 10 .................. 753 Cow No. 13 .................. 784
March 9, 1909-End of second period.
Cow No. 6 ................... 680 Cow No. 2 ................... 839
Cow No. 8 ................... 740 Cow No. 5 ................... 701
Cow No. 10 .................. 771 Cow No. 13 .................. 806




xviii


April 6, 1909-End of third period.
Cow No. 6 ................... 694 Cow No. 2 ................... 852
Cow No. 8 ................... 765 Cow No. 5 ................... 734
Cow No. 10 ................... 778 Cow No. 13 ................... 844
The weights at the end of the first period and the end of the second
period were taken as equal to the weights at the beginning of the following
period.
TABLE VI.
COST OF FEEDS PER GALLON OF MILK.
Velvet Beans in Pod.
803.25 pounds velvet beans in pod, at $6.00 per ton ................. $ 2.41
1890 pounds wheat bran, at $31.00 per ton ....................... 29.30
6427 pounds silage, at $4.00 per ton ............................. 12.85
Total cost of feed .......................................... 44.56
Milk produced, 334.9 gallons.
Cost per gallon ............................................ 0.133
Cottonseed Meal.
283.5 pounds cottonseed meal at $30.00 per ton .................... $ 4.25
1890 pounds bran at $31.00 per ton ................................. 29.30
4630 pounds silage at $4.00 per ton ............................... 9.26
Total cost of feed ........................................... 42.81
Milk produced, 310.6 gallons.
Cost per gallon .................. ..................... 0.137
BREEDING EXPERIMENTS.
In the last report mention was made of the work being done in co-opera-
tion with Mr: A. L. Jackson, Gainesville, Fla., in the improvement of the
native cattle. It is too early in the work to draw any definite conclusions.
From the fifteen cows, twelve calves were dropped. There was little difference
in the birth-weight of the different lots of calves. The grade Shorthorns av-
eraged 56, the grade Herefords, 47.9, and the natives 48.6 pounds.












Fig. 1.-Bulls used in the breeding experiment. Hereford on left,
native Florida in center, and Shorthorn on right.

HOGS.
The old herd of swine, consisting of one boar and three sows, has been
sold. Four young gilts have been retained to replace the old sows.

FIELD CROPS.
FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS.-The following table
shows the percentage composition of a number of Florida forage crops. For
comparison an analysis of timothy hay is also inserted.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station





Annual Report, 1909


TABLE VII.
COMPOSITION OF FULORiDA FORAGE CROPS-

d d





Moisture ............. --... 0.1 10.0 10.3 9.75 13.87 I18.6 13.2 12a.
Fiber ...... ................... 20.1 87.7 3.9 38.75 34.11 43.43 29.0 13.08
Ash ... .....-...............---- 7.5 5.9 7.3 5.02 9.55 10.59 | 4.4 1 5.4
Prote ......................... 16.6 14.0 6.9 7.45 8.00 2.28 5.9 7.21
Starch. Sgar. Gum. ee.......-- 42. 30.6 41.0 39.25 34.21 25.8 45.0 40.46
Pats, etc -----.... ................ I. 1.6 1.80 .261 .41 P-5 .80
*W. A. Henry. Feeds and Feeding. 19(0.
tFla. Ar. Exp. Sta. Bul. :2S03-31. 1900.
:Florida Quarterly Bulletin. XVIUI: No. 1.96. 1906.
(Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture of Jamaica, I11: 210. 1905.
The figures given In this table are the amounts per cent. found by chemical analysis.
and must be reduced somewhat in feeding experiments, being replaced by the quantities so-
tualy digested.
The table shows that Natal grass and Guinea grass both produce a hay of
excellent feeding quality. In fact either of them is apparently equal to good
timothy or crab-grass hay for feeding purposes. However, hay to be of the
best feeding quality must be cut at the proper stage of growth. The impor-
tance of this is shown by the two analyses of Guinea grass given in the above
table. What is true of Guinea grass is true also of other grasses; that is, they
make the best quality of hay if cut when beginning to bloom. All of the
plants in a field will not bloom at once; but if cut when one-third or one-
fourth of them are in bloom, the best quality of hay will be obtained.
GUINEA GRASS.-This grass (sometimes called Cuban grass) has not been
grown at the Station long enough for a final report to be made. On April 9
and 10, 1908, an acre of Guinea grass was planted in the plot field. The
roots were set out in rows four feet apart, at distances of about two feet in the
rows. The grass was given five cultivations during the season. Only one
cutting of hay was made, on October 14, 1908; and this gave a yield of three
and one-eighth tons of field-cured hay per acre.
Guinea grass will perhaps give a larger yield of hay per acre than will Na-
tal grass or crab-grass. If the hay be cut at the proper stage of growth it will
be found as nutritious as any of our hays, except the legumes. When only
one cutting is made during the season, the stems become hard and woody,
and a large portion is refused when fed to horses and mules.
NATAL GRASS (Tricholaena rosea).-The seed was sown in drills one foot
apart on May 1 and 2, 1908. Soil and weather conditions were favorable at
this time, and a good stand was obtained. Ninety days after planting, the
crop was ready to be cut for hay; but since it was our desire to obtain as much
seed as possible, it was not cut until the seed was ripe. A good crop of seed
was gathered by hand from August 10 to 15. The grass was cut for hay on
August 18, and gave a yield of 3833 pounds of field-cured hay per acre.
About November 10 a second crop of seed was gathered, and a second crop
of hay was cut on November 19, giving a yield of 1417 pounds of field-cured
hay per acre. The total yield for the season was 5250 pounds per acre, or
2.6 tons. Natal grass is without doubt a most promising hay crop for Flori-




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


da farmers. With favorable soil and moisture conditions, it is believed that a
yield of three to four tons per acre can be expected.
We have little knowledge as to the best fertilizer formula to apply to this
grass. At present we are using the following: Ammonia, 4 per cent.; phos-
phoric acid, 8.5 per cent.; potash, 10 per cent. The source of ammonia was
dried blood, the potash was from muriate of potash, and acid phosphate was
used for phosphoric acid.
SORGHUM.-A test of twenty-five varieties of sorghum is under observa-
tion. Besides these twenty-five, fifteen other varieties are being tested to see
if they are at all adapted to Florida conditions. Three varieties, Gooseneck,
Sumac, and Yellow Milo, that have already been found to be well adapted to
our conditions, have been planted on larger areas for the purpose of getting
greater quantities of seed.
The variety test of sorghum conducted last season was almost a complete
failure.
CORN.-A test of nine varieties is being made this year. These varie-
ties are native, that is, they were selected from among the best kinds found
in the State, except one from Cuba. Besides the variety test, nearly all of
these kinds are also being grown in breeding plots. In the test last year, five
varieties were tried. The following table gives the marketable, unmarketable,
and total yields in bushels per acre.

TABLE VIII.
YIELD OF VARIETIES OF CORN.

Marketable Unmarketable Total yield.
Name of Variety. Bushels. Bushels. Bushels.

Evans --...------....---. 13.12 5.89 19.01
Clopton--.----.--------......... 8.39 6.07 14 46
Rawls .............. 13 30 589 19.19
Laguna ...----- ..... 108 5 17 16.07
Georgia ---- -.------.. 9.19 6 16 15.35

These yields may seem to be small; but when it is remembered that the
average for the State is only about 9.6 bushels per acre, one realizes that the
yield is not so small as it may appear.
JAPANESE SUGAR-CANE.-A plot of Japanese cane was planted on
January 18, 1908. The canes were planted in rows six feet apart. The plot
was given 600 pounds of fertilizer during the season, in three equal applica-
tions, on April 20, June 18, and September 15. The formula was: ammonia
3.5 per cent., phosphoric acid 9.8 per cent., and potash 7.6 per cent. The
sources of the fertilizing elements were dried blood, muriate of potash, and
acid phosphate.
The cane was harvested on November 19, 1908. The yield of green
material was 24.5 tons per acre; which produced 16 tons of sun cured hay.
This yield per acre from Japanese cane indicates that it is a valuable forage
crop, either as silage, green feed, or dry fodder. There is perhaps no other
forage crop that we can grow that will produce so large a yield of carbohydrates
as will this crop. At the present time, however, we have no chemical analysis





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tings or layers of the vines. Should the Kudzu vine prove adapted to Florida
conditions, it will be a valuable forage crop, and also a good soil renovator.
Though the flowers do not seem to produce seed in the neighborhood of
Gainesville, yet the vine may be as readily propagated as the sweet potato, and
is easy to transplant.

TEST OF DIFFERENT LEGUMES.-A test of a large number of legumes is
being mide this year. The test plots contain the following 254 varieties: 110
varieties of cowpeas, 87 of soy beans, 36 of Adsuki beans, 12of Lablab beans,
6 of Seeta beans, 2 of Dolichos biflorus, and 1 of the Mauritius bean. In the
test of these varieties their disease-resisting qualities will be noted, and notes
will also be taken as to their growth, yield of pods and beans, quantity of for-
age, and their general adaptability to Florida conditions.
FERTILIZING EFFECT OF COWPEA ROOTS.- For the purpose of dem-
onstrating the effect of a crop of cowpeas in increasing the fertility of the soil
upon which they grow, the following experiment was conducted. On one plot
of ground a good crop of cowpea hay was grown during the summer of 1908,
and on a second adjoining plot sorghum was grown. The cowpeas and sor-
ghum were harvested about the same time. The ground was plowed and har-
rowed, and a good seed-bed prepared. On November 16, 1908, both plots
were planted to Georgia salad (Dwarf Essex Rape). No fertilizer was applied
to either plot.
TABLE IX.
YIELDS OF RAPE AFTER COWPEAS, AND AFTER SORGHUM.
Rape after cowpcu.s.
First cutting, Jan. 8, 1909 -.-------.-------------..------2.96 tons per acre.
Second cutting, March 27, 1909.----...-----------....---...--....1.44 "
Rape after sorghum.
First cutting. Jan. 8. 1909.--......------......---...........------------.....--0.4 "
Second cutting, March 27, 1909--.---------....-..--..---.....---------..050 "
Total after cowpeas-----.......---------------...........-..-..-.....--4.40 "
Total after sorghum ....-------------------....-...---...--0.96 " "
Increase from cowpeas.....-----.-- ----.----.--..---.---........44 "


Fig. 2.-First cutting of rape from one square rod.
On left after cowpeas; on right, after sorghum.




Annual Report, 1909


to indicate its feeding value. But the results of the steer-feeding experiment
already described, would show that it is a valuable forage for feeding purposes.
We have heard reports to the effect that it was impossible to cut and
cure Japanese cane the same as grass or sorghum. In December, 1908, we
cut and field-cured some three or four tons of this forage. After cutting, it
was laid in small piles, and left in the field for five or six days. It was then
placed in the hay barn. We have used this for feeding both cattle and
mules. It is eaten with relish by all kinds of stock. We have had the best
results by running it through a cutter before feeding. When prepared in this
way there is practically no waste, since only a small percentage of it is refused.
Some of this forage has been kept until the present date, June 30, 1909, and
it is still in good condition for feeding.
VELVET BEAN. -The yield per acre during the past season was as follows:
white velvet bean, 26.9 bushels of shelled beans; common velvet bean, 23.3
bushels of shelled beans. The yield from the acre under continuous planting
was 1477 pounds of beans in the hull, or 14.77 bushels of shelled beans.
LYON BEAN.-This is a new bean for Florida. In habit of growth it
very closely resembles the velvet bean, except that the pods and beans are
longer and flatter, and the flowers are white. The yield per acre of shelled
beans was 32.5 bushels, or 3259 pounds of beans in the pod.
VALUE OF VELVET BEAN AND LYON BEAN HULLS.-So far, no an-
alyses have been made with regard to the feeding value of the hulls of velvet
bean and Lyon bean. During the past winter, considerable amounts of the
hulls of both were fed to cattle on the Station farm. The stock appeared to
eat them with more relish than they did cottonseed hulls. But before we
can make any definite statement as to their feeding value, it will be necessary
to conduct a digestion experiment. Till we obtain such information they
may be considered equal in value to cottonseed hulls.
The chemical analyses of these hulls show that they are of some value as
a fertilizer. Velvet bean hulls contain 1.08 per cent. of nitrogen, 2.16 of pot-
ash, and 1.87 of phosphoric acid. (Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 60.) Lyon bean
hulls contain 1.52 per cent. of nitrogen, 2.06 of potash, and .51 of phospho-
ric acid. (Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1908.) At the present market prices of
ammonia, phosphoric acid, and potash, this gives a fertilizing value of $7.75
per ton for velvet-bean hulls, and $8.25 for Lyon-bean hulls. There is little
doubt but that the additional feeding value of these hulls is at least half of
their fertilizing value. Therefore it would not be economical to use them
solely as a fertilizer. A better way would be to utilize them as feed, and then
use the manure produced as a fertilizer.
KUDZU VINE (Pueraria thunbergiana).-An acre in the experiment plot
field was planted with cuttings of the Kudzu vine in March, 1909. This is a
leguminous plant of which but little is known. It is a native of Japan and
China, and is a perennial with large tuberous roots. In the North, the vine is
killed to the ground by frost; but in the absence of frost the stems mature and
become woody. Up to date, the Kudzu vine has been used almost entirely
as an ornamental covering for arbors and verandas. During its first season
this vine is not such a rampant grower, but after the plants have become well
established, the vines make a remarkable growth in a single season. They
often grow to the length of 40 to 60 feet. This legume may be propagated
by division, or by seeds, if they can be had; but it is usually growm by cut-





Annual Report, 1909


Fig. 3.-Second cutting of rape from one square rod.
On left, after cowpeas; on right, after sorghum.

SWEET POTATOES. -Eighteen varieties of sweet potatoes have been
planted for the purpose of selecting the variety best suited for stock feeding,
and also to secure a good commercial variety. This year three other varie-
ties were added to the list. Last year's work indicates that sweet potatoes are
not only a crop well adapted to Florida conditions, but also a profitable crop
from a financial standpoint. In the feeding experiments with steers, and with
the milk production of dairy cows, they proved to be a satisfactory feed.
However their value as stock feed is perhaps not more than 30 or 35 cents
per bushel.
The potatoes in the above test were fertilized with ammonia, 4.4 per
cent.; phosphoric acid, 5.8 per cent.; and potash, 8.8 per cent. The sources
of plant food were nitrate of soda, muriate of potash, and acid phosphate.

TABLE X.
VARIETY TEST OF SWEET POTATOES, 1908.

Commer- s Stock size. Culls. Total
Name of Variety. Busizes Bushels Bushels yield.
Name of Variet Bushels Bushels
per acre. i acre. pr acre. per acre.

1. Red Yam-... ----- --- 309.0 23.3 30.0 362.3
2. Brown Seedling..--...------.... ----315.0 7.5 32.9 355.4
3 Bunch Yam.------------............--... 272.5 50.0 30.8 352 5
4. Dade County No. 10.. -..-- 266.0 25.0 31.8 322.8
5. Early Golden .....--------------. 235.0 55.2 32.5 322.7
6. Murray -------------- -----270.0 22.9 27.5 320.4
7. Chesboro No. 8 ....--- 247.5 29.7 36.0 313.2
8. Triumph No. 18 ------.------. 249.0 40 0 14.5 303.5
9. Sugar Yam ------------. :9.0 29.1 20.0 298.1
10. Triumph No. 13-...------------ 235.6 45.8 11.8 293.2
11. White West India ---------- 208.7 47.5 22.5 278.7
12. Miami -----.........--.-------... 175.0 22.8 258 223.6
13. Red Providence No. 11 ..------ 201.0 11.2 9.4 221.6
14. Chesboro No. .. ..-------.----- 164 7 26.6 28 5 219.8
15. Red Providence No. 20 .--..---. 190.0 11.2 9.4 210.6
16. White Providence No. 14 ... 167.5 9.5 15.0 192 0
17. White Seedling No. 15..... 121.2 18.5 18 5 158.2
18. Improved Providence No. 22 135 8 4.1 11.6 151.5


xziii




x=iv


COTTON. About eight acres were devoted to cotton this season. The
aim of all experiments with cotton is to improve the yield, length of staple,
strength of staple, uniformity in length of staple, size of bolls, picking quali-
ties, and disease resistance, by means of selection.

DONATIONS.
AMERICAN SHORTHORN HERD BOOKS. Vols. XLV to LXX. Donated
by the American Shorthorn Breeders' Association.
AMERICAN HEREFORD RECORDS. Vols. I to XXXII. Donated by the
American Hereford Breeders' Association.
AMERICAN GALLOWAY HERD BOOK. Vols. XI to XVI. Donated by the
American Galloway Breeders' Association.
POLLED DURHAM HERD BOOK. Vols. II to IV. Donated by the Polled
Durham Breeders' Association.
AMERICAN ABERDEEN-ANGUS HERD BOOK. Vol. XVIL Donated by
the American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association.
THE HERD REGISTER. Vol. XVIII, parts 73 to 75; and Vol. XIX, part 77.
Donated by' the American Guernsey Cattle Club.
AMERICAN RAMBOUILLET RECORD. Vols. I to VIII. Donated by the
American Rambouillet Sheep Breeders' Association.
PERCHERON STUD BOOK OF AMERICA. Vols. VI to X. Donated by the
Percheron Society of America.
Yearling Steer, three-quarter Shorthorn. Donated by Z. C. Chambliss,
Ocala, Florida.
Case of Wyandotte Dairyman's Cleaner and Cleanser. Donated by the
J. B. Ford Company, Wyandotte, Michigan.
Respectfully submitted,
JOHN M. SCOTT,
Animal Industrialist.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station





Anmnual Report, 1909


REPORT OF CHEMIST.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work in Chemistry for the year
ending June 30, 1909.
PINEAPPLE EXPERIMENTS.
ANALYSES OF FRUITS.- We have completed four years' work on the
analysis of fruit from the fertilizer experiment plots. This work was under-
taken for the purpose of finding out whether the kind or quantity of the fer-
tilizers used had any effect upon the quality of the fruit. The results have
been transmitted in manuscript form, to be published as a bulletin.
ANALYSES OF PLANTS.-On June 23 and 24, 1908, plants were col-
lected from the plots for analysis, with a view to finding out what effect the
fertilizers have upon the composition of the plant. A sample of two plants
was taken from each of the 72 plots now under observation, and also some
samples of suckers and stems-making a total of about 90 samples. These
were weighed and shipped to the laboratory, where they were dried and ground
for analysis. Considerable difficulty was experienced in drying so many large
plants, as the laboratory is not equipped with a drying chamber large enough
to contain them; and when left to dry in the air some of them put out suckers,
with the result that the stems became so much decomposed that they could
not be used. In almost every instance, however, one of the two plants was
saved. Moisture, nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, have been deter-
mined in these plants; and the work of determining lime and magnesia is under
way. With duplicates, this work includes near 900 determinations.
ANALYSES OF SOILS.- Beginning with November 1, 1908, samples of
soil have been taken from 60 of the plots at six different times, at intervals
of a month or six weeks, for the purpose of determining the nitrates. These
samples were taken to the uniform depth of 9 inches. Other samples were
taken to determine the amount of nitrates at different depths. The total
nitrogen has also been determined in a number of the samples. This work
has given some interesting results, and has been put in manuscript form to
date; but it is especially desirable that samples should be taken once or twice
during the rainy season, and on this account the results cannot be included
in this report. When completed, 1200 to 1500 determinations will have
been made. The work should be ready for publication early in the second
quarter of the year.
FERTILIZERS.- Fertilizers have been applied twice a year as provided
for in the general plan. The plants on most of the plots have made a normal
growth, and yielded a fair crop. It is worthy of note that the plots in the
sections where lime was used in connection with acid phosphate continue to
do well, and do not appear to be injured as were those plots where acid phos-
phate was used without lime. (See Bulletin 83.)
In general, the following materials have given good results: for phosphoric
acid, steamed bone, slag phosphate, and dissolved bone black; for nitrogen,
cottonseed meal, dried blood, and castor pomace; for potash, low-grade and
high-grade sulphate of potash. Kainit has proven distinctly injurious, so
much so that the plots where this was used are ruined. Many of the plants
have been killed and the few that remain are so stunted that they do not bear




xxel Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

marketable fruit. In 1908 the four plots of section G, which received their
potash in the form of kainit, yielded a total of only 52 pineapples, and the
four plots of section J, which received the same amount of kainit, yielded a
total of only 89 pineapples; while the four plots of section E, which received
an equivalent amount of potash in the form of low-grade sulphate, yielded a
total of 205 pineapples. The injury appeared to be purely a physiological
one, and to be due to the kainit. (See figures 4 and 5.)
The soil from the plots is almost uniformly acid; and even on plots where
lime, at the rate of 750 pounds per acre, and slag phosphate have been used
regularly for several years, it is still slightly acid. This is probably due to the
fact that organic acids, in considerable quantity, are being constantly formed
by the decay of old plants. The application of one or two tons per acre of
ground limestone once in two or three years would, to a large extent, correct
this, and thus make the conditions for nitrification more favorable.


Fig. 4.-Section G, in September, 1909. Kainit, for 8 years.
CITRUS EXPERIMENTS.
EXPERIMENTAL GROVE.-A citrus experiment has been inaugurated
about three miles from Tavares, on Lake Harris, in Lake County.
The location is considered especially favorable in the matter of pro-
tection from cold. The soil is a rather coarse reddish-brown sand, partly ham-
mock and partly high pine land. In planning and carrying on this work, we
were fortunate in securing the co-operation of Mr. G. M. Wakelin, whose ed-
ucation and experience as a grower will enable him to give us valuable assist-
ance.






Annual Report, 1909


By the terms of the contract the Experiment Station supplies the fertil-
izers and half of the trees; while Mr. Wakelin furnishes the land and half of
the trees, cultivates and cares for the grove under direction of a representative
from the Station, and furnishes a specified amount of fruit for scientific pur-
poses. The experiment is planned to continue for a period of ten years. Care-
ful rainfall and temperature records will be kept.


Fig. 5.-Section E, in September, 1909. Low-grade sulphate of
potash, for 8 years.

OBJECT OF THE EXPERIMENT.-The object of the experiment is to
determine the effect of certain fertilizers upon the chemical and physical prop-
erties of the soil, upon the trees, and upon the quality and quantity of the
fruit. The experiment also contemplates a study of the relation of the fertil-
izers to the insect pests and diseases that affect the orange tree. Lime and
ground limestone are being used to determine the effect of these materials
upon the soil and upon the trees.
Plans are also being made to place a limited number of soil tanks at the
experimental grove, or on the Experiment Station grounds, in which orange
trees can be grown as a check upon this work and to determine the amount of
materials lost in the drainage waters.
PLAN OF GROVE.-Early in January of this year the ground was laid off
and the trees (Valencia Late, on sour stock) were set out. The grove is laid
off in 48 plots of 10 trees each, set 15 by 30 feet. At the end of 5 or 6
years, when they begin to crowd one another, every other tree will he removed


xzvii





xviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

from the rows running east and west; thus leaving all trees 30 by 30 feet. The
Station will use such of these trees as are required for analysis. The accom-
panying diagram shows the arrangement of the plots.





a n c x S; z S

















r x















TABLE XI.
FZRTIzER MIxTUREs USED FR FIRST (JuNE) APPm.ATION.

An application of two pounds per tree was taken as the standard
amount.

Standard formula Ammonia, 5 per cent;, from sulphate of ammonia.
(for young trees). Phosphoric acid, 6 per cent., from acid phosphate,
Potash, 6 percent., from bigh-grade sulphate of potash.





Annual Report, 1909


Variations from the Standard.

Plot 1. Half the standard.
Plot 2. Standard.
Plot 3. Double the standard.
Plot 4. Four times the standard.
Plot 5. Phosphoric acid and ammonia increased by one half.
Plot 6. Phosphoric acid and potash increased by one half.
Plot 7. Ammonia and potash increased by one half.
Plot 8. Phosphoric acid and potash decreased by one half.
Plot 9. Phosphoric acid and ammonia decreased by one half.
Plot 10. Phosphoric acid and potash decreased by one haif.
Plot 11. Standard and finely ground limestone.
Plot 12. Standard and air-slaked lime.
Plot 13. Standard and mulch.
Plot 14. Standard.
Sources of Nitrogen.

