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Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00007
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1908
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 9
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 10
    Main
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
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    Index
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Index 3
        Index 4
        Index 5
        Index 6
        Index 7
        Index 8
        Index 9
        Index 10
        Index 11
        Index 12
        Index 13
        Index 14
        Index 15
        Index 16
        Index 17
        Index 18
        Index 19
        Index 20
Full Text







Florida Agricultural


Experiment


Station


Report for the
Ending June


Fiscal Year
30, 1908.









Florida

Agricultural Experiment

Station.






Report for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30,
1908.


DELAND, FLA.:
E. 0. PAINTER PRINTING COMPANY










CONTENTS.
PAGE.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO THE GOVERNOR .................. iX
BOARD OF CONTROL ...................... .................. x
EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF .................. ............ x
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN OF BOARD OF COUNTRY .... xi
A New Location .......................................... xi
Lines of WorK ......................... ..................... xi
Changes in Station Staff ...... ........................... xii
nm provem er ts ... ............... .. .......... xii
Financial Report ................ ............................ xiii
Bulletins ................ .................................. xiv
Evanorirp-t-- R-cerds ................ .................... xv
REPORT OF THE ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST. ..................... XVil
Dairy Herd .................... .... ... ........... xvii
Beef Breed ................ ....................... xvii
Hogs .. ...................................... xvii
Feeding Experiments with Cows ...................... xvii
Steer Feeding ............ ....... ......... .......... xxiii
Improvement of Cattle by Grading-up ................ xxvii
Field Experiments ............ ..... .......... ....... xxix
Bulletins ............ .................. ........... xxxiii
Farm ers' Institutes ................ .................. xxxiii
Additions to Equipment ................ ........ .xxxiii
D nations .............. .......... .............. . xxxiv
REPORT OF THE CHEMIST ................................... XXXV
Pineapple Experiment ............ .................. xxxv
Citrus Experiment ..................... ........ .. xxxv
A cid Soils .................. ....................... xxxv
Cotton Experiment ............. ....................... xxix
M miscellaneous W ork .............. .................. xliv
REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST .............................. Xlviii
Investigations of the W hitefly ........................ xlviii
Press Bulletins and Addresses .............. ........ lix
Other Injurious Insects ............. ................ lix
Nursery Inspection .............. .................. Ixiii
REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PATHOLOGIST .............. .... lxiV
Citrus Diseases ............ ................ ...... lxiv
Parasitic Fungi of the Whitefly ...................... lxvii
Cabbage Disease .............. ............... ...... lxxv
Lettuce Disease .............. ............. ........ lxxx
Rose D disease ............ ........... . ............ lxxxviii
Roselle Disease .................... ... .... lxxxviii
Water-Oak Disease ................ ....... ... .... lxxxviii
Additional Work ..... .. .. ...... ... . ...... lxxxix
REPORT OF ASSISTANT ILANT ~SHYSOLOG ST .................. XC
Physiological Investigations .............. ...... .... xc
D ie-back .................. .............. ..... ... xci
Leaf Spotting of Citrus .......................... .... xci
Chlorosis of Cassava .............................. . xcii
REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN BOTANY ..... ................... .... xcVi
Variety Test of Lettuce .............. ............ .... xcvi
Lettuce Diseases ................................. .... xcvii
Celery Diseases .................................. .... xcix
Cabbage D diseases ................................ .... civ
REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN HORTICULTURE .................. .... CV
Literature ............. .. .. .................. ... cv
Guava ........................ .................. .... cv










Contents. 111

PAGE.
Orange and Mango ............................... cix
E editorial ........ ........................... .... .... cxxv
Writing ................ ...................... .... cxxv
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN ............. .......... .... ...... .... Cxxvi
List of Periodicals .............. ............... .... cxxviii

BULLETIN 90.-PIG FEEDING WITH CASSAVA AND SWEET POTATOES.
PAGES I-I12.
Introduction .............................. .................... 5
Cassava with Shorts, and Sweet Potatoes with Shorts............ 5
Discussion of the Experiment .................................. 6
Cassava, Sweet Potatoes, and Corn; Fed to Young Pigs........ 7
Cassava, Sweet Potatoes, and Corn; Fed to Larger Pigs........ 7
Sweet Potatoes with Rape, Corn with Rape, and Corn....... .... 8
Cassava with Cottonseed Meal, and with Rape................... 8
BULLETIN 9I.-TOMATO DISEASES. PAGES 13-34.
Rust ...... ............ ........ ............................... 15
N am e ........... ...... ............................... 15
Appearance ........................ ................. 15
C ause ...................... ................ ...... ... 15
R em edy ................................................ 16
Fungus B light ................................................... 17
D description ............................................ 18
E xperim ents ............................................ 18
T reatm ent .............................................. 19
Sclerotium Blight ............................................... 19
D description ............................................. 19
C au se .................................................. 20
R em edy ................................................ 20
Plants A affected ......................................... 21
B acterial B light ................................................ 22
C au se .................................................. 22
T reatm ent .............................................. 22
Plants A affected ......................................... 23
D description ............................................. 23
Bud D dropping .................................................. 24
C auses .............................. ................... 24
R em edy ................................................ 25
L eaf C url ............................................... .... 26
C auses ................................................. 26
R em edy ................................................ 26
Damping Off ................................................. . 27
R em edy ................................................ 27
H follow Stem ...................................... ............ 27
C cause .................................................. 27
T reatm ent ......................................... .. 28
Roo't K not, ..................................................... 28
C ause .................................................. 28
H ow distributed ........................................ 29
Prevention ............................................. 29
F ruit W lorm ............................................ ....... 30
R em edy ................................ .............. 32
Cut W orm s ........................................... ......... 33
R em edy ............................................ .... 33
Phytoptosis (M old) ............................................ 34
T reatm ent .............................................. 34










iv Contents.

Leaflet Showing Rust ....................................... Plate I
L eaf Curl .......................................... .... Plate II
M old ........................ ........................... P late III

BULLETIN 92.-SORGHUM FOR SILAGE AND FORAGE. PAGES'35-42.
Important Facts .................................. ............ 36
Classes of Sorghum ........................ ................... 37
Soil for Sorghum ............................................... 37
Silage .... .............. ........ ................. ...... .... 38
Sorghum Silage ................................................ 38
Sowing Sorghum ............................................. 39
F ertilizin g ........................................... .... ..... 39
Cultivation ................ .... ................... ....--.... 40
Sorghum H ay .............................. ......... .......... 40
Pasturing Sorghum ............................... ... ........ 41
Sorghum Grain .................... ........... ............... 41
Variety Test .................. ............................ ... 42
Seed-D rill ............................................ .... F ig. i
Two-Horse Cultivator ....................................... Fig. 2

BULLETIN 93.-SOIL STUDIES II. ACID SOILS. PAGES 43-69.
Introduction ............. ....................................... 45
General Rem arks on Soils ...................................... 45
H ow Soils are Form ed ................................. 45
O rigin of Florida Soils ................................. 46
Florida Soils Deficient in Bases ........................ 47
Causes of Acid Soils ..................................... ..... 48
Decomposition of Organic Matter ........................ 48
Action of Soil Bacteria .................................... 49
Breaking-up of Mineral Fertilizers ...................... 49
Fermentation of Green Material ........................ 50
E effects of A cid Soils ........................................... 50
Upon the Plant .......................... ............. 50
Upon the Soil Bacteria ........... . ................ 50
Upon the M ineral Constituents ......................... 51
Other Effects .................................... ..... 52
Correctives for Acid Soils ............................ .......... 52
Q uicklim e ....................................... ..... 52
Slacked Lim e .................................... ..... 53
Limestone .................... ....................... 53
M arl and Shells ........................................ 53
A sh es .................................................. 54
Phosphates ............................................. 54
D epth of N eutralization .................................... .... 55
-T able of Soil A cidities .......................................... 56
Explanation of Table ........................................... 59
Collecting Sam ples ............................ 1 ........ 59
M ethod of Analysis .................................... 59
Stating Amounts of Acidity ............................ 59
Discussion ...................... ............................ 60
Virgin and Cultivated Soils ............................ 61
Exceptional Cases ...................................... 62
Experiments in Neutralizing Acid Soils ......................... 63
Wire Basket Method with Lime ........................ 63
Wire Basket Method with Limestone ................... 64
Summary ................................................... 68









Contents.


PRESS BULLETINS.

Press Bulletin 63.-Black Root or Wilt Disease -of Cotton.
How to Identify Black Root.
Cause of the Disease
Prevention.
Selection of Resistant Plants.

Press Bulletin 64.-Rape for Hogs.
Soil for Rape.
When to Plant.
Drills or Broadcast.
-Pasturing or Cutting.

Press Bulletin 65.-Rape for Dairy Cows.
Substitute for Grass.
How to Feed Rape to Cows.
Yield and Best Variety.

Press Bulletin 66.-Alfalfa.
Kind of Land to Use.
Still an Experiment.
Sowing Alfalfa.
Reports of Success.
Soil Inoculations.

Press Bulletin 67.-Saving, Storing and Testing Seeds.
Selecting Seed.
Storing Seed.
Seed Testing.
Press Bulletin 68.-A New WIhitefly Fungus.
Name and Appearance.
Experimental Evidence.
How to Use the Fungus.
Press Bulletin 69.-Roselle Mildew.
Cause of Mildew.
Treatment.
Press Bulletin 70-Feeding the Dairy Herd.
Composition of Animals and of Feed Stuffs.
Balancing the Ration.
Press Bulletin 71.-Sweet Potatoes for Hogs.
Feeding Experiments.
Press Bulletin 72.-Cane Syrup.
To Prevent Sugaring.
How Far to Boil.
Hydrometers.
Press Bulletin 73.-Some Sources of Nitrogen.
Cottonseed Meal and Dried Blood.
Nitrate of Soda and Sulphate of Ammonia.
Press Bulletin 74.-The Dairy Rogue.
Selection of Dairy Cow.
It Pays to Keep a Record.









Contents.


Press Bulletin 75.-List of Bulletins and Reports on Hand.

Press Bulletin 76.-The Cinnamlon Fungus of the Whitefly.
Description.
Experiments with the Fungus.
Scientific Name and Relationship.
Six Fungi Parasitic on Whitefly.
Press Bulletin 77.-Ground Phosphate Rock as a Source of Phos-
phoric Acid.
Phosphate Rock and Superphosphate.
Acid Phosphate Readily Available.
Ground Phosphate Rock Slowly Available.
Ground Phosphate Rock a Permanent Investment.
Press Bulletin 78.-Materials for Correcting Soil Acidity.
Lime.
Limestone and Marl.
Ashes and Slag.
Amounts- to Use.
Press 'Bulletin 79.-Improvement of Cattle in Florida.
Gain by Grading-up Cattle.
Cost of Maintaining.
Need of Better Cattle.
Improved Blood Increases Meat Yield.
Grading-up Not Difficult.
Press Bulletin 8o.-Whitefly Control.-Spraying with Fungus Spores.
The Parasitic 'Fungi.
Preparation of Spore-containing Liquid.
Spraying and Sprayers.
The Brown Fungus.
Press Bulletin 8I.-Velvet Beans.
Yield.
Feeding Value.
Value as a General Crop.
Press Bulletin 82.-Whitefly Control.-Introducing the Friendly
Fungi.
Pinning Fungus-bearing Leaves.
Tree-planting Method.
The Fungi Live Only on the Whitefly.
When to Introduce Fungus.
Plan of Campaign.
Where to Obtain Fungus.
Press Bulletin 83.-Fungus Parasites of Armored Scales.
The Armored Scales.
The Red-headed Scale Fungus.
The White' or Gray-headed Scale Fungus.
The Black Fungus.
How to Introduce these Fungi.
Press Bulletin 84.-Citrus Bloom Dropping.
Dropping Due to Withertip.
Remedy.
Dropping of Newly Set Fruit.









Contents.


Press Bulletin 85.-Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.
Fertilizers Used.
Some Results in 19o6.
Some Results in 1907.
Conclusions.

Press Bulletin 86.-Cocoanut Meal as a Dairy Feed.
Cocoanut Meal.
Conditions of the Experiment.
Results Obtained.
Feed Consumed.
Other Considerations.

Press Bulletin 87.-Some Neglected Fruits.
The Japanese Persimnion.
The Fig.
The Guava.
The Papaya.

Press Bulletin 88.-Use of a Hand Magnifier.
Designation of Powers.
Good Magnifiers.

Press Bulletin 89,-Spraying for Scale Insects.
Spraying, a Temporary Expedient.
Recognizing Scale Larvae.
Broods of YVoung Scales.
When to Spray with Insecticides.
A Weak Solution the Best.

Press Bulletin 9o.-Treatment of Citrus Die-Back.
Causes.
Remedies for Excess of Ammonia.
Remedies for Soil Conditions.
General Considerations.

Press Bulletin 91.-Cowpea Hay.
Feeding Value.
Value as a Soil Improver.
Planting.
Root-knot.

Press Bulletin 92.-List of Bulletins and Reports on Hand.

Press Bulletin 93.-Symptoms of Citrus Die-Back.
Gum Pockets.
Resinous Eruptions.
Stained Branches.
Multiple Buds.
Splits and "Ammoniated Fruits."
Less Characteristic Symptoms.


INDEX.



























Hon. A. W. Gilchrist, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla.

SIR: I have the honor to herewith transmit the Annual
Report of the Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908.
Respectfully,
N. P. BRYAN.
Chairman of the Board of Control.

















BOARD OF CONTROL.


N. P. BRYAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE, Pensacola, Fla.
A. L. BROWN, Eustis, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
J. C. BAISDEN, Live Oak, Fla.



STATION STAFF.

P. H. ROLFS, M.S., Director.
A. W. BLAIR, A.M., Chemist.'
JOHN M. SCdTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist.
E. W. BERGER, PH.D., Entomologist.
H. S. FAWCETT, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist.
E. J. MACY, B.S., Assistant Chemist.
B. F. FLOYD, A.M., Assistant Plant Physiologist.
R. Y. WINTERS, B.S., Assistant in Botany.
*R. N. WILSON, A.B., Assistant Chemist.
JOHN BELLING, B.Sc., Assistant in Horticulture.
MRS. E. W. BERGER, Librarian.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and' Bookkeeper.
M. CREWS, Farm Foreman.
ALFRED DICKINSON, Gardener.
*Temporary Assistant.








Report for Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1908.


Hon. N. P. Bryan, Chairman Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work and condition of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908, and I respect-
fully request you to transmit the same, in accordance with the
law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

A NEw LOCATION.
During the last fiscal year the task of removing the Experi-
ment Station equipment and laboratories from Lake City to
the present location had to be undertaken. This necessarily
required a considerable time and much hard labor, which from
the nature of the work could not be delegated to mechanics
and laborers. Though the work of removal was accomplished
during the last fiscal year, the laboratories were equipped only
for a temporary stay in :the present quarters, and consequently
the equipment could not be arranged in many respects in such
a manner as to make it most efficient. A considerable amount
of the apparatus, and portions of the libraries are still not
usable, but will be made available as soon as the new quarters
are provided. The horticultural and agricultural grounds are
gradually being put into suitable condition for experiment
work. The ground's for the most part are admirably adapted
for the work in hand. The agricultural grounds are most
suitably located in respect to topography and soil; but it is
found that a large part of these grounds is seriously infested
with diseases which cause considerable loss, and this is due to
the area having been previously cultivated in farm crops.

LINES OF WORK.

The enumeration of the following lines of work will in a
general way show the extent of the operations undertaken:
(I) Horticulture; (2) Animal Industry; (3) Chemistry; (4)








xii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Plant Pathology; (5) Entomology; (6) Plant Physiology;
(7) Agronomy. The work undertaken in each one of these
lines is such as seems to be most suited to the present condition
of our State.
An extensive feeding experiment with stock for the pro-
duction of beef was conducted this year. The feeding of the
dairy herd with a view of ascertaining the cost of milk pro-
duction has been commenced. Corn-breeding work aiming at
the securing of more valuable varieties for Florida is under
way. The cotton-breeding work in co-operation with the
U. S. Department of Agriculture has been continued. The
production of forage, both from crops already grown in the
State, and' by introducing new species of forage plants, has
also been continued. A study of vegetable diseases-prin-
cipally of lettuce and celery-has been undertaken. The dis-
eases and insects of citrus and other fruit trees have been given
undivided attention. Soil studies, regarding mainly the funda-
mental and underlying principles, are being carried for-
ward and promise excellent results for the energies expended.
These various subjects are treated in detail by different mem-
bers of the staff.
CHANGES IN STATION STAFF.

During the fiscal year very few and no important changes
were made in the personnel of the Station Staff. Mr. H. B.
Stuckey resigned his position as assistant in Agronomy, and
Mr. William Hess, gardener, resigned to take charge of his
farm. Mr. B. F. Floyd, of the Missouri University, accepted
the position of Assistant in Plant Physiology, taking up these
studies from the nutrition standpoint.

IMPROVEMENTS.

During the present fiscal year a small irrigating system
was installed on the Horticultural grounds. The source of
water is a sink located on the grounds, and pressure is main-
tained by a 3,ooo-gallon tank placed on a sixty-foot tower.
After examining as many systems of irrigation as conditions
would permit, it was decided to use the Skinner system. In
this system the water is discharged from' small brass nozzles,
set at intervals of four feet in galvanized inch or three-quarter
inch pipe. With the pressure secured from the tank, the









Annual Report, 19o8.


water is forced as a spray to a distance of 25 feet from the
pipes. By rotating the pipes, a space of 50 feet wide may be
irrigated with a single line of pipe. While in some respects
this system leaves much to be desired, yet it is doing satis-
factory work. The important defects are the clogging of the
nozzles, and the use of gate valves for shutting off the water
when not in use. These valves work imperfectly.
During the year we have deadened the timber on about
seventy-five acres of land, preparatory to making a permanent
pasture. This land is unsuited to ordinary farming, and is
now only sparsely timbered.

FINANCIAL REPORT.

The following financial report has been prepared by Mr.
K. H. Graham, auditor:

FINANCIAL REPORT FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1908.
RECEIPTS.
Adams Fund, .......... ......... .......... ............. $ 9,ooo oo
Hatch Fiunld .......... .......... .......... ...........15,000 oo
State A appropriation, ................................... 1,030 20
Proceeds from farm products and fees, ...................... I,8oi 62
Balance, .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... 103 98
T otal ...................... ........ ............. $26,935 80
EXPENDITURES.
Other
Adams. Hatch. Sources.
By Salaries, ......... ...... ..... $6,713 74 $ 6,498 84 $ 567 25
Labor, .................... ...... 45 60 2,281 25 6o, 59
Publications ........... ... .... ....... 517 75 200 30
Postage and stationery .......... 8 69 677 16 42 55
Freight and express ............ 202 69 456 89 26 30
Heat, light, water and power, .... 30 32 II 50
Chemical supplies .............. 544 41 25 70 13 02
Seeds, plants and sundry supplies. 405 65 483 67 49 54
Fertilizers ............ .......... 37 93 102 67 ........
Feeding stuffs .......................... 1,483 62
Library ............ ............. 317 39 280 64 9 34
Tools, implements and machinery.. 8 44 388 42 16 15
Furniture and fixtures .......... 89 oo 357 25 ........
Scientific apparatus .............. 62 oo .. .. ..
Live stock ............................... 630 oo 2 oo00
Traveling expenses ......... ...... 507 8 283 73 69 56
Contingent expenses .................... 15 oo 27 92
Buildings and land ........... 26 33 505 92 [,293 78
Balance .......... .................. .. ........ 16 50
Total . ..... $9,000 00 $15,000 oo $2,935 80o









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


BULLETINS.

