Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal

Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment station, report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005173/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: 40 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1905
Copyright Date: 1905
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1905-1930.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00005173
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8112
oclc - 12029638
alephbibnum - 002452807
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Preceded by: Report for financial year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
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Full Text


Agricultural Experiment


Report fbr the Fiscal Year

Ending June 3oth


Hon. A'. B. Bronrard, Governor of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the Annual
Report of the Director of the Florida Agricultural Station for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905.
Chairman Board of Trustees.


GCo. W. WILSON, President ................. Jacksonville
C. A. CiARso., Vice President .................... Kissimmee
F. I.. S'r INcGER, Secretary ........................ Brooksville
F. E Hi-ARRIs .......... ........................ O cala
E. D. BEGGS ................................... Pensacola
J. R. PARROTT .... ........................... Jacksonville
F. M. SIMONTON .................................... Tampa


ANDREW SI n.DD, Ph. D., LL.D....................... Director
C. M. CONNER, B. S. A.. B. S...Vice Director and Agriculturist
F. M. ROLFS, M. S................ Botanisz and Horticulturist
E. R. FLINT, Ph. D., M. D..........................Chemist
E. H. SE.ILARDS, M. A., Ph. D.................. Entomologist
*C. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S.................. Veterinarian
A. W. BLAIR, B. S.. A. M................... Assistant Chemist
*F. C. REIMER, B. S .... Assistant Botanist and Horticulturist
*R. A. LICHTENTIIAELER, M. S..............Assistant Chemist
*E. F. WORTHINGTON .. Asst. in Agricultural Field Experiments
*S. A. ROBERT, B. S...... Asst. in Agricultural Field Experiments
W. P. JERNICAN ..................... Auditor and Bookkeeper
*ALBERT TYLER ............................... Stenographer
H. T. PERKINS ............................... Stenographer
J. F. MITlc ELL. .......................... Foreman of Farm
*J. H. JEFFERIES. ............ Foreman of Garden and Orchards
F. M. STEARNS ............. .Foreman of Garden and Orchards

Hon. Geo. WV. Wf'ilson. Chairman Board of Trustees.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work and condition of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, and I respectfully
request you to transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to
the Governor of Florida.

In June, 1904, Dr. T. H. Taliaferro, Director, Mr. H. K.
Miller, Vice Director and Chemist, Mr. H. A. Gossard, Entomolo-
gist, and Mr. A. W. Blair, Assistant Chemist, resigned their posi-
tions on the Station staff. In July, the present Director was,
elected to fill Dr. Taliaferro's place: and in August the other
vacancies in the staff were filled, as follows:
Mr. C. M. Conner, Agriculturist, was appointed Vice Di-
Mr. E. R. Flint, Ph. D. (Goettingen), M. D. (Harvard),
was appointed Head Chemist.
Mr. E. H. Sellards, Ph. D. (Yale), was appointed Ento-
Mr. A. W. Blair was re-elected as Assistant Chemist
Drs. Flint and Sellards, the new members of the staff,
entered at once upon their respective duties, and have proven
exceptionally able and valuable men.
In addition to these changes, the following changes have
taken place during the course of the year just dosed:
Dr. C. F. Dawson, Veterinarian, resigned his position on the
Staff at the close of the year, and has entered upon the active,
private practice of his profession. He will. however, continue
his connection with the Station in the capacity of Consulting Vet-
erinarian; and thus the station will not be wholely deprived of his
valuable services. The Director takes this opportunity to bear
testimony to Dr. Dawson's great ability and efficiency in his line
of work, and to congratulate the Station and the State on retain-
ing him as Consulting Veterinarian. The position of resident
Station Veterinarian will not be filled at present

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Mr. R. A. Lichtenthaeler, Assistant Chemist, resigned at the
close of the year. His position has been filled by the election of
Mr. B. H. Bridges, B. S.
Mr. E. F. Worthington, Field Assistant in Agriculture,
resigned in September, 1904, and his position was filled by the
election of Mr. S. A. Robert, B. S.
Mr. J. H. Jefferies, Head Gardener, resigned in March, and
his position was filled by the appointment of M r. F. M. Stearns.
Mr. Albert Tyler, Stenographer, resigned in December, 1904,
and his position was filled by the appointment of Mr. H. T.