Plot 15. From nitrate of soda.
Plot 16. Half from nitrate of soda, and half from sulphate of ammonia.
Plot 17. From dried blood.
Plot 18. Half from sulphate of ammonia, and half from dried blood.
Plot 19. Half from nitrate of soda, and half from dried blood.
Plot 20. From cottonseed meal.
Plot 21. From cottonseed meal. (With ground limestone.)
Plot 22. Half from cottonseed meal, and half from sulphate of ammonia.
Plot 23. Half from cottonseed meal, and half from nitrate of soda.
Sources of Phosphoric Acid.
Plot 24. From dissolved boneblack.
Plot 25. From steamed bone.
Plot 26. From steamed bone. (Double amount.)
Plot 27. From Thomas' slag. (Nitrogen from nitrate of soda.)
Plot 28. From Thomas' slag. (Double amount. Nitrogen from nitrate of
soda.)
Plot 29. From acid phosphate. (Potash, 7% per cent. in June, 7% In Oc-
tober, and 3 in February.)
Plot 30. From acid phosphate. (Nitrogen from nitrate of soda. Potash
from hardwood ashes.)
Plot 31. From acid phosphate. (Standard.)
Plot 32. From dissolved boneblack.
Plot 33. From floats.
Plot 34. From floats. (Double amount.)
Plot 35. From floats. (Four times amount)
Plot 36. From floats. (Four times amount. Nitrogen from cottonseed meaL)
Sources of Potash.
Plot 37. From low-grade sulphate.
Plot 38. From muriate.
Plot 39. From high-grade sulphate of potash. (With ground limestone.)
Plot 40. From kainit.
Plot 41. From high-grade sulphate of potash. (Standard.)
Plot 42. From nitrate of potash. (Balance of nitrogen from nitrate of soda.)
Variations from the Standard.
Plot 43. No fertilizer.
Plot 44. Standard.
Plot 45. Standard and mulch.
Plot 46. Standard and clean culture.
Plot 47. Nitrogen from dried blood. Clean culture.
Plot 48. Nitrogen from nitrate of soda. Clean culture.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XII.
NITRATES AND NITROGEN IN THE SOIL OF EXPERIMENTAL GROVE.

Nitrates. Total LaboratoryI Nitrates. Total
Laboratory Parts Per Nitrogen NumLaboratory Parts Per Nitrogen
Number. Million. Per Cent, Number. Million. Per Cent.

2877 .. 6.21 .030 :2882-...... 2.21 .034
287 .......-------9.03 .041 2883 -------.... 3.04 .036
2879..-------- 10.01 034 12884..---...... 1.74 .033
2880 ..-------- 11.4 .033 2885-------........ 5.58 .031
2881--..------. 4.13 .039 Averatge- 5.58 .038

FERTILIZER TREATMENT.-Table XI shows the Jertilizer combinations
that were employed in the first regular application, made early in June. The
fertilizers will be given in three applications-about the last of May or early
in June, in October, and in February. The standard formula will be slightly
modified for the different seasons. At the time of planting the trees, three-
quarters of a pound of steamed bone was given to each.
It is not to be inferred that the standard formula adopted is necessarily
the best for young trees. It is made up of materials that are in general use, and
the plan contemplates testing these in comparison with other materials, as well
as in varying amounts. The phosphoric acid and potash will be increased as the
trees grow older. The smallest quantities of bone-meal, floats, and slag
which were used, contain the equivalent in phosphoric acid of the available
phosphoric acid in the acid phosphate. When cottonseed meal is used entirely
as the source of nitrogen, due allowance will be made for the amount of phos-
phoric acid and potash in it when calculating the amount of other materials
to be taken. It is probable that in some cases the organic materials may prove
injurious, but it seems especially desirable that we should have some definite
experimental data on this point.
SOIL ANALYSES.-At the time of setting out the trees, samples of soil
were taken at different locations in the field, and determinations were made of
nitrates and total nitrogen. The results are given in Table XII. Further de-
terminations will be made on these samples as time permits.

ANALYSES OF FLORIDA SWEET ORANGES.

In 1904 analyses were made, for the Department of Horticulture, of sev-
eral varieties of Florida sweet oranges. Owing to changes in that Department
about the time the work was completed, the results were not published. The
work is here presented, with the hope that it may be of value for reference.
The Navels were furnished by Mr. E. P. Porcher, of Cocoa; the Jaffas (b),
and Magnum Bonums (b), by Mr. C. W. Butler, of St. Petersburg; and the
others by Mr. W. S. Hart, of Hawks Park.
Six fruits were taken to make a sample. Table XIII gives the average
weight of an orange; the percentage of the different parts; and the percent-
ages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the different parts and in the
whole fruit. Table XIV gives the analyses of the edible portion and the Juice.
From Table XIII it will be seen that the Tardiff orange had the highest per-
centage of edible portion; while Jaffa (a), Pineapple (a), St. Michael's Blood,


xxx




Annual Report, 1909


and Navel, followed in order; all having above 80 per cent. After the Navel,
St. Michael's Blood and Jaffa had the lowest percentage of seeds. The Tar-
diff was lowest in the percentage of rind, while the two samples of Pineapple
followed next in order.
The figures of the plant-food constituents are valuable more from the
standpoint of the averages than with regard to the individual varieties, though
it may be noted that the Tardiff was high in all three constituents, this high
rank appearing to be due to the high percentage of these materials in the rind.
It will be observed that the seeds were rich in nitrogen, the percentage being
about nine times as great as in the edible portion, and slightly more than five
times as great as in the rind. The seeds were also fairly high in phosphoric
acid, while the edible portion and rind were low in this material. All the
parts were rich in potash, though the percentage was nearly twice as great in
seeds and in rind as in the edible part.
In the whole fruits, the relation of nitrogen to phosphoric acid and potash
was as 1 to .45 to 2.5; that is, there was not quite half as much phosphoric
acid as nitrogen, and about two and a half times as much potash as nitrogen.
These results agree fairly closely with the analyses of the Pomelos, the
Kumquats, and the Mandarin group. (See Bulletins 58, 65, and 66, of this
Station.)
From Table XIV it will be seen that the two Pineapple oranges were
highest both in total solids and in total sugar; Tardiff and Ruby Blood were
low in sugar and high in acid; while Parson Brown was low in sugar and also in
acid. The high percentage of cane sugar in the Pineapple orange may have
a favorable influence on the quality. Since this orange is held in high esteem
for its fine flavor, it may be of interest to note the ratio between the acid and
sugar. Taking the average of the two samples, this was found to be 1 to 10.6;
while in Tardiff it was 1 to 5.3, and in Parson Brown, 1 to 13.4. It is prob-
able that the last two represent opposite extremes that are not desirable.
The ratio of acid to sugar in the different varieties was as follows:
Acid Sugar
Parson Brown..------ -------------------------------1 13.4
Navel ............--------------------------- -----....1 10.8
Pineapple .--------------------------------------.....--1 10.6
Magnum Bonum---. ------------------------- 10.3
Jafa ..........------------.... ............--------------.1 9.2
St. Michael's Blood --------------- .-----------------. 1 8.5
Ruby Blood-----...........---------------------------------..1 7.1
Tardiff........---------------------------- --....1 5.3
Average ..---------- __---------- -1 9.4
We may not safely draw many conclusions until more analyses have been
made, but a few points may be emphasized. (1) It would appear that atten-
tion should be given to replacing the potash that is removed with a crop of
oranges. (2) Probably in many cases more phosphoric acid may have been
applied than was necessary. (3) It seems possible that a relationship may
be proved to exist between the flavor of the orange and the ratio of acid to
sugar in the juice.
The analytical work was done by the writer under the direction of Prof.
H. K. Miller, who was Chemist at that time.














TABLE: XI.
ANALYeS S.or OORAa0s, asturluwol CowmrrualNTs,


VARIarra


Pineapple (a).......
Pineapple (b). ...-
Jarfa (a)...........
Jaffa (b) -.......-
Magnum Bonusm (a)
MgfnumI Bonum (b)
Sto. Mlchaeki Blood
Nel ....-.....-....
RUby Blood .........
Parson Brown.....
Tardifft ..--......--

Average........


Avl AGIa 10DIBLU
Wtonam PorTION
Grams. Per Ot,.


202.5 81.0
213.4 170:2
222.7 82.0
195;.8 7.0
221.4 78;0
'20.1 80.8
449.6 8(.A
19414 7.7.3c
287.6 T7,7
211.0 W8.7

239.4 79.4


Per Ct.l Per Ot.


2.6 16,4
2.8 18 .
0.0 17.1
1.2 21.2 "
2.4 22.2
1.7 ,110.8
0.8 18.4
0.0 .0 .5,
2.0 20.1
1.0 20.4
1.3 15.0

1.6. 19.0


NTROOBN. Psa OmS. PIOePHOUItO ACID. Pan CaNT POTASH. PaB CINT.

WHOI.M B1t,10t Scns utim t W7OMr ro1lez Poa. REnD WHOL.E EmULn sairs
FlItu'l P.ftION FAUIT PoltlloN ..u. RIND F, RUiT PORTION 0

.101 .070 .00 .126 .061 .064 .390 .048 ,M .229 .477
.109 .075 .811 .186 .057 .051 .1 .087 .316 .876 .42
.0M0 .070 .940 .131 .048 .017 .344 .0.6 .M8 .213 .416
.141 .114 1.16 .116 .04" .080 A' M .084 .297 .252 .470
.118 .084 .8i .183 .0 .047 .310 .036 .312 .273 .488
.158 .12 .92 .200 .049 .044 .30 .041 .383 .282 .464
.105 .092 .808 .1A31 .0A8 02 .819 .040 .281 .24S Z8i6
.106 .002 .000 ,168 .037 .067 .000 .008 .;M .220 .000
.127 .083 .072 .47 01 .040 .318 .037 .2M0 .243 .434
.114 .186 .707 .118 '050 .054 .813 .081 .290 .231 .408
.130 .106 .849 .240 .00 .0564 .38 .072 .33 .M29 .471


.118 .002 .83 .101 .034 .050 .300 .045 .2 J48 .413


'DABr, ; Xfl'I,





Amiual Report, 1909


TABLE XIV.
ANALYSIS OF ORAU.1Sm. EorssX FVoRmic..


EnxrnLs PORTJION I


A Solu-
Ash Ible
VARIaTISrl Per solids
cent. Per
cent.


Pineapple (a)....... I
Pineapple b)..---...
Jail ............
Magnum Bonum (a)
Maganm Bonum (b)
St. Michael's Blood
Navel ..............
BRby Blood.--------
Parson Brown ..... ..

Average
Average


Total Acid
solids as
Pe, citric
cept. Per
cent.


Cane Reduc.* ToialI Polarization
sugar lag sugar Temp.
Per sugar Per Direct Invert Degrees
cent. Per cent. C.


.486 12.18 14 3 .96 3.26 4.16 9.62 3. -3.2 18.0
.32 1*.81 14.42 B.2 1.39 4.2 10.01 4.1 -3.2 17.0
.465 12.35 13.61 1.04 4.3(0 4.78 .2 3.2 -2.8 21.3
.476 11.83 13.5 4.79 4.09 8.88 3.5 3.0 16.4
.498 10.95 13.71 .98 4.94 4.01 8.t5 3,. -3.0 21.0
.013 11.91 13.09 .78f 5.12 4.11 9.23 3.9 -2.9 2.2
.47 11.54 12.83 1.09 4.90 4.35 0.25 3.6 -2.9 2S.5
.438 11.00 12.70 .86 4.63 4.56 9.19 3.2 -3.0 203
.470 10-51 14.a0i 1.Al 4.85 31.9 8.64 3&J -2.9 24.0
...... ........ .63 4.97 3.54 8.51 &.9 -2.8 Mo.5
-532 10.91 13.78 1.50 4.2 3.71 7.9 3 4 2

.5009 1.8R 13.70 .99 4.87 4.17 9.04


TABLE XV.
ACunTrr AkD NITROGEN OE CLTras SOILS.

Acidity Expressed as Parts of Acidity Expressed as Parts of
Lime (Ca 0) Per M1llhon of Soil. Lime (Ca 0) Per Million of Soil.

Laborto- Depth in I Parts of Nitrogen I Laborato- Depth In Arts o Nitrogen
Laborato- Depth ini Lime Per L number ime Per
ry Number Inches. i Million. Per Cent. umber inches. million Per Cent


2610 0-9 S0) .025 2618 0>-9 o00 .04
2511 0-9 800 .0 2619 0-21 400 .0o8
2612 0-9 T00 .05 2690 0-9 300 .094
2613 9-21 000 .JS0 2621 9-_21 00 .019
2614 0-9 400 .0B0 2M 0-12 200 .033
2615 9- 21 I0 .01 2 0- 12 300 .02
2616 0-9 300 .024 264 0- 9 Alkaline. .0W4
2617 9 300 .017 I 5 9-21 100 .011

Pounds Per
Parts Per Million. Acre-Poot
Average inme requirement of soils....-------..----... ----------41...---.........410----............. 140
-" su-o-o.....------- --------. 316 ..-..-..--...... im
Average nitrogen content of soils. .02o per cent.
." subsoils. .018 "
*Virgin soil.

OTHER ANALYSES.

Determinations of total nitrogen, and acidity (by the lime-water method),
were made on a few samples of soil from groves at DeLand, submitted by the
department of Plant Physiology. The results are given in Table XV.
In this connection it is gratifying to note the increased demand for finely
ground limestone as a corrective for acid soils. One firm reports sales amount-
ing to 30 car-loads in the last six months, and another firm, 15551 tons dur-
ing the past year.
Nitrogen was also determined in six samples of soil from a grove at Thou-
otosassa, in Hillsboro Co. This grove received a treatment of muck several
year ago, and on examination the soil proved to be quite acid. A dressing
of two to three tons per acre of finely ground limestone was recommended.




xxidv Florida Agriculturo Experiment Station
TABLE XVI.
NiTrOGEN IN CITaus Gaovx.
Depths ai Nitrogen,
No. Inches. Per cent.
2868 ----..............----..-----. 0-6 -.......---.---......-- .01
2869 ....------------ -------......----.... .--...... ---..... ,083
2870 ------- ....------.......-.... 0-6 .....-----..... 058
2871 -----------------------------......... 0--6 ..-..---..--------.. .099
2872 .---------------------------------- 0-6 ..---------------.. .. .109
Average of soil samples----------.----.-----------................ .088
2873 Subsoil--------...... -------------- 6-12 ----...........----------- .017
From this it will be seen that this soil is supplied with an abundance of
nitrogen, the average in many other groves being only a little over .03 per
cent.
In conclusion I desire to give due credit to Assistant Chemist, Mr. R.
N. Wilson, for the efficient help that he has rendered during the year.
Respectfully submitted,
A. W. BLAIR,
Chemist.





Annual Report, 1909


REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST.
P. H. JRffs. Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the work in Entomology for the year
1908-9.
INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CITRUS WHITEFLY (ALEYRODES CITRI R. AND
H., AND A. NUBIFERA BERGER).
NEW SPECIES OF CITRUS WHITEFLY.-In the report for 1908, it was
stated that "there are apparently two species of whitefly seriously affecting cit-
rus in Florida." This has been corroborated. The new species was partially
described, and named Aleyrodes nubifera Berger, in bulletin 97, Feb. 1909,
p. 67. The specific name means cloud-bearing, and refers to the two cloudy
areas visible upon the wings (one toward the distal end of each forewing, best
seen when the wings lie folded on the back of the insect). The common
name, cloudy-winged whitefly, has been adopted for this species to distinguish
it from A. citri, for which the common name, white-winged whitefly, has been
chosen. A technical description of the new species has not yet been prepar-
ed, for as it is desired to have a complete description, including all stages,
this had been postponed until other necessary and immediately important work
is more advanced.
Distribution.-Besides the locations noted in bulletin 97, the species
nubifera has since been received from Fort Pierce, Pierson, Auburndale, Pan-
asoffkee, and Haw Creek, and collected at Holly Hill, near Wildwood, Ybor
City, Seabreeze, St. Petersburg, Seven Oaks, Green Springs, and Dunedin. At
Holly Hill and Dunedin a small number of A. citri were also found; while at
Seabreeze and St. Petersburg, A. citri is by far the dominant species. Both
species occur at Auburndale, but at the other places named A. numbfera occurs
alone. At Wildwood station A. citri only has been found.
Relative Severity.-A. citri is more to be dreaded than A. nubifera. Up
to this time no food plants except citrus have been found upon which A. nubi-
fera breeds; whereas A. citi has been identified by the writer and Dr. A. W.
Morrill (Bul. 76, Bur. of Ent., U. S. Dept. of Agr.) upon at least 21 species
of trees and shrubs (Bulletin 97, pp. 60, 61). Since A. nubifera apparently
has only citrus for its food plant, it is evident that there are fewer chances of
its becoming established in any place, and if established it would be easier to
control.
OTHER FOOD PLANTS OF A. CITRI.-During the year several food
plants of A. citri have been discovered. In October some green ash (Fr'di-
nus lanceolatus), at Monticello, was found thoroughly infested. During January
and June, the same species of tree was found thoroughly infested at Boardman.
All stages of A. citri were present on the leaves, indicating that this tree be-
longs to Class I (Bul. 97). In March, some wild olive (Osmanthus america-
nus) in the woods back of the Experiment Station, was found infested. Pupa
cases, pupae, and fourth-stage larvae were present. In May and June, the same
species of tree was found infested near Holly Hill, and in the woods S. E. of
Gainesville. Recently the button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) was found
infested with all stages in the woods S. E. of Gainesville. (For other non-cit-
rus food plants see Bul. 97.)


xXXV




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A. CITRI IN INDIA AND JAPAN.-Last March a letter was addressed
to the Director of the Imperial Agr. Exp. Station of Japan, requesting informa-
tion and specimens of the citrus whitefly, should such be found in Japan. This
was promptly responded to by S. I. Kuwani, Entomologist, who kindly sent a
leaf of Onshu (Satsuma) orange from the province of Nagasaki, much infested
with A. citri. A number of the whitefly larvae upon this leaf were infected
with the red Aschersonia (Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber), and Dr. Kuwani in his
letter refers to this fungus as commonly attacking this whitefly in Nagasaki. He
further states that he has so far not found this insect in orange groves outside
of Nagasaki and Kiushiu.
Early in June, Prof. Hume called our attention to the fact that some dried
specimens of citrus leaves had been received at the Station about 6 years ago
from Saharanpur, India, and were probably in the Station herbarium. The
specimens were found, and upon them were dried larvae and pupa-cases of A.
citri. It appears, therefore, that the native home of A. citri is probably India
and the adjacent territory, or Japan, or both places. No evidence indicating
the native home of A. nubifera has so far been discovered.
The time is evidently at hand when an investigation of A. citri in India
and Japan should be made. The primary object of such an investigation
would be to find what natural enemies, insects and fungi, prey upon it there,
and to import all or any such that might be of use in checking the whitefly
here.
THE FUNGUS DISEASES OF THE WHITEFLY.
METHODS OF INTRODUCTION. The spore spraying method is now used
almost exclusively for sowing the spores of the fungus diseases of the
whitefly. This method assures a good distribution of the fungus throughout
the trees, and economizes in seed-fungus and in time. It has so far been em-
ployed chiefly with the red Aschersonia, the yellow Aschersonia, and the
brown fungus; but it is applicable to all fungi so far known to infect and de-
stroy whitefly. This method is fully described in Bul. 97.
THE PARASITIC FUNGI.-Sporotrichum sp., apparently another fungus
disease of the whitefly, has been observed during the past year. It is much like
the chinch-bug fungus (Sporotrichum globuliferum) and was first discovered by
the Plant Pathologist, Mr. H. S. Fawcett, in September, 1908, in a small
grove near Gainesville; and later at Odando; and it has also been received from
several other places. This fungus was found growing mainly on adult white-
flies, but also on larvae. Mr. Fawcett has grown it on culture media, and the
writer has now grown two fine cultures on sweet potato, but has not yet had the
opportunity to apply them to the whitefly.
Yellow Fungus.-No further experiments with this fungus have been car-
ried on, except two attempts to introduce it on A. citri. Both of these were
made at Gainesville (Sept. 9, 1908; and May 15, 1909), at a time when the
whitefly larvae were considered to be very susceptible to infection. No growths
of the yellow fungus developed, however, while the red Aschersonia (spray-
ed at the same time) formed a good growth after a few weeks. Neither have the
previous introductions of yellow fungus upon A. citri at New Smyrna, Gaines-
ville, and St. Petersburg, developed anything further. The writer therefore
feels satisfied that the yellow fungus is not a natural disease of A. citri but of


xxxvi





Annual Report, 1909


A. nubifera, upon which latter it is thriving well in several parts of the State
(Mims, near Wildwood, Orlando, Winter Park, and Ybor City).
Brown Fungus.-Two attempts to introduce this fungus were made at
Gainesville in May. Fungus material having an abundance of spores was
used, and the spores sprayed into the trees. No growth of fungus has, how-
ever, developed up to the present time. It should be stated that Mr. H. S.
Fawcett, the Plant Pathologist, has not as yet succeeded in reproducing the
spores in cultures, but has succeeded several times in infecting whitefly larvae
with the spores obtained from the fungus on the leaves. Structural studies on
this fungus and these spores under the microscope have led him to feel cer-
tain that the spores in question are those of the brown fungus. (See also un-
der DeLand.) What appear to be the spores of the brown fungus are quite
different in appearance and distribution upon the leaf from the spores of the
other fungus diseases of the whitefly. The spores of the brown fungus do not
appear generally to develop upon the fungus pustules or fungus growths on
the whitefly larvae, but grow on the mycelial threads which ramify over the un-
der and upper surfaces of the leaf. It therefore follows that the whole upper
and lower surfaces of a leaf may be covered with these spore-masses, which
give to it a dark-brown appearance.
Other Fungus Diseases.- For other fungi, including the red Aschersonia
(probably the most important fungus infecting the whitefly), see Bulletin 97.
EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS IN THE FIELD.-The visits to
the following places were made to inspect the fungus experiments there, to
make other infections, and to advise with the growers in whose groves the fun-
gus had been started. The fungus work at many of these places is co-
operative, to the extent at least that the owner furnishes the trees for the ex-
periments.
New Smyrna. (A. citri.)-Two visits (Aug. 21 and 22, 1908; and Apr. 20
and 21,1909) were made to this place. The successful fungus here is the red
Aschersonia. No yellow Aschersonia had developed from the several intro-
ductions made here during the past three years, demonstrating that this fun-
gus will not thrive on A. citri, as previously stated in Bulletin 97.
The principal center of interest at New Smyrna during the past year
has been the little R. S. Sheldon grove (Place A, Rept. 1908) in town. The
red Aschersonia was first introduced into several rows in October, 1906, and
spread during the next summer. No further effort was made to distribute it
during the summer of 1907. During 1908 the fungus was distributed some-
what by pinning leaves to those trees having least fungus. On August 22,
1908, the writer sprayed spores of the red Aschersonia into a few trees near
Mr. Sheldon's house. These trees, being isolated somewhat from the rest of
the grove and not having been previously treated, had but little, if any, fungus.
On Sept. 13, Mr. Sheldon forwarded some leaves from these trees, and upon
seven leaves 66 per cent. of the larvae had been killed by the fungus as the
result of one application, and that in less than one month. The pupa-cases
were counted as live larvae in making this calculation.
The following notes upon this grove were taken on April 21, 1909:
Grove has been practically cleaned of whitefly. There has been fungus by
the bushel, and other people have been collecting it for their use. Fungus
is now becoming badly weathered and peeling off, but there is still plenty.
Grove has fine new growth and many trees have set good crop. Perhaps one-


xxxvii




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tenth as many adults on new growth as on other groves in town where no
fungus, and about one hundredth the number of eggs. Some water sprouts
only have a few adults and eggs or no adults. North third of grove has
more adult whiteflies, because it Is opposite a badly infested grove.
The conditions in this grove have been given at some length because it
is the first grove in which the whitefly has apparently been controlled by the
fungus under the writer's direction and effort. This has taken just 2 years,
whether we count from Oct., 1906 (when the fly was under control), or whether
we count from the summer of 1907 (when the fungus introduced the previous
fall became active), to that of 1909. It may be stated, without hesitation,
that Mr. Sheldon will be able to keep the whitefly in his grove under control
from year to year by applying fungus, provided other conditions are equal (that
is, that the trees are kept in a vigorously growing condition, and the summers
are normally wet). It appears that there are localities in the State in which
the groves are not generally in a vigorously growing condition; either through
lack of fertilizer or proper management, or because of dry weather or soil con-
ditions. In such groves it may be found difficult to keep the fungi abreast of
the fly, except through a very diligent application of them.
The writer also sprayed red Aschersonia spores into six trees in Ronnoc
Grove (Place B, Rept. 1908), on Aug. 22, 1908. These trees presented a
fine growth of fungus at the spring visit, probably quite equal to that in the
trees near Mr. Sheldon's house, referred to above. Mr. Chilton during Sep-
tember very successfully sowed red fungus spores in different parts of the Ron-
noc Groves (Nos. 1, 2, and 3).