The following press bulletins and bulletins, together with
the annual report, were published during the fiscal year:

PRESS BULLETINS.
No. Title. Date. Author.
63. Black root, or wilt disease of cotton Aug. 1, 1907 H. P. Stuckey.
64. Rape for hogs ...................... Aug. 5, 1907 John M. Scott.
65. Rape for dairy cows............... Aug. 20,1907 John M. Scott.
66. Alfalfa .......................... Sept. 30, 1907 P. H. Rolfs.
67. Saving, storing and testing seeds.. Oct. 10, 1907 John Belling.
68. A new whitefly fungus............ Oct. 14,1907 H. S. Fawcett.
69. Roselle mildew .................. Oct. 20, 1907 H. S. Fawcett.
70. Feeding the dairy herd ............ Nov. I, 1907 John M. Scott.
71. Sweet potatoes for hogs........... Nov. 7,1907 John M. Scott.
72. Cane syrup ...................... Nov. 20, 1907 John Belling.


73. Some sources of nitrogen.......... Nov.
74. The dairy rogue................... Dec.
75. Bulletins and reports on hand ..... Dec.
76. The cinnamon fungus of the white-
fly .............................. D ec.
77. Ground phosphate rock............ Jan.
78. Materials for correcting soil acidity Jan.
79. Improvement of cattle in Florida.. Jan.
8o. Whitefly control Spraying with
fungus spores.... :............... Feb.
81. Velvet beans...................... Feb.
82. Whitefly control-Introducing the
friendly fungi.................... M ar.
83. Fungus parasites of hard or armored
scales ........................... M ar.
84. Citrus bloom dropping............ Mar.
85. Fertilizer experiments with cotton. Mar.
86. Cocoanut meal as a dairy feed..... Mar.
87. Some neglected fruits ............. Apr.


25,1907 A. W. Blair.
5,1907 John M. Scott.
10, 1907 ................

14,1907 H. S. Fawcett.
2, 19o8 A. W. Blair.
9, 190o8 A. W. Blair.
22, 1908 John M. Scott.


5, 1908
10, 19o8


E. W. Berger.
John M. Scott.


2, g19o8 E. W. Berger.

4, 1908 E. W. Berger.
9, 19o08 P. H. Rolfs.
18, 19o08 A. W. Blair.
21, 19o8 John M. Scott.
4, 19o8 John Belling.









Annual Report, 19o8. x1

Use of 'a hand magnifier........... Apr. II, 1908 E. W. Berger.
Spraying for scale insects......... Apr. 18, 1go8 E. W. Berger.
Treatment of citrus die-back ...... May 2, 1908 B. F. Floyd.
Cowpea hay ....................... May 9, 1908 John M. Scott.
Bulletins and reports on hand..... May II, 19o8 ..............
Symptoms of citrus die-back ...... May 23, 1908 B. F. Floyd.


BULLETINS.

90. Pig-feeding (with Cassava and Sweet
Potatoes, i2pp................... Sept.
91. Tomato Diseases, 22pp............ Dec.
92. Sorghum for Silage and Forage,


1907 C. M. Conner.
1907 P. H. Rolfs.


8pp. ............................ Ich. 19o8 John M. Scott.
93. Acid Soils, 27pp.................. May 19o08 A. W. Blair &
E. T. Macy.
Annual Report, 1907, 62pp., with index to all bulletins.


EVAPORIMETER RECORDS.

The following records were made with instruments on the
horticultural grounds. The space in which they were located
had a radius of a quarter of a mile.


Reading at 9:00 A. M.
for Week Ending:

July 1, 1907........
8,
15, ........
22, .
29, .......
Aug. t 5, ........
12, "
19, ......
26, ......
Sept. 2, .......
9, ........
16, .......
23, ........
30, "
Oct. 7, ......
14, .......
21, "
Nov. 4, ........


Open Field Pine Wood


Sink


Hammock

32
36
62










xvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

EVAPORIMETER RECORDS. (Continued.)

Reading at 9:00 A. M
for W ek Ending: Open Field Pine Wood Hammock Sink

11, ........ ... 121 70
18, ........ .... 84 48
25, ........ .... 92 56
D ec. 2, . ..... .... 81
9," ........ 162 94
16, ........ 123 82
23, ........ 59 48
30, ....... 160 104
Jan. 6, 1908. ...... 160 112
." 13, .. ....... 76 98 .... .
27, "........ 152 128 77
Feb. 3, ........ 142 106 58
10, ........ .... 148 96
17, ........ .... 115 85 65
*' 24, ...... 156 88 63
Mar. 2, ........ .... 195 120 74
9, .... .... 195 110 68
16, ..... .... 170 78 68
23, . 225 120 110
30, ....... .... 240 135 120
April 6, "........ .... 205 125 110
13, ........ .... 224 115 90
20, ....... 235 120 110
27, ....... .... 230 128 123
May 4, ....... .... 210 108 105
11, ........ 260 190 100 120
18, ....... 255 223 170 125
25, ....... 275 230 150 130
June 1, 280 215 145 135
8, ...... 147 100 80 75
15, ....... 240 185 100 120
22, ....... 120 80 55 20
29, 170 68 46 46
July 6, ... 163 116 75 41
13, "........ 161 94 43 50








Annual Report, I9o8.


REPORT OF THE ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the Animal Industrial-
ist for the year ending June 30, 1908.
The work and results of the year have been fairly satis-
factory. Yet there have been the usual annoyances and diffi-
culties which attend experimental work.

DAIRY HERD.

The dairy herd remains the same as in the previous report,
no additional cows having been added.

BEEF BREED.

The beef herd remains as before, with the exception of
the increase in calves. The four shorthorn cows calved during
the winter and spring.
HOGS.

The beef herd remains as before, with the exception of
had pigs last fall and again this spring. A number of these
pigs have been sold to farmers throughout the State, at a
reasonable price. This is being done for the purpose of in-
ducing the farmers to improve their stock.

FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH Cows.

Two feeding experiments with the dairy'herd have been
conducted during the year for the purpose of determining the
value of a number of our feeds for milk production. The first
test was a comparison of cottonseed meal, wheat bran, and
shorts, with cocoanut meal, wheat bran, and shorts.
THE FIRST TEST.-Four cows were selected from the dairy
herd and divided into two lots, so that the period of lactation
in each lot would' be as nearly comparable as possible. The
feeding time was divided into three equal periods of twenty-
one days each, with seven days' preliminary feeding before
each of the three periods, so as to change the feeding grad-


a.r.-2


xvii









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


ally. Each lot received the same amount of bran and shorts;
but the cottonseed meal and cocoanut meal were not fed in
equal, but in equivalent rations, which were calculated from
the results of the chemical analysis.
We may summarize the results as follows: 252 pounds of
cottonseed' meal, fed with bran and shorts, produced 1888.5
pounds of milk; while 453 pounds of cocoanut meal, fed with
bran and shorts, produced 1844 pounds of milk. In other
words, one pound of cottonseed meal, fed with bran and
shorts, will produce more milk than 1.8 pound of cocoanut
meal, fed under the same conditions. The conclusion that we
may draw from this test is that one pound' of cottonseed meal
is nearly equal to two pounds of cocoanut meal for milk pro-
duction. The milk from cows fed with cottonseed meal cost
nine cents a gallon for feed; while that from the cows fed
with cocoanut meal cost eleven cents a gallon. The tables
which follow give the results in detail.

TABLE I.

Feeds for each period.


First Period; July 18 to August 7, 1907.


Lot i. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ............ 84
Wheat bran ................. 68
Shorts ...................... 68


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cocoanut meal .............. 151
Wheat bran ................ 168
Shorts ...................... 168


Second Period; August 15 to September 4, 1907.


Lot i. Pounds.
Cocoanut meal ..............151
Wheat bran ................. 68
Shorts .................... 168


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ............ 84
Wheat bran ................ 168
Shorts ..................... 168


Third Period; September 12 to October 2, 1907.


Lot I. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ............ 84
Wheat bran ................ 168
Shorts ...................... 168


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cocoanut meal .............. 151
Wheat bran ................. 68
Shorts ...................... 168


Totals Pounds.
Cottonseed meal .............................................. 252
Cocoanut meal ............................................. 453


xviii










Atinual Report, 19o8.


TABLE II.

Weights of Cows.
Lot I. Cottonseed Meal.
July 18, 1907. Pounds.
Beginning of Cow No. 7.........642
First Period. Cow No. 12........ 753
August 7, 1907.
End of First Cow No. 7.........641
Period. Cow No. 12........750
Lot. i. Cocoanut Meal.
August 15, 1907.
Beginning of Cow No. 7........ 642
Second Period. Cow No, 12........751
Sept. 4, 1907.
End of Second Cow No. 7........ 649
Period. Cow No. 12 ........750
Lot i. Cottonseed Meal.
Sept. 12, 1907.
Beginning of Cow No. 7.........645
Third Period. Cow No. 12........755
October 2, 1907.
End of Third Cow No. 7.........755
Period. Cow No. 12........777

TABLE III.


Lot 2. Cocoanut Meal.
Pounds.
Cow No. 4.........692
Cow No. 9......... 694

Cow No. 4.........696
Cow No. 9.........692
Lot 2. Cottonseed Meal.

Cow No. 4.........694
Cow No. 9 ......... 689

Cow No. 4.........712
Cow No. 9.........690
Lot 2. Cocoanut Meal.

Cow No. 4.........716
Cow No. 9.........690

Cow No. 4.........730
Cow No. 9.........725


Milk produced by each lot of cows.

First Period; July 18 to August 7, 1907.
Pounds.
Lot I ....................................................... . 737
Lot 2 ........................................................ 703.5
Second Period; August 15 to September 4, 1907.
Lot I ..... ..................... .......................... .. 544.5
L ot 2 ........................................................ 615.5
Third Period; September 12 to October 2, 1907.
Lot I .............. ....................................... 536
Lot 2 ........................................................ 596

Milk produced by feeding cottonseed meal, wheat bran and
shorts ................................................. 1888.5

Milk produced by feeding cocoanut meal, wheat bran and
shorts .............................................. ..... 1844
Difference ........................................... 44.5









xx Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Pounds of milk.
252 pounds of cottonseed meal produced..................... 1888.5
453 pounds of cocoanut meal produced....................... 1844
I pound of cottonseed meal produced......................... 7.5
1.8 pounds of cocoanut meal produced........................ 7.3
The chemical analyses of the cottonseed meal and cocoanut meal
were as follows:
Cottonseed meal. Cocoanut meal.
Protein...........38.62 per cent. Protein...........20.31 per cent.
Starch and sugar...... 24 per cent.
Fat ................... 9 per cent. Fat ...............11.78 per cent.

TABLE IV.
Cost of feed per gallon of milk.

To 252 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred ..........$ 3.78
To 504 pounds wheat bran at $1.63 per hundred.............. 8.22
To 504 pounds shorts 'at $1.70 per hundred................... 8.57
Total cost of feed ................................... 20.57
Milk produced, 219.59 gallons.
Cost per gallon ...................................... o.o9

To 453 pounds'cocoanut meal at $1.37 per hundred............ 6.21
To 504 pounds wheat bran at $1.63 per hundred.............. 8.22
To 504 pounds shorts at $1.70 per hundred.................. 8.57
Total cost of feed ................ .. ................ 23.00
-Milk produced, 214.42 gallons.
Cost per gallon....................................... o.ii

THE SECOND TEST.-The second test was a comparison
of sorghum silage and sweet potatoes for milk production.
The conditions were the same as for the first test, except that
six cows were used instead of four. Equal amounts of cotton-
seed meal and of wheat bran were given to each lot; the
sorghum silage and sweet potatoes, however, were not fed in
equal amounts, but in nearly equivalent -amounts calculated
from former analyses.
The results were that 4819.5 pounds of sweet potatoes
produced 3122.25 pounds of milk; while 6898.5 pounds of
sorghum silage gave 28oo.25 pounds of milk. In other words,
100 pounds of sweet potatoes with cottonseed meal and wheat
bran produced approximately 65 pounds of milk, while 143
pounds of silage with the same amount of cottonseed meal
and wheat bran produced about 58 pounds. However, a gallon










Annual Report, ipo8.


of milk produced by sweet potatoes cost seventeen cents; wliile
a gallon from sorghum silage cost fourteen cents approxi-
mately.

TABLE V.
Feeds for each period.

First Period; December 31, 1907, to January 20, 1908.


Lot i. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ........... 133.8
W heat bran ...............589
Sweet potatoes ........... 1606.5


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ........... 133.8
W heat bran ............... 589
Sorghum silage ........... 2299.5


Second Period; January.28 to February 17, 1908.


Lot i. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ..........133.8
W heat bran ............... 589
Sorghum silage ...........2299.5


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ..........133.8
Wheat bran ...............589
Sweet potatoes ........... 16o6.5


Third Period; February 25 to March 16, 1908.


Lot I. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal .......... 133.8
W heat bran ............... 589
Sweet potatoes ........... 1606.5


Lot 2. Pounds.
Cottonseed meal ........... 133.8
W heat bran ............... 589
Sorghum silage .......... 2299.5


Totals.
Sw eet potatoes .............. ........... ................... 4819.5
Sorghum silage ............................ ................ 6898.5

TABLE VI.
Weights of Cows.


Lot i. Sweet Potatoes.
Pounds.
Cow No. 2 .........742
Cow No. 6.........664
Cow No. 9 ......... 765


January 20, 1908.Cow No. 2 .........753
End of First Cow No. 6.........640
Period. Cow No. 9.........754
Lot i. Silage.
January 28, 1908. Cow No. 2 ......... 753
Beginning of Cow No. 6.........619
Second Period Cow No. 9 ......... 776
Feb. 17, 1908. Cow No. 2...........775
End of Second Cow No. 6......... 652
Period. Cow No. 9.........795


Lot 2. Silage.
Pounds.
Cow.No. 5......... 681
Cow No. 7......... 666
Cow. No. 13........741
Cow No. 5.........664
Cow No. 7.........662
Cow No. 13 ........ 753
Lot 2. Sweet Potatoes.
Cow No. 5.........679
Cow No. 7.........674
Cow No. 13 ........661
Cow No. 5.........711
Cow No. 7 ......... 68i
Cow No. 13 ........ 790


Dec. 31, 1907.
Beginning of
First Period.










xxii


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


Lot I. Sweet Potatoes. Lot 2. Silage.
Feb. 25, 1908. Cow No. 2 .........780 Cow No. 5.........711
Beginning of Cow No. 6.........657 Cow No. 7.........688
Third Period. Cow No. 9.........816 Cow No. 13 ........778
March 16, 19o8. Cow No. 2 .........811 Cow No. 5.........782
End of Third Cow No. 6......... 692 Cow No. 7.........719
Period. Cow No. 9.........838 Cow No. 13 ........798


TABLE VII.

Milk produced 'by each lot of cows.

First Period; December 31, 1907, to January 20, 1908.
Pounds.
Lot .................... ................ ........ : ........ 1059
Lot 2 ............. .... ..................... .. .............. 891.25

Second Period; January 28 to February 17, 1908.
L ot I ...... ......... .. .................... .. .. ............... 999.75
L ot 2 .............. ........ .................. ............. 990.75

Third Period; February 25 to March 16, 1908.
Lot I .......... .. ............................. ............... 1072. 5
L ot 2 ....... .............. .... ................................ 909.25
Pounds.
Milk produced by feeding sweet potatoes................3122.25
Milk produced by feeding sorghum silage................2800.25
Difference ...................................... 322
Pounds of milk.
4819.5 pounds of sweet potatoes produced................... 3122.25
6898.5 pounds of silage produced ...........................2800.25
100 pounds of sweet potatoes produced ...................... 64.8
143 pounds of silage produced .................. ............ 58.1

TABLE VIII.

Cost of feed per gallon of milk.
To 401.58 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred .......$ 6.02
To 1767.15 pounds wheat bran at $1.63 per hundred........... 28.80
To 4819.5 pounds sweet potatoes at $0.30 per bushel............... 26.78
T otal cost of feed................... ............... 61.60
Milk produced, 363.05 gallons.
Cost per gallon ..................................... 0.17








Annual Report, 190o8. xxiii

To 401.58 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred........ 6.02
To 1767.15 pounds wheat bran at $1.63 per hundred.......... 28.80
To 6898.5 pounds silage at $3.00 per ton...................... 10.35
Total cost of feed .............................. ...... 45-17
Milk produced, 325.6 gallons.
Cost of one gallon .......................................... 0.14
Difference in favor of silage ............................. 0.03
The items of labor and interest on the investment have been
omitted, as they would be about the same for each lot of cows.


STEER FEEDING.

The object of these feeding experiments was to test some
of our Florida feeds for beef production; that is, to find out
which feeds, or combination of feeds would give the best
results; or, in other words, which feeds would produce most
beef at the least cost per pound. Information was also wanted
as to the length of time required to fatten cattle for the market.
The feeding experiment with steers was conducted with
sixteen head of grade steers, coming four years old. The
steers were bred and raised by Mr. S. H. Gaitskill, of Mc-
Intosh, Fla., and were purchased about a year before the feed-
ing began. They were divided into four equal lots, both quality
and weight being considered. For the purpose of getting
the steers accustomed to the surroundings and feed, a pre-
liminary feeding of two weeks was given them. At the end
of two weeks the feeding test proper was begun, and con-
tinued for eighty-four days.
All feeds used in this experiment were feeds that are grown
or can be grown in the State. It was thought best to use Flor-
ida grown feeds, as the feeder can grow his feeds considerably
cheaper than he can buy them on the market. The steers in
Lot I were fed corn, cottonseed meal, and crab grass hay; in
Lot 2, corn, cottonseed meal, silage, and cottonseed hulls; in
Lot 3, corn, velvet beans in the pod, and cottonseed hulls; in
Lot 4, cottonseed meal and cottonseed hulls. The prices of the
corn, cottonseed meal and cottonseed hulls were figured at the
cost laid down at the railroad station; the beans, hay, and
silage were priced at what it costs the farmer to grow them.
At the close of the feeding period, all the steers were in good
condition for the local market. Yet there was a noticeable









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


difference in the finish of the four lots. They ranked in this
order: Lot 3, Lot 2., Lot I, and Lot 4. It would have taken
at least thirty days extra feeding to have put the steers in Lot
4 in as fine condition as were those in Lots 3 and 2.

RESULTs.-This experiment indicates that satisfactory re-
sults can be secured, both in the gains made and the cost per
pound of gain, by the liberal use of velvet beans in the pod.
a small proportion of corn, and cottonseed hulls for roughage.
It also indicates that a ration composed of cottonseed meal and
cottonseed hulls is not only an expensive feed, but that the
gains it produces are small when compared with a ration of
velvet beans in the pod, corn, and cottonseed hulls. The av-
erage daily gains per head of the steers in Lots i and 2 were
nearly equal; but we find that the steers in Lot 3 gained about
62 per cent. more per day than did the steers in Lot 4, and
the steers in Lot i gained 40 per cent. more per day than did
the steers in Lot 4. The tables which follow give the results
in detail.


TABLE IX.
Amounts of Feeds Consumed.

Lot i. Lot 2. Lot 3. Lot 4.
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds

Corn ................ 3314 i88o 2528 ............
Cottonseed Meal..... 1179 1576.5 ............ 1963
Crabgrass H ay.. .... 4370 .......... .................... ....
Silage .... .......... ........... 6288 .......... .............
Cottonseed Hulls .... ........... 4408 3144 6174
Velvet Beans in pod............. ............ 3760 ............
Total Feed .......... 8863 14152.5 9432 8137
Average daily rough-
age per head (84 days) 13-00 31.83 13.83 18.37
Nutritive ratio ....... 1:6 1:6 1:6.5 1:4.8


xxiv










Annual Report, 19o8.