The Director is pleased to report that the work of the
Station was not seriously interrupted or impaired by the numer-
ous changes in the staff before mentioned. The retiring members
of the old staff very kindly and courteously co-operated with the
Director in his efforts to avoid any serious break in the continuity
of the work. Prof. H. K. Miller lent his help to Prof. A. W.
Blair in putting the latter in position successfully to continue the
pineapple experiments which have been in progress for several
years at Jensen, and Prof. H. H. Hume, who was engaged in
these experiments in co-operation with Prof. Miller, has most
Wlidly consented to put the results of his work on these experi-
iments into two bulletins for the Station. It will thus appear that
by the co-operation of these gentlemen this important and
exhaustive experiment in pineapple culture will not be inter-
rupted, but has been transmitted in good shape for its continuance
to the efficient care and direction of Prof. A. W. Blair.
In addition to this, Professors Hume and Gossard have put
into shape, and the Station has printed, several bulletins embody-
ing the results of investigations made by them while members of
the Station staff.
The Director takes this occasion to express to the gentlemen
above named his appreciation of their kindness and courtesy and
help in these important matters.
The work of the year in the various departments will be
found outlined in the reports submitted herewith.

Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 1905.

During the year the Station has issued eight bulletins, as fol-
73. F. C. Reimer-The Honey Peach Group ...... July, 1904
74. H. H. Hume-Anthracnose of the Pomelo...August, 1904
75. H. H. Hume-Potato Diseases............. August, 1904
76. H. A. Gossard and H. H. Hume-Insecticides and
Fungicides ........................ November, 1904
77. C. F. Dawson-Equine Glanders and Its Eradica-
tion ............................... February, 1905
78. C. M. Conner-Forage Crops. The Silo ...... March, 1905
79. H. A. Gossard-Insect of the Pecan.......... April, 1905
80. A. W. Blair-The Composition of Some of the Con-
centrated Feeding-stuffs on Sale in Florida..April, 1905*
Six press bulletins were issued during the year as follows:
51. C. F. Dawson-Wormy Fowls............. Aug. 15, 1904
52. E. R. Flint-The Loss of Nitrogen on the Farm.....
.................................... Dec. 1, 1904
53. C. F. Dawson-Hog Cholera and Swine Plague......
................................... Dec. 15, 1904
54. F. M. Rolfs-Seed Potatoes...............Dec. 15, 1904
55. F. M. Rolfs-Potato Blight and Its Remedy-Feb. 7, 1905
56. E. H. Sellards-White Fly Conditions in Northern
Florida.............................. Feb. 28, 1905
There has been considerable call for these bulletins. The
Station mailing list is about 3,500 names. But it must be observed
that the bulletins of the Station do not circulate as freely among
the people of the State as the authorities of the Station desire.

*A comparison with page six of the report for June. 1904, will show
that bulletins 73, 74, 75. 76, are printed in the preceding Director's report
as having been issued during the course of the year ending June 30th,
1904 This is due to the fact that the former Director included in his
report .-t bulletins issued those which were ready for issue, some of them
in the press, but which had not yet actually been published. The present K
Director believes that the date of the actual publication of a bulletin
should be the determining factor in assigning said bulletin to its proper
year. and as the bulletins above mentioned were not issued from the press,'
until July, 1904, and later, he has included them in his report for the year
1905, despite the fact that some of them had been included in the report,-'
for the preceding year.

Florida Ag. iculfura/ E.periment Slation.

They are sent free on request to any resident of the State, and
the Director will be pleased to add to the mailing list the name of
any citizen who would like regularly to receive the publications of
the Station.
Numerous trips have been made during the year by various
members of the Station staff in the interests of Agriculture,
Horticulture and Cattle Raising throughout the State, and the
authorities are doing everything that their limited resources wilh
permit to make the Station of the widest and most immediate
and practical service to the State.
The Station Library has been removed from the basement
of the Chemical Laboratory, and has been placed in the rear
room'of the General University Library, where it has been most
excellently arranged and managed by Dr. Flint, the Station
Chemist. He has put the Library upon a splendid working basis;
has arranged systematically the publications of this and other
stations, and of the general government; and by great care and
diligence in arranging and preserving matter on hand, and in
seeking for publications necessary to complete the files, has
brought our Station Library into a condition that will compare
more than favorably with the Station Libraries in other States.
Indeed, the Director is pleased to state that we have in our Station
Library copies of practically all of the bulletins published by
the general government, and by all experiment stations of the
United States, in addition to some stations in foreign countries.
Credit for this perfecting of the Station Library is due to Dr.
Flint, Station Chemist. and the Director takes this opportunity
to express his appreciation of this important service.