Gainesville. (A. citri.)-The first introductions of red Aschersonia in
the grove of Mr. B. F. Hampton (Place A, Rept. 1908) were wholly experi-
mental. After it was introduced, the fungus was left to take care of itself.
While fungus developed in each instance when the seed fungus was not too
old, the general conditions of moisture in this grove appear to be such, up to
this time, that the fungi will not spread and hold their own sufficiently to con-
trol the whitefly without aid in the way of diligently spreading them once or
twice a year. It should be added that the natural loss of foliage at the be-
ginning of each growing season has been considerable in this grove, carrying
much of the fungus with the leaves to the ground, where it is lost. It is
evident that the more fungus there is in the trees in spring, the more abundant
will be its spread. The small growth of yellow Aschersonia which had been
started in this grove (Rept. 1908) soon disappeared, as it did at New Smyrna,
showing clearly that it will not thrive on A. citri. Early in the fall it was de-
cided to make this grove a test grove in which to apply in a more systematic
manner the information gained in the matter of starting and spreading fungus.
The work was undertaken in a co-operative way, Mr. Hampton agreeing to
furnish the fungus and labor, and the writer to supervise. Four hundred and
fifty trees were treated with red fungus during the last week in September, 1908.
(See Fig. 6.) It was realized that this was rather late in the season for the
fungus to take hold and spread; only a moderate growth of the fungus devel-
oped, as expected, probably averaging a pustule per leaf. (Fifteen trees had
been treated during the last week in August and the second week in Septem-
ber, in which ten times the amount of fungus had developed.) The fall and
winter being dry, the fungus became much dried; and the leaves curled,
resulting in much fungus peeling off. Then the trees shed their old leaves
freely during February and March, and this resulted in great loss of fungus;


xxxviii





Annual Report, 1909


so that only a few pustules could be seen. Very little fungus was in evidence
at the beginning of April, 1909. The grove soon put on a fine new growth,
which became heavily infested with whitefly. In May, 1909, about two-thirds
of the grove was treated again with fungus, at a time when the larvae were in


the early stages. The weather being dry, the fungus was slow in starting to
develop, until the drought was broken. About the end of June a promising
growth of fungus was in evidence, many leaves having a few to several dozen
pustules each. The further plan is to take some of the fungus now develop-
ing, during the latter part of July or in August, and spray it back into the trees,
in order to bring about the greatest possible infection of the whitefly larvae
and if possible so reduce the whitefly that the grove will set a crop of fruit in
1910.


xxxix




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Another small grove of about 20 trees belonging to Mr. J. M. Dell, in
East Gainesville, has been treated with red fungus this spring; two to three
trees being treated each time at intervals of a week. The first trees were spray-
ed on May 5, and every seven days another lot, until the fifth and last lot was
sprayed on June 1. The purpose of the spraying of these trees was to verify
previous observations that the young larvae became more readily infected than
larvae well advanced into the fourth stage or to the pupal stage. The dry
weather in May, however, checked all fungus; but some pustules became vis-
ible after a few weeks, some of which were on fourth stage larvae, and a few on
pupae. The trees in this grove were not in a thrifty condition, but a promis-
ing growth of fungus developed by the end of June. The fungus work in these
trees will be continued during the summer and early fall of 1909.
Spores of the red Aschersonia were also sprayed into a few small trees near
the University on Jan. 28, and on Feb. 14 into two small trees in pots in the
laboratory. No fungus developed in either case. The whitefly larvae were in
the fourth and pupal stages, and the weather was generally cool and dry. The
purpose of these sprayings was to further verify the fact that the winter months
are not suitable for fungus work.
DeLand. (A. citri.)- Two visits were made to DeLand, on Aug. 8, 1908,
and on April 23, 1909. The very successful introduction of red fungus into
certain trees at DeLand in April, 1908, was described in the report for 1908.
This fungus thrived so well in some trees that the fruit was reported as practi-
cally free from sooty mold. Abundance of fungus was taken from these trees
for use in others, during June, July, and August, and in the spring of 1909.
About July 20, 1908, an orange tree 18 feet high and in good condition, in
the yard of the Waverly house, was treated with brown fungus at Mr. H. B.
Stevens' direction. The amount of fungus used and the method of applica-
tion were the same as recommended for the red Aschersonia. It would appear
that the infection must have approximated 100 per cent. The Entomologist
did.not see the tree until April, 1909, at which time it was apparently in prime
condition, and it was reported that the fruit had been good and not much
blackened with sooty mold. This is a remarkable growth of the brown fungus
obtained by artificial introduction. The brown fungus, when once started on
a leaf, under favorable conditions, clears off the whitefly on that leaf better
than any other fungus; but it does not generally spread so well from leaf to
leaf and from tree to tree. While growths of this fungus frequently follow
spraying operations with the red Aschersonia when brown fungus also occurs
on the same leaves with the seed fungus, yet it has not been possible to
make as sure of getting a good growth of this fungus as it has been for the
red Aschersonia. Brown fungus as well as red was successfully started in hun-
dreds of trees in DeLand after June, 1908. Mr. Frank Stirling reported that
he sprayed between 8000 and 9000 trees at DeLand and other places. Mr.
Stirling is making a business of spraying fungus for others, following the
method developed and described by the Entomologist in Bul. 97. This spring
(1909) Mr. Stirling was again spraying fungus at DeLand and other places,
and it is a gratification to know that the fungi (principally the red and brown)
will be given a trial on such an extensive scale. A letter has just been re-
ceived from Mr. Stirling in regard to his work up to July, and as this is of
great interest, it is here in part submitted:
..... In answer to your inquiry regard ing the fungi, I will say that I have
had varied success in starting them up to June 15th. From that time on I




Annual Report, 1909


have had good success, almost three or four times the amount from a spray-
ing that I did up to that time. I have so far, with one and sometimes two
men helping me, sprayed 38,000 trees. Of course some of these trees have
been sprayed several times, but as I have kept a strict record of each grove
..... I have no trouble in giving account ..... I sprayed the entire com-
munity at Seville, at Spring Garden, and at Pierson, where I found as much
A. nubifera as A. ritri. Now I want to say that, although [ made my
solution half of brown and half of red, the red is far ahead of the
brown. I might say 100 to 1. This has been the case all spring and summer.
Now it may be that that brown is somewhat sporeless or something of
that sort, and I have about made up my mind that the red is the only one to
do anything early in the season.
Now in regard to spraying in the dry periods; the fungus takes all right,
but does not spread so well as when wet.
Leesburg. (A. citri.) -On Aug. 6 and 7, 1908, a careful inspection of
the fungus experiments at Leesburg was made, and red fungus introduced
into two trees at the Lake View House, and into a few other trees near by. It
would appear that the conditions at Leesburg have not been the most favora-
ble for fungus development, so that while the red and brown fungi spread
somewhat in one or two small groves where the trees were in better condi-
tion, in others they only about held their own; that is, there is probably no
more, or even less, fungus than a year ago. It appears that the generally some-
what dry weather is the principal reason for this, and it emphasizes the view
that fungus should be introduced several times a year, especially in places
where the conditions are less favorable for fungus growth.
Examinations of the trees at the Lake View House and near by, on
December 12, 1908, showed a splendid growth of the red fungus introduced
on August 7. On many leaves the infection must have been 80 to 95 per
cent. The fungus has spread to the neighboring trees. On April 28, 1909,
examination of these trees revealed the fact that most of the fungus had been
lost, either by the shedding of the leaves at the time the new growth devel-
oped, or by drying and peeling off.
At a Farmers' Institute meeting held at Leesburg on Aug. 6, diligent
sowing of the spores of the red fungus was advised, together with the eradica-
tion of the chinaberry trees. In consequence, fungus spraying was taken up
during the latter part of August and in September, but with what results has
not been ascertained. The town, it appears, bought the sprayer and employed
a man to do the work, each grove owner paying him for the work done.
The last general inspection at Leesburg having been made on Aug. 6,
1908, the general status of the fungi here is not reported for the spring months
of 1909.
St. Petersburg.- The last visits to St. Petersburg were made on Feb. 22,
and March 2, 1909; when A. nubifera was found in a few trees, especially on a
pomelo tree in the Heathcote grove (Place A, Rept. 1908). Hitherto only
A. citri had been observed at St. Petersburg.
On Aug. 17, 1908, red fungus was re-introduced into six trees in the
Heathcote grove in order to compare, at a later date, the amount of fungus in
these trees with those not treated again. On March 2, these trees were esti-
mated, by Mr. Jas. E. Kilgore and the Entomologist, to have ten times as
much fungus in them as six trees in either row next to them, showing clearly
that fungus should be introduced frequently, if necessary, in order to get the
best results. It was estimated on August 17, that while the grove looked
much better, yet there was only one-fourth as much fungus as in the previous
a. r.-4




fall, and that the principal cause of this was dry weather, since no rains of
consequence came much before August, 1909. On Feb. 22, 1909, inspec-
tion showed a marked increase of fungus, although there were plenty of white-
fly larvae and much sooty mold. Some growths of brown fungus, introduced
by the owner, also showed good spread and development. It was found that
fungus of any kind showed its best development in the trees with thick foliage,
such as grapefruit and Tardiff in this instance. Some fine growths of cinna-
mon fungus were also found in the trees in which it had been introduced the
year before. No attempt to spread fungus in this grove was made during the
year, except on the six trees referred to on Aug. 17. The indications are,
therefore, that in order for the fungus to be efficient in checking the whitefly
at St. Petersburg, one or two introductions should be made annually; at least,
as long as abnormally dry weather prevails. The effects of the installation of
an irrigation system in that grove upon the progress of the fungi will be
watched with interest.
Subpeninsula.-A trip for general observation was made (Feb. 17 to 23)
to the following places on the Subpeninsula: Clearwater, Bay View, Seven
Oaks, Green Springs, Dunedin, Largo, Anona, Seminole, and St. Petersburg.
(For St. Petersburg see above.) The object of this trip was to get the distri-
bution of the two species of whitefly, and their relative effects on the trees.
A. citri is the dominant form south of Largo, while A. nubifera is the domi-
nant form north and east of Largo. A. citri so far appears to be followed by
more serious results. At Anona, Seminole, and west of Largo, groves infested
with A. citri were found as if burnt with fire. Sometimes two-thirds to three-
quarters of the foliage of the trees had been shed, and large numbers of the
smaller branches were dead, although the trees were alive. This condition
was accompanied by a great development of scale, principally the
purple scale. It would appear that, in some instances at least,
infestation by the white fly (A. citri) is accompanied by a very
great development of scales, and that defoliation and dying of the twigs
is the immediate result. The series of events leading up to the condition is
obscure; but it is probable that drought is the first cause, since trees in sections
where the rains were more normal have not been observed to be affected by
scale like those in drier sections are, when the whitefly thoroughly infests
them. Drought would check the natural growth of the tree and foliage. The
young scales present would therefore have to settle down on the old wood and
leaves, thus further reducing the vitality. Old diseased foliage would transpire
less water, and reduce the amount of atmospheric moisture about the tree,
which in turn would be detrimental to the fungus diseases of the scales as
well as those of the whitefly, and so allow scales and whitefly to thrive.
Other Places.-Orlando, Apopka, Plymouth, Grasmere, Boardman, Mc-
Intosh, Candler, Ybor City, and Wildwood, were visited while en route to or
from the places at which experiments are located. Whitefly fungus exists at
each of these places, having been introduced artificially or by some natural
means. Wildwood and Ybor City are the two most westerly points at which
the yellow fungus has been found to occur naturally. Arcadia, Crescent City,
and Titusville were visited this year in the capacity of Farmers' Institute lec-
- turer, and some time was spent looking after whitefly conditions. The white-
fly and its fungus diseases were briefly examined into at Alva, Hilliard, Buck-
ingham, and Ft. Myers, while on a trip to the former place for the purpose of
inspecting a citrus nursery there.




Annual Report, 1909


CULTURES OF THE RED ASCHERSONIA.-Whenever opportunity was
found beginning with January, sweet potato material was sterilized in dishes
and bottles, and cultures of the red Aschersonia were made. The plan was
to grow a considerable amount of this fungus in this way, and to use it exten-
sively for infecting whitefly larvae. Cultures of one or two dozen dishes each
were made on Jan. 14, Feb. 16, Apr. 14. and June 11. The cultures were generally
successful, except that a considerable number were contaminated. The last
culture made (June 11) developed very slowly, and sparingly. The inoculat-
ing material was taken from the culture of Feb. 16, so that the spores were
nearly 3 months old, allowing a month for them to have developed. This
culture of Feb. 16 was the fourth generation grown under artificial conditions.
The probability is that the spores germinated slowly because they were old.
The culture of June 11 is, however, at this time (July 20), developing nicely.
Material from the earlier cultures has been employed several times this spring
and summer for infecting whitefly larvae with success in every instance so far
examined, the resulting growths of fungus being quite equal to those obtained
from naturally grown fungus. It would appear, however, that while a ripe cul-
ture will keep three months or longer in winter, it will begin to deteriorate in
summer in a much shorter time.
ANALYSIS OF HONEYDEW OF A. CITRI.-During February 1909, Mr.
E. P. Greene, graduate student assistant in Entomology, collected a quantity of
the honeydew of the whitefly, and undertook a chemical analysis of it. The
larvae on about 300 leaves, mostly in the fourth stage, were allowed to deposit
their excretion of honeydew upon glass plates. This was scraped off into a
dish, either as a syrupy mass or as crystallized sugar and residue, according to
the state of humidity of the atmosphere. Two tests were made for grape-
sugar, and two for sucrose, resulting in an average of glucose, 7 per cent., and
sucrose, 24 per cent. of the dried residue of the honeydew. This leaves 69
per cent. of the residue unaccounted for. It was assumed that the substance
in the mixture which became invert sugar by boiling with hydrochloric acid is
sucrose. It will be evident that since a difference in the humidity of the air
is sufficient to determine whether the excretion after it is deposited on the
glass shall remain as a syrup or crystallize, the percentage of solid matter in the
honeydew must be considerable.
MANATEE SNAIL (Bimulus dormani).- About a dozen snails of this
species were received from Plymouth, Fla., last October. Th6se snails were
discovered in considerable numbers in whitefly-infested citrus trees, cleaning
off the sooty mold fungus from stems, leaves, and fruits. The writer observed
well-formed specimens at Holly Hill in a hammock grove last May. The
trees at Lake City into which several colonies of this snail, as well as several
colonies of the Miami snail (Rept. 1906) were introduced in 1906, were ex-
amined last October; but none of the snails introduced could be found.
Careful search revealed a few small snails in the tree into which Dr. Sellards
had brought some Manatee snails several months earlier than those brought by
the writer in 1906.
SOAPS AND SPRAYING MIXTURES.
GOLDDUST.-On May 7, 1909, two medium-sized trees were sprayed
with "golddust" at the rate of 1 pound to 4 gals. of water, The whitefly lar-
vae were then mainly in the first and second stages, with but few unhatched
eggs. The spraying was done thoroughly. The percentage killed by the




spray as computed by counting the dead and live larvae on 36 leaves, was
92. This probably overrated the actual effectiveness of the spraying of the
whole tree, since only those leaves were used in the calculation which showed
that they had been well covered by the spray and that there was a large mor-
tality on them. Whole leaves, or portions of such, which had not been wet
with the spray could easily be recognized by the presence of a whitish bloom.
This bloom is the mealy dust or powder which the adult whiteflies, as they hov-
er beneath the leaves, dust over the surface. It is destroyed or made invisible
by spraying solutions. "Golddust" is a washing powder sold by most grocers,
and has been used to some extent as a spraying mixture against whitefly.
Preliminary tests by Mr. E. P. Greene showed that "Golddust" consisted of
about 25 per cent. soap, 62 per cent. washing soda, and 13 per cent. water.
OTHER SOAPS.-Good's potash whale-oil soap No. 3, and Octagon soap
were tested. The water content of samples of these was 21 per cent. and 18
per cent. respectively, and they are apparently good soaps. Spraying tests
were made with Octagon soap on June 15, 1909, and wiLh whale-oil soap on
June 17, 1909. The whitefly larvae were mainly in the flat fourth stage of devel-
opment. The following table gives the result, on ten leaves, of spraying two
or three trees with each strength of soap.
TABLE XVII.

WHALE-OIL SOAP. OCTAO N SOAP.

Spraying Solution. Killed. Spraying Solution. Killed.

1 lb. to 6 gals. water __ 91 per cent. 1 lb. to 6 gals. water ----. 96 per cent.
1 lb. to 9 gals. water ----. 8 1 lb. to 9 gals. water ...- 95 "
1 lb. to 12 gals. water -. -7 1 lb. to 12 gals. water __ 89 "
1 lb. to 16 gals. water and 1 lb. to 16 gals. water and
3 lbs. washing soda ---93 3 lbs. washing soda 94 '

It appears that Octagon soap in this instance was somewhat more effec-
tive than whale-oil soap. This may be explained by the fact that rain fol-
lowed the whale-oil soap about 20 hours after application, whereas the Octa-
gon soap had been applied between two and three days before the rain came.
It is further evident from the table that the soaps form a very efficient spray-
ing solution in any of the strengths taken, and it is doubtful if there would
be any advantage in using soaps stronger than 1 lb. to 6 gallons of water. As
a matter of fact 1 lb. to 9 gallons gave nearly as good results as 1 to 6. On
the other hand, it will be noted that when the soaps were taken 1 to 16, and
3 lbs. of washing soda added, the results were about as good as soap at 1 to
6, or 1 to 9. With whale-oil soap at 4 cents per lb. and washing soda at 1 cent
per lb., the cost of a gallon of spray in the proportion used would be seven-
sixteenths of a cent. Using the whale-oil soap at 1 to 9, the cost is four-
ninths of a cent per gallon of spray- a difference so small in favor of the
former that it is not worth considering, especially when the 1 to 9 formula is
easier to mix. It will also be clear that "Golddust" is an expensive spraying
mixture, and that weak whale-oil soap (1 to 12) will be sufficient to destroy
the young larvae in April or May; but that the stronger solutions (1 to 9, or
1 to 6) should be used during the summer and fall, when larvae of all stages
are on the leaves. It should be repeated that in counting the percentages






Annual Report, 1909


for the preceding table, those leaves only were selected which appeared to
have been thoroughly sprayed, and on which there were no groups of live lar-
vae; presence of groups of live larvae being interpreted as meaning that the
leaf had not been completely covered by the spray.
OTHER SPRAYING MIXTURES.-There is little doubt but that any good
contact insecticide will be effective against whitefly larvae in spring and sum-
mer, even when diluted sufficiently so as not to injure trees or fruit.
WHEN TO SPRAY. Since the larvae are most easily killed when young,
it is evident that the best time to spray will be when the greatest number of
larvae are in the proper stages, say first to third, and flat early fourth stages.
This condition exists in April or May, beginning about 10 days to 2 weeks after
the spring brood of adults has quite disappeared.
The fact that the whitefly deposits its eggs mainly on the new growths in
spring (there being generally an abundance of new growth at that time)
makes it easier to spray, since this new growth is more easily reached by the
spraying solution. It may be necessary to spray only the new growth; pro-
vided, of course, there is plenty of it. If there is little new growth, then
the whitefly will deposit eggs on the old foliage as well. Again, by destroy-
ing the young larvae, the drain of sap from the leaves is cut off, and the lar-
vae are not allowed to wax fat at the expense of the tree, but are destroyed
before they have done much injury. The development of the sooty mold
will also be checked. Finally, there is generally little wet weather in April or
May, so that spraying would be less interfered with by rain.
The next best time to spray would be in the fall, beginning 10 days or
two weeks after the fall brood of adults has gone. Since the fall brood of
adults does not generally disappear so abruptly as the spring brood, it will not
be so easy to accurately time the fall spraying. However, the brood should
be allowed to quite disappear before spraying, since spraying the adults is of
little avail. The advantages of early fall spraying, say in October or early No-
vember, are the following: (1) Larvae are more easily killed when young. (2)
The drain on the tree is cut off early. (3) The formation of sooty mold is
checked. (4) There is dry weather to spray.
Summer spraying for whitefly can be practiced whenever the trees need
relief, but the periods when the adult whiteflies are swarming in greatest num-
ber should be avoided. Respectfully submitted,
E. W. BERGER,
Entomologist.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report of the work in Plant Pathology for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909.
The work of the year for the most part was confined to the investigation
of some of the diseases of citrus trees. Scaly Bark was the main subject for
investigation. A preliminary report on this was published in Bulletin 98,
March, 1909. The diseases of other plants received attention as opportunity
and time was afforded for such work.
SCALY BARKII(Hormodendron sp.)

Since our last report the cause of this disease has been discovered, and
effective remedies have been worked out. Scaly Bark was described under
this name in the Annual Report of the Florida Experiment Station for 1907,
p. xliii. The history, distribution, and effects of the disease were noticed
and illustrations given. An account was also published in the Proceedings of
the Florida State Horticultural Soc. for 1908, p. 101. A further account was
given in the Annual Report of the Experiment Station for 1908, p. lxiv.
Previous to this, H. H. Hume, in a paper on the diseases of citrus, in the
Proceedings of the Florida Horticultural Society for 1901, p. 64, spoke of a
new disease of the orange; and it appears from his description that the disease
referred to was Scaly Bark, in the form in which it occurs on small branches.
Mention was also made of Scaly Bark by P. H. Rolfs, in the Proceedings of
the same Society for 1905, p. 32. A disease of citrus trees in California,
known by the same name, has points in common with the one in Florida.
(Bulletin 200, California Agr. Exp. Sta.) A description of the disease was
given in considerable detail in Bulletin 98"of therFlorida Experiment Station,
issued in March, 1909.
CAUSE OF THE DISEASE.-A fungus belonging to the genus Hormo-
dendron has been found to be the cause of the initial spots on small stems.
This was proved in the following way. (1) Pure cultures of the fungus
were obtained from the diseased areas. (2) Young sweet orange trees in
the greenhouse were inoculated from the pure cultures by spraying on the
spores, and infected spots were seen to develop upon the inoculated trees in
from 40 to 60 days; while trees not inoculated were free from such spots.
(3) These spots proved later to be identical with those started by bringing
diseased pieces of wood in contact with healthy bark of trees in the green-
house. (4) Pure cultures of a fungus, identical with the one with which the
inoculations were made, were isolated from these diseased areas.
CULTURES.-The fungus causing the disease was isolated in petri dish
cultures of standard agar, and in orange agar, in December, 1908. This was
done by touching a needle to the surface of diseased spots, and then carrying
out the usual method of isolating organisms. Cultures of the same fungus
were obtained, both from spots just started and from advanced spots. They
were obtained both from stems and from the fruit. All previous attempts at
isolating any fungus except the Withertip fungus (Colletotrichum gloeospori-
oides) from the diseased spots had failed, probably because these tests had all
been made after sterilizing or cutting off the surface of the spots. Since that





Annual Report, 1909


time this same fungus has been isolated repeatedly from the Scaly Bark spots.
Isolations were made on December 21, 1908; February 24, 1909; and April
24, 1909. In the last isolation the same cultures were also obtained after
scraping the surface of the diseased area with a flamed scalpel. On agar
media 1.5 per cent. acid to phenolphthalein, the hyphae were composed of
short segments, usually somewhat constricted at the conspicuous septa. They
branched irregularly, and finally produced large mycelia, which usually be-
came zonate, and were fringed
by the spreading hyphae at the
S margins. In a few days the
S.hyphae turned darker, and the
center became black from the
formation of abundant spores
on upright conidiophores. The
conidia were borne, in chains
I or branched chains, on side
: --. branches that were produced
/ from any segment toward the
end of the conidiophore. Fig.
7 shows two conidiophores
growing on agar, one just be-
ginning to form chains of
spores, and one with a dense
mass of spores (magnified
| about 175 diameters). The
S/ spore arrangement is that of
S. the genus Hormodendron.
A. Ac 4 J The influence of the orange
agar on the growth of the fun-
Fig. 7.-Culture of Hormodendron sp. guswas marked. The mycelia
(a) Young conidiophore. became dark at once, spores
(b) Mature conidial head. were produced in much less
time, and the entire growth
soon became dark green. The fungus was transferred to sweet potato, Irish
potato, rice, and sterilized orange-stem media. Fig. 8 is a culture on stand-
ard agar, and Fig. 9 is a culture of the same age on orange agar (made by
steaming young orange stems and leaves at 80 degrees C. for one hour, and
mixing with 1.5 per cent. agar). On sweet potato the growth was abundant,
producing a velvety dark-green layer over the entire surface. On Irish potato
the growth did not spread rapidly, but grew down into the medium, and form-
ed a raised wrinkled mass. The growth on rice was fairly rapid, but not so
rapid as on sweet potato. A black velvety growth slowly spread over the sur-
face and down over the exposed side of the rice medium. (Fig. 10 shows (A)
spores germinated on standard agar, and (B) spores germinated on orange agar.)