TABLE X-Weights and Gains of Steers


January 15.......... .

February 14 .... ....

M arch 15 ............

A pril 8..............
Pounds gained first
thirty days........
Pounds gained second
thirty days........
Pounds gained last
twenty-four days..


Number
days on
feed


30

6o

84


Lot i Lot 2.
Pounds Pounds


2920

3218

3481

3788

298

263

307


2891

3128

3427

3782

237

299

355


Lot i. Lot 2. Lot 3. Lot 4,
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds

Weight at beginning of test...... 2920 2891 ,2818 2869

Weight at end of test............ 3788 3782 3800 3490

Total gain.................. 868 891 982 621

Average gain per head .......... 217 225,25 245.50 155.25

Average daily gain per head...... 2.58 2.68 2,92 1.85
Average daily gain per iooo lbs.
live weight ................ 1.54 3,71 4.15 2.58
Pounds of feed used to make one
lb. gain .................... 10.2 15.9 9.6 13.1

Cost of one pound of gain........ $ .0907 $.1065 $.0755 $,.200


Lot 3.
Pounds


2818

31o6

3415

38oo00

288

309

385


Lot 4.
Pounds


2869

3010

3166

3490

141

156

324


I I I -










xxvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station..

TABLE XI.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.


Lot 1. Dr. Cr.

By 4 steers. 3788 pounds live weight, at $.035 per lb ...... .... $132.58
To 4 steers, 2920 pounds live weight, at $.025 per lb. $73.00 ..........
To 3314 pounds corn, at $1.58 per hundred .......... 52.36 ...... ....
To 1179 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred 17.68 ..._____
To 4370 pounds crabgrass hay at $4.00 per ton....... 8.74 151 78
Loss.............. .... ............ ......... 19.20
Lot 2.

By 4 steers, 3782 pounds live weight, at $.035 per lb...... .... $132.37
To 4 steers, 2891 pounds live weight, at $.025 per lb. $ 72.27 .... ......
To 1880 pounds corn at $1.58 per hundred ........... 29.70 .........
To 1576.5 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred 23. 6 5 .........
To 6288 pounds sorghum silage at $3.00 per ton...... 9.43 ..........
To 4408 pounds cottonseed hulls at $.73 per hundred. 32.18 167.23
Loss ............ ...................... 34.86
Lot

By 4 steers, 3800 pounds live weight, at $.035 per lb.. ..........$133.00
To 4 steers, 2818 pounds live weight, at $.025 per lb.. $70.45
To 2528 pounds corn at$1.58 per hundred............ 39.94
To 3144 pounds cottonseed hulls at $.73 per hundred. 22.95
To 3760 pounds velvet beans in pod at $6.0J per ton.. 11.28 144.62
L oss ..................... ... .... ... . ...... 11.62
Lot 4.

By 4 steers, .3490 pounds live weight, at $.035 per lb ............ $122.15
To 4 steers, 2869 pounds live weight, at $.025 per lb. $71.72 ..
To 1963 pounds cottonseed meal at $1.50 per hundred 29.44 ......
To 6174 p-unds cottonseed hulls at $.73 per hundred. 45.07 146.23
Loss.................................. ...... .. .. 24.08








Annual Report, 19o8.


From a glance at the financial statement it will be seen
that all the steers were fed at a loss. This can be explained
easily. In the first place, experimental feeding. in fact experi-
mental work of any kind, is always more expensive than com-
mercial. Second, the cattle were sold on the local market,
and the local market makes no discrimination as to the degree
)f finish; that is, a steer half fat is worth as much, pound foi
pound, as the prime fat animal. Third, for the purpose of
the experiment, the cattle were fed late in the season, the ex-
periment closing April 8, at which time grass fat cattle were
practically ready for slaughtering. If the cattle .had been put
on the market thirty days earlier, they would have brought
fifty cents more per hundred.

IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE BY GRADING UP.

Work has been begun on the improvement of the native
cattle by using pure bred sires. This is being conducted in
co-operation with Mr. A. L. Jackson, of Gainesville, Florida.
Fifteen native cows were selected, and divided into three lots
of five cows each. The first lot of cows were bred to a Here-
ford, the second to a Shorthorn, and the third to a native Flor-
ida bull. A record of the birth-weight of all calves will be kept,
and also of the weights of calves when weaned. If possible,
some of the calves from each bull will be kept until two or
three years of age, for the purpose of further study and com-
parison.
Considerable time has been spent gathering information as
to relative weights and percentages of dressed weight of native
and grade cattle. This work was carried on in co-operation
with Mr. A. L. Jackson, the cattle being slaughtered at his
abattoir. The following table gives in detail the results of the
weighing of twenty-seven head of cattle.


xxvii










xxviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

TABLE XII.
Live Weight. Dressed Weight, Loss in Pounds, and Percentage of
Dressed Weight of Steers Slaughtered.
1907-1908.


Steer Age Live Dressed Loss in
Weight Weight Weight
No. Years Pounds Pounds Pounds
I 3 plus 610o 287 323
2 3 plus 545 272 273
3 3 plus 564 298 266
4 3 plus 475 232 243
5 3 plus 553 276 277
6 3 plus 489 232 257
7 3 plus 480 257 223
8 3 plus 420 194 226
9 3 plus 488 238 250
Io 3 plus 531 256 275
II 3 531 246 285
12 3 822 407 415
13 3 535 242 293
14 ...... 578 258 320
15 8 512 241 271
16 6 692 328 364

17 2.5 645 339 306


18 2.5 683 359 324

19 2.5 864 430 434
20 2.5 725 368 357
21 2.5 668 340 328
22 2.5 819 410 409

23 2.5 751 375 376


24 6 625 343 282

25 4 656 344 312
26 4 6o6 299 307
27 4 713 366 347


Percentage
Dressed Breed Sex
Weight
47.04 Native Male
49.90 Native Male
52.83 Native Male
48.84 Native Male
49.90 Native Male
47.44 Native Male
53.54 Native Male
46.19 Native Male
46.72 Native Male
48.21 Native Male
46,32 Native Male
49-51 Native Male
45.23 Native Male
44.63 Native Male
47.07 Native Female
47.39 Native -Female
Grade Male
52.40 Short 48 hours
horn without feed
Male
52.56 48 hours
without feed
49,74 Male
50.75 Male
50.89 Male
50.o6 Male
Grade Male
49-93 Hol 24 hours
stein without feed
Female
54.88 Native 24 hours
without feed
52,43 Native Male
49-33 Native Male
51.33 Native Male








Annual Report, 19o8.


The percentages of dressed weight recorded' in the above
table would not be true for cattle that had been driven a con-
siderable distance, or shipped' by rail. These cattle were driven
in from an adjoining pasture and weighed up immediately.
Had they been driven ten miles, or shipped by rail, there would
have been a heavy shrinkage in weight; perhaps 8 or o10 per
cent. This would mean that the dressed weight of the carcass
would be so much heavier. For local dealers, the table will be
found to be of value in buying and selling.

FIELD EXPERIMENTS.
FERTILIZER TEST OF VELVET BEANS.-Two acres of land
were devoted to this test, and divided into ten equal plots of
two-tenths of an acre each. All plots were given the same
preparation and cultivation, except that each plot received a
different amount and proportion of fertilizers. The following
table shows the amount and kind of fertilizers given to. each
plot. The fertilizers were applied just before planting.


TABLE XIII.
FERTILIZER TEST OF VELVET BEANS.

Amounts of Fertilizers Yield of
Shelled Yield of Shelled Beans
Plot Beans
Dried Muriate Acid per plot per Acre
No. Blood of Potash Phos. p
Pounds I Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Bushels


1 ... . . . . . . : . . 255 1275 21.3
2 10 ......... ...... 232.2 1161 19.4
3 ......... 8 ..... 262.2 1311 21.9
4 ......... ......... 36 255.6 1278 21.3
5 10 8 ......... 255.6 1278 21.3
6 10 .......... 247.2 1236 20.6
7 ......... 8 36 255 1275 21.3
8 10 8 36 230.4 1150 19.2
9 15 12 54 250.8 1254 20.9
10 20 16 72 313.8 1569 26.2

From the results shown in this table, one would conclude
that the velvet bean does not need fertilizing. The yield of


xxix








xxx Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

shelled beans from Plot No. i, which was not fertilized, was
nearly as large as from any of the plots; in fact, the yield was
larger than from plots No. 2, 6, 8, and 9. Plot No. o10, which
received the heaviest application of fertilizer, gave the largest
yield' of beans; but the value of the increase in yield was not
sufficient to pay for the additional fertilizer.
SEED SELECTION OF VELVET BEANS.-The results obtained
thus far in the work of selection for a bush or dwarf velvet
bean have been encouraging. A number of plants grown last
year had quite a tendency toward a bush form. From these
plants selections were made. The seed from each individual
plant has been sown separately this season for the purpose of
still further selection. Aside from, the selections from last
season's crop, four acres of velvet beans were planted this
spring for the purpose of increasing the area from which to
select.
A test was made with velvet beans planted in alternate rows
with corn, the rows of beans being eight feet apart. The corn
and beans were given the same treatment; that is, were fer-
tilized and' cultivated alike. They received the following fer-
tilizers :
Dried blood ............... 109 pounds.
Muriate of potash .......... 41 pounds.
Acid phosphate ............ 164 pounds.

Total ................ 314 pounds per acre.
The yield of shelled beans from this acre was 20.35 bushels.
The yields given for the fertilizer test were for rows four
feet apart, while the above test with rows eight feet apart
with corn between, gave a nearly equal yield per acre. One
may learn from this that it is more profitable to plant in alter-
nate rows with corn, and in this way gain whatever the corn
will produce, which will be from 10 to 15 bushels per acre.
WHITE VELVET BEANS.-Work in the selection of white
velvet beans is still being continued. This season two acres
have been planted in these beans. The results from last sea-
son's planting were good, the yield of shelled beans being 18.54
bushels.
RAPE.-Three plots of Dwarf Essex rape were sown in
drills, the rows being thirty inches apart. Plots I and 2 were
sown on September 25, 1907. The ground was thoroughly
ploughed and a good seedL-bed prepared before sowing. The









Annual Report, 19o8.


soil on which the rape was sown was a very light sandy loam.
On December 21, 1907, plot 3 was sown. The character of
the soil was the same as for Plots i and 2. The ground had
been in sweet potatoes the previous season. The potatoes
were taken up in November, at which time the ground was
well plowed and then harrowed. Nothing more was done to
the ground until just before planting, when it was again har-
rowed. The rows were laid off, and fertilizer applied. Each
plot was given one cultivation for each cutting made. The
tables which follow give the kind and amount of fertilizer
used, the date of planting, the date of harvesting, and the
yield of green forage per acre for each cutting. On better
soil this yield could be increased from 25 to 50 per cent. with-
out additional cost. Even with the yield of 16.59 tons from
Plot 2, the cost per ton was less than $1.50; and if we increase
the yield, we at the same .time reduce the cost per ton.
TABLE XIV.
RAPE TEST.
Kind and Amount of Fertilizers used per Acre.
Acid o
Plot Dried Muriate Phos- Total Date when
Blood of Potash phate forseason Fertilizer was
No. Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Applied

I 150 64 175 389 September 25, 1907
II 300 128 350 778 September 25, 1907
II 150 64 175 389 February 10, 1908
III 200 115 300 615 December 21, 1907

TABLE XV.
RAPE TEST-Yields.

Yield of Green Forage
per Acre
Plot Date of Date of First Second Total
First Second Total
No. Planting Harvesting Cutting Cutting for
Tons Tons Season
I September 25, 1907 December 6, 1907 3.9 .... ... 3.9
II September 25, 1907 December 6, 1907 8.9 .... ... .... ...
II .............. ..... March 27, 1908 ....... 7.69 16.59
III December 21, 1907 March 28, 1908 3.24 .... ... 3.24


xxxi









xxxii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

COTTON.-The fertilizer test conducted last season was
for the purpose of ascertaining the most desirable proportions
of the elements of plant food required by the cotton plant.
Twelve plots, of four-tenths of an acre each, were used for
the test. The following table gives the kinds and amounts of
fertilizer used per plot, and' the yield of seed cotton.

TABLE XVI.
COTTON FERTILIZER TEST.


Kind and Amount of Fertilizer used

Plot Cottonseed Meal Muriate of Potash Acid Phosphate
No. Pounds Pounds Pounds


Yield of
Seed
Cotton
Pounds


1 40 12.8 50 148
2 120 12.8 50 222
3 40 6.4 50 222
4 40 12.8 25 153
5 80 25.6 100 124
6 240 25.6 100 226
7 80 12.8 100 181
8 80 25.6 50 188
9 120 38.4 150 229
10 360 38.4 150 278
11 120 19.2 150 154.3


12


140.5


Each plot contained .4 of an acre.

GUINEA GRASS.-About an acre of Guinea grass was set
out this spring. The grass has already made a good growth
and from present indications will probably be a valuable for-
age.
NATAL GRASS.-A small area of Natal grass (Tricholaena
rosea) was seeded this spring. The seed was sown in drills.
A good germination resulted and at the present time it is doing
well.








Annual Report, 19o8.


CASSAVA.-A test of thirty-two varieties of cassava is be-
ing made this season. The stem-cuttings of these varieties
were obtained from Dr. Ernst Bessey, of the Subtropical Lab-
oratory, Miami, Fla.
SORGHUM.-The results of the variety test made with sor-
ghum last year have been published in Bulletin 92 of this sta-
tion. The work is being continued this year with nearly the
same varieties.

BULLETINS.

During the year the following bulletins have been written:

Bulletin 92, Sorghum for Silage and' Forage.
Press Bulletin 64, Rape for Hogs.
Press Bulletin 65, Rape for Dairy Cows.
Press Bulletin 70, Feeding the Dairy Herd.
Press Bulletin 71, Sweet Potatoes for Hogs.
Press Bulletin 74, The Dairy Rogue.
Press Bulletin 79, Improvement of Cattle in Florida.
Press Bulletin 81, Velvet Beans.
Press Bulletin 86, Cocoanut Meal as a Dairy Feed.
Press Bulletin 91, Cowpea Hay.

FARMERS' INSTITUTES.

Farmers' Institutes have been addressed at the following
places in Florida on various live stock and agricultural sub-
jects: DeFuniak Springs, Cobb, Milton, Jay, Jacksonville,
Knoxhill, and Alachua.

ADDITIONS TO THE EQUIPMENT.

During this year the following new machinery has been
purchased, and has added greatly to the convenience and
rapidity with which field operations can be carried' on: Roller,
harrow, stalk cutter, disc harrow with seeder attachment, and
cotton gin. A small three-room house was built for the use
of one of the farm laborers.


a.r.-3


xxxiii









xxxiv Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

DONATIONS.

Three gallons Chloro-naptholeum, from the West Disin-
fecting Co., Atlanta, Ga.; "The Jeffers' Calculator," from
Henry W. Jeffers, Plainsboro, N. J.; "Eby's Handy Tables,"
from J. Frank Smith, Pleasanton, Kansas.
Respectfully,
JOHN M. SCOTT,
Animal Industrialist.









Annual Report, 19o8.


REPORT OF THE CHEMIST.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work of the
Chemical Department for the year ending June 30, 1908.

PINEAPPLE EXPERIMENT.
The work on the, pineapple has been continued, attention
having been'especially directed towards the quality of the fruit
as influenced by the different fertilizers. Samples from a num-
ber of plots were analyzed, and the results have been tabulated,
but are being withheld from publication in order to compare
them with the results from this season's crop. A recent de-
termination of the nitrogen in the soil from several of the
plots indicates that in these plots the soil is about -one-half
richer in this element than it was in the year 1901, when the
experiment was begun.

CITRUS EXPERIMENT.
As was noted in last year's report, the work that was start-
ed at Kissimmee- in 1905 had to be abandoned on account of
the damage done to the trees.by cold during the winter of
1906-7. Efforts have been made to find a suitable location for
the continuance of this experiment, but thus far without suc-
cess. It is hoped that a citrus-grower may be found at an
early date, who will co-operate with the Experiment Station
in again taking up this work.

ACID SOILS.
Considerable work has been done in the way of determin-
ing the reactions and nitrogen contents of soils from some
representative groves, with the view of studying the effects of
acid soils on citrus trees. This work, along with more of a
similar nature on cotton soils, and to a limited extent on other
soils from different localities, has been published as Bulletin
93, Acid Soils. Some of the more recently completed analyses
were ,not ready when Bulletin 93 was issued, and are here
inserted as Table XVII.


XXXV













xxxvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

TABLE XVII.


High Pine.


2310 24-36 (2nd Subsoil
2311 36.48 '3rd
2312 48-60 4th
2313 60-72 5th
2314 72.84 L6th
2315 0-12 Soil
2318 0-9 Soil
2320 0.9 J Soil
2321 9-21 Subsoil
2322 0-9 Soil
2323 9-21 1 Subsoil
2324 0.9 Soil
2325 9-21 Subsoil
2326 0-9 Soil
2327 9.21 I Subsoil
2328 0-9 Soil
2329 9.21 Subsoil
2330 0-9 Soil
2331 9.21 ) Subsoil
2332 0.9 Soil
2333 9-21 Subsoil
2334 0-9 J Soil
2335 9.21 Subsoil
2336 0.12 f Soil
2337 12-24 J Subsoil
2338 24.36 12nd Subsoil
2339 36-48 I3rd Subsoil
2310 48.60 14th Subsoil
2341 12-24 ( Subsoil
2342 24.36 2nd Subsoil
2343 36-48 [3rd Subsoil
2349 0-9 Soil
2407 0.6 Soil
2441 0-12 f Soil
2442 12-24 Subsoil
2443 24.36 (2nd Subsoil
2444 0-12 Soil
2445 12-24 Subsoil
2446 0-12 Soil
2447 12-24 Subsoil
2448 24-36 2nd Subsoil
2449 36-48 13rd Subsoil
2450 0-9 J Soil
2451 9-21 Subsoil
2452 0-9 J Soil
2453 9-21 ) Subsoil
2454 *0-9 J Soil
2455 9-21 Subsoil
2456 0-9 Soil
2457 9-21 Subsoil
2458 0-6 J Soil
2459 6-18 1 Subsoil
2460 0-9 J Soil
2461 9-21 1 Subsoil
2462 0-9 J Soil
2463 9-21 1 Subsoil
2464 0-9 J Sol
2465 921 1 Subsoil
2466 0-9 S Soil
2467 9-21 1 Subsoil
2468 0-9 J Soil
2469 9-21 Subsoil
2470 0-9 J Soil
2471 9-21 1 Subsoil
2472 0-9 J Soil
2513 9.21 1 Subsoil


Citrus Bay View 200
100
100
..100
Alkaline
Vegetables Sutherland 400
Citrus DeLand 300
St. Leo 200
200
." 200
Alkaline
300
100
200
100
100
Alkaline
100
Alkaline
200
Alkaline
Virgin, near Grove 1 00
Citrus 100
Alkaline





DeLand 800
Corn--Cotton Gainesville Alkaline
Citrus Lake Weir 300
200
500




"600
200
500
100
500
200
600
100


Virgin near 2450 Alkaline
Citrus 500
100
Virgin, near 2462 Alkaline
Citrus 400
200
Alkaline


.0460
.0227
.0235
.0155
.0092
.006
.*125




.042
.013
.009
.029
.012
.009
.007
.004
,028
.011
.026
.009
.0285
.008
.032
.014
.048
.019
.022
.010
.023
.009
.017
.008
.037
.013
.047
029
.036
.021
.040
.027









Annual Report, 19o8.


xxxvii


Spruce Pine.