No new buildings have been added during the year, except a
large silo erected by the Agriculturist at a cost of about $85.00.
An account of the working of this silo will be found in Prof.
Conner's bulletin No. 78.
1. The Director would respectfully recommend a separation
of the Station staff from the regular faculty of the University.
In his judgment the best work cannot be done either for the

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 1966. 9

Station or for the University by men, however competent, whose
time and attention is divided between giving instruction to college
classes and conducting elaborate experimental work. It would
be better for the Station to have a smaller staff, if need be, of
strictly Station workers; and better for the University to dis-
pense with some of its more elaborate courses, if necessar- in
order that the men of the Station and of the Faculty proper might
give their whole time and undivided attention to their respective
tasks. The competency and diligence of the ihen is not involved
in this proposal. In the presv at case these qualities of our men
cannot be questioned. But the Station work often takes the men
away from the University, while, on the other hand, the routine
of the regular meeting of classes often breaks into the continuity
of experimental work; so that, between two conflicting interests
and obligations, either one or the other must be seriously neg-
lected, or both must receive only a portion of the time and energy
they properly demand. The Director must, therefore, earnestly
recommend to the Board the separation of the Station from the
University by the appointment of a Director of the Station, who
shall be responsible to the President of the University, but who
shall have under his immediate control the Station staff, the Sta-
tion programme, and the Station finances,-being, in fact, the
head of that department of the University, which department
should have its own force and devote itself strictly to its own
specific work.
The director believes, however, that the members -of the
Station staff might with advantage to themselves and to the
University at large give series of lectures from time to time on
the subjects and results of their special investigations. By this
means their efficiency as Station workers would not be impaired
and at the same time the students of the University would receive
the great benefit of the special studies and experiments of the
Station staff.
2. The work of the Station could be much enlarged" by an
increase in its income; and the Director respectfully suggests
to the Board the possibility of securing from the State Legislature
some aid in furthering the work of the Experiment Station. In
most other States the government appropriation is supplemented

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

by State appropriation, either special or regular, by which the
efficiency of the Station is very greatly increased; and if it
were possible to secure from the Legislature of Florida an ap-
propriation of ten thousand dollars per annum, supplementary to
the government appropriation, for the use of the Experiment
Station, the influence and efficiency of the Station would cer-
tainly be doubled. Farmers' Institutes, which have not been
held during the past year for lack of funds, could be held in divers
places. Special investigators could be sent and kept at points
where peculiar or unknown diseases originated or where general
conditions deserve a close and careful study on the ground.
Letters and literature could be multiplied and more widely dis-
tributed. More costly experiments with stock, and with rare and
unusual plants and vegetables could be conducted. Station equip-
ment could be improved; and in many ways the State would
receive a very large return for the additional aid which it might
furnish the Experiment Station.
The following financial report covers all of the expenditures
of the Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30th,
1905. For purpose of comparison the report for 1903-4 is
printed in parallel columns, with the report for the year just
1903-'4. 1904-'5.
Balance on hand................................ $289 20
Experiment Station Fund............. $15,000 00 15,000 00
Station Incidental Fund............... 1,722 21 1,893 94

Total......................... $16,722.21 $17,183.14
Salaries ............................ $7,805 07 $8,578 21
Labor ............................... 1,690 63 2.106 89
Publications ................. ..... ... 699 65 1,129 27
Postage and Stationery................ 432 77 84 36
Freight and Express .................. 294 22 224 64
Heat, Light. Water and Power......... 553 65 468 70

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth. 1905. 11

Chemical Supplies ................... 239 16 98 88
Seeds, Plants and Sundry Supplies ..... 412 03 319 24
Fertilizers .......................... 177 85 432 29
Feeding Stuffs ...................... 405 36 763 36
Library ............................. 164 13 99 67
Tools, Implements and Machinery ...... 178 30 230 09
Furniture and Fixtures............... 15 98 126 00
Scientific Apparatus .................. 975 87 92 93
Live Stock .......................... 389 33 811 04
Traveling Expenses .................. 426 20 441 44
Contingent Expenses ................. 15 10 15 00
Buildings and Repairs................ 1,557 71 157 38
Balance ............................ 289 20 1,003 75

Total ...................... $16,722.21 $17,183 14
Respectfully submitted.
ANDREW Sr.EDD. Director.