INOCULATIONS.-Inoculation experiments with this Hormodendron
were made on young orange trees in the greenhouse. The experiments were
performed in several ways. Spores were sprayed onto the trees with an atom-
izer; spores were painted over the surface with a camel's hair brush; and
spores were inserted into the bark by puncturing or by scratching the bark.
The trees were well watered twice a day, to keep them as moist as ordinary
greenhouse conditions would permit. Some of the trees were kept under





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


bell-jars for several days after inoculation, and branches of other trees were en-
closed in oiled paper which was removed in a few days. Untreated trees
were kept as checks in every case. Inoculation tests have been made at
three different times; on Feb. 15, March 11, and May 5, 1909. At each
time there have been produced, in from 40 to 60 days, Scaly Bark spots that
are identical with spots produced by bringing diseased bark in contact with
healthy limbs of trees of the same age, kept under identical conditions of
growth. Out of 24 trees inoculated with pure cultures of the Hormodendron,


Fig. 8.-Culture of Ilormodendron sp. on standard agar,
1.5 per cent. acid to phenolphthalein.


15 developed Scaly Bark areas one to four millimeters in size. The spots on
inoculated trees never made their appearance on the very young growth. The
stems on which the spots appeared were from 4 months to 12 months old.
Areas appeared on limbs that were at least 4 months old at the time the
spores were sprayed on the trees. The greatest amount of infection was upon
limbs 5 to 8 months old at the time of inoculation. These experiments show
that infection usually takes place on hardened twigs, and that tender growth
is quite resistant. From four different spots on inoculated trees pure cultures
of the Hormodendron were again obtained, by the usual isolation method on
agar; and these, being transferred to other media, produced growths identical
with the pure cultures first isolated from diseased spots.


xlviii















4'S









\-:^&^ H


Fig. 9.-Culture of ,,runwulMon sp. on orange agar.
Abundant spores.


A


Fig. 10.-Germinating spores of Hormodenmlron sp. A. In
standard asar. X 400. B. In orange agar, X 160.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RELATION TO WITHERTIP. -In our last report, the part which Withertip
played in the destructiveness of the Scaly Bark disease was referred to. Ob-
servations seemed to indicate that the Withertip fungus, as a secondary agent,
caused most of the injury from the disease. These observations have
been confirmed in a large measure by laboratory work in which Colleto-
trichum gloeosporioides has been found almost invariably present in the older
spots caused by the Hormodendron. Many attempts were made to isolate or-
ganisms from the interior of the Scaly Bark areas. No organisms were found
except Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The surface of the twigs bearing such
spots was sterilized in mercuric chloride, 1 to 1000, and the twigs placed in
test-tubes; with the result that, in the majority of cases, Colletotrichum gloeo-
sporioides grew up in them. That Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the
factors in the destructiveness of the Scaly Bark disease is also made more prob-
able by the fact that the spots caused by inoculation of pure cultures of Hor-
modendron in the greenhouse have never assumed any serious form and have
not advanced beyond the initial stages of the disease. Then the report that
Scaly Bark did not cause any serious trouble to the growers previous to the
advent of Withertip, although the former is known to have been present for at
least 40 years, points strongly to the same conclusion. Elsewhere we have spoken
of the Withertip fungus as having been found in a majority of well-advanced
Scaly Bark spots.

OBSERVATIONS IN ORANGE GROVES.-Along with the experiments
for the control of the disease which are described later, a study was made* to
find out: (1) at what time or times of the year the diseased areas first make
their appearance; (2) at what age of growth of the stems the disease first ap-
pears; (3) the characteristic appearance, size and rapidity of development of
the diseased areas, and the steps in their development from their very first
appearance till they reach their destructive stage. For this study copper labels,
to the number of 303, were placed at various places on wood of different ages.
Notes were taken on these at intervals of about two months for nearly two
years. The following are some of the results of this study.
1. Period of Infection.-It was found that new spots made their appearance
on the twigs at any time of the year, but the greater number of areas first
appear between about June 1 and December 1, which corresponds fairly closely
to the rainy season in Florida. During this period there is a succession of
new diseased areas, our records showing about the same number of new infec-
tions for each of the three observations made during that period. During the
other months of the year new areas may appear, but not in such great numbers,
and they do not develop so rapidly as in the period above mentioned. The
diseased areas on the fruit first appear about the first of July, and spots may
make their appearance from that time until the fruit has ripened. They be-
come most apparent when the fruit first begins to color.

2. Age of Tissue Infected.-It was found that diseased areas rarely make
their appearance in the grove on twigs less than 6 months old. The most se-
vere infection occurs on wood 9 months to 18 months old. The disease may
make its first appearance on much older wood than this, but usually such areas
on vigorous limbs heal over and never cause any serious damage. The areas
on the fruit make their first appearance about 4 or 5 months after the bloom
has been shed. They occur on green fruit about i inch or more in diameter.






Annual Report, 1909


3. Size and Development of Diseased Spots.-The diameter of the spots
on limbs, when first noticeable to the unaided eye, is about 1 to 4 mm. They are
circularor oval in form, and first become evident by a slightly raised bard or ring
























Fig. 11.-Scaly Bark. A. Spots beginvlng. B. More advanced spots.
C. Scabby bark: spots have coalesced.

(Fig. 11, A). Int many cases this band is composed of small dots or pustules,
that appear like breaks in the epidermis. In other cases, the beginning of
the spot is marked by a lemon-colored area; which at its first appearance is
nearly the size of the fully matured spot. The bark on the affected area grad-
ually becomes rust-colored, hard, and brittle; and in the course of 8 or 10
months the spots become rusty in color with well defined margins (Fig. 11,
B). At this stage they may be 10 to 20 mm. in diameter. The bark is raised,
becomes brittle, and begins to crack and form small flakes or scales. These
spots are at first scattered but may increase in number to such an extent as to
become joined together (Fig. 11, C; and Plate VII, Annual Report, 1907).
The branch is rarely killed the first year. During the second year additional
spots form between the old ones, and this may go on for several years until
the branch is finally girdled at some point and killed. On new spots, only the
epidermis and a few layers of cells below appear to be affected. As the spots
develop, there is an increase of the parenchymal cells, and sometimes a new
bark is formed under the old as the latter cracks and flakes off. Larger
branches, when not too badly diseased, will live on for years with the old
marks of Scaly Bark upon them. The greater destructiveness of the disease,
as already stated, appears to be due to the Withertip fungus, which comes in
as a secondary agent, poisons the wood, and causes the limbs and branches
to die.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


On the rind of the fruit the areas are usually 2 to 3 mm. in diameter at
first, and become 5 to 10 mm. in diameter. The disease affects only the outer
portion of the rind. The spots start as rings or bands, somewhat similar to
those described for small branches; or as round, yellowish areas (Fig. 12).
These usually begin to appear on the fruit in July or August. As the fruit ap-
proaches maturity, and while it is still green, the rings become sunken and
brown, probably because of the entrance of the Withertip fungus, while their
central portions remain green. The fruit then colors rapidly, the part inside
the ring sometimes remaining green for a short time. The center is finally
broken down, and the whole spot becomes brown. Many spots are formed
which are not ringed.


Fig. 12.-Scaly Bark rings on fruit of orange.

CONTROL OF SCALY BARK.-A badly diseased grove at Bayview, Flor-
ida, was used for experiments in the control of this disease. One hundred
and seventy-five trees, divided into plots of six to nine trees each, were under
observation and treatment. The principal lines of treatment were: (1)
spraying with Bordeaux mixture; (2) pruning out; (3) heading back and
painting with carbolineum; (4) spraying with dilute solutions of carbolineum.

In the Bordeaux mixture spraying experiment, there were 10 plots of 9
trees each, and two check plots. A number of trees on one side of the
grove, which were not used at all in the experiments, were also good checks
on the work. The formula used for all the Bordeaux spraying was: 5 pounds
of copper sulphate, and 5 pounds of lime to 50 gallons of water. The spray-
ing was begun in April, 1907, and continued about every other month till
November. The plan for the experiment was as follows:




Annual Report, 1909


Plot 1 was sprayed in May
5 .--------.. July
12 --........ --- ------- September
11 ..------......------. .. ... ....----------------.---........ November
S2 May .----. July
10 May ...--. July----- September
S8 May --..-----.July..-.---. September -------- November
7 ..-..... July..... September -------- November
9 ---- ...--------------September -------- November

The experiment was continued during the year 1908 on the same plots
and in the same order as in 1907. In addition, Plot 14 was sprayed in Feb-
mary, 1908.

In two months after the spraying had begun, the only effect that could
be detected was the killing of the lichens upon the trunks and larger limbs of
the trees. In five months, the leaves on the sprayed trees appeared to be
greener and more healthy than those on the unsprayed trees. In seven
months, in November 1907, it was quite evident that the Bordeaux mixture
had cut down the percentage of spotted fruit upon the sprayed plots as com-
pared with the check plots. The number of new diseased areas formed upon
the wood was also less where the trees had been sprayed. In November of
the second year a more noticeable effect from the Bordeaux treatment was
apparent; as will be seen by the accompanying table and diagrams, showing
the percentage of spotted fruit in the various plots. The average percentage
of spotted fruit on all the plots sprayed before November 1907, was 21.5, as
against 36.1 per cent. on the check plots. The average percentage in 1908
for the same plots was 0.9, as against 16 per cent. for the check plots. Plots
8 and 10 showed no spotted fruit in November 1908. A month later, a very
few diseased fruits were found, all of which had developed near the tops of one
or two trees on plot 8. The sprayed trees had greener foliage, and the num-
ber of new diseased areas appearing upon the limbs was greatly diminished,
while many of the spots which had begun were checked and did not develop
to any serious extent.

The results of these experiments, together with the observations as to the
time of greatest infection, would lead us to conclude that three applications
of Bordeaux mixture-the first a little while before the bloom opens, the sec-
ond after the fruit is fairly set, and the third in the latter part of July or early
in August-would be quite effective in preventing the fruit from spotting,
and would materially lessen the injury caused by the disease to the limbs of
the tree, provided that scale insects were at the same time kept under con-
trol. During the first year of the experiment, scale insects increased to such
an extent on those plots which were sprayed more than once, that the benefit
from the spraying was almost counteracted by injury from these insects. In
fact these scale insects became so abundant on plots 2, 7, 8, and 10, that an
application of whale-oil soap was used to control them. During the second
year, the parasitic scale fungi (Sphaerostilbe coccophila, Ophionectria coccicola,
and Myriangium duriaei) were introduced into the tops of the sprayed trees, by
hanging in the trees pieces of stems about four inches long containing these
three fungi. These were tied into the trees about one week after the spray-
ing, three pieces in each tree-top. During the second year, there were com-
paratively few scale insects on any of the sprayed trees. This was attributed
to the bringing in of the parasitic fungi.






SECOND DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENT PLOTS AT BAYVIEW, FLA.
Percentage of Spotted Fruit on November 13, 1908.


Not
Sprayed.

18.2


Plot 7.
Sprayed,
July,
Oct.,
Dec.

10

Plot 8.
Sprayed,
April,
July,
Oct.,
Dec.


00




Not Sprayed


48


Not sprayed.

6.3


Plot 5.

Sprayed,

July.


Sprayed,

Oct.


Plot 14.
Sprayed,
Febr.,
1908
only.

3.4


Plot 13.
Check.
Not
Sprayed.

19 1

Plot 9
Sprayed,
Oct.,
Dec.


25

Plot 10.
Sprayed,
April,
July,
Oct.

0.0


Plot 11.

Sprayed,

Dec.


0.3

Plot 12


Plot 6.

Check.

Not sprayed.


12.9


Plot 1.
Sprayed,

April.


0.5

Plot 2.
Sprayed,
April,
July.

0.2

Plot 3.
Pruned
and
Sprayed,
July, '07.


Plot 4.


Pruned,

July, '07.




SECOW DIAGRAM OF EXPER]MNT PLOTS AT BAYVIEW, FLA.
Percentage of Spotted Fruit on November 13. 1908.

Plot Plot 14.
Sprayed, Sprayed,
Not Febr.,
July. Sprayed. 1908


18.2
2.5


Plot 6.

Cheek.

Not sprayed-


12.9


Plot 1.
Sprayed,

April


Plot 2.
Sprayed,
April,
July.

0.2

Plot 3.
Pruned
and
Sprayed,
July, '07.

1.0

Plot 4.


Pruned,

July, '07.


Plot 7.
Sprayed,
July,
Oct.,
Dec.
10

Plos 8.
Sprayed,
April,
July,
Oct.,

o00
0 0


only.

34

Plot 13.


I


P


neci.
Xot
prayed.

19 1

'lot 9
prayed,

Dec.


25

'lot 10.
prayed,
Avail,,


July,
Oct.


0.0


Plot 11.
Not Sprayed Sprayed,

48 Dec.

0.3


Not sprayed.
6.3


Plot 1

Sprayed,

Oct.


P
S3





Ivi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE XVIII.
PERCENTAGE OF SPOTTED FRUIT.


No. of Sprayed Sprayed -
Plot. in 1907. in 1908. |

1 May A-......... --pr.- ---26.6 .5
I a- ------- Ar--------.Ar ----.-------- 26.6 .5
5 July -------------------- July -------------- 26.2 2.5
12 Sept.------------------- Oct ------------------- 21.7 .5
11 Nov. ----------------- Dec ...-------------- 22.1 .3
2 May and July --- --- April and July ----- -- 18.6 .2
10 May, July, and Sept.---. Apr., July, Oct.------ 22.0 0
8 May, July, Sept. and Nov. April,July,Oct. and Dec. 20.6 0
7 July, Sept. and Nov .-....July, Oct., Dec.-------- 13.3 1.0
9 Sept. and Nov. _____....... Oct. and Dec. ----- 23.0 25
3 Pruned and sprayed, July- ---------------------- 30.5 1.0
14 Not sprayed ------------ Feb.--- --------------- 38 3.4
4 Pruned, July -------------------- 17 2.1
6 Check, not sprayed ------- --------------------- 25.1 12.9
13 Check, not sprayed----- -- --------- ------ 47.1 19.1

In our experiments it was found that one thorough spraying with Bor-
deaux mixture in November diminished the number of spotted fruits the fol-
lowing year to a considerable extent. This was probably due to killing the
Hormodendron spores on the older scabs, and thus cutting off the source of
infection. This would also seem to show that the greater amount of infection
comes from the old scabby areas immediately surrounding the new growth.
The lessened amount of disease following a thorough pruning-out of dead
and diseased wood also points to the same conclusion.
One plot was headed back and treated with carbolineum. This was done
in February, 1908. The tops were cut out, leaving only the trunks and the
stubs of the larger limbs. All the foliage and small suckers were removed,
and the entire surface of the bark was painted over with carbolineum. The
carbolineum was tried full strength, and also one part carbolineum to one
part of water. The full strength of carbolineum appeared to be a little too
strong, but when diluted with an equal amount of water it caused no injury,
and appeared to be an effective remedy for the disease. The carbolineum
may be made to mix by dissolving soap in the water. In a few weeks, as the
growing season came on, the trees put out new shoots, and by the end of the
summer had grown a vigorous, healthy top. By that time the old scabs had
disappeared, and the bark had become smooth and free from flakes. The
carbolineum, far from injuring the trees, appeared to stimulate them to in-
creased vigor. An examination of the trees showed no scabby breaking out
on trunks or limbs; while check trees which had been headed back in the
same manner, but not treated, showed fresh ruptures of bark and much less
vigorous growth.
One plot was pruned out thoroughly, taking out as far as possible all dead
wood and badly diseased branches. The effect of this treatment was clearly
beneficial in lessening the sources of infection in the first year, but the dis-
ease has come back gradually into the trees thus treated, and they now, after
two years, show considerable dead wood. In November, 1908, while the





Annual Report, 1909


pruned plot showed less spotted fruit than the check plot, yet it had much
more spotted fruit than the sprayed plots that were not pruned out. Experi-
ments were begun during the past year to test the efficiency of a dilute mix-
ture of carbolineum used as a spray for the Scaly Bark. There has not been
sufficient time to notice any effect from this treatment.

Several growers were of the opinion that copper sulphate spread on the
ground, one pound to each large tree, was a preventive of Scaly Bark. A
plot of six trees was used to test any influence of copper sulphate. Begin-
ning with February, 1908, one and a half pounds were scattered under each
tree, in each of the months of February, April, July, September and Decem-
ber, 1908, and in February, 1909, making 9 pounds in all to each tree. In
April, 1909, no influence, either in checking the spotting on the fruit, or on
the progress of the disease on the branches, could be made out. These trees,
which were next to plot 5, showed many more spotted fruits than did plot 5,
and about the same number as upon the check plots.
Treatment.- Four lines of treatment based on our observations and ex-
periments are given in Bulletin 98 of the Florida Experiment Station, pp. 79
and 80. These are: (1) Top-working affected trees to immune varieties of
citrus. (2) Heading back and painting with carbolineum, 1 part to 1 part
of water. (3) Pruning out, and spraying with I to 5 per cent. emulsion of
carbolineum in soap and water. (4) Spraying with Bordeaux mixture.

GUMMOSIS.

A disease known as Gummosis or "Gumming" is becoming a serious
trouble in many localities of the State. It has broken out in some groves to
an alarming extent. A short description of the disease was given in the An-
nual Report of the Florida Experiment Station for-1907, page xlvi. The cause
of this trouble is not known. The writer is taking up a study of the disease
with a view of discovering the cause and finding an efficient remedy. In
California a disease called Gummosis, which causes a gumming of citrus trees,
has been found to be a physiological trouble.
REMEDY.-The following is recommended as a tentative treatment until
further experiments are carried out. Cut off the diseased bark and paint the
surface with Avenarius' carbolineum-one gallon of carbolineum, to one gallon
of water in which one pound of whale-oil soap has been dissolved. Prof. R.
E. Smith of the California Experiment Station recommends the following rem-
edy for the Gummosis found in California. Peel off the bark without scraping
the wood underneath, and cover the wound with a kind of grafting wax, pre-
pared by melting together four pounds of resin, one pound of beeswax, and
one pound of raw linseed oil. This is put on with a brush while warm and
liquid.
SCAB (Cladosporium citri Massee).

The Scab or Verrucosis is a disease of lemons, sour oranges, Satsumas,
and grapefruit. Sweet orange trees are rarely attacked by it, and when they
are,'only to a slight degree. It is sometimes known as "sour scab," because
it is so invariably found upon the sour orange and lemon. It is probably




Florida Agriculturat Experiment Station


found on sour orange trees in almost every citrus-growing district in the State.
The earliest infections are on leaves about one-tenth of the full size, as minute
light-brown or cork-colored points. Soon the spots become depressed on one
side and raised on the other. Older spots become dark brown and sometimes
pinkish. The separate spots coalesce as they enlarge, forming irregular corky
scabs. The leaves are contorted, twisted, and warped; and the fruit presents
a warty appearance. The disease is most severe on lemons and sour oranges.
Satsumas are also somewhat affected, and grapefruit occasionally. Some-
times, however, grapefruit is severely attacked when the tender leaves come
out and when the very young fruit is forming. The injury caused by the dis-
ease is nearly always confined to the individual areas of infection. There ap-
pears to be little indication of a poisoning effect on the tissue farther removed
from the location of the fungus, as has been noticed in the case of the With-
ertip.
A considerable amount of study has been made of this fungus in pure
cultures. A short report on the pure cultures of this fungus was given in
the Florida Experiment Station Report for 1907, p. xlvi. Since that time, a
technical study of the growth of the fungus in cultures on various media and
underdifferent conditions has been carried on, a report of which will be given
at a later date.
INOCULATION EXPERIMENTS.-Several attempts have been previously
made to infect trees in the greenhouse by spraying on spores from pure cul-
tures of the fungus, but without result. On November 27, 1908, punctures
were made into tender growth of sour orange trees, and portions of cultures 14
days old were put into the punctures. These punctures were made on twigs
and on young leaves. They were wrapped in oiled paper for 24 hours. In
about 15 days, characteristic diseased areas had developed, although notice-
able irritation of the punctured points had started before that time. The
characteristic scabs were produced both on the twigs and on the leaves. The
leaves became crinkled and contorted, as in cases of natural infection. In
about 60 days the diseased warts were hard and corky, and fully mature.
On January 6, 1909, six sour orange trees were sprayed with cultures 2
months old, made on sterilized orange twigs. The cultures were mashed up
in a quart of distilled water and sprayed on with a large atomizer. Two of
the trees were covered with bell-jars, the others were left uncovered. All the
trees were growing rapidly and bore many tender twigs and leaves. In six
days there were small infection points to be seen on leaves of the two trees
under bell-jars. In one month all the trees showed more or less infection, all
upon the newest growth. Those which had been under bell-jars were badly
infected. Those uncovered were only slightly infected with the scab areas.
Check trees not inoculated showed no sign of the disease. These experi-
ments show that the infection may take place on very tender rapidly growing
shoots, and that the fungus will not attack the hardened leaves and shoots.
REMEDY.-The scab may be successfully prevented by the use of Bor-
deaux mixture. This should be used early in the year, before the new growth
comes out. If the disease appears later upon the small green fruit, a second
application may be made when it is first noticed. It must be borne in mind,
however, that, as previously mentioned, in using Bordeaux mixture, one is
almost sure to cause an increase of scale insects. Such treatment will usually
have to be followed by an application of whale-oil soap or some other insecti-







Annual Report, 1909


cide, or by the hanging of parasitic scale-fungi in the tops of the trees after
the spraying is done.