2378 0-9 Soil Pineapples Jensen 100 .0135
2379 0-9 Soil 100 .019
2380 0.9 Soil Alkaline .0155
2381 u.9 Soil 10 .015
2382 0.9 Soil 200 .089
2383 0-9 Soil 100 .033
2384 0-12 ( Soil 300 .021
2385 12.24 J Subsoil Alkaline .0025
2386 24.36 1 2nd Subsoil .001
2387 36-43 L3rd Subsoil


Flat Woods.

2350 0.12 ( Soil Citrus St Petersburg 200 .026
2351 12-24 J Subsoil Alkaline .012
2352 24.36 2nd Subsoil .07
2353 36-48 | 3rd Subsoil .00u5
2354 48-57 .4th Subsoil 004
2355 0-12 r Soil 600
3356 12-.4 Subsoil 301
2357 24-36 2nd Subsoil 100
2358 36-48 3rd Subsoil 1 '0
2359 0-9 Soil 300
2360 9-21 Subsoil 100
2361 21.33 2nd Subsoil 100
2362 0-9 r Soil 400
2363 9-21 S| ubsoil 200
2364 21-33 L2nd Subsoil 100
2365 0-9 Soil 700
2366 0-9 Soil 400 .
2367 0-12 r Soil 400
.2368 12-24 Subsoil 2 0
2369 24-36 2nd Subsoil Alkaline
2370 36-48 3rd Subsoil
2392 0-9 I Soil Strawberries Hamnton 2 0
2393 9-21 1 Subsoil Alkaline
2394 0-9 Soil Cotton 10
2395 0-9 Soil Virgi., near 2394 Alkaline



Cabbage Palmetto Hammock.

2389 0.12 Soil Vegetables Daytona Alkaline
2390 0-12 Soil ,



SUMMARY OF TIHE RESULTS REPORTED IN TABLE XVII.-

In Table XVII, 103 samples of soils and subsoils, chiefly
from citrus groves, are reported on. Of this number, 89
samples were tested for acidity by the limewater method de-
scribed by Veitch,I and the nitrogen was' determined in 60
of the samples. The results of this examination may be sum-
marized as follows:


I Journ. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 26, No. 6.








xxxviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


Soils (ct
Subsoils
Deeper Subsoils
Virgin Soils


ltiv


Acid.
rated) 34
" 14
cc1


Per ent-

Allaline. w : [.


2 40


The average lime c(quireiments of the soils and subs(-::-
that are acid are -' hollows:
Average of sois. ........... ... .323.5 parts per million
Average of 14 subsoils ............. 164.0 parts per million.
Average of 8 deeper subsoils. ....... 112.5 parts per million.
The average nitrogen content of the different samples is
as follows:


Nitrogen in citrus soils ..................
Nitrogen in citrus subsoils ...............
Nitrogen in citrus deeper subsoils ........;
Nitrogen in pineapple soils ..............
Nitrogen in pineapple subsoils ...........
Nitrogen in virgin soils .................
Nitrogen in virgin subsoils ...............


.0338 per cent.
.0148 per cent.
.0071 per cent.
.0294 per cent.
..0017 per cent.
.0350 per cent.
.0135 per cent.


The work emphasizes the fact that the nitrogen content of
the soils in most of the groves studied is very low. This leads
to the suspicion that the trees may not (in some cases) be
getting enough nitrogen, and that the acid condition and
poor cultivation may even contribute to denitrification. If the
trees are thus deprived of some of the nitrogen that they really
require, conditions may perhaps be established which are fa-
vorable to disease.
It is thought by some that tannic acid, leached from the
prostrate stems of the saw palmetto, may contribute to the
acid condition of Florida soils. This belief is no doubt en-
couraged by the fact that the water of so many of the streams
in the State has a. yellowish or brownish color. In order to
determine the facts, we collected, during last rainy season,
several gallons of brownish-colored water from low places
where large quantities of saw palmettoes were scattered over
the surface of the.ground; and after concentration, tested the
liquid' for tannic acid.' Although the concentrated portions








Annual Repfort, 19o8.


were distinctly acid, only the faintest indication could be had
of tannic acid. Portions of soil were also collected and leach-
ed with distilled water, and the concentrated leachings tested
for tannic acid with the same result as before.
It seems probable then that the acid condition of Florida
soils is niot due to the presence of tannic acid; and also that
the brownish color observed in the water of many of the
streams of the State is likewise not due to this cause, It is more
probable that these effects are owing to the humic acid which
results from the decomposition of organic matter. For a
further discussion of acid soils, the reader is referred to Bul-
letin 93.
COTTON EXPERIMENT.

The results from the cotton work last season were not
what we had hoped for, owing to much of the land occupied by
the plots being badly infested with root-knot. On account of
this trouble, the yields from the different plots were not com-
parable, nor were we able to make a satisfactory comparison
with the crop of the preceding year. However, a few facts
seemed to stand out clearly, and these were set forth in Press
Bulletin 85, which was issued on March 18.
In connection with the cotton work we have conducted
some laboratory experiments towards determining the effect-
iveness of organic matter as a means of preventing the loss
of soluble plant food by leaching. The soil used for the ex-
periments was a rather coarse, sandy soil, designated by the
U. S. Bureau of Soils as Norfolk sand. For this work glass
tubes about 30 inches long, and of about 7-8 inch internal
diameter, were closed at one end with a perforated disc anOc
with filter paper, and in each 150 grams of soil, prepared as
follows, were placed.
Tube Nio. i, soil alone.
Tube No. 2, soil with i per cent of muck.
Tube No. 3, soil with 5 per cent. of muck.
Tube No. 4, soil with 10 per cent. of muck.
Then a solution.of sulphate of ammonia of known strength
was poured into each tube to the amount of 100 cubic centi-
meters; the portion percolating through was collected; and the
amount of sulphate of ammonia in this was determined. After
this, portions of 50 cubic centimeters of distilled water were


xxxix









xl Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

poured into the tubes each day for five days, and' the amount
of the solution percolating through was likewise collected and
the sulphate of ammonia determined. At the end of the period
it was found that the sulphate of ammonia had been leached
out as follows:
Tube No. i, Soil -alone; sulphate of ammonia lost..... 92.28 per cent.
Tube No. 2, Soil with I per cent muck; sulphate of am-
m onia lost ...................................... 89.05 per cent.
Tube No. 3, Soil with 2 per cent muck; sulphate of am-
m onia lost ..................................... .85.92 per- cent.
Tube No. 4, Soil with TO per cent muck; sulphate of
am monia lost ................................... 77.39 per cent.

Similar experiments were tried, using high grade sulphate
of potash or a soluble phosphate (sodium phosphate) instead
of the sulphate of ammonia. With high grade sulphate of
potash, followed by six leachings with distilled water, the
following results were obtained:
Tube No. I, Soil alone; sulphate of potash lost. ...... 78.82 per cent.
Tube No. 2, Soil with I per cent muck; sulphate of
potash lost ................. ..................73.34 per cent.
Tube No. 3, Soil with 5 per cent muck; sulphate of
potash lost ...................................... 63.41 .per cent.
Tube No. 4, Soil with io per cent muck; sulphate of
potash lost ...................................... 54.61 per cent.

With sodium phosphate, followed by ten leachings with
distilled water, the results were as follows:
Tube No. I, Soil alone; sodium phosphate lost ........ 86.96 per cent.
Tube No. 2, Soil with I per cent 'muck; sodium phos-
phate lost ....................................... 86.63 per cent.
Tube No. 3, Soil -with 5 per cent muck; sodium phos-
phate lost ....................................... 82.36 per cent.
Tube No. 4, Soil with TO per cent muck; sodium phos-
phate lost ................................ ...... 8o.81 per cent.

The results of another experiment along the same line are
reported in Table XVIII. In this case the solution of sulphate
of ammonia was passed through without further leaching with
distilled water. The amount of sulphate of ammonia in the
percolate was determined, and the amount, retained in the soil
was obtained by difference. A study of the table shows that
as the percentage of muck was increased, the time required'
for percolation was lengthened, and also that the amount of.
water and plant food held by the soil was increased.









Annual Report, 19o8.


TABLE XVIII-Showing how Organic Matter Aids in Retaining
Moisture and Plant Food.


00
0~

Mn t
2 *a

Minutes


c:r ,.t

Mn.
E


M .t
Minutes


Soil Alone

Average of 4 Trials.... 4 1-2 22 1-6


Soil plus i oer cent. of
Muck
Average of 4 Trials.... 5 I 8 25 1-8


Soil plus 5 per cent. of-
Muck
Average of 4 Trials....


7 5-8


34 3-4


2s V
Cd i r.s
U
'S -.-.


39.81 grams 46,66


40.07 "



41.86 "


47.o8



51.52


Soil plus Io per cent.
of Muck
Average of 4 Trials.... II 7 8 51 3-8 44.38 57.36


One hundred cubic centimeters of the solution, containing one gram
of sulphate of ammonia, were used each time.

These experiments indicate that it' is possible, to a con-
siderable extent, to prevent the loss of plant food through
leaching, by increasing the amount of organic matter in the
soil. It was also shown by experiment that the addition of
muck to the soil increases its capillary powers.

MOISTURE DETERMINATIONs.-Beginning on April 18 and
continuing until May 28, moisture determinations were made
once a week or oftener, on samples of soit from the cotton
plots, taken in one-foot sections to the -depth of four feet; and
for comparison on similar samples taken from an unplowed
piece of,ground separated from the cotton plots only by a path.
The results of this work are given in Table XIX, the mois-
ture being reported in percentages of the undried soils.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Statwn.


TABLE XIX.
PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE IN CULTIVATED AND UNCULTIVATED LAND.
EXPERIMENT STATION, 1908.

Average
April April April May May May May May May Tons of
18 21 28 1 7 1 16 23 28 Water Per
Acre Foot
Cultivated Ist Foot 4.29 3.71 4.9' 5.66 7.80 5.61 3.88 3.12 3.18 91.38
ltat 2nd Foot 4.56 4.23 4.27 04 4.22 4.b6 4.61 4.28 4.92 84.42
North 3rd Foot .:,9 3.92 4.28 o. 4.23 4.16 4.07 4.41 4.39 84.37
Portion of 4th Foot 4.90 4.87 4.83 4.7 X 4.24 5.18 4.90 4.b7 4.54 95.85
Plot. Average 4.58 4.18 4.58 4.58 5.12 5-03 4.37 4.20 4.26 Total. 359.02

Cultivated I. Foot 5.38 4.71 6.6, 7.69 8.57 5.87 E.09 4.61 3.18 113.85
vate Foot 5.73 5.67 5.63 5.69 5.83 5.29 5.19 5.67 5.57 111.64
South :.-. Foot 5.17 5.28 5.17 5.00 5.19 4.83 5.12 5.00 5.05 101.k0
Portion of ',h Foot 4.94 4.95 4.98 5.00 5.07 4.78 4.72 4.68 4.66 9,.30
Plot. Average 5.0SO 5.15 5.61 5.85 6.17 5.19 5.03 4.99 4.62 Total, 424.59

Un- Ii t Foot 2.81 2.91 4.83 6.87 6 66 4.09 2.86 2.50 2.52 80.24
u n.. Foot 3,17 3.20 3.40 .4.37 3.82 3.96 3.55 3.18 3.15 67.99
cultivated "..1 Foot 2.92 2.99 2.95 2.94 3.25 3.16 3.09 2.90 3.61 6!.48
South of i.r, Foot 2.83 3.19 2.91 2.80 3.19 3.13 2.94 2.73 2.71 64.88
Plots. Average 2.96 3.35 3.77 4.00 4.23 3.66 3.11 280 3.00 Total. 275.59


The rainfall during the period was,
port furnished by the local station of
Bureau, as follows:


according to the re-
the U. S. Weather


April 28, 0.86 inches.
April 30, o.31 inches.
May 6, 0.70 inches.-
May 17, 0.13 inches.
May 18, 0.02 inches.
May 19, 0.15 inches.

There was no further rain of any consequence until the first
of June. A glance at the table shows that the moisture con-
tent was highest in the south portion of the cultivated field,
and lowest in the-uncultivated portion. Referring to the col-
umn headed "Average Tons of Water per Acre-foot," we find
that if we take the average for the whole period, the total
amount of water for the 4 feet in the north portion of the
field is 359.02 tons per acre, in the south portion 424.59 tons,
and' in the unplowed portiodl 275.59 tons. Here is a differ-







Annual Report, 19o8.


ence in favor of the cultivated land of 84.43 tons per acre in
the one case, and 149 tons per acre in the other case. The
difference in moisture content at 'the two positions in the cul-
tivated land is probably due to the difference in the slope of
the land; but since the point in the cultivated land showing
149 tons per acre more than the uncultivated, is the one that
is nearest the uncultivated plot, this is the one that should
preferably be considered in this comparison. In either case
the difference is sufficient to mean much for a growing crop.
The cotton land' was plowed late in March, and was cul-
tivated twice with the harrow before planting the cotton.
There was a sparse growth of ragweed on the uncultivated
land, and it was noted' that these -weeds were wilting when
the samples were taken on May 28, the moisture content of
the surface foot at this time being 2.52 per cent. At this point,
the samples from the entire 4-foot section were, on this date,
dry enough to run through the fingers like sand, as indeed
they were during the greater portion of the time, with the
exception of the surface foot just after the rains. On the
other hand, it was observed that when the cultivated land con-
tained about 6 per cent. of water, it was in excellent working
condition, and at no time during the period were the samples
from the second, third, and fourth feet so dry but that they
could be pressed into a lump that would hold its shape. These
facts seem of importance as showing the effect of cultivation
on the moisture content of the soil, and also as showing the
percentage of water that is required to keep the ground in
fairly good condition when the rainfall is light.

In Table XX is recorded the moisture content in tons per
acre-foot, of some of the soils in different localities of the
State.


xliii









xliv


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


TABLE XX

Showing Moisture Content in Tons per Acre-Foot,


Date of Collection Tons

Grove A-Lake Weir............ April 24, 1908 24.2

Grove B-Lake Weir............ April 25, 1908 62.0

Unplowed Land-Exp. Station.... April 18, 1908 56.2

Plowed Land-Exp. Stalion...... April 18, 19 8 107.0
Grove-Poor Cultivation-
Kissimmee.......... ........ April 30, 1907 76.8


Grove-Good Cultivation-
Kissim mee ..................

Sub Irrigation-Sanford .........


April 30, 1907

May 1. 1907


930

246.2


The very low moisture content of the soil from grove
A at Lake Weir is attributed to the fact that in this grove
the roots are very near the surface, necessitating shallow cul-
tivation, and to the further fact that for several years prac-
tically no nitrogenous fertilizers have been applied', which has
led to a depletion of the organic matter in the soil. A de-
termination of the nitrogen in several samples taken from
this grove, shows about .03 per cent. for a depth of 9 inches.


MISCELLANEOUS WORK.

A small amount of miscellaneous work has been perform-
ed, such as the examination of phosphates, limestones, fertil-
izers, and soils; some work in co-operation with the Associa-
tion of Official Agricultural Chemists in testing methods of
analysis; and a determination of the fertilizing constituents in
Mucuna Lyoni. The analysis of this legume is here given:









. Annual Report, 19o8.


Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Nitrogen
.per cent. per cent. per cent.
Beans......... 1.61 ........ 1.12 ......... 4.14
H ulls......... 2.06 ........ o. 51 ........ 1.52
A determination was also made of the nitrogen in a sample
of the ordinary velvet bean as prepared for market, and -in a
selected sample. The results are as follows:
Velvet beans as prepared for market, 3.58 per cent. nitrogen.
Velvet beans selected (no faulty beans), 3.59 per cent. nitrogen.
From this it will be observed that the nitrogen is somewhat
higher in Mucuna Lyoni than it is in the velvet bean.
A determination was made of the percentages of juice and
acid' in a single specimen of Kennedy lemon:
Per cent. juice .................. 72.85
Per cent. acid, expressed as citric. ....... 6.96

A partial analysis was also made of the fertilizing constituents
of two varieties of mangoes. The results of this work will be
found in Table XXI.


TABLE XXI.
Analyses of Mangoes.


Fruit, exclusive of stone (Fresh) Seeds, including stony endocarp
(Fresh)
Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
Variety cent cent cent cent cent cent cent cent cent cent
Ash N. P2 05 K20 CaO Ash N P205 K20 CaO
Turpen- .42 .089 ...... ...... ,02 1.oo .339 ...... ..... .064
tine __
Apple ...... .126 .05 ,307 ...... ...... ...... .18 .373 .



In Table XXII will be found the results of total ash and
lime determinations on some samples of pineapples and other
fruits, and also on a few samples of feeding materials. The
high percentage of lime in the Mexican clover is worthy of
note.










Florida Agricultm al E.rper.iment Station.


TABLE XXII.

Total Ash and Lime in Some Feeding Materials and Fruits.


Laboratory

Number


2019

2 22

2023

2030

2031

2075

2076


Beggarweed-Hay ...............

Mexican Clover-Hay............

Wire Grass-Hay ................

Sweet Potato-Vines (dry) .......
Pineapple-
Whole fruit, without crown....
Pineapple-
Whole fruit, without crown....
Pineapple-
Whole fruit, without crown....
Pineapple-
Whole fruit, without crown....


Percentage Percentage
of of
Ash Lime (CaO)


4.920 .805

9310 2.410

3.970 .267

8.625 1.695

.489 .035

.527 ,o48

.553 .022

.555 .02S


Pineapple-
2087 Whole fruit, without crown.... .536 .015
Pineap ,le-
2088 Whole fruit, without crown.... .575 .o017
Pineapple-
2091 Whole fruit, without crown.... .589 .027

2034 Crown of Pineapple.............. .888 ,090

2079 Crown of Pineapple................. .930 067

2087 Crown of Pineapple.............. .930 ,o80

2089 Crown of Pineaple.............. .906 .087
Mango Fruit without stone-
2090 (Turpen ine) ............... 441 .029
Ma Igo Fruit without stone-
2096 (Tur entine) .................. .390 .012
Mang) Seed, with stony endocarp
2093 (Turpentine) .................. 1.002 .0o64
Avocado-Fruit, without the seed
2164 (Mexican) .................... 1,565 .o4o

2165. Avocado-Seed (Mexican) ...... 1,274 .019



In conclusion I wish to express my appreciation of the
very faithful work, during the entire year, of Assistant Chem-


xlvi








Annual Report, 9po8. xlvii

ist, Mr. E. J. Macy. I would also express my appreciation of
the help of Special Assistant, Prof. R. N. Wilson, who was
with us three months last summer, and who again entered
upon his duties on June io.
Respectfully submitted,
A. W. BLAIR, Chemist.








xlviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a statement of
the work in Entomology for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1908.
The work pursued may be classified' as follows: (I) Inves-
tigations of the Whitefly; (II) Preparation of Press Bulletins
and Addresses; (III) Work on other injurious insects; (IV)
Nursery Inspection.

I. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE WHITEFLY.