Florida .Agticultural .AExperiment Station.

Dr. Andrew Sledd, Director.
SI : I submit herewith the annual report of the Agriculturist
for the year ending June 30, 1905.
The work of this department has progressed along lines
indicated in last report. The major part of our time being de-
voted to investigations to determine the comparative feeding value
of cassava, sweet potatoes and corn. Forage crops are now
claiming a part of our attention,-sorghum, velvet beans, cow
peas and beggar weed being the most important.
An extensive experiment with Irish potatoes was conducted
at Hastings. Sources of phosphoric acid and nitrogen were the
most important problems taken up. A variety test was also con-
ducted. This work shows some promise and should be continued
for some years.
Co-operative experiments with alfalfa were started at Mc-
Intosh and Dade City. These tests seem to show that alfalfa can
be grown if given proper attention ;ind it would be well to con-
tinue this work on a larger scale.
Feeding experiments with native cattle were conducted on
the same lines as bef,,re. The native does not seem to respond to
high feeding and it would be well to use grade cattle for this
work in the future.
The pig feeding experiments were also continued, using corn,
cassava and sweet potatoes. A test was also made of Berkshires
and Berkshires crossed on natives.
The stave silo erected this year has proved a success and
some preliminary work was done along the line of economical
feeding of dairy cows.
A bulletin on forage crops and the silo has been published
as No. 7R. Enough matter is on hand for two more bulletins
and will be put out as soon as possible.
Respectfully submitted,
C. M. CONNER. Agriculturist.

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3ol/, r9o5.

Dr. Atdrew Sledd, Director.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the
chemical department for the year ending June 30, 1905:
The investigations on fertilizing the pineapple at Jensen, in
co-operation with Hardee Brothers, which were instituted by my
predecessor, Prof. H. K. Miller, have been carried on, on the
same lines as designed by him. The experiment has been carried
on now for three years without interruption and some interesting
and valuable results are being obtained. Two previous bulletins
have already been published in connection with the experiment,
one on pineapple soils and one on varieties. There is now in
preparation a bulletin giving the results of the experiment for the
past year, showing the effect of the binations in the different pots, on the yield.
A somewhat similar investigation on the fertilization of or-
ange trees has been begun, the Station securing the co-operation
and grove of Mr. J. W. Oliver, at Kissimmee, for the purpose.
This grove is, in many respects, admirably adapted, being com-
posed largely of young trees that have been somewhat neglected
in the past, so that we have practically no previous treatment to
affect the results. This grove has been divided into 44 plots 'of
16 trees each, with a row of trees between the plots in both direc-
tions. In nearly every plot there are some young growing trees
and some bearing trees. It is proposed to continue this expri-
ment for a series of years, each plot receiving its special treat-
ment during this time. A basis or standard was first established
which was decided upon after consulting the experience of some
of the larger growers in the State, together with a study of the
composition of the orange. This basis is
4 per cent nitrogen, as sulphate of ammonia.
6 per cent phosphoric acid. as dissolved bone black.
12 per cent potash, as high grade sulphate of potash.
This formula will be applied to plot 1 for years and this will be
used as a standard or basis on which to judge and compare the
results on the other plots. These results will be controlled by
the laboratory. where we can detect any differences in quality
more exactly than otherwise. The first question asked, is the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