BUCKSKIN.
Grapefruit, and sometimes sweet oranges, often develop a peculiar thick-
ened and roughened appearance of the rind .which is known by growers as
Buckskin. The rind becomes abnormally thick, and presents a scurfy, rough
appearance, well characterized by the word Buckskin. This trouble has been
serious in some places during the last season. It renders the fruit inferior
and in many cases almost worthless. The disorder is perhaps due to some sur-
face-growing fungus that works upon the outer cells, and irritates the rind in
such a way as to cause abnormal thickening. The cause of the trouble is,
however, yet to be determined definitely. The disease has not been suffi-
ciently studied as yet for us to be able to give any remedy based on experi-
ments. The fact that it appears to be due to a surface-growing fungus would
indicate that Bordeaux mixture would be an effective preventive. A few
years ago, a series of spraying experiments for the control of this disease was
made by Prof. Rolfs in a grapefruit grove where Buckskin had been very
abundant the year before. After the spraying had been done, it was found
that buckskin fruits were not at all present that year, even on the unsprayed
plots; so that it was impossible to get any information from the experiment.
Buckskin appears to be one of those minor troubles that come and go. Some
years it is quite bad, while in other years it is scarcely noticeable. We are at
present making a more thorough study of this disease.

CABBAGE DISEASES.
WHITE RUST. Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) DeBary.-This disease de-
veloped in a destructive manner in one locality in seed-beds. It attacked the
plants very early, killing them when the first seed-leaves were spread. Many
thousands of young plants were destroyed in the seed-beds. The appearance
is that of a white frostiness. The disease is caused by a rapidly growing fun-
gus, which spreads by means of small spores carried by the wind or insects
from plant to plant. The fungus was reported upon cabbage in New Jersey in
1890. It has also been reported to attack, in various parts of the U. S., a
number of other plants of the cruciferous family besides cabbage; as cauli-
flower, radish, pepper-grass, Cardamine hirsuta, Cardamine laciniata, and Alys-
sum maritimum.
Remedy.-One of the vegetable growers was advised by us to try spraying
his seed-bed with Bordeaux mixture. This he did; putting it on four times
every few days, just as the plants were coming up. Those treated in this
way looked much better than the unsprayed plants in the same seed-bed.
Scarcely any of the sprayed plants were attacked, while the unsprayed ones
were killed down in patches. We would therefore recommend spraying with
Bordeaux mixture, four or five or more times every two days while the plants
are coming up. (Four pounds of copper sulphate and four pounds of lime to
50 gallons of water.)
STEM-ROT OF SEEDLINGS (Corticium vagum var. solani).-Young cab-
bage plants in seed-beds were found to have slightly discolored stems. On
examination it was found that the epidermis of the stems was softened, caus-
ing a soft watery appearance. Liter on, the outside tissue shriveled up, the




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


leaves turned brown, and the plants were dwarfed. Usually, however, the
plants so affected did not wilt down entirely. Sometimes the destroyed out-
side tissues dried up, and a new epidermis was formed. Many of the plants
were seen to recover from the attack. It is not safe, however, to set out such
plants in the field.
As far as known this is the first time that this fungus has been reported
upon the cabbage. Some of the diseased seedlings were sent to Dr. W. A.
Orton of the Bureau of Plant Industry; who had the fungus identified as
Corticium vagum var. solani, which is the same fungus that causes the so-called
Rosette or Rhizoctonia disease of the potato.
Preventive measures lie in making the seed-bed in soil that is free from
infection. Fresh virgin soil should be used.
LEAF SPOT (Alternaria brassicae).-This is one of the minor diseases
of cabbage, although at times it may cause much damage. It appeared
rather severely in one locality on low damp soil. The fungus causing the
disease spreads out from a definite point upon the leaf, and produces large
dark irregular spots, which later are covered with a felt-like coat of spores.
The fungus may destroy the growth of the plant, or at a later time may dis-
color the leaves of the head so as to render it worthless for market.
BLACK ROT (Pseudomonas campestris).-This disease, which was reported
last year, was somewhat prevalent again this season; but it was not so destruc-
tive as the year before. It is one of the most destructive diseases of the cab-
bage, causing the heads to rot internally. Preventive measures were given in
detail in Florida Experiment Station Report, 1908, pp. lxxvi and Ixxvii; and
in Press Bulletin 101, on Cabbage Black-rot.

COWPEA DISEASE.
MILDEW (Microsphaera euphorbiae).-The cowpea is commonly attack-
ed by mildew in this State. The disease is caused by a fungus which grows
over the surface of the leaf and enters the cells by means of haustoria. It
gives the whole plant a white powdery appearance. It causes the leaves to
warp and curl, and checks the growth of the plant. An entire field is some-
times rendered almost worthless by the disease, especially in rather moist
situations. During the past year the disease came on about the first of Octo-
ber. It was noticed in the northern and southern parts of the State at about
the same time. The oidium stage of the fungus was abundant in October.
On November 2, the perithecia were observed quite commonly in some parts
of a field at Gainesville. Specimens of this fungus were sent to Prof. E. S.
Salmon of the Southeastern Agricultural College, Kent, England; who kindly
identified the fungus as Microsphaera euphorbiae, which is the same species
that was found by the writer on Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). (Fla. Exp. Sta.
Rept. 1907, p. li, and Rept. 1908, p. lxxxviii.) The cowpea proves to be a
new host for this fungus.
Powdered sulphur, dusted on while the dew is on the plants, has proven
to be an efficient remedy for this fungus on Roselle, but it is a question as to
whether it would be practicable for a field of cowpeas.

PECAN DISEASES.
MILDEW (Microsphaera alni).-Mildew on the green growing pecan
nuts was observed quite abundantly at Gainesville this last year. It is a dis-





Annual Report. 1909


ease of rather minor importance, usually attacking only inferior varieties of
nuts. The fungus causing the mildew produces a white cobweb-like growth
over the surface of the nuts. On this white growth are formed minute black
spherical bodies, the perithecia. These perithecia contain thick-walled spores,
which are quite resistant and may live over winter on old fallen leaves and
dropped nuts. Hence it is quite important, as was pointed out in last year's
report, to take up and burn during winter the old leaves and rubbish from
under the trees. Bordeaux mixture spraying is an effective remedy for this
disease, if the trees are not too large to make this treatment impracticable-
SCAB (Fusicladiumn effusum).-This disease is common in almost all
places where pecans are grown in the State. It affects the leaves, stems, and
nuts; although the greatest amount of injury is done to the nuts. When
about half-grown, or less, the nuts become dotted over with small brown
sunken areas, 1 to 2 mm. in diameter. As the hyphae and spores of the fun-
gus develop, the spots become black. Later on the entire surface af the nut
often becomes blackened with a layer of fungus hyphae, the interior dries up,
and the nut falls off. Dark spots of larger size appear on the petioles, and
even on the young wood of the twigs. Dark spots also occur upon the leaves.
A preliminary notice of the fungus was published by Dr. W. A. Orton in
Science, No. 535, 1905, p. 503.
This is a more serious trouble than the mildew. It causes considerable
loss to certain varieties, while others are not much hurt by it.
LEAF BLOTCH (Cercospora halstedii). -This disease seems to affect
only the leaves. It produces large brown or black blotches, from 1 to I
inch in size and irregular in outline. The injury to the tree is not usually
severe, but the leaves are often affected in such a way as to cause them to
drop prematurely. The fungus causing this disease is probably carried over
on the dead leaves, as is the mildew fungus. Raking up and burning the
dead leaves would probably be useful in checking the fungus. Spraying with
Bordeaux mixture would be a good preventive, as well as for Mildew and Scab.
ROSETTE.-This is the most serious of the pecan diseases known. It
causes a dwarfing of the trees. The axis of the growing shoot is shortened,
and the leaves grow close together in clusters, in a rosette fashion. The
leaves are also smaller than usual and often look quite unhealthy. The cause
of this disease is unknown. It appears to be of the same nature as peach yel-
lows. It seems to be contagious, as there is no remedy known for it, the af-
fected trees should be carefully dug up and destroyed, so as to keep the dis-
ease from spreading to other trees.
DIEBACK. -During the past spring, at the time when the leaves started
to come out, it was found that many young pecan trees were dying back at
the ends of the limbs. The recently diseased limbs could be picked out be-
cause their end buds had begun to unfold prematurely. When the twig was
cut off farther back, it was seen ti be water-soaked. The inner birk was dark,
and the pith was discolored. The disease appears to affect trees of all sizes
up to 10 or 15 feet in height. The James variety seems to be the most af-
fected, and the Van Deman and Stewart next. A study of the diseased wood
revealed the presence of several different fungi. Among them was a species
of Colletotrichum, which may possibly be the cause of the disease. It is sug-
gested that Bordeaux mixture might prove a remedy for this trouble. It would




ii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

probably be most effective in the fall or early spring, before the new growth
comes out.
ROSELLE DISEASE.
MILDEW (Microsphaera euphorbiae).-This was again common the past
season on the Experiment Station grounds, occurring about August in the
oidium stage, and developing perithecia later. The same fungus attacked
the cowpea, as stated above under "Cowpea Mildew."
Flowers of sulphur dusted on the plants while the dew is upon them will
check this disease.
Respectfully submitted,
H. S. FAWCETT,
Plant Pathologist.




Annual Report, 1909


REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit the report of the assistant plant physiologist for
the year ending June 30, 1909. The work during this year has been a con-
tinuation of that outlined in the Annual Report for 1908.

THE TISSUES OF THE CITRUS TREE.
Much time has been spent during the past year upon a study of the mi-
nute structure of the citrus tree. These studies are being made as a basis
for determining any modifications of structure that may be due to pathological
factors.
CELLULOSE AND PECTINS IN CITRUS WOOD.
In Dieback and other diseases of the citrus, there is a production of
gums due to the breaking down of the constituents of the cell walls, presum-
ably by enzyme action. A study is being made of the distribution of
these substances in the cell-walls, and of their relation to the origin of gum.
M. C. Potter says "Local conditions of soil and climate seem in some cases
to retard the complete development of the xylem, and thus render such trees
constitutionally weak." (Potter, M. C.; Annals of Botany. XVIII: 121-140.
1904.) Such being the case, certain methods of fertilizing trees may have a
similar detrimental effect. It is along this line that these studies are being
pursued.
[LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS WITH DIEBACK.

It has been noticed that over-fertilization with fertilizers containing
cottonseed meal, blood and bone, dried blood, or other such forms of
ammonia, will bring on the Dieback of the citrus. Dieback is particularly
prevalent upon lands underlaid by a compact stratum, such as hard-pan, marl,
or clay; and upon shell lands, coquina lands, and certain rocky lands which
are present in the State.
FIRST EXPERIMENT.- An experiment was started in the greenhouse on
March 31, 1908, to produce Dieback by applying excessive quantities of cer-
tain fertilizers and other chemicals. Twelve one-year-old orange trees of the
Satsuma variety, budded on Trifoliate stock, had been potted and placed in
the greenhouse on January 11, 1908. Twenty-five one-year-old orange trees
of the Pineapple variety, budded on sour orange stock, had also been potted
on January 28, 1908. Thirty-two plants were included in the experiment.
They were divided into eight lots of four plants each. The fourth plant of
each lot was of the Satsuma variety and was potted in an eight-inch pot, while
the other three were of the Pineapple variety and were potted in ten-inch pots.
The plants for each lot were selected so that all the lots would resemble each
other as nearly as possible in regard to the size and vitality of the plants. The
pots were placed on the same bench of the physiological section of the green-
house, where all would be under similar conditions of heat, light, moisture, and
ventilation. The eight lots were placed side by side, lot 1 being located on
the north. The plants in each lot were numbered from one to four. The
fourth plant, the Satsuma, was placed on the west side of the bench. Of the




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


remaining plants in the lots, which were of the Pineapple variety, No. 1 was
the largest, No. 2 intermediate, and No. 3 was the smallest.
The plants in the experiment, excepting those of lot VII, received each
one pound of the regular fertilizer. The plants of lot VII were given the same
regular fertilizer without the nitrate of soda. The fertilizer was furnished to
the plants in sixteen weekly applications of one ounce each, beginning March
31, 1908. The regular fertilizer contained 5 per cent. of ammonia, 6 per
cent. of phosphoric acid, and 8 per cent. of potash. Its constituents were
nitrate of soda, analyzing 15 per cent. ammonia; high-grade sulphate of pot-
ash, analyzing 50 per cent. potash; and acid phosphate, analyzing 16 per
cent. phosphoric acid. In addition to the regular fertilizer, each of the plants
in the different lots received the following applications.
Lot T-Cottonseed meal, 1 pound.
II-Nitrate of soda, J pound.
I I -Precipitated iron carbonate, pound.
I V- (Check.)
V-Magnesium carbonate, i pound.
S VI-Crushed oyster shell.
VI Horse manure.
VIII-(Check.)
Each of the above-mentioned quantities was divided into sixteen equal
parts, one part being applied weekly along with the regular fertilizer. The
check lots, IV and VIII, were given the regular fertilizer only. The horse ma-
nure was applied to lot VII in lumps during the first three weeks. The sub-
sequent applications consisted each of about one quart of liquid manure to
each plant of that series. In lot VI about two pounds of crushed oyster-shell
were used for each tree. It was all put on at one application and thoroughly
mixed with the soil in the upper fourth of the pot.
Results.-At the beginning of the experiment, on March 31, 1908, all
the plants were in a healthy and thrifty condition. The plants of the Pine-
apple variety on sour stock had made a greater growth than those of the Sat-
suma variety on the Trifoliate stock. This was on account of the slowness of
the Trifoliate stock in establishing itself in the new soil after being trans-
planted, and its slow feeding ability after having become established. All of
the new growth was vigorous and of a healthy green color.
At the end of the experiment on July 14, 1908, all of the growth of the
plants above the bud was dead excepting that of plants 1, 2, and 4, of lot VII.
Six weeks later these three plants had also died. The first plant showed
signs of death on May 2, and the last (except Nos. 1, 2, and 4 of lot VII), on
June 23. The first indication of death was a slight wilting and yellowing, fol-
lowed by the falling of a few leaves. When the blades fell, the winged
petioles were left attached to the plant. The leaf-fall continued until the
plant was defoliated. In some cases, when leaf-fall had started, a slight
shaking of the plant caused many more to fall. After defoliation, the plant
began to die at the tips of the branches and continued to die backward until
the whole was dead. An examination of the roots of the injured plants showed
the growth to have been small. The new roots were short, yellow, and much
enlarged at the tips. The tips appeared similar to those grown in a too con-
centrated or in a poisonous solution.
The plants of lot II were the first to begin to die, and died from May 2
to May 23. The plants of lots I, III, IV, V, VI, and VIII died about the





Annual Report, 1909


same time, namely from June 8 to Jane 23, 1908; while of the plants of lot
VII, three died about two months later. (A possible explanation of this is
that the heavy mulch formed by the manure checked the diffusion of the fer-
tilizers which were put on the top, allowing them to leach more slowly into
the bottom soil where the roots were feeding and growing.) Lot II was with-
drawn from the experiment on May 30, 1908. The plants had received 9
applications, or 9 16 of the whole amount. They were dead back to the stock
at that date.
A review of the experiment to determine the cause of death of the plants
seems to indicate an injurious action due to an over-abundance of the ele-
ments of the regular fertilizers. The plants in lot II, which were fertilized
with nitrate of soda in excess, were the first to die. The remaining plants
that died, did so later, and at about the same time. The plants that remained
alive the longest were those of lot VII that received no nitrate of soda.
SECOND EXPERIMENT.-Since the main purpose of the experiment just
described was defeated owing to excessive fertilization, the experiment was re-
peated, beginning October 26, 1908. The experiment was carried out in the
same manner as before, excepting that only the Pineapple variety budded on
the sour stock was used, and the quantities of fertilizer and chemicals were re-
duced to one-half.
Results.-All the plants were killed, excepting those of lot VII. A
comparison was made of the time of beginning of death of the tips for each
plant, as shown by.the presence of withering and the development of irregular
long dark patches extending from the tips backward. This showed nearly
the same order as was noted in the first experiment. The plants in lot II were
the first to begin to die, the time being between December 10, 1908, and
January 1, 1909. Those of lots I, III, IV, and VI died at about the same time,
which was between January 1, 1909, and February 6, 1909. Three plants of
lot VIII began to die between December 17 and 24, 1908, and the fourth plant
on February 1, 1909. The plants of lot VII were still alive on July 1, 1909.
On April 5 a gum pocket was found to have developed on one of the branches
of plant II of this series, indicating a dieback condition of the tree. During
the experiment the leaves of all plants in this series were of a much darker
green than those of the other plants. This is another symptom of the dieback
condition.
Conclusions.-The results looked for have been obtained in lot VII, which
was fertilized with the regular fertilizer minus its nitrate of soda, and plus a
quantityof horse manure. Since the plant in the check series IV and VIII were
killed, it would appear that the death of the plants was due either to a too
high concentration of the regular fertilizer, or to the poisonous action of one
or more of the constituents thereof.
Since the disease, Dieback, is apparently aggravated by maximum fertili-
zation with certain forms of fertilizers, the quantity required to bring on this
disease under control conditions must be somewhere within the limits of maxi-
mum concentration for the plant. In both experiments, the regular fertilizer
employed has been above the limits of endurance for the plant. It thus be-
comes necessary to determine whether the injurious action of the regular fer-
tilizer is due to a too high concentration of the fertilizer as a whole, or to the
poisonous action of one or more elements thereof; and to determine what the
maximum amounts of the fertilizers are for citrus trees of definite sizes, in
definite volumes of soil.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


MAXIMUM FERTILIZATION.

In fertilizing citrus trees to produce the dieback condition, it has already
been noted that the quantity of fertilizer used must be within the limits of
the maximum quantity that can be used on the tree. The problem is thus
presented as to what is this average maximum quantity of fertilizer. The max
imum quantity of fertilizer that can be used on a tree is the largest quantity
that can be used and at the same time allow the tree to live and thrive. This
quantity, under ordinary conditions, will vary considerably, according to the
degree of availability of the fertilizer and the varying soil factors to which the
tree may be subjected. For any citrus tree, other factors being the same,
there is a maximum quantity of any single fertilizer (for example, nitrate of
soda), that may be used. Any larger quantity will cause an injury of the
tree followed by death. This same fertilizer, when used in combination with
certain others in a formula, may be used in larger quantity. This is because
the injurious effect of the given fertilizer is counteracted by the other ingredi-
ents of the formula. By this counteraction, the quantity of fertilizer that is
now maximum is increased above the amount that was maximum when the
fertilizer was used alone. It is thus seen that there are two maximums for any
given fertilizer-one, when the fertilizer is used alone, and another when it is
used in combination with other fertilizers that have a counteracting effect
upon it.
There is a third maximum. This is the largest amount of the complete
formula that can be used without killing the plant. This maximum is gov-
erned by two factors: first, the maximum of some one of the ingredients of
the formula; second, the concentration that the total ingredients of the for-
mula will produce. Before the quantity of any one of the ingredients of the
formula has been reached that is sufficient to poison the plant, a point may
have been reached where the total of all of the ingredients is of sufficient con-
centration to cause plasmolysis or collapsing of the cells of the feeding rootlets.
LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS.-The following experiments mark the
beginning of a study of the effect of fertilizers upon the citrus plant. The
plan of work embraces, not only the effect of the fertilizers used alone and
in combination; but also the effect of the different chemical elements, such
as phosphorus, potassium, calcium, etc., that go to make up the fertilizers.
In determining the average maximum amounts of the different fertilizers that
may be used, the plants will be closely studied for indications that will en-
able the grower to note for himself when he is about to get detrimental effects
from the use of his fertilizers. The structure of the plants will be compared
under the different treatments to determine the effect of the different fertilizers
on susceptibility and immunity to disease.
FIRST EXPERIMENT.-This experiment was set up and started on
March 9, 1909, to determine the effect upon the plant of the separate fertil-
izing constituents that were used in making up the regular fertilizer employed
in the second laboratory experiment with Dieback. There were four lots, of
three plants each, in this experiment. Each plant of lot I was given 36.5
grams of high-grade sulphate of potash; lot II, 85 grams of acid phosphate;
lot III, 76 grams of nitrate of soda. No fertilizer was applied to lot IV. The
sum total of the amounts of the three fertilizers mentioned, constitutes the
amount of the regular fertilizer applied to each plant (excepting those of the





Annual Report, 1909


manure lot) in the second laboratory experiment with Dieback, where all the
plants died excepting those of the manure lot.
The plants used were of the Pineapple variety on sour stocks. They
were arranged so as to be under equal conditions of heat, light, moisture
and ventilation.


Fig. 13.-High-grade sulphate of pot- Fig. 14.-Acid phosphate. Lot II.
ash. Lot 1.
Results.- About April 21, the plants of lots I, II and IV were showing a
thrifty growth, whereas those of lot III were beginning to lose their leaves and
show signs of dying. On June 30, the plants of lot I showed a crimping of
the leaves, and new growth was appearing (Fig. 13). The leaves were normal
in color and size. The plants of lot II also showed a crimping of the old
leaves (Fig. 14). The leaves were somewhat undersized, but normal in color.


Fig. 15.-Nitrate of soda. Lot]lIII.


Fig 16.-Check. Lot IV.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The number of new branches that were developing was unusual. In lot III,
two plants were dead back to the bud, the third was dead only part of the way
back, and a weak new growth was putting out from the live portion (Fig. 15).
The plants of lot IV were all healthy and thrifty (Fig. 16).
It would appear that the disturbing element in the regular fertilizer was
its nitrate of soda. The quantities of high-grade sulphate of potash and acid
phosphate used showed no particular detrimental effect. It remains to be
determined whether the crimping of the leaves noticed was an indication of
an approach to the maximum concentration.

SECOND EXPERIMENT.-On March 16, 1909, the above experiment
was extended. The constituents of the regular fertilizer were used in pairs.
The quantities of the fertilizers applied were as follows:
S--------- Nitrate of soda, 76 grams.
Lot V ...... ) Acid phosphate, 85 grams.

Lot V I ---------------------H. g. sulphate of potash, 3i5.5 grams.
S... .... Nitrate of soda, 76 grams.

Lot VII ------------------ H. g. sulphate of potash, 36 5 grams,
o ........... .----- Acid phosphate, 85 grams.
Lot VIII --....--------------- No fertilizer.














Fig. 17.-Nitrate of soda and acid Fig. 18.-Nitrate of soda and high-
phosphate. Lot V. grade sulphate of potash.
Lot VI.

Results.-On March 22, 1909, leaves had begun to fall from the plants
in lot VI. On April 5, the leaves had fallen from one plant in lot V. On
June 30, one plant of lot V was completely defoliated and dead. Another
plant was dead part of the way back. The third had its leaves badly crimped.
There was much new growth being put out (Fig. 17). All plants of lot VI
were dead back to the bud (Fig. 18). The plants of lot VII had their old
leaves crimped. One plant was partially defoliated, and no new growth was
starting (Fig. 19). New growth was starting from the other two plants. The
plants of lot VIII were vigorous and thrifty (Fig. 20).
The greatest detrimental effect was to be noticed in those lots where the
nitrate of soda had been used. In lot VII, where the high-grade sulphate of
potash and the acid phosphate were used together, the least injury was done.
But even here, the general appearance of the plants indicated that the maxi-


Ixviii





Annual Report, 1909


Fig. 19.-Acid phosphate and high- Fig. 20.-Check. Lot VIII.
parade sulphate of potash.
Lot VII.

mum concentration had been almost reached. A comparison of the nitrate
and phosphate lots in this experiment with the nitrate lot of the first experi-
ment, shows a counteracting effect on the part of the acid phosphate. It may
also be concluded that the quantity of fertilizers applied to lot VII of the
second laboratory experiment with Dieback was in excess of the limits of en-
durance of the plant. Other experiments along this line are now Li progress.


YELLOW SPOTTING OF CITRUS LEAVES.


Fig. 21.-Orange leaf. Yellow Spotting on the upper surface.


The observations on this disease have been extended. The past season
seems to have been an especially favorable one for the disease, and it has
been reported from many new localities. It has also been more prevalent in
the places where it was previously known. Little can be found out as to the
history of the disease. It has been known for several years, but there are no
reports of its presence previous to the freeze of 1894-5. There is no evi-
dence that the disease originated in any particular part of the State. The
disease appears to be much affected by climatic conditions. It may almost
disappear in localities where it has been present for years, and, after an inter-
val, appear again.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


DISTRIBUTION.-This disease has become widely spread through the
State. Its prevalence varies considerably in different groves in the same lo-
cality. In some groves or parts of groves, there may be only a few leaves
affected and these will be located mostly in the upper portion of the trees.