(Aleyrodes citri Riley and Howard, and Aleyrodes sp.)
The whitefly investigations were again made the chief prob-
lem of the year, and may be arranged under the following
sub-topics: (i) Experiments with the methods for introduc-
ing the fungus parasites; (2) Does the whitefly spread the
fungi? (3) The whitefly matures on detached leaves; (4)
Extermination by defoliation; (5) Honeydew excreted; (6)
Spreading of the whitefly; (7) Other food-plants; (8) Preda-
ceous insects; (9) Microscopic anatomy; (10) Two species.
I. EXPERIMENTS WITH THE METHODS FOR INTRODUCING
THE FUNGUS PARASITES.-Most of the experiments started
during the previous fourteen months (May, 1906, to June,
1907) were kept under observation, and some new experiments
were started. The purpose of these experiments was to test
the efficiency of the methods employed, and to determine the
period or periods of the year when the fungi can be most suc-
cessfully introduced, the stages of the whitefly most suscepti-
ble to fungus attack, the relative efficiency of the fungi, and
the effect of climatic conditions.
The Methods.-The method's considered most practical for
introducing the fungus parasites of the whitefly, are the spore-
spraying method and .the leaf-pinning method. These have
been described in the last Annual Report, in Bulletin No. 88,
and in Press Bulletins Nos. 80 and 82. Modifications of the
spore-spraying method consist in flirting the mixture of spores








Annual Report, i9o8.


and water on to the under surface of whitefly-infested leaves
by means of a cup, or in sprinkling it on by means of a whisk
broom instead of a spraying machine. A spraying machine,
however, is usually preferable. Planting small trees which
have fungus-infected whitefly larvae upon them. is a sure
method of introducing fungus into whitefly-infested' groves;
but is expensive, and too laborious to be practiced extensively.
The Fungi.-Two other fungus parasites of the whitefly
have been recognized during the past year-thus increasing
the list to six. These are the white-fringe fungus and the
cinnamon fungus (described in Press Bulletins 68 and 76 by
H. S. Fawcett). Both of these fungi are spore-bearing, and
as has been demonstrated, can be introduced into whitefly-
infested trees by spraying a mixture of the spores in water,
or by pinning on leaves bearing whitefly larvae infected with
fungus. Specimens of these fungi have been received from
widely separated parts of the State, and it appears from sub-
sequent observations that both are quite generally distributed.
For the names, etc. of the other fungus parasites of the white-
fly larvae, reference should be made to the Annual Report for
1907, or to Bulletin 88.
Leesburg.-The fungus has apparently disappeared from
only a few of the fifty trees treated with red Aschersonia at
Leesburg in 1906. In the majority of trees the fungus has
either held its own, or has shown a considerable increase and
spread to neighboring trees, notwithstanding that it was
subject to drought from October, 1906, to May, 1907. Con-
sidering that only one introduction of fungus was made, and
taking into account the drought, the writer feels that the
progress of the fungus at Leesburg is quite satisfactory, al-
though the trees have probably been benefited but little up to
this time. The red Aschersonia has spread well on eight trees
sprayed with spores in a certain yard, Place A (in all other
trees leaves were pinned), and it could also be found in most
of the trees not sprayed, 5 or 6 in number, especially in their
upper parts, indicating that insects had carried it there. The
brown fungus, which began to grow in several of these trees
after the spraying in 1906 (there was some brown fungus on
the leaves used for preparing the spraying mixture of spores
of red Aschersonia) has spread' somewhat in the trees in which
it was first seen, besides having spread to at least two trees
which had not been sprayed. From Place B, in which several


a.r.-4


xlix









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


trees had been treated with red Aschersonia by pinning leaves
on August 15, 1906, the fungus had spread by October ii,
1907, to the nearest row of trees north, a distance of 20 to
75 feet. A Japanese persimmon tree in Place B, much in-
fested with whitefly, showed scattered red fungus on the last
date.
New Smyrna.-Two visits to New Smyrna were made
during the year. In last year's Annual Report the following
statement occurs on page xxxiii: "Some slight amount of red
had also started in another small grove * *" This small
grove, Place A, (inspected December I, 1906, and May 6,
1907) had been sprayed in part with spores of the red and
yellow Aschersonias on October 4, 1906. The spores of both
fungi were mixed in the same spraying liquid, but no yellow
fungus started to grow, and the red had to be searched for. In
November, 1907, a remarkable spread' of the red Aschersonia
was observed in this grove. The fungus had spread until many
of the small branches of the trees were plastered with its pus-
tules; and it had extended to perhaps all of the remaining
trees of the grove (about one acre), in many of which a good
growth of fungus had started. Careful inspection during the
last week of November, 1907, of all the trees sprayed in Place
B during the last week of October, 1906, revealed no single
growth of fungus. At the same time thirty-five trees were
again sprayed with fungus at New Smyrna, some with spores
of the red and some with the yellow Aschersonia. These trees
were inspected on April 23 and 24, 1908. In the small grove,
Place C, in which five trees had been sprayed with a mixture
of the red and yellow fungi, an average of a dozen pustules
of the red Aschersonia could be counted in each of the trees
during a three to five minutes' search in each tree. No yellow
fungus was seen in these trees, nor in three other trees sprayed
only with spores of the yellow Aschersonia. The condition
of the red fungus in this grove in April, 1908, is considered
about equivalent to that in the grove of Place A a year before.
Of the remaining 27 trees sprayed at New Smyrna in No-
vember, 1907, with either the red or the yellow Aschersonias,
a few trees only showed a start, and' that very small, of one
or the other fungus. The whitefly is decidedly on the increase
in New Smyrna, and a number of small groves are now cov-
ered with sooty mold.
St. Petersburg.-Three visits for the purpose of inspecting








Annual Report, 90o8. li
the experiments already started and of starting new ones, were
made to this place during the year (August 14-15, October
22-24, and December 9-11, 1907.) Spore-spraying and leaf-
pinning operations were begun in a twenty-acre grove (Place
A) on May 17, 1907, for the main purpose of demonstrating
what can be done in one season toward' producing a good
growth of fungus in a grove of this size.. (See Report for
1907.) The frost of the previous December, together with
the drought which had extended from October to May (about
eight months), had defoliated so many trees in sections where
fungus had been abundant, that .only small quantities of fun-
gus could be obtained. However, continued effort on the part
of the owner, together with some supplies of fungus obtained
by the writer, resulted in producing a considerable sprinkling
of the fungi, chiefly the red' Aschersonia, together with a little
yellow Aschersonia and some brown fungus, throughout the
grove, by the fall of 1907. The spore-sprayings of May 17,
1907, were made with red and yellow Aschersonia. On Au-
gust 14, a few pustules were discernible on some of the trees
sprayed with the red, but none on those sprayed with the
yellow fungus. By October 22, some of the trees sprayed with
the red fungus had developed a fine growth; but, as before,
those sprayed with yellow showed nothing, or only a few
doubtful. pustules. Other introductions of fungus were made
at each visit to this grove, and with varied success. In all,
something like fifty introductions were made.in about as many
trees (some few trees were treated twice). Some sprayings
were made with brown fungus over a year old, which was
ground to powder and mixed with water. Others were made
with old red, and old' yellow fungus. Generally speaking, the
use of fungus .collected longer 'than a month cannot be
advised. A few introductions of the white-fringe and cin-
namon fungi were also made on October 24, but as subsequent
examination showed, with negative results, as the season was
late. Four sprayings with spores of the red fungus, obtained
from cultures, were made on August 14 and 15; and two of
these appear to have been wholly successful, for abundant
growths of this fungus have developed. All the cultures
used were prepared by the Plant Pathologist of the Station.
In one instance ordinary brown sugar was added to the mix-
ture of spores and water to the extent of 5 per cent.; but no
better growth of fungus could be detected when the sugar
was used. (See p. xlvii, Annual Report, 1907.) (For experi-








lii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

ments with glucose see under "Gainesville.") The grove in
question is heavily infested with whitefly, and has been so
for several years. So far, the fungi have not perceptibly
benefited the trees in this grove.
\Tclntosh.-On September 5, 19 and 21, 1907, fungus-
bearing leaves with red Aschersonia and some cinnamon fun-
gus were forwarded to McIntosh. These leaves were pinned
into whitefly infested trees, and a good growth of the red
Aschersonia, and some growth of the cinnamon fungus were
obtained. The success, in this instance, of the leaf-pinning
method was probably due, in part at least, to the presence
of many adult whiteflies in the trees, for Mr. S. H. Gaitskill
wrote, on September 7, that the whiteflies were coming out
in swarms. On October 14, well-grown specimens of fungus
were collected.
Gainesville.-The first introductions of fungus near
Gainesville, were made in a seven-acre grove, Place A, on
August o10, 1907. Other introductions and inspections were
made on October 6, and November 16, and inspections only
on December 30, 1907, January 27 and April 3, 1908. In
all about fifteen introductions of fungus have been made in
this grove. In one instance red fungus was successfully
started in this grove from a culture; this being the third case
in which this had' been done. Results here again indicated that
fungus should be used for infection purposes when fresh, and
that it should not be kept longer than a month before using.
Yellow fungus was successfully started by sprayings made
on October 6, and some red fungus as late as November 16,
1907. Leaves of the yellow fungus pinned into two trees on
October 6, gave decidedly poorer results than spraying the
spores on the same d'ay. A five per cent. addition of glucose
to the spraying mixture gave apparently no better growth of
fungus. Similar negative results with glucose and the same
fungus were obtained at Lake City in 1906. Other sprayings
with the red, yellow, and brown fungi were made in Gaines-
ville on January 8, and March 16 and 17, 1908. In the green-
house of the Station seven small trees infested with whitefly
and in pots, were sprayed on March 16 with these three fungi.
All the sprayings made in January and March have so far
been failures, including those made in the greenhouse. The
reason for the failure to start fungus during this period may
be that the fungus lacks vitality at this time of the year, or








Annual Report, 19o8. liii

that the larvae of the fourth stage and the pupae are not easily
infected.
DeLand.-On November 19 to 23, 1907, the writer made
his first visit to DeLand for the purpose of investigating the
whitefly situation. At a second visit, on January 17, 1908,
the red and yellow Aschersonias, together with some brown
fungus which was scoured from the leaves with a little sand
and water, were sprayed into seventeen trees. Examination
on April 20, 1908, revealed no certain growth of fungus. On
April 21 and 22, spores of the red Aschersonia were sprayed
into some trees and some leaf-pinning was done-in all fifteen
trees were treated. The spring brood of adults had about
disappeared and the young larvae of the whitefly (chiefly first,
second, and third stages) were abundant on the leaves. A
heavy shower of rain immediately followed one of the spray-
ings with spores, and other showers preceded and followed
other sprayings. Far from working harm, the rain seemed
to have been just what was needed to make the work so suc-
cessful as it proved to be. On June 17, 1908, Mr. H. B.
Stevens and the writer estimated that in two trees at least
30 to 40 per cent. of the larvae had become infected and killed
with the fungus (red Aschersonia); while in a small, low-
growing, Rangpur lime tree, the writer estimated that over
50 per cent. were dead. The two trees into which leaves had
been pinned had but a poor growth of fungus as compared
with the 'trees sprayed with spores. There were hundreds,
and perhaps even a thousand, larvae infected and dead in
some of the trees sprayed, to each one that died in the trees
into which fungus-bearing leaves only had been pinned. As
the spring brood of adults had about disappeared at the time
the trees were treated, this probably accounts for the fungus
making such a poor growth in those trees into which leaves
had been pinned, for its spores are probably carried by the
winged whiteflies. The general distribution of the fungus
throughout the trees sprayed with spores as compared with
those into which fungus-bearing leaves had been pinned, in-
-dicated clearly that the spore-spraying method would prove
to be the preferable one. These experiments of April 21-22,
also indicate clearly that it is the young larvae that are most
easily infected with fungus-a point of much significance in
timing introductions of the fungi.








liv Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Summary on Introducing the Fungi.-The observations
and experiments of the past year have again demonstrated
that the period of summer rains is a most favorable time in
which to introduce the fungus parasites of whitefly larvae.
Introductions of the red and yellow Aschersonias made during
October and November resulted .only in getting small growths
of fungus started, which were generally sufficient, however,
to insure a good spread during the following summer. In-
troductions of the red and yellow Aschersonias made during
January and March so far indicate that the work cannot be
successfully done at that time. A small but sufficient growth
of the red Aschersonia was successfully started on May 17,
1907, and this indicates that spore-spraying operations can
then be successfully commenced; the reason being, perhaps,
that young larvae, which are easily infected, exist beneath the
leaves at that time. The experiments of April 21 and 22,
1908, at DeLand, extend the time back nearly another month,
or to the time when the spring brood of whiteflies has about
disappeared, and when the young larvae are abundant on the
leaves. There will be a period of a few weeks before the
swarming of the second brood of adults, when the larvae are
in the, fourth and pupal stages, when it may not be possible
to introduce fungi successfully. Since the second and third
broods of adults generally overlap in time, fungi can probably
be successfully introduced at any time after the emerging of
the second brood. It is possible to introduce fungi until the
end of November-at least, by the spore-spraying method.
2. DOES THE WHITEFLY SPREAD THE FUNGI?-The fol-
lowing observations on the red and' yellow Aschersonias point
to the conclusion that the whitefly does spread the fungi; for
the fungi spread most rapidly when the adult whiteflies are
abundantly swarming about 'the trees; the leaf-pinning method
is annarently only markedly successful in introducing the
fungi when the adult whiteflies are most abundant; fungus
appears to spread most readily to the new growths upon which
the adults may be seen congregating in great numbers; when
the fungus spreads to a neighboring tree, it may start to grow
on those branches and twigs which are situated well up in
the tree, so that the whitefly would be expected to alight upon
them first; the whitefly is the most abundant flying insect in
the grove, and hence might be expected to disseminate fungus
spores; and lastly, the red fungus failed to spread from fun-








Annual Report, 19o8.


gus-bearing leaves scattered on the ground to the trees in the
small grove at Place C, at Leesburg. Besides, it is easy to
imagine that the adults, as they walk about the leaves dotted
with fungus (especially during moist weather), collect spores
or fragments of the fungus on their feet, and deposit them
again on other leaves or on larvae. Judging by the sticky
consistency of the spore-masses of the Aschersonias, the spores
cannot be wind-borne, but are likely to be carried by insects.
The fact that when one half of a tree infested with whitefly
is sprayed with fungus spores (red Aschersonia) the unspray-
ed half of the tree will not develop fungus before the spores
on the sprayed half have ripened, also. suggests that the sporids
are not borne by wind. That sporids exist has been demon-
strated by Professor Fawcett (see Annual Report, 1907, p.
xlvii), but what purpose they serve remains to be determined.

3. THE WIIITEFLY MATURES ON DETACHED LEAVES.-On
November 20 and 21, 1-907, Mr. R. Y. Winters and the writer
made careful inspection of some of the citrus and cape jasmine
trees at DeLand' which had been defoliated during the previ-
ous February, but in which the whitefly had reappeared in
abundance during the summer. Careful inspection of the veg-
etation in the neighborhood of these trees revealed no plants
infested with whitefly which could have acted as carriers dur-
ing the period when the citrus trees were leafless; but, of
course, it does not necessarily follow that such carriers did
not exist. The writer finally decided to carefully examine
the dead leaves accumulated under a cape jasmine, especially
those that had collected in small hollows near the trunk. Sev-
eral thousands of such leaves were examined by Mr. Winters
and the writer, with the result that well-matured larvae and
pupae, apparently alive and healthy, were found on some
leaves that were dead and brown, but were sufficiently moist
to be flexible. The writer at length found an adult specimen
about half emerged from the pupa-case on such a leaf. The
specimen was freed from its case and found to be alive. Mr.
Winters carefully inspected the fallen leaves of certain citrus
trees with similar results. Seemingly live and healthy pupae
were found upon leaves which, though dead, generally had
enough moisture to be flexible. Some of these leaves were
taken to the Experiment Station by Mr. Winters, and after
a few days live adults were found under the bell-jar. Two
days later the writer found apparently live pupae on a few








lyvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

partly dried and curled leaves of citrus in another yard at
DeLand. On June 17, some of the fallen leaves under the
cape jasmine were again examined, and half-dried leaves with
plump, live larvae were found, also a pupa on a brown dry
leaf. After visiting DeLand on January 17 and 18, 1908,
the writer brought back to Gainesville several small leafy
twigs of the cape jasmine just referred to, well infested with
whitefly larvae. A portion of this material was placed in a
small cloth sack and covered with a thin layer of vegetable
rubbish and sand at the foot of a la-rge magnolia tree near the
University. On March the twenty-second, live adults were
emerging, and some of the leaves were still green. Another
portion of the material was placed on sand in the greenhouse,
under a bell-jar with open top covered with cheese cloth.
Live adults came out at the end of two months, and a few
of the leaves were .st-ill green. In both experiments, how-
ever, the larvae on the leaves which were dark-brown or dry
soon died.
The foregoing observations leave no doubt that some
whitefly can be carried through the winter on dead, partly
dried leaves scattered under trees. The experiment with the
fresh, green jasmine leaves indicate, furthermore, that it is
possible for such leaves, if buried in the sand, or otherwise
protected, to remain green for at least two months, allowing
whitefly larvae to mature upon them in time to infe!;t the early
new growth.
4. EXTERMINATION BY DEFOLIATION.-The previous ob-
servations and experiments show fairly well why the attempts
at exterminating the whitefly at DeLand in 1907 by defolia-
tion failed, notwithstanding that all leaves were presumed to
be burnt. Some of the trees had teen banked with earth, and
the whitefly appeared in abundance in these trees after the
defoliation. That the defoliation was nevertheless useful can
hardly be doubted, since it must have been at least equivalent
to a season's spraying or a fumigation in keeping the whitefly
in check. The defoliation was completed after the partial
defoliation by the December freeze of 1907, so that the ex-
pense of it was much less than it would otherwise have been.
I believe that it may frequently be advisable to finish defoliat-
ing whitefly-infested trees, when a freeze has already cut off
most of the leaves.








Annual Report, 1908. Ivii

5. HONEYDEW ExCRETED.-Leaves with many whitefly
larvae were placed between two glass plates, and it was found
that the honeydew ejected by the insects was deposited in
small drops on the glass opposite the vasiform orifice (vent).
In some instances the liquid was ejected upward a distance
of 1-8 inch or more. Pupae on the point of transforming into
the winged form secrete honeydew, as well as larvae of all
stages. A lot of larvae of perhaps the third and fourth stages
of growth excreted at the rate of .0005 gramme each in forty-
eight hours. At this rate about i,ooo,ooo larvae could excrete
one pound of honeydew in forty eight hours; which would be
at the rate of fifteen pounds per month, or one hundred and
eighty pounds per year. A large part of the excretion is prob-
ably sugar, and this no doubt in part accounts for the insipid
fruit from whitefly-infested trees.
6. SPREADING OF THE WHITEFLY.-During' the past year
the whitefly has made its appearance in at least two localities
hitherto free from it. It has been reported from Palm Beach;
and specimens have been recently sent in from Geneva.
7. OTHER FOOD-PLANT.-One addition to the list of food-
plants of the whitefly has been made during the year. A
pomegranate bush at Leesburg in close proximity to citrus
trees was observed to be thoroughly infested with whitefly
larvae in December, 1907. Later on, empty pupa cases were
observed, which shows that the whitefly can mature on this
bush.
8. PREDACEOUS INSECTS.-At one time during the year
about a dozen of the twice-stabbed ladybird (Chilocorus bi-
vulnerus Muls.), frequently found in abundance on citrus
trees, were confined in a tin can, in which several leaves
severely infested with whitefly larvae had been placed. After
a few days, many larvae had holes eaten into them from
either the top or sides. In some instances the center of a
larva had been eaten out, and the eating had apparently begun
at the side.
The larvae aphiss lions) of lace-winged flies (family Chry-
sopidae) also frequently occur in considerable abundance in
citrus trees. The writer has frequently found aphis lions cov-
ered with the empty shells of whitefly larvae and scale insects.
9. MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY.-Considerable material repre-
senting the different stages of the whitefly, together with








Iviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

larvae in various degrees of fungus infection, has been col-
lected and preserved for the purpose of making microscopic
mounts; and' many slides have been mounted ready for scudy-
ing. This work is intended to cover the morphology, embry-
ology, and some physiology of the insect, as well as the manner
in which 'the fungi gain entrance into the body of the whitefly
larvae.
10. Two SPECIES.-Ther: apparently two species of
whitefly seriously affecting te citrus trees in Florida. The
writer has several times obser -d that the eggs of the white-
fly in certain localities in Florida had a different appearance
from those in other localities. Prof. H. A. Morgan2 figured
the reticulated type of egg of the whitefly in Louisiana in
1893, and in his description of the egg mentioned "a film-like
covering arranged in hexagons * *"; but it is evident that
he was not aware of two types of egg, representing two species
of whitefly seriously affecting citrus. Morgan gives in this
bulletin the name of the whitefly observed by him in Louisiana
as Aleyrodes citrifolii, quoting as his authority Riley in an
unpublished' manuscript. This is presumably the manuscript
which was published later on in "Insect Life," the name of
the insect being there given as Aleyrodes citri Riley and How-
ard. The description in this article in "Insect Life" clearly
refers to the species with smooth eggs, the description of the
larva of the first stage also agreeing 'with the character of the
larva which hatches from the smooth egg, and not with the
one from the reticulated egg. Up to this time no description
of the latter insect has been found. The writer is, therefore,
satisfied that the citrus whitefly of Florida with the reticulated
egg is an undescribed species distinct from the citrus whitefly
of Florida with the smooth egg (Aleyrodes citri) ; the differ-
ence in the eggs alone being considered sufficient to make the
distinction. Careful comparisons, however, have revealed dif-
ferences between the pupae, and also between the adults, of
the two species, as well as between their eggs and newly
hatched larvae. The species with the reticulated eggs is found
at Clearwater, Largo, and Sutherland on the west coast; and
at Mims, Titusville, and Geneva .on the east coast. It also
occurs at Orlando, and, no doubt, in other places. At Largo
both species were found in the same tree.