limit of profit of each ingredient. Thus, on plot 2 each in-
gredient is decreased one-half, on plot 3 increased one-half. The
potash, phosphoric acid and nitrogen are then increased respec-
tively one-fourth and one-half. This question occupies plots 1
to 12 and it is hoped that we may be able to decide just how
much the tree can take up to advantage. We then pass to the
question of the sources of the different ingredients. On plots 13
to 17 we propose to compare the sources of nitrogen, particularly
the relative value of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia,
separately and mixed, as well as the introduction of some blood
into the formula. Plots 18 to 26 will be used for a similar pur-
pose with phosphoric acid, and here are introduced the various
sources of this ingredient, as acid phosphate, dissolved bone
black, steamed and raw bone, slag, guano, etc. Plots 27 to 31 are
devoted similarly to potash, comparing high and low grade sul-
phate, tobacco stems, wood ashes, carbonate of potash and mag-
nesia, etc.
Trees bearing 10 boxes or less will receive 20 pounds a year.
On plot 32 each tree will receive 40 pounds, on 33, 60 pounds,
and on 34, 80 pounds, to note the effect of over-fertilization.
Then follow some miscellaneous questions. Plots 35 and 36
will be planted with a cover crop, decreasing the nitrogen applied
on plot 36 by one-half. Plot 37 will be used to try the effect of
the addition of lime to the standard formula. Other questions, as
mulching, the effects of small amounts of salt, etc., will be intro-
The yield of each plot will be noted and specimens of the
fruit from each plot will be compared and analysed if necessary,
each year. It is hoped, in this way, to establish, in the course
of some years, the very best, cheapest and most profitable for-
mula for orange trees.
Considerable work has been done this year on the analysis
of fruits. A number of analyses of different varieties of sweet
oranges, furnished by the horticultural department, much of the
work on which was done last year, has been completed. Thirty-
four analyses of oranges have been made for Mr. Reimer, of the
horticultural department, in connection with his work on the
effect of the stock on the fruit.

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 90o5.

In co-operation with the Agricultural Department. this de-
partment has made the necessary analyses in connection with
feeding experiments with cassava meal, beggarweed hay and
Mexican clover.
An investigation as to the composition of the concentrated
feed-stuffs sold in the State has been made by Assistant A. W.
Blair and a bulletin (No. 8" special) has been published on this
subject. The results showed that a large proportion of this
material on the Florida market was of inferior quality, much of
it being adulterated with ground corn cobs. oat and wheat hulls
and other foreign matter. A law to provide for the inspection
and analysis of. and to regulate the sale of commercial feeding
stuffs in the State, the inspection to be carried out by the State
Chemist. has since been passed, as has been done in most of the
other States.
The work in connection with the above lines, with the
miscellaneous analyses of material that has been sent in, include
something over 1,.5 analyses, as follows:

Soils. sand. etc . . . . . . . .
Kaolin .......... .... .... ....
Phosphates for identification .. .. .
Bird guano. . . . . . . . . .
Concentrated feeding stuffs .. ......
Fruits .......... .... .... ...
Nitrate of potash .. ........ ...
Slag .... ........ .. .... ...
Acid phosphate .. . . ...... .
Complete fertilizers .... ...... .

Dissolved bone black ......
K ainit . . . . . . . ..
Muriate of potash ........
Sulphate of potash ........
Dried blood ........ . .
Steamed bone .. ........
Castor pomace ..........
Cotton seed meal ...... ..
Nitrate of soda .. ......
Feeding experiment analyses

14 Analyses.
2 "
40 "
56 "
1 "


2 "

9 "

.. 18

16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Tobacco stems ... . .... 1 "
Muck ashes ...... .... .. .... 1 "
Meat meal........ .... .. .... .. 1
Dessicated milk ............ .... 1 "
Wood ashes. ..... . ..... .... 1 "
Sulphate of ammonia ...... .... 1 "
Peruvian guano .... ...... .... 1 "
Ground raw bone ........ .. .... 1 "
Carbonate of potash and magnesia .... 1
Miscellaneous .. .. .. .. .... .. 3 "
The correspondence of the department has occupied con-
siderable time, as usual. The laboratory equipment has been
kept up to its former condition, but no extensive additions have
been made, except one imported analytical balance.
The department is rather cramped for room and I can in-
dorse the statement of my predecessor in last year's report that
"the need for a new chemical building becomes greater each
year." Our second assistant, Mr. R. A. Lichtenthaeler, has re-
signed, to take effect at the end of this year, and Mr. B. H.
Bridges, a graduate of the University of Florida, has been ap-
pointed to fill his place. Respectfully submitted,
E. R. FLINT, Chemist.

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 190o5.