Fig. 22.-Orange leaf. Yellow Spotting on the under surface.

There may be many trees in between the diseased ones upon which no spot-
ted leaves can be found. Other groves close by may have nearly every tree
affected, and in many of these trees a healthy leaf may be hard to find.
In November 1908, a careful survey of the groves in one locality was
conducted, to see if the disease was limited to any particular soil or method
of treatment. The disease was found to be present upon all soils in that
section. The soils were mostly hammock and high pine land. The disease
was equally present in those that had had no cultivation, and in those that
had been more or less cultivated. It was equally prevalent in a shedded
grove, and in one that was not shedded, the two being located side by side.
In the shedded grove where sections of the roof had been removed, so as to
expose to the direct sunlight portions of trees that were previously shaded,
the spotting was found to be more plentiful. Very few trees under three to
four years of age were diseased. In the majority of cases the disease was
more prevalent upon trees that had recently borne a heavy crop of fruit.
This would suggest a relation of the disease to the weakened condition of
the trees.
The spotting was found to be worst in the upper branches of the trees.
When present in the lower branches it was usually thinly scattered. It often
happened that a particular branch or twig had the majority of its leaves affect-
ed, whereas the leaves of neighboring branches were perfectly healthy. This
was particularly noticeable in trees that were only slightly diseased. Since
these branches seemed equally strong, there is presumptive evidence that the
origin of the disease is within the plant, or in the soil.
The disease is not confined to any particular variety of citrus. It is most
evident upon the grapefruit, on account of the larger size and deeper color of
its leaves; and it is least evident upon the tangerine, on account of the small-
ness of its leaves. The disease is equally harmful to all the varieties of citrus.
which may be attacked by it.





Annual Report, 1909


SYMPTOMS.-A description of the symptoms of the Yellow Spotting of
citrus was given in the Annual Report for 1908. A further study of speci-
mens from widely separated localities, gathered at different times of the year,
shows considerable variation in the appearance of the spots. This variation
makes an exact description of their gross appearance almost impossible. The
typical spots on the leaves are yellowish to golden-colored areas, a fraction of
an inch or more in diameter. They usually occur between the main veins
and extend through the substance of the leaf. The areas differ in appearance
on the upper and under surfaces. On the upper surface, the yellowish or
golden color is more noticeable; and the central portion of the area is often
darker in color than the margin. It often presents a shiny dark-brown appear-
ance (Fig. 21). The discolored area is not raised above the surrounding
surface of the leaf. The surface of the spot on the lower side of the leaf is
often rough and projecting. It usually has a dull greasy look, and a yellow-
brown or olive-green color (Fig. 22). The surface in old spots may become
dark-colored and melanose-like (Fig. 23). No case of yellow spotting was
noted in which the spotting was upon one surface of the leaf only.






















Fig. 23.-Orange leaves. Melanose-like stage of the Yellow
Spotting. Under surface.


The healthy orange leaf consists of: an epidermis made up of a single
layer of cells; the palisade cells, two layers thick; and the spongy tissue, con-
sisting of loosely arranged cells with large air-spaces between (Fig. 24).
Stomata occur only upon the lower surface of the leaf.
Cross sections of the diseased areas show abnormal changes. The more
usual abnormalities are a swelling of the cells in the spongy tissue, accom-




Florida Agriculturae Experiment Station


Fig. 24.-Cross section of healthy
orange leaf.


panied by brownish gum-like ac-
cumulations at intervals between
the cells. These accumulations
are apparently excretory pro-
ducts of the protoplasm, arising
as a result of the diseased con-
dition. The adjacent walls are
apparently unaffected. The
swollen cells more cr less com-
pletely fill all the air-spaces,
and push out the lower epider-
mis, causing the spot to pro-
ject (Fig. 25).


Fig. 25.-Cross section of Yellow Spot on orange leaf. Swollen
cells in the spongy tissue.

Further protrusion is produced by the development of layers of cork. A
phellogen from one to four cells in thickness develops by transverse division
of the first layer of cells above the cells of the lower epidermis. Thin-walled
corky tissue develops therefrom, producing more or less conical or dome-
shaped projections (Figs. 26, 27, and 28). The cells are more or less col-
lapsed owing to pressure. The epidermal cells become compactly filled with
gum-like deposits, and more or less shrunken. In the region of the stomata,
the air chambers become filled with a gum-like mass. There is apparently
no relation between the development of cork and the location of the stomata.
Corky areas may also develop upon the upper surface of the diseased areas.
Here the phellogen takes its origin from the upper layer of palisade cells.
Gum-like deposits occur in the shrunken epidermal cells. The development
of corky areas may or may not be accompanied by a swelling of the cells of





Annual Feport, 1909


the spongy parenchyma. In many cases the palisade tissue is apparently un-
affected. In a few cases, the protoplasmic contents were noted to be plas-
molyzed, while those of the surrounding tissue were turgid.


Fig. 26. -Early stage in the development of cork on the under
surface of a Yellow Spot area on an orange leaf.


Fig. 27.-A later stage in the development of cork.


1xxiii




lxxiv Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 28.-Cross section of a Yellow Spot area on orange leaf,
showing the corky development on the under
surface.

CORRELATION OF STAGES.-The disease makes its first appearance in
young leaves. Its first symptom is a lack of green color in rounded areas or
spots. At this stage, it resembles Frenching, excepting in the shape of the
areas. Then follows the swelling of the spongy cells with their inter-cellular
accumulations, and the intra-cellular deposits in the epidermis. The final
stage is the development of the corky tissue. It is this that gives the gross
appearance of Melanose to the diseased areas.
The swollen cells may not develop, the corky tissue following directly on
the absence of green color in the areas. In other cases no corky tissue may
develop where the swollen cells occur.
OTHER CASES OF YELLOWING OF CITRUS LEAVES.-There are
several different yellow appearances on citrus leaves that may be confused
with Yellow Spotting. The Yellow Spotting differs from these by its dull
greasy look and slight projection on the under surface.
The most common yellowing with which the Yellow Spotting may be
confused by the growers is that produced by insects, such as the purple scale,
on the surface of the leaf. In this case there is only a loss of green color, and
usually the insect or its remains may be found on the discolored area. Again,
unless the tree is severely infested with the scale, the affected leaves are con-
fined to the lower branches.
There is often a yellowing of the leaves on trees badly diseased with Die-
back, which much resembles Yellow Spotting on the upper surface of the leaf.
But these yellowed leaves lack the greasy projecting appearance on the lower
surface that is characteristic of the Yellow Spotting.
When trees are being starved, especially with regard to ammonia, there
is a yellowing of the leaves. But this should not be confused with Yellow





Annual Report, 1909


Spotting, since this yellowing is merely a loss of green color, and does not oc-
cur in rounded areas.
A yellowing of the leaves similar to that produced by starvation, is caused
by the withertip fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). This fungus grow-
ing in a branch secretes a poison that is absorbed by the leaf, causing a loss of
its green color. The yellowing of the leaves is usually accompanied by a dark
iron-grey color of the bark, and this gives a general unhealthy appearance to
the whole branch. The withertip fungus also attacks leaves, producing rounded
areas of an ashy-gray appearance, covered with minute black specks, which
resemble ground black pepper and are the fruiting bodies of the fungus.
These spots are easily distinguished from the Yellow Spotting.
EFFECT UPON THE PLANT.-The leaf acts as an assimilatory and respi-
ratory organ for the plant. Any extended interference with the activity of the
leaves will bring about a weakening of the plant. The swelling of the cells in
the spongy tissue of yellow spotting areas, closes the air-spaces between the
cells. This interferes with the free diffusion of air through the leaf. The
development of the corky tissue also excludes the air from the leaves at these
points. This reduction of the supply of air lessens the assimilatory and res-
piratory activity by reducing the needed supply of carbon dioxide and oxygen
respectively. If only a few leaves on the tree are affected, the normal pro-
cesses of the plant are not interfered with. But when the majority of the
leaves are diseased, the life processes are enfeebled and a perceptible weak-
ening of the tree results. Herein lies the chief harm the disease does to the
tree. This reduction of the vitality of the tree allows the withertip fungus to
gain entrance. Once within, it secretes a poison that further weakens the
tissue and allows the fungusto proceed farther inward.
The Yellow Spotting has been seen on the same trees with the Dieback:
but there is no proof that there is any relation between the two.
Very often the disease is accompanied or followed by Melanose. This
is particularly so if the trees have not been strengthened by proper care
and fertilizers.
The leaves on the trees that are badly spotted are usually undersized.
This stunted growth is probably due to the starting of the disease before the
leaves were fully developed. Leaves affected with the spotting fall early.
The branches often remain in a more or less defoliated condition until the
new leaves develop. This defoliation, with the accompanying yellowing due
to the presence of spotted leaves remaining on the tree, gives the tree as a
whole a starved appearance, whereas it may have plenty of food at hand.
CAUSE.-In searching for a cause of a disease, one must distinguish
between those factors that influence it and those that are causal. As yet no
cause has been found for this disease. There is some evidence from field
observations that it is transmissible, but attempts to transmit it by inoculation
have given negative results. Studies of fresh and prepared tissue have not
shown the presence of either fungi or bacteria. Numerous cultures have been
made on various media, from different stages of the disease (though not from
the youngest stages), but no fungi have developed. Numerous colonies of
bacteria grew, but were doubtless due to contamination. Further work will
be carried on along this line.
As we do not know the cause, a specific remedy cannot be recommended.




RForida Agricultural Experiment Station


But inasmuch as the chief harm appears to be due to the withertip fungus
which follows the spotting, the recommendation for diseased groves is to
strengthen and build up the trees by the usual methods. This strengthen-
ing of the trees allows them immunity from Withertip. Observations have
shown that groves which are well cared for will grow out of the disease.

CHLOROSIS OF CASSAVA.
In November, 1907, investigations were started in this laboratory to de-
termine the cause of the chlorosis of the cassava. On account of the similar-
ity of the chlorotic condition of the leaves to that of citrus leaves known as
Frenching, it was thought that an investigation of this trouble would be help-
ful in finding the cause of Frenching. This disease is known to occur in
different parts of Florida where cassava has been grown. Mr. J. Belling of
this Station reports having seen a similar leaf discoloration in the West Indies,
on varieties of sweet cassava that had been originally brought from Colombia.
The disease was apparently confined to these plants, and did not appear to
spread to bitter varieties in adjacent plots. This disease apparently belongs
to that class known as physiological diseases, since none of the tissues of the
plant have shown the presence of bacteria or fungi. The effect of the disease,
when it is most severe, is to stunt and weaken the plant. In no case has a
plant been found that had been killed by this disease alone. Local infection
with a species of Fusarium has accounted for the death of all plants that have
died.
GROSS APPEARANCE OF THE DISEASE.-The first appearance of this
disease is a lack of development of chlorophyll between the veins of the very
young leaves. The chlorophyll that does develop follows the veins very
closely. The disease may appear at any time during the growing season of
the plant. If it appears late in the development of the plant, there is only a
chlorosis of the leaves, that does little or no injury. But when it appears
early in the year, it is likely to cause a stunted growth. The normal cassava
plant branches and branches again to the fifth degree. The portion of the
plant that shows the chlorosis varies considerably. Only one or a few small
ultimate branches may show the disease and the remainder of the plant may
seem perfectly healthy; or perhaps only one of the secondary or tertiary
branches with its subdivisions will bear chlorotic leaves. There are cases
where a half of the plant will be diseased and stunted, while the remainder
appears healthy. In extreme cases the whole plant is chlorotic and stunted.
If the disease is not severe, the leaves on a branch will attain their normal
size, though showing the chlorotic condition. The leaves next following these
on this same branch may be of the normal green color, and these may be fol-
lowed -by a number of chlorotic leaves. Thus, chlorotic and normal leaves
may alternate several times during the growth of a branch. If the disease is
severe, all the leaves on a branch will be affected, and a few or many will be
of abnormal shapes, stunted and with an abnormal number of lobes.
MICROSCOPICAL APPEARANCE.-Sections of chlorotic leaves, as seen
under the microscope, show little or no alteration in the cell-walls. The
nuclei of chlorotic cells are enlarged and in some cases the protoplasm of some
of these cells appears more granular, and takes on a deeper stain. These
two changes are similar to what occurs in enzyme-secreting cells; and indi-
cate an abnormal activity in these cells, which may have directly to do with
the absence of chlorophyll.


lxxvi






Annual Report, 1909


FIELD DATA ON THE DISEASE.-As was noted in the Annual Re-
port for 1908, pieces of the stems of diseased and also of apparently healthy
cassava were planted in the greenhouse in December, 1907. Some of the
cuttings from the apparently healthy plants produced diseased plants; while
some of the cuttings from diseased plants produced apparently healthy plants.
These plants were set out in the field in the spring of 1908. They made a
large growth. The majority of the plants showed more or less chlorosis, but
there were few stunted branches. In the fall of 1908, the plants were cut
just above the ground and the stems saved for planting in the spring. The
roots were not dug. In the spring of 1909, the roots put out a vigorous
growth that showed little indication of the disease. It would appear from
this that the plant has the ability to "grow out" of the disease. During the
spring of 1908, two rows were planted, adjacent to the former plants, with
stem cuttings obtained from a badly diseased field on the Experiment Sta-
tion Farm. These plants grew well; but a large percentage of them were
diseased, being much stunted and with chlorotic leaves. In the fall of 1908,
these plants were also cut, and the stems saved for planting. In the spring
of 1909, two rows were planted from these in another part of the same field.
When the plants were about one foot above the ground, a few of them showed
chlorosis; but at the present time (June 30,1909) none of the plants show
disease. All are in a thrifty, healthy condition.
CAUSE.-The chlorosis of the cassava is apparently a physiological dis-
ease, brought on by some unfavorable soil conditions. Plants that were set
in three different localities on the Experiment Station Farm, where the soil is
a loose sandy one and comparatively poor in humus and fertilizing elements,
were badly diseased. Stem cuttings from these same plants were planted in
rows on the Horticultural grounds, where the soil, being that of a high ham-
mock, and having previously grown velvet beans, is a rich sandy loam. Here,
the cuttings developed into perfectly healthy plants. Stem cuttings from
the same lot grew into diseased plants on the Experiment Station Farm.
Where the soil on the Horticultural grounds was not so good, there were a
few diseased plants.
Cultures made on various media from different parts of chlorotic plants,
developed only organisms that proved to be contaminations. Chlorotic
branches thoroughly sterilized by washing successively in water, alcohol,
mercuric bichloride solution, and sterile water, and placed in sterile tubes con-
taining a little sterile water to keep the branches moist, developed no fungi.
The following points indicate the disease to be physiological: (1) the
lack of discolored areas in the plant tissue, such as usually accompanies dis-
eases due to organisms; (2) the absence of organisms on cultures made from
diseased parts; (3) the recovery of the plants when placed under conditions
known to be more favorable to growth.
SECONDARY INFECTION.-Cassava plants that are diseased with chloro-
sis are attacked by several fungi. The weakened condition of the plant allows
the latter to do much damage. One of these fungi that has destroyed more
than half of the plants grown on the Experiment Station Farm is a species
of a Fusarium. This fungus infects the young growing branches, at the bases
of the petioles and just above the nodes. Within the petiole, the fungus
causes a rot that is followed by the death and falling of the leaf. In the stem
the fungus grows both up and down, causing a heart rot. The branch be-
comes defoliated, and the stem dies from the tip backward. Upon those por-


lxxvil




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lions of the defoliated stem that remain alive, buds, that would have remained
dormant, develop into stunted leaf-shoots.
The Fungus.-Numerous cultures of the fungus were made on various
media. A species of Fusarium developed constantly in the cultures. It made
its best growth on rice, sterilized cassava stems, and bouillon to which a
very small quantity of potassium cyanide had been added.
Eight diseased stem tips and six healthy stem tips were cleansed and
sterilized by washing successively in sterile distilled water, alcohol, sterile
distilled water, corrosive sublimate solution, and sterile distilled water, and re-
peating the process. They were placed in sterile culture tubes with a small
quantity of sterile water in the bottom. When examined about six days after-
ward, the Fusarium fungus had developed upon the diseased stems, and no
growth had occurred on the stems of healthy origin. The specific name of
the fungus has not been determined.
Treatment.-Since this disease arises as a secondary infection of the cas-
sava plants that are diseased with chlorosis, the logical method of fighting the
disease would be to prevent the chlorosis. From the data presented it would
appear that the chlorosis may probably be prevented by planting upon a rich
soil, where conditions are most favorable for growth.
Respectfully submitted,
B. F. FLOYD,
Assistant Plant Physiologist.


Inxviii




Annual Report, 1909


REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN BOTANY.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: The following is a report of work done by the Assistant in Botany
for the year ending June 30, 1909.
CELERY DAMP-OFF (Sclerotinia libertiana).
In the low muck bottoms around Bradentown, the celery growers suffered
a heavy loss from the damping off of celery, caused by Sclerotinia libertiana.
The fungus began its attack just before the plants were boarded up or about
ten days before the time of gathering. The first appearance is a white cottony-
looking mass, at or near the base of one of the lower leaf stalks. This white
mass of mycelium spreads upward and around the stalk, causing a soft brown
rot, which soon renders the stalk too weak to support the leaf. The leaf falls
to one side, carrying the disease to its neighbor. A thorough dusting of the
lower leaves and the soil at the foot of the plant, with slaked lime or dry Bor-
deaux, was recommended. The following is Mr. Win. Richman's statement
of results from this treatment:
I have been thinking for some time that I must write you, and report,
what success I had in staying the progress of the foot-rot in my celery on the
low hammock land. I used one sack of dry Bordeaux mixture, and it gave
me good results. I also used several barrels of air-slaked lime, and I got
extra good results from that.
CELERY BLIGHT (Cercospora apii).
Young celery seedlings that were grown on new ground were badly af-
fected with blight, Cercospora apii. As the bed had been newly cleared it
was thought that the disease was brought in by the celery seed. Seed from
the same lot was secured and a portion of the soil was taken. Part of the
seed was treated with a solution of corrosive sublimate, one part to 1000
parts of water, and another part was kept untreated. These two lots were
planted in the greenhouse; but failed to germinate. The soil was collected
by removing two inches of the surface and digging out a sufficient quantity to
fill ten four-inch pots. The soil was placed in the pots at the greenhouse and
planted with clean celery plants. Another lot of plants was set in soil from
the garden. The plants that were set in the soil from the diseased seed-bed
were invariably affected with blight, while those plants grown in the garden
soil were not at all affected with blight. This seemed to indicate that the dis-
ease was in the soil. Inquiries were made of growers who had cultivated
celery in the fields near by, and it was learned that the diseased plant-bed
had been a dumping ground for trash and refuse from a neighboring celery
field.
VEGETABLE VARIETY TESTS.
Several variety tests of vegetables have been made during the year, for
the purpose of selecting the varieties best suited to the conditions here, and
to select starting points for the improvement of Florida vegetables.
EGGPLANTS.-The importance of this crop to Florida is such as to de-
serve considerable attention from the Experiment Station. It is now being
largely shipped as a winter, spring, and early summer crop to the northern
markets, and for a summer crop to various nearby markets. It is quite prob-


lzdz




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


able that one would be able to buy this vegetable on the markets of our lar-
gest cities every week in the year.
The length of time that the eggplant requires to mature fruit from the
time of sowing seed will vary with the temperature and other climatic con-
ditions. The dates given in our table are probably the shortest times in
which one should expect to secure mature fruit, since the seed-beds were
planted under most favorable conditions, and the plot watered by overhead
irrigation; consequently there was the minimum loss of time in the plants
becoming established after transferring from the seed-bed to the field. .


Fig. 29.-Florida High-bush Eggplant.

Florida High-bush.-Through accident this variety was omitted from
the comparative tests. While it is probably not one of the most productive,
it is still the best variety to grow for shipping purposes. It matures its first
fruits in about 114 days from the time of sowing seed, under conditions simi-
lar to those described for the other varieties. (Fig. 29.)



Early Dwarf Purple.-Plants
low and spreading; stems and pet-
ioles dark purple; leaves small,
dark green, with a tinge of pur-
ple. Mature 100 days after seed-
ing (March 10, 1909). Fruit rests
on ground, small, 3 inches in
diameter and 6 inches long, dark
purple or slate colored, shape
pyriform. Yield fair. A good
variety for early home garden.
(Fig. 30.)


Fig. 30.-Early Dwarf Purple.Eggplant.





Annual Report, 1909


Long Puirple.-Plants upright,
medium size, vigorous: leaves
and petioles green and thorny;
stems and veins tinted with pur-
Sle. Mature 103days after seeding
IMarch 10, 1909). Fruit medium
size, 6 to 10 inches long and 3 to
4 inches in diameter, oblong or
club shaped, color deep purple.
Most of fruit borne near base of
plant. Yield good. (Fig. 31.)







Fig. 31.-Long Purple Eggplant.







Round While.-Plantsmedium
in size, healthy, vigorous; leaves,
stems, and petioles, light green.
Mature 103 days after seeding
(March 10, 1909). Fruit small,
3 to 4 inches long and three
inches in diameter, shape ovoid
or spherical, color white. Good
yield and good keeper. (Fig. 32.)


Fig. 32.-Round White Eggplant.


lxxi




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 33.-Striped Eggplant.

Striped.-Plants medium size, slightly spreading, vigorous and healthy:
leaves, stems, and petioles, bright green. Mature in 103 days after seeding
(March 10, 1909). Fruit small, ovoid, 2 to 3 inches in diameter and 4 to 6
inches long, white with longitudinal purple streaks. Yield fair. (Fig. 33.)
Not so good as Long White or Round White for market.






Black Peking.-Plant
upright, vigorous, few
branches; stems, petioles,
and veins, deep purple.
Mature 107 days after seed-
ing (March 10, 1909). Fruit
large, spherical, somewhat
compressed, 4 to 8 inches
in diameter, very dark pur-
ple or almost black from
base to middle of fruit,
from the middle towards
the apex the color gradu-
ally fades to a much light-
er purple at the apex. Most
of the fruits are disfigured
by irregular green or
brown spots. Pool keep-
er. Yield fair. (Fig. 34.)


Fig. 34.-Black Peking Eggplant.


lxxxii






Annual Revort, 1909


Fig. 35.-Long White Eggplant.

Long White.-Plant somewhat spreading, many branches; leaves,
steins, and petioles, light green. Mature in 107 days after seeding (March
10, 1909). Fruit medium size, oblong or club shaped, 6 to 12 inches long and
2 to 4 inches in diameter, color white or pale green, becoming yellow at
maturity. Yield good. The best of the white varieties for market. (Fig. 35.)


Fig. 36.-Black Beauty Eggplant.

Black Beauty.-Plants large, healthy, vigorous, many branches: leaves,
petioles, and stems, light green. Mature 107 days after seeding (March 10,
1909). Fruit large, bell-shaped, 4 to i, inches in diameter and 6 to 8 inches
long, color deep purple. Yield fair. Most of fruit rests on the ground. (Fig. 36.)


lzxxii




Florida A gricultura, Experiment Station


Fig. 37.-Improved New York Eggplant.
Improved New York -Plants large, vigorous, healthy, with many
branches; leaves, steins, and petioles, light green. Mature 107 days after seed-
ing (March 10, 109) Fruit large, oblong, 4 to 6 inches in diameter and 6 to 8
inches long, uniform color, shape, and size. Yield good A good late mar-
ket variety. Most of fruit borne on or near the ground. ( Fig. 37.)