2 'Special Bulletin of the Louisiana State Experiment Station,
1893.









Annual Report, 190o8.


II. PRESS BULLETINS AND ADDRESSES.

Five press bulletins were written during the year. Two
addresses were given before the Pinellas Orange Growers'
Association; one before the St. Johns River Fruit Growers'
Association; and two were prepared for the Florida State
Horticultural Society during its session at Gainesville in
May, 1908.
PRESS BULLETINS.
No. 80o: "Whitefly Control-Spraying With Fungus Spores," Feb.
5, 1908.
No. 82: "W'hitefly Control-Introducing the Friendly Fungi," Mar.
2, ro908.
No. 83: "Fungus Parasites of Hard ,or Armored Scales," Mar. 4, 1908.
No. 88: "Use of a Hand Magnifier," Apr. II, 1908.
No. 89: "Spraying for Scale Insects," Apr. 18, 1908.

ADDRESSES.
"General Principles of Insect Control.-The Whitefly": Clear-
water, Dec. 7, 1907.
"Do Scale Insects Multiply Abnormally When Trees Become
Infested With Whitefly?": Largo, June 6, 19o8.
"Introducing the Fungus Parasites of Whitefly Larvae": DeLand,
Jan. 18, 1908.
"Controlling the Whitefly by Its Natural Enemies.-Report of
Progress and Other Observations": Gainesville, May 14, 1908.
"Nursery Inspection from the Inspector's Side."

III. OTHER INJURIOUS INSECTS.

The following insects were received for identification, or
were observed to be injurious:
Pulvinaria psidii Maskell (a scale infesting guava and
Ficus), was reported to the Experiment Station by Dr. L. 0.
Howard, and specimens were received (by request) from Mr.
P. J. Wester, of the Subtropical Laboratory at Miami. Dr.
Howard stated that this scale has not hitherto been reported
in the United States, but that it exists in several of the West
Indian Islands, and is equal in destructiveness to the black
scale of California, is a prolific breeder, and is followed by
sooty mold.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


Rhyncophora, or snout beetles (family Otiorhynchidae),
were received in considerable numbers from Mr. William
Allen, of Porto Rico. Mr. Allen reported that these beetles
feed' upon the leaves of orange trees, and are also the cause
of a peculiar crusty scarring of oranges. Other observers,
however, appear to doubt whether this scarring is due to these
beetles. The specimens were identified by Mr. E. A. Schwartz,
of the Bureau of Entomology (by the courtesy of Dr. C. L.
Marlatt) as belonging to the genus Lachnopus. A few speci-
mens of another species, Lachnopus hispidus Gyllh.; also iden-
tified by Mr. Schwartz, were also sent by Mr. Allen. The
first species is of a pale green color, while the second is black
with scattered patches of whitish scales. Mr. Allen states
that he has sprayed his trees with arsenate of lead with prom-
ising results during the wet season when these beetles are
abundant. Figure i, Plate I, represents the green species.
The writer is not certain whether these beetles occur in Flor-
ida, but if they do not, and should be introduced, serious con-
sequence might follow. It is for this reason that the preceding
notes have been written.
Phorbia fusciceps Zett. (the seed-corn maggot fly) was
discovered in a garden near Gainesville on February 6, 1908.
The maggots do injury by boring into and feeding within
the stems and roots of many plants. In this instance the
maggots were destroying seed potatoes, peas, radishes, and
onions. Maggots and some pupae were collected on the above
date, and in five days twelve out of the seventeen maggots
had pupated. Fifteen out of sixteen pupae developed into
adult flies. There were nine males and five females. The
average period of the pupal state for twelve specimens was
eleven days. Dr. E. H. Sellards (Report of Entomologist,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Station, 1905, p. 19) states that this maggot
occurred on seed potatoes at Green Cove Springs, and gives
the name as Pegomya fusciceps. The specimens from Gaines-
ville were identified for the writer by Prof. Jas. S. Hine, of
the Ohio State University. Dr. Sellards wrote in the report
quoted that "The attack on the potatoes is made from the
cut surface * *. Starting from the cut surface tunnels are
run in various directions through all parts of the potato. In
some cases the potatoes were found much decayed, hardly
anything of the potato remaining but the outer skin." This
statement quite agrees with the writer's observations. The













PLATE I.


f


; ,, -








-
:
:/ ^




FIG. I. Light green Snout Beetle from Orange.
Lachnofus sp. X 2.


(2'


FIG. 2. Larvae
(maggots) of
Phorbia fuscicejfs.
X 2.


FIG. 3. Empty pupa cases
of Phorbiafuscicefs. X 2.


FIG. 4. Adults of Phorbia
fuscicefs. X 2.


I











Annual Report, 1908. lxiii

flies may have deposited the eggs while the potatoes were
exposed uncovered on the ground during the process of plant-
ing. If such is the case, the remedy is at hand-cover the
potatoes at once when they have been planted in the hole. On
the other hand, the garden at Gainesville had' previously been
waste ground, overrun with grasses and weeds, whose roots
the maggots may have been attacking, and they may have
afterwards migrated to the potatoes where these came in con-
tact with the roots of the weeds. If this supposition is correct,
fall plowing and keeping down all vegetation until planting-
time may be the remedy. On the onions, radishes, and peas
the stems were attacked after the usual manner. (See Figs.
2, 3 and 4, Plate I.)

IV. NURSERY INSPECTION.

Fifteen nurseries were inspected from September 23 to
November 29; of which number fourteen were certified. The
fee of $5 collected from each certified nursery was paid over
to the Experiment Station. All traveling expenses were paid
by the nurserymen. The time spent in this work of travel and
inspection, was nineteen or twenty days.
Respectfully submitted,
E. W. BERGER,
Entomologist.








Floridd Agricultural Experiment Station.


REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PATHOLOGIST.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit the following report as Assistant Plant
Pathologist.
The principal subjects of investigation for the past year
have been the diseases of citrus trees, the greater part of the
work having been confined to the scaly bark disease. The
severity of this disease and its nature were described for the
first time in the Annual Report of the Experiment Station for
last year. Incidentally, more or less study was made of dis-
eases of other plants cultivated in the State. The study of
the fungi parasitic upon insect pests of citrus was also con-
tinued whenever specimens suitable for this study were pre-
sented. Two more fungi parasitic upon citrus insects have
come under our attention since last report.

CITRUS DISEASES.

SCALY BARK.-An account of the history, distribution,
effect, and severity of this disease was given in the Annual
Report of the Experiment Station for 1907 (pages xliii-xlv).
The field and laboratory investigations begun last year with
a view of finding the cause of this disease, have been con-
tinued. Experiments have also been carried on in a badly
diseased grove, for the purpose of obtaining scientific informa-
tion that might lead directly to the discovery of a remedy for
the trouble. These experiments are being conducted on a
grove of about 170 diseased orange trees, at Bayview, Fla.
The effect of Bordeaux mixture upon the disease is being
thoroughly tested. Preliminary series of spraying experi-
ments have been made at intervals of two months throughout
the year. Sixteen plots of nine trees each were experimented
upon in this way. In. addition to these spraying experiments,
other methods of treatment are being tested. The develop-
ment of the disease is very slow, and' consequently it will take
another year or more before definite conclusions can be drawn
as to the effects of the treatment now in operation. Consid-
erable progress has been made, however, in searching out the
effects and course of development of the disease, from the
earliest appearance of the diseased areas to the killing of the


lxiv








Annual Report, 19o8.


twigs. Evidence has accumulated to show that the withertip
fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz., plays a prom-
inent part in the work of destruction, though it is not the
primary cause of the trouble. A study of the disease, both by
the microscope and by observations in the citrus groves, is
being pushed forward at the present time. The disease has
not been so generally destructive during the past year as it
was the year before. This was probably due to drier weather
throughout last summer and autumn.
SMOKY FUNGUS (Leptothyrium pomi ?).-The smoky
appearance of the orange caused by this fungus is not to be
confused with the blackening due to the sooty mold which
accompanies the whitefly. The smoky fungus causes no no-
ticeable injury, to the fruit itself. It does, however, mask the
bright color of the fruit by a layer of dark-colored, mycelial
threads, which spread over the surface of the rind. It may
be rubbed off with the fingers, and so is attributed' by some
growers to the accumulation of dust particles from the air.
It is most apt to occur in moist groves, late in the fall, and
on oranges that have remained on the tree after they are ripe.
The selling quality of the fruit is naturally somewhat impaired
by the presence of this fungus.
Remedies.-(I) The smokiness may be readily removed
from the fruit by putting it through a washer like those used
for freeing fruit from the sooty mold fungus. (2) In the course
of our investigations on the scaly bark disease it was noticed
incidentally that Bordeaux mixture was effective in preventing
the appearance of the smoky fungus, if applied at the proper
time of the year. One spraying about the first of October
kept off the smoky fungus and did not cause sufficient increase
in scale insects to injure the appearance of the fruit. Two
or three sprayings, however, during the summer, caused such
an increase in the number of scale insects as to materially
injure the fruit, leaves, and small branches. This increase
in scale insects was due to the Bordeaux mixture having killed
the fungi that were parasitic upon them, thus giving them
immunity from their fungus enemies. When spraying to pre-
vent attacks of smoky fungus it may be suggested that the
solution should be applied, as far as possible, only to the fruit.
The spray should' be kept away from the larger limbs and the
trunk, where the beneficial fungi are usually located in con-
siderable abundance. A weak solution, consisting of 3 pounds


a.r.-5








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


of quicklime, and 3 pounds of copper sulphate to 50 gallons
of water may be used. (See Bul. 76, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.)

WITHERTIP (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.).-
This disease has been quite severe on citrus trees in some
parts of the State. Last November it occurred in a number
of groves near DeLand, causing much damage. It killed back
twigs and limbs even in otherwise healthy and well kept
groves. It was noticed, in some cases, that the damage done
by withertip became evident after several weeks of dry weather
following a period of moist weather., It was also noticed that
in a neighborhood where groves were close .together, the dis-
ease would frequently be severe in one grove, while at. the
same time a neighboring grove would remain free from it.
Within the same grove also there were individual trees and
individual limbs of a tree that were attacked, while other trees
of the grove and other limbs of the diseased' tree remained
uninjured. The difference in the action of the fungus toward
different limbs of the same tree is probably due to a differ-
ence in the vitality of the individual limbs. Any cause render-
ing a branch somewhat weak, such as a previous heavy load
of fruit, would most probably render that branch susceptible
to an attack bf the fungus. The same would doubtless be
true in regard to the susceptibility or immunity to the disease
of the different trees in a grove. Cases occur that can be ac-
counted for by considering trees as individuals, each slightly
different from the other. One tree apparently just as healthy
as another is for some cause not yet understood, less resistant
to this particular disease, and is therefore attacked, while the
tree next 'to it may remain uninjured.
Treatment.-(I) In all cases where it is possible, the
diseased limbs should be pruned out. This should be done
by cutting across the limbs some distance below the diseased
part. The limb will usually be affected for some space below
any .visible injury, and care should be taken to cut far enough
back into what appears to be healthy tissue to get out all of
the wood into which the fungus has entered.
(2) Where the disease appears only on .the fruit and
leaves, Bordeaux mixture has been found to be an effective
check on its spread. The use of Bordeaux mixture should be
avoided, however, unless the disease becomes very severe. The
objection against the use of this fungicide is that it allows an








Annual Report, 19o8.


increase of scale insects by killing off the fungi that are para-
sitic upon them. Whenever it becomes necessary to resort to
Bordeaux mixture for the cure of this disease, it should be
applied as far as possible only to the diseased fruit and leaves,
so as to avoid killing the beneficial fungi on the larger limbs
and trunk.
GUMMING.-The gumming disease of citrus trees con-
tinued to do much damage during the past year. The gum-
ming areas are usually on the trunk and larger limbs at a
considerable distance frofn the foot of the tree. This point
of difference, as was mentioned in last year's report, distin-
guishes the disease from foot-rot. It was described in the
Annual Report for last year (pages xlvi and xlvii). An
effective remedy for this disease has not yet been found. Cut-
ting out the affected areas and treating the wounds with car-
bolineum or other disinfectant is.recommended by some grow-
ers.
SCAB (Cladosporium citri Massee).-This disease was re-
ported from several localities as occurring on grapefruit and
lemons. It causes the leaves to become contorted and curled,
with the production of wart-like elevations or. raised scabby
areas of irregular size and shape. It is almost always to be
found on sour orange and lemon trees in every citrus-growing
section of the State. Only in the early part of the year, when
conditions of moisture and growth become favorable, does it
break out upon the grapefruit, Satsuma, and in rare instances,
upon the sweet orange.
Treatment.-Sometimes the disease breaks out early in the
year, on quite young leaves and fruit, in a very severe form.
The only known preventive of its spread is Bordeaux mixture,
applied early in the year. The same care should be used in
applying the Bordeaux so as to avoid killing the beneficial
fungi, as when spraying-to cure withertip.


PARASITIC FUNGI OF THE WHITEFLY.

Since our last report two additional fungi have been found
upon the whitefly (Aleyrodes citri)-the cinnamon fungus
(Verticillium heterocladum Penz.), and the white-fringe fun-
gus (Microcera sp.). The addition of these two swells the


lxvii








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


list of those species of fungi known to be parasitic upon the
whitefly to six, namely:
Red Aschersonia (Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber).
Yellow Aschersonia (Aschersonia flavo-citrina P. Henn.)
The Brown Fungus (spores unknown).
Red-headed Fungus (Sphaerostilbe coccophila Tul.)
Cinnamon Fungus (Verticillium heterocladum Penz.)
White-Fringe Fungus (Microcera sp.)

RED AND YELLOW ASCHERSONIAS.-The work with pure
cultures of the red and yellow Aschersonias grown in the lab-
oratory was briefly reported last year (Ann. Rep. 1907, pp.
xlvii-xlix). This work has been continued. Experiments
have been undertaken to develop a method of growing these
fungi in large quantities on sweet potato medium, for the pur-
pose of using the product to infect whitefly larvae upon orange
trees. The sweet potato medium was chosen because previous
culture work had shown it to be the most suitable medium
for the growth of these fungi (Ann. Rep. 1907, p. xlviii).
Large quantities of this medium were prepared in the follow-
ing way. The sweet potatoes were washed, peeled, washed
again, and put through a coarse meat chopper. The ground-
up mass was then washed in running water to get out the
fine particles. One portion of this medium was put into wide-
mouthed pint bottles, another portion into six-inch petri dishes,
and the remainder into moist chambers 12 inches in diameter.
All were then sterilized in an autoclave for about half an hour
at 1200C. Inoculations were made in two ways. (i) By
spraying the surface of the sweet potato mass with a water
dilution of spores from a previous culture. This was done
by means of a small atomizer. (2) By drawing a large
platinum loop, which had been inserted into a previous culture,
over the surface of the medium. Of the two methods only
the latter proved successful in producing fungi suitable for
infecting the whitefly. Where the spores were sprayed on the
surface of the medium, a superficial mat of mycelium grew,
which left no room for the development of pycnid'ial masses
with spores. Where the spores were put on with a platinum
loop, large raised masses of fungus containing abundant spores
were formed.


lxviii








Annual Report, 19o8.


Inoculation of Whitefly Larvae.-A mixture of some of
these cultures with water was used by the Entomologist, E.
W. Berger, when experimenting on the infection of whitefly
larvae. Larvae of whitefly were successfully infected with
the red Aschersonia by this method both at Gainesville and
at St. Petersburg. (See Report of Entomologist.)
THE CINNAMON FUNGUS (Verticillium heterocladunm
Penz.).-This fungus was brought to the writer's attention
in the autumn of 1905 by Dr. E. H. Sellards (then Entomol-
ogist of the Florida Experiment Station). It was found on
whitefly larvae at Palmetto. It is, however, only recently
that it has been shown to be a parasitic species. The first
specimens examined were found to be associated with the
sterile "brown fungus" discovered by Webber in 1896. It
was therefore thought at first that it might prove to be the
spore-bearing stage of the brown fungus, which it somewhat
resembles in general appearance. Cultures and infection ex-
periments, however, showed that it was a distinct species.
Evidence of this distinct character was afterwards obtained by
finding it in other localities and on other insects, where it was
in no way associated with the brown fungus.
General Description.-A preliminary notice containing a
general description of this fungus was published on December
14, 1907, in Press Bulletin 76. To a cursory view the cin-
namon fungus somewhat resembles the brown fungus. On
closer examination, however, it is seen to be different. The
fungus usually breaks out first in a ring or semicircle around
the edge of the whitefly larva, and then grows in and over
it until a hemispherical, cinnamon-colored pustule is formed.
The pustule becomes powdery in appearance, and under the
hand lens the center is seen to be made up of a mass of cin-
namon-colored hyphae, brush-like in arrangement. The hyphae
of this central mass break up into short pieces of irregular
lengths and shapes, some of which are quite short with
rounded -ends, thus resembling true spores. From the edge
of the pustules there grows out a layer of white, delicate
hyphae. From these colorless hyphae, as well as from the top
of the pustule, there arise upright conidiophores. These bear
the minute spores on the ends of simple or compound whorls
of branches.
Cultures.-Pure cultures of the fungus were grown in 5


lxix









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


per cent. glucose agar, by drawing a moistened platinum needle
over the upright brush of conidiophores, and washing it off
into the melted agar before pouring. In eight days pustules
of fungus resembling those upon. the whitefly larvae had
grown. The center of each pustule was reddish-brown, with
a fringe of white, out-growing hyphae, and an upright brush
of conidiophores. The fungus continued to grow, until in
thirty-two days a petri dish in which were four separate my-
celia, had developed cinnamon-colored masses 30-35 mm. in
diameter. The fungus was transferred to test-tubes of sterilized
Irish potato, sweet potato, rice, white cornmeal, stems of
canna, stems of caladium, and bread-on all of which it grew
to some extent. It grew best upon sweet potato-over the
entire surface of which it formed' a felted, cinnamon-colored
layer. Plate II, Figs. I and 2, shows cultures of the Cin-
namon fungus (Verticillium heterocladum Penz.) Right-
hand tube on bread, left-hand tube on potato. Natural size.

Infection Experiments.-Small orange trees in the green-
house, badly infested with whitefly larvae, were covered with
large bell-jars. Spores from a petri dish culture twenty-four
days old were shaken up in sterile water, and sprayed on the
plants with an atomizer. In 35 days several leaves were found
bearing pustules formed over the larvae.. These pustules were
identical with those from which the cultures had' first been
made. They became powdery in appearance and developed
spores. They were at no time observed to change to the
smooth, hard pustules that characterize the brown fungus. The
cinnamon fungus was also introduced at Gainesville in the
autumn of 1907 on to whitefly larvae in a privet hedge, by
pinning into it orange leaves bearing the fungus. It was also
introduced at McIntosh by Mr. Gaitskill in the same way.
Plate II, fig. 3, shows the cinnamon fungus growing on white-
fly larvae on an orange leaf.

Other Insects Attacked.-This fungus attacks the larvae
of other insects besides the whitefly. At Palmetto it was
observed to be growing over the purple scale (Mytilaspis citri-
cola) on orange leaves. It was afterwards found on Myti-
laspis gloverii at Gainesville. It was also found upon a species
of Diaspis on the leaves of the strawberry bush (Euonymus
Americanus) in the woods near Gainesville. The cinnamon











PLATE II.


FIG. 1. Culture of the Cin-
namon Fungus on potato.
Natural size.


FIG. 2. Culture of the
Cinnamon F1tus on bread.
Nature! si'e.


FIG. 3.--Cinnamon Fungus on Whitefly. x 1 3-8








Annual Report, 19o8.


fungus was described by 0. Penzig 3 as occurring upon Leca-
nium hesperidum on lemon leaves in Italy. J. Parkin 4 refers
to Gueguen 5 as authority for the statement that Verticillium
heterocladum has been found in Africa and the Antilles; but
no insect larvae are mentioned by Parkin as hosts. As far
as is known, the fungus has not previously been reported upon
insect larvae in this country. In Florida the cinnamon fungus
has been found in the following localities: Palmetto, Manatee,
St. Petersburg, Apopka, Citra, McIntosh, and Gainesville.
The cinnamon fungus is probably not as effective in de-
stroying the whitefly larvae as the Aschersonias or the "brown
fungus." It has been found in large quantities in only a few
cases. It has been observed, however, under favorable con-
ditions of moisture to effectively parasitize whitefly larvae and
also some species of scale insects.
WHITE-FRINGE FUNGUS (Microcera sp.).-In Septem-
ber, 1907, Prof. P. H. Rolfs noticed that great numbers of
whitefly larvae were being killed in a grove at Sutherland,
Fla., where none of the known whitefly fungi were present.
Specimens of these larvae were brought to the laboratory.
and on microscopic examination a species of fungus which
appeared to belong to the genus Microcera was found. After
experiments in which healthy larvae were successfully infected
from pure cultures, a general description of the fungus was
published in Press Bulletin 68, under the name of Microcera
sp. Later study has shown that it is probably a species of
Fusarium; but since the distinction between these two genera
is somewhat vague, we prefer to hold to the name Microcera
sp. until the perfect stage of the fungus is discovered. This
fungus was found subsequently in the following localities on
whitefly larvae: Largo, Manatee, Leesburg, Orlando, Titus-
ville, and Safety Harbor.
General Description.-The white-fringe fungus, unlike the
other whitefly fungi, is not at all conspicuous to the unaided
eye. No pustules are formed. Only under favorable condi-
tions of moisture can its presence be determined even with a

3 Stu'di Botan'ici sugle Agrumi e sulle Plante Affini, p. 398,
Tavola XLI, fig. 3. Roma, 1887.
4 Annals Roy Bot. Gard. Peradeniya, Vol. III, Part I, p. 45,
(Reprint), 1906.
5 "Gueguen. Les Champignons parasites de 1'homme et des
animaux. p. 252. Paris, 1904."


lxxiii









lxxiv Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

hand-lens. It then shows fringes of delicate white mycelium
growing outward from the margins of the larvae. Under the
compound microscope, the hyphae are seen to bear one, two,
and three-celled oval or fusiform spores on the ends of deli-
cate branches. Later on the fringes may disappear," and there
are formed very small, pinkish, compact spore masses at the
margins of the dead larvae or on the surface. These masses
are made up of lunate spores, 3 to 5-septate, fresh specimens
of which vary from 28 to 40 microns in length, and from 3.5
to 5 microns in breadth. The mycelial fringe is very delicate,
usually disappearing when the specimens are dried.
Cultures.-The growth of this fungus in cultures was
much more rapid than that of. any other whitefly fungi. In
twenty-four hours the growth was visible to the unaided' eye.
In three days, large white mycelia 10-12 mm. in diameter had
formed. In nine days the growth had covered the entire sur-
face of the medium. These mycelia were pure white. They
grew in loose tufts with upwardly projecting irregularly
branching hyphae, forming a loose fluffy mass. This soon
collapsed when the cover of the petri dish was removed. A mi-
croscopic examination showed that numerous conidia were
present on the ends of the branched hyphae. The fungus was
transferred' to test-tubes of Irish potato, rice, and bread-on
all of which it grew very rapidly, and in a few days covered
the entire surfaces of the media with a white, loose growth.
With age, the cultures of rice and bread showed pink spore-
masses like those common to species of Fusarium.
Infection Experiment.-Five different branches on a pri-
vet hedge .infested with whitefly larvae, were treated with
spores of this fungus in order to test its parasitism. Four of
these infections were made from cultures, and one from in-
fected whitefly larvae. The transference was made by means
of a moist camel's-hair brush. One branch infected' from a
culture was tied up in cheese cloth. This was removed in
three days. Another branch not treated was similarly tied up
in cheese cloth, which was also removed in three days. The
infection experiments were made towards evening after a
rain, and this was followed by two weeks of fairly moist
weather. On all the branches treated, quantities of spores of
this fungus were found on dead larvae after sixteen days.
On one branch which had not been tied' up in cheese cloth,
spores were formed in nine days. Thr untreated branch tied








Annual Report, 19o8.


up in cheese cloth, as well as other branches at some distance
from the infected branches, showed no signs of the fungus
after sixteen days. Not all of the larvae, however, on the
infected branches were killed. After the two weeks of moist
weather that followed the experiment there was a period of
dry weather lasting two weeks. At the end of that time nearly
50 per cent. of the larvae were apparently still alive,' and the
fungus had ceased' growing. The experiment indicates that
the fungus requires favorable conditions of moisture for its
growth, and it is probably even more dependent upon moisture
than are any of the other whitefly fungi. Further experi-
ments on a larger scale will be necessary to show whether or
not this fungus will prove to be of practical value in control-
ling the whitefly.
Technical Description.-Mycelium pure white; hyphae
delicate, loose-branching, septate, hyaline, 4-5 microns thick,
collapsing when dry; conidia at first borne on the ends of the
branches, one and two-celled, oval to oblong, 7-12 by 3 mi-
crons. Pycnidia various in size, cushion-shaped, pink; conidia,
fusoid, curved, in a compact mass, 3 to 5-septate, mostly 28-
40 by 3.5-5 microns. Some conidia reach 52 microns in
length.
On Aleyrodes citri R. & H., in citrus trees in Florida,
U. S. A.

CABBAGE DISEASE.

BLACK ROT (Pseudomonas campestris (Pammel) Erw.
Smith).-A bacterial disease known as "black rot" has been
causing serious loss to cabbage, cauliflower, and ruta-baga
crops in the State for several years. In February, 1908, a
trip was made to Sutherland, at the request of a number of
vegetable growers of that section, in order to determine what
disease was destroying their cabbage, cauliflower, and ruta-
baga crops. An examination of the fields showed that black
rot was prevalent throughout the section, destroying from 25
to 75 per cent. of the crops. Cultures made from diseased
plants revealed the presence of yellow bacteria (Pseudomonas
campestris) in specimens of the three plants named.
Black rot is a wide-spread and destructive disease in many
parts of the United States where cabbages and the allied
plants are grown in large quantities for market. The organ-


lxxv








lxxvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


ism causing the disease was first described by Prof. L. H.
Pammel of the Iowa Station,6 as occurring on ruta-bagas. The
organism was more thoroughly described in 1897, by Dr.
Erwin F. Smith,7 Plant Pathologist of -the Bureau of Plant
Industry, and recommendations for the prevention of the dis-
ease were given by the same author in Farmers' Bulletin 68
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The results of fur-
ther investigations were reported from the New York Agr.
Exp. Station by Stewart and Harding in Bulletin 232, and
by Stewart and Prucha in Bulletin 251. The disease was
noticed by F. M. Rolfs in the Annual Report of this Station
for 1905, as widely spread and destructive.
General Description.-The bacterium causing this disease
enters into one of the water-pores on the edge of a cabbage
leaf, or into a wound caused by the bite of an insect. The
organism reproduces itself rapidly, and the effect on the tissue
soon shows as an irregular yellowish area. From the inner edge
of this area the bacteria proceed inward and downward, black-
ening the veins of the leaf as they spread. The bacteria then
invade the stem, which when cut across shows a dark ring
corresponding to the position of the vessels. From the stem
the blackening finally extends upward into the inner part of
the head, causing it to rot. Some cabbage plants show a se-
quence of rotting which indicates that the bacteria have prob-
ably entered through wounds at the base of the stem. Pro-
fessor Stewart speaks of finding evidence of such infection.

Plate III represents a vertical section through the head
and stem of a cabbage plant, showing the lines and areas
blackened by the rot bacteria.
Plate IV, fig. i (a) depicts a cross section of a cabbage
stem showing a ringed area blackened by the bacteria, and a
cavity on one side connected with a softened area in the
center: fig. i (b) shows a cross-section of stem of ruta-baga
near the crown with similar infection.
Preventive Measures.-The following recommendations
were given to the vegetable growers of the section above re-
ferred to, as applicable to conditions in this State:

6 Iowa Agr. Exp.,Sta. Bul. 27, pp. 130-134.
7 Centralb. ffir Bakt. II, Vol. 3, pp. 284-291, 408-415, 478-486.
















PLATE III.


Vertical section through the head of a cabbage, showing lines and areas
blackened by the rot bacteria (Pseudomonas campestris).








Annual Report, 19o8.


I. Seed-bed.-The seed-bed should be prepared in fresh
soil, in which plants of the cabbage family (cabbages, ruta-
bagas, cauliflowers, collards, turnips, mustard, or cruciferous
weeds) have not been growing. This is necessary because
the bacteria may live from one season to another in decayed
plants of this family.
2. Seeds.-The seeds should be treated in the following
way before planting. Put them in a cloth sack, and lower the
sack for fifteen minutes into a solution of corrosive sublimate
(one part to a thousand parts of water) ; then'spread the seeds
out to dry-not allowing the direct rays of the sun to fall
upon them. Do not use a metal vessel, as this would be cor-
roded by the solution. Corrosive sublimate tablets may be
bought from a druggist, and one tablet is sufficient to treat
a pound of cabbage seed.
3. Planting Out.-From the seed-bed the plants should
be set out as far as possible in ground that has not been
planted' in cabbages or closely related plants during the previ-
ous season, and never in soil on which refuse plants related to
the cabbage have been allowed to rot.
4. Manuring.-The use of stable manure or compost
should be avoided, since such fertilizers are known to cause
fields to remain infected by keeping the bacteria alive from
one season to another. The potash in the commercial fertil-
izer should be slightly increased, as this will probably harden
the plants and make them less liable to an attack of the dis-
ease, and also cause them to suffer less if attacked.
5. Destroying Infected' Plants.-As soon as any plants
show the disease, they should be taken out and destroyed at
once. This is suggested because insects carry the disease
from one plant to another, and it is probable that 'the wind
also distributes it over the fields by blowing dust from infected
plants to those that are still healthy.
6. Cleaning Tools.-As an extra precaution, all tools and
implements that have been used in infected soil should be
sterilized by wiping them with a dilute solution of crude car-
bolic acid before using them in newly planted soil. At the
very least, the implements should be scoured bright .before
using in the new field.
7. Preparing for the Next Season.-As soon as the crop
is marketed, all refuse plants and old stubs that remain in
the field, should be completely destroyed; either by plowing


lxxix








lxxx Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

under, or better, by removal from the field and burying or
burning. All plants of the cruciferous, or cabbage family,
should also be prevented' from. living over in the fields that
are to be used for cabbages in the future.
8. Rotation Crops.-The cleared field should be planted
to crab-grass, beggarweed, or velvet beans, These crops are
not at all subject to the black rot disease, and will keep the
soil in good condition for next year's crop of vegetables, as
well as help to starve out the black rot bacteria in the soil.
Cowpeas should not be planted, because this crop will harbor
the root-knot parasite that is also destructive to the cabbage.
The prevention of the disease and its eradication from in-
fected fields, depends on the strict following out of every one
of these eight points. The neglect of any one may be fatal
to success.
LETTUCE DISEASE.
BACTERIAL ROT.-A rotting of lettuce heads, which has
been proved by inoculation experiments to be due to a species
of bacterium was prevalent in fields about Gainesville in
December, 1907. The disease is quite distinct from the let-
tuce drop, due to the fungus Sclerotinia libertiana Fuckel, al-
though the two diseases may frequently occur in the same
lettuce head. The first appearance of the disease is shown
by small, irregular, dark areas, which occur most often on the
edges of the leaves. Sometimes they seem to begin at the
middle or base of a leaf. The dark places on the thin leaf
tissue lose their chlorophyll. They become thin and trans-
lucent without causing any general wilting of the plant. The
tissue of the midrib may at first-be discolored for some dis-
tance, while still remaining firm. One side of a leaf is fre-
quently involved, while the opposite side may remain green
for some time. Occasionally only a narrow area adjacent to
a vein is discolored. In the later stages of the disease, how-
ever, the entire head becomes blackened and partially softened.
internally.
Cultures.-Pure cultures of a species of bacterium were
obtained from several specimens of diseased lettuce, by in-
serting a sterile needle into the ends of blackened midribs.
The bacterial colonies were isolated in standard peptonized'
agar 1.5 to phenolphthalein. In each case nearly all of the
colonies were of one definite kind, shape, arid color. Petri
dish cultures, made on December 13, 1907, and left in a room









. PLATE IV.


FIG. I. (a) Cross section of cabbage stem showing infection by rot bacteria
in the vascular ring and center. (b) Cross section of infected
rutabaga stem.


FIG. 2. Culture of Lettuce Rot bacteria. Natural size.


a.r.-6








Annual Report, 1908.


temperature of about 200 C. had developed nothing in twenty-
four hours. When examined on December 16 (three days
after), colonies which were not crowded had developed' to
a diameter of 5-8mm. The colonies were at this age pale
white, very thin, and almost transparent, with even margins.
In a week the colonies were still transparent; but some of them
had developed small, translucent, pearly-white foci, and an
indefinite, hazy, transparent margin as shown in Plate IV,
Fig. 2. The organisms in a hanging drop under a compound
microscope were seen to be actively motile. They were about
twice as long as broad, with rounded ends. They measured
about 1.5 microns in length by 0.7 microns in width, after
staining. They stained readily in carbol-fuchsin and aqueous
gentian violet, and with difficulty in methylene blue. Plate IV,
Fig. 2, represents a petri dish culture of the bacteria causing
lettuce rolt; isolated December 20, 1907; printed December
27, 1907. Showing the indefinite margins of the colonies.
Natural size.
Inoculation Experiments.-On December 16, 1907, six
lettuce plants, that had previously been put into pots in the
greenhouse, were inoculated from petri dish cultures made on
December 13. Four other plants of the same age were left
without inoculation as checks. The plants were of the Big
Boston variety, just coming into head, and were perfectly
healthy when the inoculations were made. Three heads were
inoculated from water dilutions of bacteria. Three heads were
also inoculated from bouillon dilutions of the bacteria. The
water and bouillon dilutions were painted over the. surface of
the lettuce leaves with a camel's-hair brush, and two of the
plants were covered with a large bell-jar. The other four
and the check plants were kept m9ist by spraying twice a day.
Detailed notes were made on each of these plants at intervals
of two, three, or five days, for twelve days. In four days
every one of the inoculated plants showed the presence of the
disease by darkened areas of various sizes. None of the check
plants showed the least sign of disease. In a week.all of the
inoculated plants were badly diseased, and' some of the heads
had begun to rot. None of the checks showed any disease in
a week's time. In addition to the six heads inoculated from
cultures, two others were inoculated by placing inside of the
heads between the leaves small pieces of blackened tissue from
previously diseased heads. Both of these finally showed the
characteristics of the same disease. The greatest number of


lxxxiii












lxxxiv Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


large disease areas developed on the leaves near the pieces
of tissue that had been inserted into the heads.

Detailed Record of Inoculation Experiment.-Plants Nos.
i to 3 were inoculated from water dilution; Nos. 4 to 6 from
bouillon dilution; 7 to 8 by insertion of diseased tissue between
leaves; Nos. 9 to 12 were checks. Nos. 3 and 6 were covered'
with large, open-topped bell-jars. The bell-jar of No. 3 was
left open, that of No. 6 was covered with cheese cloth. Table
XXIII shows the progress of the disease.




TABLE XXIII.


Dec. 18.
No. I JAreas 1-12 in. in dia-
imeter near an in-
jured point on leaf



No. 2 Two small discolor-
led areas on one
leaf, one on another
leaf.

No. 3" No evident infec.
jtion.



No. 4 lNo evident infec-
Ition.




No. 5 lOne leaf with
Slightly injured
|point shows begin-
ning of infection.



No. 6 [Brown areas form-
ling. Longest near
Im i drib s. Some
[leaves checkered all
lover with brown
spots.

No. 7 Discolored area only
where diseased tis-
sue came in con-
tact with healthy
leaf.


Dec. 20. Dec. 23. Dec. 27.
Areas darkened Areas 1-2 to 1 Badly diseased
on o u t s i d e inch in length, speckled areas on
leaves, edges of leaves.
Large areas on
side veins and
along midribs.

T i s s u e giving Largest area 1-2 Edges of midribs
way in diseased inch long on one darkened toward
areas, midrib. bases. Ten spots
out on blades,
small.

Small dark areas All the leaves Areas 1-4 to 3-4
on few of out- much blackened inch in diameter,
S. ckled becoming dry.


Ten areas 1-25
to 1-12 inch in
diameter on out-
side leaves.


Small areas on
leaves. One mid-
rib showing dis-
tinct browning.



Leaves speckled
with b r o w n
areas. Midribs of
5 leaves dark-
colored, with
areas 1-2 to 3-4
inch long.
Large area of
brown on midrib
adjacent to rot-
ted piece of let-
tuce.


Brown areas on
midribs of leaves.
Midribs m u c h
blackened toward
the base s.
Speckled appear-
ance on younger
leaves.
Speckled areas
on younger
leaves. M u c h
browning on baste
of inner leaves.


All leaves badly
spotted. Long,
dark areas on
midribs.



Leaves adjacent
to diseased tis-
sue much black-
ened. Leaves on
opposite side if
plant attacked.
Inner Dart of
head discolored.


No record kept.





Areas spreading
inward 1-4 to
1-2 inch from
edges of leaves.
Elongated areas
along the mid- -
ribs.
Midribs blacken-
ed 1-3 way out
from base, but
still fairly firm.