RADISHES.-This vegetable is one of the most easily grown in the home
garden, and while it is pretty generally planted, one rarely finds good radishes
on the table in Florida, the usual rad-
ishes being large and pithy. To over-
come this difficulty, it is necessary to
repeat the sowings at short intervals.
By referring to the table we will notice
that the best varieties keep in good
condition for a period of only about
ten days. It therefore follows that we
should make repeated sowings of rad-
ishes about every ten days or two weeks,
to keep a constant supply on hand.
They are easily grown in coldframes and
stand a considerable degree of frost,
consequently they are rarely planted for
shipping purposes. This in a large
measure accounts for the lack of knowl-
edge in regard to the growing of rad-
ishes in the State. The experiments here
carried on were under conditions very
similar to those of the ordinary home
garden; and it is altogether probable
that for market purposes, by proper irri-
gation and fertilization, the time during
which the vegetable is good for table
Fig. 38.-Long Brightest Scarlet use might be considerably extended.
Radish. Of the many varieties tested, a few


lxxxiv






Annual Report, 1909


illustrations of the best kinds are given herewith.
the results of the variety test.


The following table gives


Fig. 40 -French Breakfast
Radish.
Fig. 39.-White Stuttgart Summer Radish.


TABLE XIX.
RADIs Vaatzrv TPTr.


Shape. Size.




-arly White Turnip -----.... ..... ... round large
Barly Scarlet Turnip ----------------...---..
White-tipped Scarlet Turnip........ .... medium
Beokert's Chartler..---------------------I long large
Rapid Forcing .........--.........-... ---. round
Wood's Early Frame------------------- long medium
Long White Vienna ..................---.....
Long Brightest Scaret (Fig. 38)--.....
Crimson ant................ ......----- ------ oval large
EarIy Round Dark Red--..---------.... round medium
n Scarlet Short Top.........--------. long
White Stutgart Summer (FIg. 39) ...... round
Triumph --.......----- ....---- ..... .. -------- small
Scarlet Globe-Shaped------- --....----.... medium
White Naples....---.........................----------------
Long White Icicle ----------------......... lone
Scarlet Chinese Winter -..-.....----------------
Barly Deep-Scart Turnip-------------...... round
French Breakfast (Fig. 40) --...-----..-----..- oblong;
Deep Blood-Red-------.....--------------.. round
Non Plus Ultra-...-....................------....--------..... long
SearletGem..---------------...............------------.. round
White Stranbur---.....-----------------.... long ery small
Roe Turnip------------------------......... round -- .........
Red Forcing .... ......---------------------- medium
Early Scarlet Globe- .......


Color.




white
scarlet, white tip
scarlet

white
red. white-tipped
cr mason
scarlet
white
white, scarlet-streaked
scarlet
white
scarlet
red

scarlet
white
scarlet
red
scarlet


;i' Quality. o^3




11 poor 8
13 fair 6
i1 very good 6
SI fair 10
11 poor 6
MI fair B
16 poor 10
16 :very good 6
it good B
16 fair 8
Ps fair 4
18 good 10
it fair 4
II good 8
1B good 12
16 very good 10
I1 very rood 14
II poor 6
I3 good 6
13 fair 6
16 fair 6
i1 fair 6
Bs poor 10
11 fair 6
i1 good 10
6i good 6


Respectfully,
R. Y. WINTERS,
Assistant in Botany.


lxxxv




lxxxvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN HORTICULTURE.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: The following is the report of the Assistant in Horticulture for the
year 1908-9.
GUAVA.
The work on the guava, of which an account was given in last year's re-
port, has been continued. A distillation of the peels of guavas was made,
and an essential oil with a fetid odor of ripe guavas passed over with the steam.
This oil, however, appears not to be concerned with the flavor of guava jelly.
Experiments were also made to see whether dry glucose could be substituted
for cane sugar in the manufacture of guava jelly. A good, firm, well-colored
jelly could, however, not be made by using dry commercial glucose, either
alone or together with cane-sugar.
The following varieties of Psidium guajav are being grown at the Station,
from stem or root cuttings or from seeds, with a view to crossing experiments.
I. A large pear-shaped, yellow-skinned, sweetish guava from the Sub-
tropical Gardens, Miami. Six oz. or more.
II. A large pear-shaped white-skinned sweet guava, five-angled, from head
of Miami River. About 8 oz. "Guinea Guava?"
III. A similar pear-shaped guava from Cocoanut Grove.
IV. Another large pear-shaped guava from Cocoanut Grove.
V. A large thick-fleshed white-skinned pear-shaped guava. Peruvian
Guava. Sent from Santiago, Cuba, by Mr. H. A. Van Hermann.
VI. A small pear-shaped white guava from Buenavista.
VII. A white lemon-shaped guava from Cocoanut Grove. White Winter.
VIII. A large lemon-shaped yellow guava from Cocoanut Grove.
IX. An acid, oval, yellowish-white guava with yellowish pulp. From
Lemon City. Recommended for jelly-making by Mr. James Carnell.
X. A red-fleshed guava with large fleshy core. Sent from Matanzas, Cuba,
by Mr. H. A. Van Hermann.

SUGAR-CANES.
Through the courtesy of the Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture, six
varieties of seedling sugar-canes were obtained from the Department of Agri-
culture of the British West Indies. The six varieties are those that have done
best in soils similar to those of Florida. They give, in the West Indies, from
33 to 47 tons of canes per acre, having juice with about 20 per cent. of su-
crose, and containing altogether from 31 to 51 tons of cane-sugar per acre.
Their period of growth varies from 8 to 14 months. Three of them sucker
remarkably well at Gainesville. It is expected that some of these six canes
may be useful for syrup-making in Florida, and especially in South Florida;
and one, at least, promises well for sugar-making.

INDEXING.
In referring to previous bulletins of the Florida Station, the want of an
index was often felt. Accordingly a complete index has been made of the





Annual Report, 1909


bulletins, press bulletins, and reports of the Station since 1888. Another in-
dex, which has proved useful, was made to the volumes of the Proceedings of
the Florida State Horticultural Society since their first issue in 1892.

MAILING LIST.
About 69,000 copies of bulletins were mailed to addresses in Florida,
the United States, or foreign countries. The mailing list of Florida farmers,
fruit-growers, and others interested in agriculture, includes 10,691 names.
The domestic list. which contains the addresses of those *ho have applied for
bulletins from the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Mexico, includes 648
names. The foreign list comprises most tropical and subtropical countries,
including, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, West Indies,
Austria, England, Finland, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Italy, Russia,
Scotland, Sweden, Ceylon, China, India, Japan, Java, Algeria, Cape Colony,
East Africa, Egypt, Natal, Transvaal, Australia, and New Zealand. It shows
110 names. Bulletins are also sent to the 193 newspapers and periodicals
published in Florida, and to about 1500 workers in the Department of Agri-
culture, Experiment Stations, and Agricultural Colleges, on the list issued by
the Office of Experiment Stations. Thus the total number of names on the
mailing lists, at present, is 13,142.

EDITORIAL.
The manuscript and proofsheets of the bulletins, reports, and other
printed matter sent out by the Station, have been edited and corrected for
the press.
Respectfully,
JOHN BELLING,
Assistant in Horticulture.


lxxxvii




lxxxviii


REPORT OF LIBRARIAN.
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the work of the Librarian for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1909.
T.he literature in the Library has been carefully arranged in such a way
that those who consult the Library will have the least difficulty in finding what
they require. All new literature has been recorded in the books provided for
this purpose, and filed in its proper place.
A further effort has been made to complete the files of publications of
the U. S. Dept. of Agr., of the Experiment Stations, and of foreign countries.
Much of the missing literature has been obtained, including what was needed
to complete the sets of the reports and bulletins of nine additional Stations,
namely: Connecticut (Storrs), Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Rhode
Island, S. Dakota, and W. Virginia. We have now, in all, complete sets of 25
Stations. Several hundred duplicates have been sent out to the 12 Stations
which requested them.
The catalog cards received from the Library of Congress have been filed
in place.
Sixty-three volumes have been sent to the binder. About 50 books have
been borrowed from the U. S. Dept. of Agr. Library, at the request of Station
workers.
It has been found'advantageous to arrange the incoming literature where
it may be consulted for a week, before filing it away.
A list of periodicals received and filed is appended.
Respectfully,
MRS. E. W. BERGER,
Librarian.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station





Annual Report, 1909 lxadxi


LIST OF PERIODICALS.
Periodicals Subscribed for by the Station Are Marked*.
Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales..............Sidney, N. S. Wales.
Agricultural Journal of India................................Bengal, India.
Agricultural News .......................................Barbados, W. 1.
American Agriculturist ..................................New York, N. Y.
*American Chemical .Tournal (Chem. Dept.)..................Baltimore, Md.
American Farm Review .................................Rochester. N. Y.
American Fertilizer ......................................Philadelphia, Pa.
American Fruit and Nut Journal...........................Petersburg, Va.
*American Naturalist (Ento. Dept.) ....................... Boston. Mass.
Better Fruit ..........................................Hood River, Oregon.
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries.......................London. England.
Boletim da Instituto ................................... Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Boletim da Instituto Agronomico .........................Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura ............................Argentine.
Boletin Official de la Secretaria de Agricultura............. Havana. Cuba.
Bolletino Teenico della Coltivazione del Tabbacch ...........Scafati, Italy.
Bombay Experimental Farms ...............................Bombay, India.
*Botanical Gazette (Library) .................................Chicago, Ill.
Breeders' Gazette ........................................... Chicago, IlL
Bulletin Agricole ............ ................................... Algeria.
Bulletins, Dept. of Agriculture ..............................Madras, India.
Bulletin Economlque de L'Indo-Chine..................;Tonktin Indo-China.
Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture..................Jamaica, W. I.
California Cultivator ..................................Los Angeles, Cal.
*Canadian Entomologist (Ento. Dept. .................... London, Canada.
Cattle Specialist ........................................W aukesha, W is.
Central Experimental Farm .............................Ottawa, Canada.
*Chemical Abstract (Chem. Dept.) ............................Easton, Pa.
*Chemical Enquirer (Chem. Dept.) .......................... Chicago, IlL
Citrograph ................ .......................... Redlands, Cal.
*Centralblatt fNer Bacteriologie. Abt. IT (Plant Path.)...... .Jena. Germany.
Coleman's Rural World ....................................St. Louis, Mo.
Daytona Halifax Journal ....................................Daytona, Fla.
Department of Agriculture............... Bangalore. Mysore State, India.
Department of Agriculture .................................New Zealand.
Department of Agriculture ...............................Ontario, Canada.
Der Pflanzer .......................................German East Africa.
*Electro-Chemical and Metallurgical Industry (Chem. Dept.)
New York, N. Y.
*Entomological News (Ento. Dept-) .....................Philadelphia, Pa.
Estacion Agricola Experimental de Culdad ..............Chihauban, Mexico.
Farm and Fireside ..................................... Springfield, Ohio.
Farm and Stock ........................................St. Joseph, Mo.
Farmer and Breeder ..................................Fort Worth. Texas.
Farmer and Fruit Grower ............................. Jacksonville, Pla.
Farmer's Guide ......................................... Huntington, Ind.
Farmer's Review ............................................ Chicago, Ill.
Farm Journal ........................................... Philadelphia, Pa.
Farm Stock and Home .................................Minneapolis. Minn.
Farm Stock Journal ....................................Rochester, N. Y.
Field Columbian Museum ................................New York, N. Y.
Florida Agriculturist .................................. Jacksonville, Fla.
Florida Fruit and Produce News ........................Jacksonville, Fla.
Fort Pierce News .....................................Fort Pierce, Pla.
Fruit Grower .............................................St. Joseph, Mo.
Gardener's Chronicle of America.........................Jersey City. N. J.
Garden Magazine .......................................New York, N. Y.
Green's Fruit Grower ....................................Rochester, N. Y.
Hoard's Dairyman .................................. Fort Atkinson. Wis.
Homestead ............................. ...........Des Moines, Iowa.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Imperial Agricultural Experiment Farm ...................... Tokyo, Japan.
Inspectie van den Landhouw In West Indle..........Paramaribo, Surinam.
Indian School Journal .............................. ..... Chilocco, Okla.
Indiana Farmer ........................................ Indianapolis, lTnd.
Tnsect W orld ................................................Gifu, Japan.
Istituto Sperimentale ........................................Naples, Italy.
Jahresbericht des Pflanzenschutzes ....................... Berlin. Germany.
*Journal of American Chemical Society (Chem. Dept.)..........Easton. Pa.
*Journal of Chemical Society (Eng.) (Chem. Dept.) ..... London,' England.
.Tournal, Department of Agriculture ......................South Australia.
Journal of the Dept. of Agriculture of Victoria.......... Melbourne, Victoria.
Journal of the Dept. of Agriculture of Western Australia.. Perth, W. Australia.
*Journal of Mycology (Plant Path.)......................Columbus. Ohio.
*Journal of New York Entomological Society (Ento. Dept.) .New York, N. Y.
*Journal of Royal Microscopical Society (Ento. Dept.)... .London, England.
*Just's Botanischer Jahresbericht (nlot. & Hort.) ....... Leipzig, Germany.
Kansas Farmer ............................................Topeka, Kan.
Kimball's Dairy Farmer ...................................Waterloo, Iowa.
Koenialicb Botanische Garten ..........................Berlin. Germany.
Louisiana Planter ......................................New Orleans, La.
Manatee River Journal ..................................Bradentown, Fla.
Mark Lane Express ....................................London, Englind.
Market Grower's Journal ..................................Louisville. Ky.
New Zealand Dairyman ....................................New Zealand.
Missouri Agricultural College Farmer ......................Columbia, Mo.
Natal Agricultural .Tournal and Mining Record...........Natal. S. Africa.
National Farmer ..........................................Winona. Minn.
National Grange .........................................Philadelphia. Pa.
National Nurseryman ................................... Rochester, N. Y.
New York Botanical Garden ............................New York, N. Y.
New York State Museum ..................................Albany, N. Y.
New York Tribune Farmer ..............................New York, N. Y.
Nut Grower ......................................... ....... Poulan, Ga.
0 Criador Paullsta .....................................Sao Paulo. Brazil.
Ohio Naturalist ..........................................Columbus, Ohio.
Pacific Dairy Review ............................... San Francisco, Cal.
Pacific Rural Press ..................................San Francisco, Cal.
*Pflanzenfamtllen (Bot. and Hort.) ...................... Leipzig, Germany.
Poultry Yard ............................................ Charlotte, N. C.
Practical Farmer ........................................Philadelphia, Pa.
Progressive Farmer .......................................Raleigh, N. C.
*Psyche (Ento. Dept.) .....................................Boston, Mass.
Reliable Poultry Journal ..................................... Quincy. Ill.
Rural Life ..............................................Rochester, N. Y.
Revista da Socledade Sclentiffea da Sao Paulo...........Sao Paulo. Brazil.
Royal Botanic Gardens ..............................Peradeniva, Cevylon.
Rural New Yorker ......................................New York. N. Y.
Rural World .......................................... London, England.
Semi-Weekly Times-Union ...........................Jacksonville. Fla.
Southern Cultivator ......................................... Atlanta, Ga.
Southern Rurallist ............................................Atlanta. Ga.
Station di Patologta Vegetale .................................Rome, Italv.
Successful Poultry Journal ................................... Chicago. Ill.
Sugar Industry ..............................................Chicago. 11l.
Tigdschrift over Plantenzlekten ........................ Ghent. Belgium.
Transvaal Agricultural Journal ..............Pretoria, Transvaal. S. Africa.
Wallace's Farmer .....................................Des Moines, Iowa.
West Indian Bulletin ................................... Barbados, W. I.
W ilson Bulletin ............................................Oberlin, Ohio.
Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm ....................Woburn, England.
*Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenkrankhelten (Plant. Path.).... Stuttgart, Germany.
*Zeitschrift fuer Wissenschaftliche Insectenbbllogie (Ento. Dept.)
Berlin, Germany.
*Zoologlscher Jahresberiet (Ento. Dept.) ................ Berlin, Germany.






INDEX,
'IT ANNUAL REPORT, BULLETINS, AND PRESS BULLETINS.


A
PAGE
Acid In oranges .........---------------- -------------------------- xxxi
Acid phosphate, and pineapples -------...................-----------------. xxv
Acidity of citrus soils -......-- .......-. ------------------- xxxill
muck soils ... -..........--- -- -.-----------.....P. B. 109
pineapple soils -..----....-- ------------------------- xxvi
Acids, organic, in soils------ -.... .....------------------P. B. 107
Agronomy, lines of work in ----....------------... ..--------------------
Aley.nle. ritri, citrus whitefly, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvll, xxxvill, xl, xll, xlil,
52, 53, 55-58, 65-70
food plants of --........-------------------------.....xxxv, 60-61
Alerniiwes nubifera, cloudy-winged whitefly, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvil, xll, xlii,
53-55, 67-70
distribution of-----.......-----------------------...xxxv, 70
new species-----------------....................------------------68, 70
yellow fungus on--..----.........------------------------. 70
Aleurodes. See ALEYRODES.
Al krauria brissuicae, cabbage leaf-spot fungus .------------------------........ Ix
Analyses of citrus soils .---------..............-------------------xxx, xxxiii. xxxiv
golddust washing powder ----- -----------------------xliv
honeydew of whitefly --................--------------------------..........xl
sweet oranges .....--...................-------------------------- xxx, xxxii, xxxiii
pineapple fruits ...--- ...-- ...-----------------------------...--- xxv
pineapple plants -------.. ......---- ..--...-----------------xxv
pineapple soils-------............---.........-------.....-----------------.... xxv
soil in experimental citrus grove--.....----------..-------.......... xxx
soils ..............----------------------------..... xxv, xxx, xxxiii, xxxiv
Animal Industrialist, Report of.......------- --------------------------- xv
Animal Industry, lines of work in-----........----------------------..------ x
Aphis, common ---.......--------------------------------------P. B. 113
insecticides for--.----------................-----------------------P. B. 113
Aschersontia ala.,/rodis, red fungus of whitely ...... --------------xxxvi 15, 44
flavo citrina, yellow fungus of whitefly --------------...........14, 44
spores of------.........------------------------------------ 44

B

Beans, Adsuki, variety test of ......................-----------------------------..xxi
Lablab, variety test of .....---------------------.------------ xxii
Mauritius .....----.....--- ..-------------------------- ...--..xil
Seeta, variety test of -----.... --- ---......----- --------........xii
Beef cattle, use of pure- bred sires for ---------------.............................-------------- 30"
feeding for ...-........----- -----------------------------------------29-37
Quality not allowed for by local buyers-----.........--------..........-------...---... 37
herd ----------..........-----------......- ..-- ------------------------.. xv
not enough produced in Florida--... ...--.---.--------------------.....--.....--..... 29
Belling, John, Report of Assistant in Horticulture .. ....--------..-..x lxxvi
Berger, E. W., demonstration of spore-spraying method of applying
parasitic fungi--------------------------------........... .................16
Melon aphis and other plant lice.......----------..-.......---P. B. 1U3
Report of Entomologist..----.---------....---------- xxxv
Whitefly control---. ---------.............------------P. B. 102
Whitefly control by fungi ............------- --.------P. B. 97
Whitefly in April..-----------.......................----------.--......---P. B. 115
Whitefly in chinaberry trees .....-- ...............--P. B. 108
Whitefly studies in 1908 ----.............------- 43-71
Berger, Mrs. E.W., Report of Librarian .......................------------- -xxxvill
Black-rot of cabbage..........----....--.------------.........................------------.- P. B. 101




ii Index
PAGE
Blair, A. W., Formation of nitrates in the soil...... --------------P. B. 111
Loss of lime in drainage waters............ -----------------P. B. 112
Treatment of muck soils -------- ------..............--------P. B. 109
Report of Chemist--...------------...................---------------...-- xxv
Unfavorable soil conditions------------------P. B. 107
Bordeaux mixture for citrus scab .......--- ... ..---............... Ivilii
for pecan dieback ---.---....--...........--------------..............------- Ixi
for pecan leaf blotch, mildew, and scab............------------.. xi
for scaly bark .....................------------------.---......----..-.. iii, 80
destroying fungi of scale insects -------..........------------ 5
increasing scale insects ..---.---.--..................---------------. liii
Breeding grade cattle ...... .......--------------------....... _....-- xvill
Brown fungus of whitey -------------........xxxvi, xxxvii, xl, xll, xlll, 16, 53
Bulimulus dormani, Manatee snail --......------- ..............-----------------...---- xliii
Bulletins, list of --................--- --------------........ ..-----------.--- l
Bulls, pure-bred, more profitable than native ...........-- ..--- ---.. --- 30
value of for grading up-........---------------......--......-- 30
Bureau of Chemistry, co-operative work with---......---------..--.-----...--.. xi
Plant Industry, co-operative work with ------ ------------- xi

C

Cabbage diseases, black rot -------------------------------------- Ix
leaf-spot .....--------------.---------------------..... .
stem-rot of seedlings .----................-----....-....---- li
white rust -.............--------....---.........-------.....---------.---- lix
Cape jasmine and whitefly ----------.---.................-----------------------........- 0
Cassava, chlorosis of ......-----------.......................----- .....---..-xxvi
cause ---.--...-----.......---------.. .----.--.--------...........lxxvii
description of.....---.........-------------------------............. lxxvi
field data ---------------------......-----------........... lxxvil
secondary infection .....----......------.--.----------........... Ixxvii
Cattle-feeding in Florida.-------...........----....-----..........------------- P. H. 90
in Florida, prospects of -----.------....---.....----......... 2
in the South, advantages of ...------------- --....-....... 29
Cattle, improvement by grading-up .... ..-----------................-...... 30
inferior grade in the South .....---.....-------.......-------.---.----.------ 30
low prices of, early in 1908 ...............--------...--......---------------- 36
native, not good for beef production --.--------..........------..---.. 30
ticks-- -......---... ------.................................... B. 94
Celery blight ------ ----... ......------------. .......... ..--------------....Ixxix
blight, cause of ....---------.....-------------...---------------.......ix
damp-off .-----....------..........---------------------------------..---.......xix
seed-beds --....--..........-----------....-------------....... P. B. 95, P. B. 100
transplanting .--------------..................---------------........------..-...-...P. 13. 100
sowing ----......---------------------------.....--.....--------.... P. B. 95
('ephlalanthus occidentall/, button bush....- ---.........----- -........----xxv
Oercopnora apii, celery blight fungus ......----------.........--.--..-..-------....-----..lxxix
hiulstedif, fungus of pecan leaf-blotch...--.....----..--...-----------... xi
Chemist, Report of ........---------------...........--- ......----- ------ xxv
Chemistry, lines of work in ....------.--------.......----.....-------..--.--.---------...... x
Chinaberry trees, should be cut down....60, 62, P. B. 07, P. B. 108, P. B. 115
whitefly in ....--........----------------------.........00, 62, P. B. 108
Chinch bug, destroyed by fungi ...........------.......----.---------.. ..............-------------- 5
fungus of----------.......... --------.---....----..- 56, xxxvi
Chioaspis itri -----.......----...------...------------------------------...............------..------.... 10
Chlorosis of cassava .............---------.. ------------------------xxvi
cause of ........------.....-------------..........------.........--------xxvii
description of ----------...............--------..--... Ixxvi
field experiments with .........-------- ----...... xxvii
microscopical appearance of ...-------------..xxvi
secondary fungus infection ...... ..------------..-..-----... lxxvii
treatment of ...... ...... ..-----------....... xxviil
Cinnamon fungus of whitefly .......---------..--............------------..------.....44, 55