Entire head in-
volved.










PLATE V.


Lettuce 'eaf from plant No. 5: dark infected areas on blade and midrib.
About two-thirds natural size.









Annual Report, 19o8.


TABLE XXIII.- (Continued.)

Dec. 18 Dec. 20 Dec. 23 Dec. 27

No. 8 iDiscolored areas as Large darkened Large darkened Diseased as in
lin No. 7. area adjacent to areas. Head dis- No. 7. Bases of
inserted tissue, eased about as midribs diseased
Worse infection much as No. 7. most.
than No. 7.
No. 9 |No Infection. No infection. No infection No infection ex-
cept a slight
No. 10INo infection, No infection. No infection suggestion of a
No. 11o infecn few areas on the
No. 1lNo infection. No infection. No infection si de of t w o
No. 12!No infection. No infection. No infection plan t w h i c h
Iw .r e two feet
from plant No. 1.



On December 20, two sets of petri dish cultures were in-
oculated from a diseased leaf from plant No. 6, and on Decem-
ber 23 another set was inoculated from plant No. 5. In each
set a species of bacterium which appeared to be identical with
the one from which the plants were inoculated, was developed.
Plate V is a photograph of a leaf from plant No. 5, show-
ing how the darkened areas begin, and the manner in which
the main veins and midrib are involved. There can be seen
small darkened areas scattered over the leaf-blade, and the
dark, narrow areas leading in from, a side-vein and running
along the midrib; also two darkened areas near the base of
the leaf-stalk. Plate IV, Fig. 2, -is a sun-print of the colonies
of bacteria made directly from a petri dish culture that was
one week old.
Other cases of lettuce destroyed by bacterial diseases have
been reported. L. R. Jones in the Report of the Vermont
Agricultural Experiment Station for 1892 speaks of a disease
of greenhouse lettuce which he attributes to a bacterium. P.
Voglino8 in 1903 isolated a bacterium and produced a disease
again in fourteen days by inoculation of lettuce plants from
pure cultures. The colonies on gelatin and lettuce juice are
reported to have been ivory-white, changing to rose-colored;
and the measurements of the organism are given as 2.5 by
0.5 microns. Voglino named his organism Bacillus lactucae.
For preventive measures to be employed in combating the
disease see the report of the Assistant in Botany.

8 Ann R. Acad. Agr. Torino, 46 (1903) ; Abs. in "Zeitsch. fur
Pflanzenkrank." Vol. 14, p. 96, 1904.


lxxxvii








lxxxviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

ROSE DISEASE.
MILDEW (Sphaerotheca pannosa Wallr.).- -Several cases
of rose mildew were noticed' last year. It is, perhaps, one of
the commonest diseases of the rose. It may be recognized
by the white powdery appearance of the leaves. The Crimson
Rambler variety is especially subject to attack by this fungus.
It causes the leaves to curl up, and also injures the young
flower-buds.
Treatment.-Potassium sulphide, one ounce to two gallons
of water, used as a spray is effective in preventing the spread
of this disease (see Bulletin 76 of the Fla. Agr. Exp. Station.)

ROSELLE (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn.) DISEASE.

Mildew (Microsphaera euphorbiae (Peck) Berk. and
Curt).-This disease was reported last year as due to a fun-
gus (Microsphaera sp.), a technical description of which was
given (Annual Report 1907, p. xlii). Specimens were sent
to E. S. Salmon, of the Southeastern Agricultural College,
Wye, England', who kindly identified the fungus as Micro-
sphaera euphorbiae (Peck) Berk. and Curt. The roselle, also
called "Jamaica Sorrel," is a new host plant for this fungus.
Preventive Measures.-In- a discussion before the Florida
State Horticultural Society in May, 1908, Dr. Ernst A. Bes-
sey, of the Subtropical Laboratory, reported that his experi-
ments had shown that flowers of sulphur was effective in
preventing the spread of this fungus. The sulphur should be
dusted over the plants while the dew is upon them.

WATER-OAK DISEASE.

Fungus Rot (Fomes marmoratus Berk.) The water-oaks
(Quercus aquatica Catesb.) are very subject to attacks of
fungus. It is a common sight to see partially dead trunks and
large limbs bearing projecting shelf-fungi. At Lake City a
fungus (Fonies marmoratus Berk.) was found connected with
the live tissue of the trunk of a large water-oak. The fungus
was kindly identified by M1r. C. G. Lloyd, of the Lloyd Library,
Cincinnati. Mr. Lloyd states that this species has recently
been claimed to be the same as Fomes fasciatus (Swartz),
of Jamaica. The same species has also been collected by Dr.
E. W. Berger from the dead side of an orange tree trunk,








Annual Report, 19o8.


the other side of which was still alive. The fungus probably
begins at wounds in the oak, and slowly causes the decay of
bark and wood tissue. All dead parts should be regularly
cut out, and the cut surfaces of pruned trees should' be painted
over to keep out fungus infection.

ADDITIONAL WORK.

About 2,500 named specimens from Fungi Columbiani,
prepared by E. Bartholomew, have been added to the Fungus
Herbarium during the past year. These were mounted on
standard herbarium sheets, a separate sheet or more to each
species, and arranged in the genus covers alphabetically by
species. The genera were then arranged in systematic order
with a card index for convenience of reference. In addition
to these, a number of named Florida fungi, and specimens
illustrating various diseases .of cultivated plants, were mounted
and added to the herbarium. These specimens are of much
value for reference 'and comparison in the study of plant dis-
eases.
Several books of reference bearing on diseases of plants,
especially diseases of citrus trees, have been added to the
Library of Plant Pathology.
Two lectures were delivered before the Pinellas Orange
Growers' Association; and a short report on Scaly Bark was
read before the Florida State Horticultural Society last May.

The three following Press Bulletins were written:
No. 68, Oct. 14, 1907: A New Whitefly Fungus.
No. 69, Oct. 20, 1907: Roselle Mildew.
No. 76, Dec. 14, 1907: The Cinnamon Fungus of the
Whitefly. Respectfully submitted,
H. S. FAWCETT,
Assistant Plant Pathologist.


lxxxix









xc Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of
work carried on in the laboratory of Plant Physiology since
October I of the present fiscal year.
Upon my arrival at Gainesville, October I, 1907,. meas-
ures were taken to furnish and equip the laboratory; there
being neither equipment nor supplies for the Plant Physiology
laboratory at that time., The securing of apparatus and having
the necessary tables and desks made, consumed considerable
time, owing to the delays incident to such work. Four visits
have been made to citrus groves in different parts of fge State
,for the investigation of citrus diseases. One visit was also
made to the Station pineapple experimental plots at Jensen.
Two press bulletins have been prepared: Press bulletin No.
90, The Treatment of Citrus Die-Back; and Press bulletin
No. 93,. The Symptoms of Citrus Die-Back.

PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

The investigations in this laboratory have been confined
to physiological studies in plant nutrition, particularly in re-
ference to tropical and sub-tropical plants. They may be dis-
cussed under two headings-nutrition and malnutrition.
NUTRITIO .-Morphological and cytological studies of
the citrus, pineapple and cassava have been started. Micro-
chemical and enzyme studies are planned. These studies are
being made in order to form a basis for determining any
modifications in structure and function which may be -due to
pathological factors.
MALNUTRITION.-In many Florida soils, the plant food
is deficient, and has to be supplied in the form of natural and
commercial fertilizers. The effect of these in varying quan-
tities upon the structure and the health of cultivated' plants is
of particular importance. There are several diseases which
are thought to have their origin in malnutrition, and for which
.extensive scientific research has failed to find any causal or-'
ganism. Die-back of the citrus, spiking of the pineapple and
chlorosis of the cassava belong to this class. These three








Annual Report, 19o8.


diseases are now under investigation in this laboratory. Other
diseases of citrus having malnutrition as a possible origin are
melanose, frenching and blight.

DIE-BACK.
An extensive study of die-back of citrus has been started.
Specimens showing the different symptoms of the disease have
been collected and prepared for study. Young orange trees of
the Pineapple variety on sour stock have been planted in the
orchard for future experiments. Other trees of the same
variety on the same stock, and plants of the Satsuma variety
on trifoliate stock, have been potted and placed in the green-
house for a similar purpose.

LEAF SPOTTING OF CITRUS.
Late in November a study of leaf spotting in citrus groves
located near DeLand, Fla., was commenced. A visit to the
section showed much damage to have been done directly and
indirectly by the disease. The consequent weakening of the
trees had allowed the withertip fungus (Colletotrichum gloeos-
porioides) to 'attack them, killing many branches.
DISTRIBUTION.-The disease was found to be present in
many of the groves. A systematic survey was made of three
different groves to determine its prevalence. In one grove
which was shedded and contained both grapefruit and orange
trees, the grapefruit was more often affected. In another
grove containing only orange trees and not covered, the dis-
ease was evenly distributed and severe. The third grove, also
formed only of orange trees, had nearly every tree affected.
In some trees very few healthy leaves could be found. Ac-
cording to the proprietor, the disease was first noticed in the
northwest corner of this grove. It progressed until nearly
every tree showed the symptoms. Diseased leaves have also
been sent to the laboratory from San Mateo. This malady
has been reported from Lake City, Clearwater, St. Petersburg
and Rockledge by competent observers. At the latter place,
the disease was very abundant in the groves which were
examined.
VARIETIES AFFECTED.-Observations indicate that the dis-
ease is not confined to any particular variety. The orange
trees in the grove which was most severely affected at DeLand









xcii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

were Enterprise Seedless and King. Grapefruit trees seem
to be more subject to the disease than oranges.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE.-The manifestations of the
disease are apparently confined to the leaves. Stained spots,
varying in diameter from a fraction of an inch to an inch or
more, appear upon the leaves. The affected areas extend through
the leaf and are seen on both surfaces. The upper surface of a
spot presents a smooth shiny brown appearance, and projects
very little or not at all above the surrounding surface of the
leaf. The lower surface of the spot is usually rough and
projecting, and has a greasy look and an olive-green color.
Portions of the leaf adjacent to the stained areas lose their
chlorophyll and appear yellowish green. This is shown in
Plate VI, Figs. I and 2. Cross sections through the affected
portions of the leaf show under the microscope a swelling of
the cells of the spongy parenchyma, filling all the intercellular
spaces. Intercellular deposits in the spongy parenchyma also
occur. The palisade cell layers are apparently unaffected.
'CAUSE.-The cause of this disease has not yet been deter-
mined. Numerous cultures on various media have failed to
develop any organisms. Microscopical sections do not show
the presence of bacteria or fungi.

CHLOROSIS OF CASSAVA.

In November, 1907, it was noticed on the Experiment Sta-
tion farm that cassava plants seriously affected by a .chlorotic
condition of the leaves occurred' in the same field with large
healthy plants. The plants had lost their leaves, and the ter-
minal portions of the stems had died. Investigations were
started in the laboratory to determine the causes and effects
of the disease.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE.-The first manifestation
of the disease is a chlorosing of the leaves. Yellowish green
to white areas, due to the loss of chlorophyll, occur between
.the veins. The segments of the leaves are often abnormal in
number and shape. Then the leaves die and fall off. The
stems become withered and die from the tip downward. Buds
which should remain dormant, develop into stunted leafy
shoots.
In December, pieces of the stems of diseased and also of
apparently healthy cassava were planted in the greenhouse.












PLATE VI.


FIG. I Yellow Spotting of Citrus. Under surface of leaf.


FIG. 2. Yellow Spotting of Citrus. Upper surface of leaf.








Annual Report, 9po8. xcv

Some of the cuttings that were apparently healthy produced
diseased plants; while some of the cuttings from diseased
plants produced apparently healthy plants. These plants have
been set out in the field for further development.
CAUSE.-No cause for this disease has yet been deter-
mined. No organisms have developed on inoculated media
of various kinds, nor has a microscopical study revealed the
presence of any fungi or bacteria.
Respectfully submitted,
B. F. FLOYD,
Assistant Plant Physiologist.
c








xcvi Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


REPORT OF ASSISTANT IN BOTANY.

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: The following is a report of the work done by the
Assistant in Botany for the year ending June 30, 1908.

VARIETY TEST OF LETTUCE.

For the purpose of comparing the hardiness, heading
qualities, and times of maturity, of our best heading varieties
(and one non-heading variety of lettuce), with Big Boston, a
test of nine varieties was made. The seeds were sown on
September 14, and the plants were all set in the plots on Sep-
tember 26. Each received the same fertilizer and cultural
treatment. The characteristics of each variety are given, in
the order in which they matured, as follows:
' Mammoth.-Ready for market, December 15. Uniform
in growth and heading. Heads small, though compact and of
good form. The earliest of the lot to head.
Salamander Improved.-Ready for market, December 15.
Heads rather small though compact, color light green, has a
tender, cream-colored center and fine flavor. Almost as hardy
as big Boston. Most of the plants formed good uniform
heads. It is a good lettuce for the early unprotected fall crop,
as it matures in less time than Big Boston, and stands heat
well.
White Paris Cos.-Ready for market December 20. A
fairly uniform grower. Heads large, outer leaves very dark
green, inner leaves of a rich cream color. The entire head' is
tender, the inner leaves and mid-ribs are crisp and juicy, hav-
ing a rich milky flavor. Under fair conditions, the outer leaves
close in and lap loosely over the top. It is not so hardy as
the Big Boston, but seems to be less subject to lettuce drop
(Sclerotinia libertiana).
Deacon.-Ready for market December 25. Heads some-
what larger than Big Boston, though not as dense. Much like
Big Boston in shape and habit of growth. Leaves smooth and
light green. A hardy variety, though poor in form.
Market Gardener's Private Stock.--Ready for market De-
cember 25. Heads small, though very compact; color light









Annual Report, 19o8.


brownish green; leaves wrinkled. Tender to cold, and of
poor form.,
Unrivaled.-Ready for market December 30. Heads
somewhat larger than Big Boston and flat; leaves smooth and
broad. Not as hardy as Big Boston; form poor.
Big Boston.-Ready for market January 2. Head' of good
size, compact; center yellowish green; outer leaves large,
smooth; color light green with brownish tint. This variety
was injured by the temperature of 3oo F. on January 8; but
proved to be the hardiest of the lot. Its late heading probably
caused it to stand the cold so much better than some of the
other varieties. Growth fairly uniform, form poor.
Brown Dutch.-Ready for market January 4. Head
smaller than Big Boston, and not so compact. Leaves large,
smooth, thick and glossy; color brown, and form fair. Among
the hardiest in the test.
Wood's. Improved Big Boston.-Ready for market January
1o. Slower to head than Big Boston and does not head up so
well; not compact enough for the demands of the market and
of poor form. Almost as hardy as Big Boston.

LETTUCE DISEASES.

A study of lettuce diseases and of their behavior under field
conditions has been given close attention. Observations were
made to determine the following points: the means by which
the diseases are started and spread; the relation of propagat-
ing and cultural methods to the diseases; and the relation of
the structural characters of the plants to disease; with the
object of selecting a resistant variety.
The lettuce season of 1907-8 has furnished an excellent
opportunity for this work, as the entire season was unusually
wet, and none of the fields which came under observation were
free from disease.
Big Boston is very extensively grown in Florida, chiefly
on account of its size, heading qualities and hardiness. It is
by no means suited to all of our conditions, though it serves
as a good starting point from WVhich to make selections. To
secure a variety more resistant to lettuce drop (Sclerotinia
libertiana) selections were made from fields of Big Boston.
In addition to this, the following nine varieties were planted
with a view of studying the characteristics of each in connec-


a.r.-7


xcvii








xcviii Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

tion with this disease: Mammoth, Salamander Improved, Un-
rivaled, Wood's Improved Big Boston, Deacon, White Paris
Cos, Big Boston, Brown Dutch, Market Gardener's Private
Stock.
BACTERIAL DISEASE OF LETTUCE.-This disease was found
to be destructive to lettuce throughout the season, but did most
damage soon after the first frost. Beds that were improperly
protected showed decidedly more disease, especially at the
places where the covers were torn or not sufficiently drawn
down at the ends and' sides. Plants that were headed, and
about ready for market, suffered more from frost and from
this disease. It usually begins at the base of the plant on the
main rib of the bottom leaves, at the place where they touch
or come nearest the ground. Along the main rib and a few
of the larger veins the disease spreads inward toward the stalk
and outward toward the tip of the leaf. The disease turns
the midrib light brown, and leaves it a tough, stringy mass
of fiber, still holding its original shape. When the diseased
rib comes in contact with the mass of tender leaves above it,
further infection takes place. When this stage of infection
has been reached, the disease spreads through the head in
spots until it reaches the core, which it changes into a dark-
brownish soft mass. An advanced stage of the disease is
generally accompanied by a brown spotting of the tips and
outer margins of the leaves. It seldom spreads further than
to kill the tips and' margins of the leaves which form the top
of the head. The spotting of the leaf is well illustrated in
Plate V. When infection has taken place at the base of the
plant during damp warm weather the disease spreads rapidly,
soon rendering the head unfit for market. With the excep-
tion of a few brown spots, many of the heads appear to be
in good condition, and may be easily mistaken by the packer
for undiseased heads.
Another symptom of this disease is the appearance of soft
places on some of the leaves that form the top of the head'.
These areas soon fade into a pale green color. In moist,
cloudy weather the disease spreads rapidly through the head;
but if -exposed to the sun or in dry cool weather, the places
often dry up, leaving a dark brown area which later turns
black.
LETTUCE DROP (Sclerotinia libertiana).-During the last
season, which was unusually wet, fields on both uplands and
lowlands suffered quite a loss from "lettuce drop." In a








Annual Report, 19o8.


number of cases as much as 50 per cent. of the plants were
destroyed. On account of the quick destruction it works and
its point of attack, none of our fungicides have been employed
successfully in controlling this disease. However, there are
a few precautions that have been used to advantage. As
poorly drained fields are almost certain to be infected, "the
drainage should be corrected before planting. If the plants
are set on a bed with a slight incline on each side, the space
just under the plants will be drained, and thereby the prob-
ability of attacks of this disease will be lessened. All diseased
plants should be removed from the fields and destroyed.

CELERY DISEASES.

INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZER ON BLACK-HEART.-Many
people in the celery-growing districts believe that celery black-
heart or heart-rot is caused by certain materials that are used
.as fertilizers. For the purpose of determining what relation,
if any, the occurrence of this disease bears to the form of
fertilizer used, and at the same time to secure a mixture of
fertilizing materials better suited to celery growing, the follow-
ing fertilizer tests were made in a field located in the celery
district at Sanford. Each plot except the check plot received
a complete fertilizer. Such quantities were used per acre as
to furnish the plant food that would be contained in two and
one-half tons of celery fertilizer, analyzing 4 per cent. phos-
phoric acid, 7 per cent. ammonia, and 8 per cent. potash. The
ingredients were analyzed and mixed before being shipped to
Sanford. The quantities of after dressing were equal in am-
monia contents to 500 pounds of nitrate of soda analyzing
17 per cent. ammonia. The following materials were used in
these experiments: nitrate of soda, dried blood, and fish scrap,
to supply ammonia; kainit, muriate of potash, and sulphate of
potash (high grade and low grade), to supply potash: and
acid.phosphate, floats, and bone meal, to supply the phosphoric
acid. The celery plants were set out on January 30, and were
fertilized February 19, soon after the plants had' taken root.
From the time the fertilizer was applied until the time of ship-
ping, the experiment was visited at intervals of about eighteen
days. During these visits notes were taken of the growth,
color, amount of disease, and form of plant. On April II,
the after dressing of ammonia was applied, the same source
of ammonia being used on each plot as was used in the com-


xcix




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