Index iii
PAGE
Citrus diseases, buckskin ..... ..--------.. ---- ----- ----- lix
dieback ..........----... ----- -------Ixiii, lxv, lxxv
footrot .....-......-.- .. ------------ ------P. B. 96
frenching .----------................---- ---- --..---xxv
gummosis .........-------......-------------------------------vi
melanose ------....... --------------------------------xxv
russeting of fruits ................---..---- -------- P. B. 117
scab ........----------------------------------lIvii
scaly bark ------- .........----------.------ xlvi, Ivii, 75-80
withertip ---------- -----.....----------------.. 1. xxv
yellow spotting ------------------------ Ixix, P. B. 104
Citrus foot rot----. ---....----- ...... ---------------- P. B. 96
remedy for .---- ---..----------------------..P. B. 96
symptoms of-----...... -------------------------_ P. B. 96
Citrus fruits, analyses of -.-- -.. ..------- -------------
rusting of ..-. ..--- --- ---------------------P. B. 117
Citrus grove, experimental-- -------.. .. -------- ------.--------- xxvi
analyses of soil in ......--.------.---.............. -------------xxx
fertilizers used in.....------.....------ xxviii, xxx
plan of .......--------------------------- xxvi
nitrogen in soil of ---------------- ......-----.......xxxiv
Citrus groves, analyses of soils in.-------- ---------------------- xxxiv
Citrus leaves, yellow spotting of ....--.........------------------- lxix, P. B. 104
Citrus, scaly bark of ---.---- ---- ----------.... ------...... xvi-lvil, 73-80
Citrus tree, tissues of --.....---..... ------------- --- -- xii
diseases of---- ---- ----------------------- xvi, lxiii, 73
experiments in fertilizing----- ----- -----------. xxvi, xiili
scaly bark of ---------------------- ---------.. lvi, lii, 73
Citrus whitefly. &e ALEYRODES CITMI.
Citrus whitefly in IndiaandJapan-------...........--------------------xxxvi
Citrus wood, cellulose and pectins in -------.............----------.--.---------. xi
adc-.sporium citri, citrus-scab fungus ----.....----- -------------- Ivii
(adosporium sp., on whitelly fungi -------------------.............-----------.. 66
Climate of Florida, favorable to fungi.......-------------- -------------- 5
Cloudy-winged whitefly. SeeAL.YRODES NUBIFERA.
COdletotriehum gloeosporioides. withertip fungus ------xlvi, 1, xxv, 78
Coniothyrium sp., on whitefly fungi ----- ---------- 56
Co-operative experiments with breed ing cattle -------...-------------- xvili
with orange trees ........-------.. --------------xxvi
with pineapples ----------. ....--------- ..... xxv
with scaly bark .-...........--------- ------..... ii
with U. S. Department of Agriculture ----- xi
with whitefly fungi ....--------------..xxxiii
Corn for steer-feeding ------......-------- ------- --------------- 31
Csrlictiu, agum var. solani, stem-end rot of seedlings, ....-----------lix, x
Cotton breeding --------- ------------------------------------ x
Cottonseed hulls for steer-feeding---.....---- -------------------- 32
meal, cannot give a balanced ration with cottonseed hulls
only .......--------------------------..--------- 35
meal, for steer-feeding.......--------- ----------------- ------. 31
Cowpea disease ----...--------- -------------------------- --------Ix
Cowpeas, fertilizing effects of roots of----.......---------- .-----------.......xxii
variety test of- .... --------... ------ -------. --------.xxii
Cows, dwarf Essex rape for --------.......----..... ------------------------- 21
feeding experiment with ..---- ------------------- -. ----. xvi
finding out the unprofitable ones ---------------------- P. B. 105
Crab-grass hay, for steer-feeding----.....----.........-----------...-----------31
Crops, leguminous, use of .---.. ----------------------------..... 29

D

Dairy, cleanliness in .....------....------------------------------. P. B. 114
herd .------------------------- --------------------------------- xv
use of balance in. -------------------- -------------- ..P. B. 105




iu Index
PAGE
Damping off of celery seedlings -----............-------.........---------.........P. B. 100
DeLand, whitefly fungi at ............................................ xl
Diaspispentagona, attacked by red-beaded fungus in Japan.--.......------ 10
Dieback of citrus------.--...............-------- ---- -------litii, lxzv
laboratory experiments with..........---------------------.... xiii
Dip for cattle -----................----------------- -----------------. B. 94
Director, Report of ............------------------------ -------------- ix
Diseases, blackrot of cabbage ----------------- ---- -. lx, P. B. 101
blight of celery ..------- -- .. ------------ ----... lxxix
buckskin of citrus ---------------------------....----- --lx
chlorosis of cassava .---- ---------- ------------------lxxvi
damping-off of celery ------------......-------- --------- lxxix
dieback of citrus.....------------------............------------.--..xili
dieback of pecan -----------..---..------- ---. ---.....-... -----xi
footrot of citrus .- ..------------.. --------------.. --.. P. B. 96
fungus, of scales ---- ---.----._ --------------- 5
fungus, of whitefly - -.. ------xxxvi, 5. 44
gummosis of citrus ------ -... --------.... --------------- lvi
eaf-blotch of pecan ------ ---------------------...----.---.. x
leaf-spot of cabbage .....---------------------------------- x
mildew of cowpea ..........-------- ------- lx
mildew of pecan ---- -- . ---------.-------- -.----- Ix
mildew of roselle ----------.------------- ------------.. Jxii
rosette of pecan ----------- ------------------------- xi
rusting of citrus fruits---- --.--------... --P. B. 117
scab of citrus -----... ----- ....--------.--- Ivii
scab of pecan ---------- ---------------------....------ xi
scaly bark of citrus ... --- ------- xlvi, 75
stem-rot of seedlings ------ ------------ ------------- lix
white rust of cabbage --- ---------------------.---------lix
withertip of citrus ---------------------- ....----------1..., 78
yellow spotting of citrus leaves ----------------!xix, P. B. 104
Dlicho8s biflorus ..------------ -------.--------- -----------. xxii
Dwarf Essex I'ape- ----- -- -------- ------------ ----------21-55
E
Editorial work of Assistant In Horticulture ---------............---------..--xxxvil
Eggplants, Black Beauty ..-- -.. -----. .........------ -----xxxiii
Black Peking -------------------- --------------xxxii
Early Dwarf Purple ..- ..... ----.-.-----.. lxxx
Florida High Bush ..- ----- ---------.---- lxxx
Improved New York ------..... -------------- -------- lxxxiii
Long Purple ....--- .------------...---------------... lxxx
Long White ------------.---------..-- -----.. lxxxtil
Round White..---- -- ----------------- -------lxxxi
Striped -------------...----.... ... ---..... ------ -Ixxxi
Variety test of -----------------------------------xxix
Entomologist, Report of --..- --.. --- --- ----- ---- xxxv
Entomology, lines of work in --- ..-------.---------------------------.... x
Evaporimeter records ----. -- xit
Evaporimeters... ...--------..-- ..--.....------- ---- xi
Experiment Station, citrus orchard a ----------- -- ix
co-operative work with the U. S. Dept. of Agr. at_ xi
deciduous orchard at --------....--. ---------------ix
horticultural grounds of --- ------ ------ ix
horticultural -work at..- ..---------------------- ix
lines of work in ....------------------------------- Ix
miscellaneous crops on horticultural grounds of - ix
propagating house at ---------------------- ---ix
work in agronomy at ----- ---------------------- x
work in animal industry at ------------ ------ x
work in chemistry at --------------------------- x
work in entomology at ------------- _x
work in plant pathology at .....--------..-----..... xi






Index


Experiment Station, work in plant physiology at
Experiments with buckskin of citrus ...
cattle breeding -
effects of fertilizing chemicals
chlorosis of cassava -----
citrus fertilization .
citrus scab-.... ---
copper sulphate for scaly bark.
corn breeding -------
cotton breeding --.. ...-- -----
cotton selection ----------
curing Japanese-cane fodder
dieback --------
feeding cows ...
feeding steers ------------
feeding velvet-bean hulls
fertilizers on citrus
fertilizing effects of cowpea roots
Florida-grown feeds ---- --- --
frenching
fungus of scaly bark -
insecticides ....
lettuce -.. ...
Natal grass -------------
over-fertilization of citrus
parasitic fungi
pineapples.--- --
pruning for scaly bark
radishes ---
rape ..
scaly bark and carbolineum. -
scaly bark of citrus -.
soap sprays and whitefly
sorghum. -
spraying for scaly bark -
steer-feeding -


steers-------- ---
whitelly fungi
yellow spotting------ -----


PAGE
_-- ----------- Xi
-xi
-- -------- lix
.- xviii
.. --.-- xi
---- Ixxxvii
--------- xvi
---------- -viii
...------- --- Ivil
. -...- ...- --- ------ x
------ -- -- ----- x
--.---.--------- .XXIV
xxi
-xi
-.-- xvi
- --- .----- --- xv1
--. .31-37
----- xxi
xxv. lxvi
--- -------- xxii
------ ix
xi



-- ----- xix
--.------ IXiii
------- -- -- x
---- x, xxv
l---------- vi
ix
-- ----- .--. ix
--24, 25
----... v
-.---.--.xi, 78
------. .x1il

-.....liti, 80
XT, 29
v. 29, P. BB.09
_xxxviii. 49
-------- xi, lxxv


Fawcett, H. S., and brown fungus of whitely ------- --------xxvii
and Sporotrichum sp.-------- _xxxi
Cabbage blackrot -- ---- P. B. 101
Fungus disease of scale insects and whitefly ---- -17
Report of Plant Pathologist ...xlvi
Scaly bark of citrus ------- -- -- ---- 1..73-80
Feeds, best combination of in steer-feeding ..--..----v, 34
for beef production -- .-- ---- ----..-.- Xv, 34
for milk production --..--------. xv
Florida-grown, feeding value of---- x, xv, xix. xxi, xxiii
for fattening cattle, combinations of xv. 31. 32, P. B. 99
rape, dwarf Essex --------------------------- -_ 25
Fertilizer constituents, of oranges, --------- -- xxxii
of pineapples ------- ---._...... xxv
Fertilizer experiments with citrs ------------------ xxvi, xxvi, xti, lxvi
with pineapples. xxv, xxvi
Fertilizers for muck soils .- .P. B. 109
maximum amounts of.- ---- lxvi
on pineapple plots ...........------------------.--------- ...- ........xxv
producing on the farm--- ----- _-- -----.. .. P. B. 110
used in excess..----------. .---------........---......--...- --xiii
Field crops.-------.-- ---.-------------- ------... ..........xvii
Financial Report -----.. ......---------------...........-.. xiv




ii Index
PAGE
Florida, climate favorable for fungus diseases .......... -----.............- 5
forage crops, composition of ...-- -----------------------.xvill
native cattle, not good beef animals --- 30
Floyd, B. F., Air in the soil ..---- ------------- ------------- P. B. 116
Report of Assistant Plant Physiologist-...---.---.----.----. lxil
Yellow spotting of citrus leaves --------------- P. B. 104
Footrot of citrus -------------------.-------------------- P. B. 90
Forage, dwarf Essex rape for ......_- ---......--------21-35
iPraint w lanceolatus, green ash ......-------... ------.......--------------- xxxv
Frenching of citrus --.---------- ----------- -.. ----- xxvi
Fumigating orange-picking bags ------------------. ----. --------- 59
Fumigation for whitelly------.......------. ------------------..59, P. B. 102
Fungi, beneficial, A4shersania aleg/rodi, red fungus of whitefly. xxvi, 14,
15, 16, 44, 45, 51, 52
Aschersoiia flavo-citrina, yellow fungus of whitefly - -
xxxvi, 14, 44, 4:5, 52, 53
Brown fungus of whitefly ------...xxxvii, 16, 44, 45, 53, 54
Microcera sp., white-fringe fungus of whitefly. -44, 54, 55
MAqriangium duraei, black fungus of scales ....-lift, 13-14
Ophionectria coceeilda, white-headed fungus of scales
liii, 11-13
S'phaerostilbe coccophila, red-headed fungus of scales..-
liii, 8-11, 44
Verticillihm heteroladum, cinnamon fungus of whitefly
44, 55, 56
Sporotrichimn sp. .---. ----------------.xxxvi, 44, 56
Fungi, control of whitelly by --------------------xxxvi, 15, 45, P. B. 07
Fungi for infecting scale insects and whitefly, where purchasable -7, 51
Fungi, injurious, Alternaria brassicae, leaf spot of cabbage ....------ lx
Cercospora apHi, causing celery blight -.----------- lxxix
Cerco#)jxna haalelii, leaf blotch of pecan --.---.----.. --- 1x
U/aidoporluni eltri, scab of citrus -.----_ --.. --- ---- Ivii
C6lletotrichumgloeosiporioldes, withertip, following scaly
bark fungus ....---------.---------------------- li
oMletotrichum gloeosporicidei, withertip, following
yellow spotting ----------------- -- ---------lxxv
Cortiium vagum, stem rot of seedling cabbage -- lix
Fusarium sp.. attacking cassava -----_------lxxvii, Ixxvili
usiciadium eff.'sum, pecan scab ..------------------ xi
lormodendron sp., the primary cause of scaly bark -xlvi
Meliola sp., sooty mold --- -... ..----. V7
Microsphaera alni pecan mildew ----- I
Miicr.phatea enphworbia, cowpea disease .....---- Ix
Microsphaera euphorbiae, roselle mildew ...--. lxii
PIronosporaI pariaitiea, white rust of cabbage ...- lix
Psendomonas campestrie, black rot of cabbage-------- Ix
Scleroinia liberitkna. causing celery damp-off lxxix
Fungi, introducing ..--- -----------....------------------- ------ xxvi
Fungi of scale insects destroyed by Bordeaux mixture- ..------.. .il, 5
not attacking trees ....----------------------- 5, 6
probably native to Florida ....---------....---------- 6
time before visible infection ------------... .. ----
Fungi, parasites and saprophytes ...............-----------------.... --------------- 43
tI'ungi, parasitic, tree-olanting method of application -----------.... 17, 47
leaf-pinning method of application ----........---------- 15, 46
spore-spraying method of application .---xxxvi, 16, 45
why not supplied by Ifperiment Station ----------.... 7, 51
Fungi, propagation of .---... .-..........---. --- ----44, 45
Fungus, black, of scales-..-------... .... 7, 13-14
brown, of whitefly -------.-----------------.... ..xxxvil, 16, 53
brown, threads of --- ..--.--------------- --- _- 45
cinnamon, of whitelly .--...--- ----------- --...-------- 55
Fungus diseases of scale insects and whitefly ------. -- -------- 5-17
of scales, literature of ...----------.....------------- 17






Index ia
PAGE
Fungus diseases of whitefly ........ -- ...... - ......xxxvi, 14. 44
of whitefly, spore-spraying method of distribut-
ing --.. xxxv, 16. 45
spores of- --- ....- ....-------- 44
used to combat insect pests in Florida. ..... xxxv 5, 45
Fungus, red-headed......------------------------ ------- 8-11
red-headed, killing scales without producing pustules .-.. -- 8
red-headed, of scales, how to apply .-- ------ 10
red, of whitelly---------- ------------------- xxxv, 15, 16, 51
red, of whitelly, how to arply ..-----..----------. ..--- xxxvi, 15, 10i 46
white-fringes of whitelly .. .- -. 54
white-headed, of scales-- .... -----11-13
yellow, of whitefly .. ------.. --....---- xxxvi. 14, 15,52

G
Gainesville, whitefly fungi at ..-- --------xxxvil
Galtalitll, S. H., breeding grade steers --- ---.. -------------------- 31
Golddust washing powder, and whitefly ------ -------- ---.xli
Grading up, improvement of cattle by ----- ----- -------xviii, 30
Grass, crab, analysis of hay -... ... --------- .----- xix
Guinea ---------- ----- --- --- xx
Natal -- ...-------...------ --.. ---.. --- xix
Para, analysis of hay ..--------- --.- .--.-.-....--__ xix
Grifling, C. W.. effectiveness of red-headed fungus .-------- -------- 10
Guavas, varieties--.-------... --- ------- ....----- I
Guinea grass -----__ --- --------- ----- x
Gummosis of citrus ---------------....---------- ------------ I

H
Hardpan.......-----------......---.......---- ----- P------------ .
Hay from Guinea grass ..----- ---------- ----------------------....... xix
Japanese sugar-cane. -...---------------.------------ xxl
Natal grass---..--- ------------------- ------------ sxX
Henderson, F. P-, supplying parasitic fungi ---.-------.........--------------- 7
HibisaNs abdarijfa, roselle --. ...---- -----... Ix
Bogs, dwarf Essex rape for ..----........----- ------- --- -------- 21
herd of-.---..... --- ---------------- -- ------ --.--...-.xvil
Honeydew of whitefly, analysis of----------..... ---- ---............ --..--.-.xliii
lIornodendron sp., causing scaly bark.---------- xvi, xlvii, xlviii, Xlxx
Horticulture, lines of work in-....----.....-...------------- ..-------------... ix
I
Implements, improved farming -..---------------------------- ..P. B. 103
Indexes to horticultural Hlterature .............-------------- --------.....
[Insect pests, State law regarding ----- .....-----------------P. B. 115
insecticides, contact.---------..............------------------ ii, 58, P. B 102
for whitefly --- ---------- xlII, 58, P. B. 102
Insects, gregarious, attacked by fungi.... ------------- 5
Insects, injurious, aphis on melons and cucumbers .....---- ..- ..P. B. 113
Dtaspis ---------........----------------------.---....--..... 56
Lecanlum -------.....---- ..----......------------------ 60
scale insects on citrus and peach.------------.............1111, 5
whitefly on citrus, xxxv, 14, P. B. 97, P. B. 102, P. B.
108, P. B. 115
Iron salts in so----.........------------------------------------P. B. 107


Jaffa oranges, analyses of-.. ----- -- --------xxx, xxxI
Japanese sugar-cane............-- --------------------------------------- x
cured as hay----- .....--------------------......... il
for Oteer-feding-----........-....-- .------------------ xv




wtif Index

K
PAGE
Kalnit and pineapples .------.....---- -------------- ----------------xxv
Kerosene emulsion ..--------------------- -- ----- --------... 6
Kudzu vine..--.....---------------------------- -----------------.. xx
L
Labor-saving implements on the farm-----------------------------P. B. 103
Lettuce .--........ ----------------------------------------------- ix
Leesburg, whitefly fungi at ....-- ..------------------------------------- xl
Librarian, Report of. ---------- -------------------------lxxxviii
Lime, loss by bacterial action ------.......-------------------------P. 3. 112
loss by sulphate of ammonia....----.....--.......-------------------P. B. 112
loss in drainage waters -----------.------------------- P. B. 112
occasional application required ------.-----.........----------- P. B 112
Limestone, ground, for acid soils.------------------------- -------.xxxii
Lyon bean-------------- -- -----------------------------------... .
yield of.....---------------------------------- -------- xx
M
Magnum Bonum oranges, analyses of ---------- -------------. xxx, xxxli
Mailing list of the Experiment Station .----.....---------------------xxxvil
Melanoseand yellow spotting -----.--------- ..-- ------------xxv
Mediola sp., sooty mold--...--..-------------------------------- ......
Microscopic structure of citrus trees... ------------. ------ ---------- lxiii
Mirmophaera atni, pecan mildew....----.......-------------------------- --- Ix
euphorbiae, cowpea and roselle mildew .......-------------Ix, x
Milk, clean -....------------------------.---------------------- P. B. 114
keeping a record of...--------------------------..----- P. B. 105
production, experiments in ----..--...--------------------..------. vi
Morrill, A. W., and fungus hyper-parasites -----------------------. 6
on fumigation --------.---..... --------------------- 5
Muck soils, treatment of.-----------------------------------------P. B. 109
AM(jriangiumi duriaef, ascospores------------................------------------- 14
black fungus of scales-........------------------liii, 14
N
Natal grass--- ......---- ..........---- --------------- --------------- xix
Navel oranges, analyses of---------- ------------------ ---- xxx, xxxu
New Smyrna, whitefly fungi at----............---- ---------------------...xxviil
Nitrate of soda, injurious effects of excess of ---------------------...xviil
solution for celery seedlings--.....------- -------_P. B. 100
Nitrates, formation of in the soil ...--------..----------- ------P. B. 111
in pineapple plots------------................---------------------- xxv
Nursery stock, defoliation of -------.........--------------------- --
fumigation of-----....------------------------------- 59
0
Ophioneotria eoccinoa, ascospores -----.....-------....------------------- 13
conidia..-------------.......------------------------12
peritheeiui ......... ---. 12
white-headed scale fungus----.......-----------li, 11
Orange grove, acid soils in..................----------------------- xxxiii
Orange trees, experiments in fertilizing .....-- ----.----.... .....xxvi,lxii, lxi
Orange trees in soil tanks ---.......--- --- ---------------- -___xxvi
Oranges, analyses of-.. ...... ... ...... -.. ------.. ..xxx
Oranges, Florida, plant food in----. --.... -----...---- ----------xii
acid in------ -.......-----......-----------------. xi xxxii
sugar In--------------------------------xxxi, xxxiiil
Oranges, scaly bark oL-- .--- ---- -.-.-- ---- -------xlvi, 75
Oranges, Valencia Late, in citrus experimental grove.. _.------ xxvii
See also rrIRUS.
Osmanthms americanui, wild o ...-----......-----.....------ ------- xxv






Index


PAGE
Parson Brown oranges, analyses o ...--------- ---------......xxxi, xxxii
Pecan dieback -.. ----------------.... --- .... -.--.............. lxi
diseases ------... .- .. ..---_ .. .... .... - . ............ Ix
leaf blotci.---..---------------.. -------- -------...--..-------...----......--... lxi
mildew ------- ---------.....-------------------------- -.................. lx
rosette----- -- .-----------.------- ------ ------------ Ixi
scab ----..... ..------- ...............--------------------------- ----..
Periodicals, list of ------ --------.....---......-----.....----------------..... ...-.. Ixxxix
er 'nospora purasilica, white rust fungus of cabbage----------------__ lix
Persimmon, Japanese, and whitefly -.......--- .. ...- -----....----- 00
Pineapple oranges, analyses of ........------ --- -----.... xxx, xxxii
Pineapples, acid phosphate and ----.. ------------.....-----------......--........ x-xv
acidity of soils -----. .-----.. -------...................__ xxvi
analysesof fruits ....-----.....----- --- ....--- ---- xxv
analyses of plants --.. -----...-.....---------.------......---....----..xxv
experiments with ------ ------...--.--.-----------------.. xv
kainitand-.....--.-------..-.. ..............---------..-------------- ______xv
Plant diseases. See DISEASUS.
Plant Pathologist, Report of__...-.... --- ..------.. -......--...--..xlvi
Plant Pathology, lines of work in-----.-------..---.....- -....-----... xi
Plant Physiolagy, lines of work in ...------------..... ..--------..---------- xi
Report on .-.......-------------------........-----------..-..--.. lxiii
Plants to be condemned ....-....-...------------.. ....---......--.----. 61
Plowing, early-------.... ...------------. ------------------ --..P. B. 106
Prickly ash and whitefly ----.--_..........- --........... 60
Privets and whitely-----....-----..----..--------- --.....--...------.....---------.. 60
PIeudomonwr. eampeseris cabbage black rot fungus----.-------------- Ix
Psidiam gwjaVa, guava ---------------- -----------------------lxXvi
Peraria t, nbergiana, Kudu ---------.-.-- --------... ----.... ....-------- .... xl



Quarantine against whitetty-----------..-.........----------.........----..59, P. B. 102

R


Radishes .-......-.......-------.------- ----- ..........-----..------..
French Breakfast ..---... ...-
Long Brightest Scarlet ... .
variety test of ------- -
White Stuttgart Summer-
Rape, amount of seed required . ...-
a winter crop ...------- -
best soil for --------. .... ------
care in pasturing ......
dwarf Essex ... ..----- ------ .. ..
fertilizer for ---. -------. --- -.
how to feed ....
how to sow. ..-- -
not injured by slight frost--- ------- -
soil preparation for .-. .
time to sow in Florida ----......
where seed may be purchased ..- ... ....
yields per acre ------- ------ --
Rlation, balanced, advantage of---..-
Red Aschersonia. &e RED IFuxGUS OF HITEFIY.
Red fungus of white y --------- xxxvi, 1, 4-4, 51, 52, P.
cultures of .- ----- .. .-_
Red-headed fungus. -...-------- ....
in Alabama---
in Illinois and New Jersey ... ..
Red spider on citrus. ------ --..---------..._.___


------......-- lxxxiii
S------ lxxxv
.----Ixxxv
lxxxT
_lxxxv
.. . 22
-- 21
21
.. 24

24
--------- 21-25
- ------_ 22
------ 24
22
----- 21
22
--- ----322,23
------ -. 23
24, 25
34

B. 97, P. B. 161
---- xliii

- --------- 8
---- ----- 8
4 8
__8
48




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