Dr. Andrew Sledd. Director Florida Experiment Station.
SIR: I beg to submit herewith a statement of the work of
the Entomological Department from September 1. 1904, to July
1. 1905.
Considerable time has been given throughout the year to
correspondence and to the identification of insects in connection
with such correspondence. In this way it has been possible to
give to the fruit growers or farmers concerned specific direc-
tions for the treatment of particular insect pests, and to advise
means for preventing the spread of others. The importance of
personal correspondence as a means of disseminating knowledge
of the methods, and stimulating interest in the control of in-
jurious insects is fully recognized and has been supplemented
whenever possible by visits to localities suffering from injurious
Additions to the Station library have been chiefly station and
government publications. An effort has been made to secure as
nearly complete sets as possible of the entomological publications
of the various stations.
Some additional data has been collected throughout the
year on the geographical distribution of the more serious insect
Nursery inspection has been continued as formerly, inspec-
tion being made for such nurserymen as request same.
The continued lack of any State law relating to, or control-
ling the introduction and spread of injurious insects is a matter
of regret. Most of our neighboring States enforce rigid regu-
lations against the introduction of insect pests. Nurserymen who
ship stock into these States must accompany each shipment with
a certificate given by the proper officials of freedom from dan-
gerous insects, and also in many cases a statement that the stock
has been fumigated with hydrocyanic acid gas. The States re-
quiring that a printed copy of the official certificate of inspection
accompany each shipment of nursery stock into the State are,
Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho,
Illinois. Indiana. Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana. Maryland. Michi-
gan. Minnesota. Missouri. Nebraska. New Jersey. North Caro-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

lina, Oklahoma. Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota.
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin. In addition to an
inspection certificate the following States require that each ship-
ment be accompanied by a statement that the stock has been
fumigated: Connecticut, Georgia, Delaware, Michigan, Texas,
and South Carolina. In the following States an affidavit of
fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas, according to the standard
method, will be accepted in lieu of a certificate of inspection:
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire. Ohio. and Rhode Island.
A statement of fumigation alone is required in New York and
L'tah. Nursery stock entering California, Colorado. Montana,
Utah, New York, Washington, Oregon, and Wyoming is sub-
ject to inspection by the State officials. Signed copies of the
inspection certificate must be filed with the proper officials of the
following States: Alabama. R. S. Mackintosh, Auburn, Ala.:
Georgia, R. I. Smith, Atlanta, Ga.: Maryland, T. B. Symons.
College Park. Md.; Michigan, L. M. Taft. Agricultural College.
Michigan; North Carolina, R. S. Woglum, West Raleigh, N. C.;
South Carolina. C. E. Chambliss. Clemson College. S. C., and
Virginia, J. L. Phillips, Blacksburg, Va. It is necessary to
obtain official tags from Alabama, Georgia. South Carolina. and
Nurserymen from other States can if they so desire send into
Florida stock without the precautions of fumigation or inspec-
tion. Nor is there within the State any precaution against the
shipment of diseased nursery stock. Much can be done to retard
the introduction and spread of insects, and at an insignificant
expense to the growers. by the requirement that all shipments
of nursery stock coming into the State. and from point to point
within the State, be accompanied by a certified statement from
the shipper that the stock has been properly fumigated with
hydrocyanic acid gas.
Inestimable loss has been sustained in sections of the cotton
growing area of the United States in recent years from the rav-
ages of the Mexican Cotton-Boll Weevil. This exceedingly
serious pest, advancing from the west has reached Louisiana,
and is steadily advancing eastward. On the other hand its
presence in Cuba endangers Florida cotton fields from that direc-
tion. Quarantine against the introduction of the Cotton-Boll

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 2905.

Weevil has been provided by Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mis-
sissippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Adequate pro-
vision should be made by this State to guard against the intro-
duction of this pest, and to restrict its distribution when it shall
have made its appearance.
A Potato Maggot.-The potato growers of parts of the State
have suffered an unusually heavy loss during the present season
from the rotting of seed potatoes in the ground, in many instances
not more than a fifty per cent stand being obtained. Maggots
were early found present in the decaying potatoes. On February
18, Mr. Thomas Roberts of Green Cove Springs sent to the
Station for examination potatoes containing the maggots. Again
under date of February 22 L. A. Wilson of Jacksonville wrote
requesting an examination of the situation at Green Cove Springs,
and reporting the maggots doing severe injury. Two days later
the locality was visited by the botanist and the entomologist.
The decay of the potatoes was found to be more severe on the
low wet lands. The maggots were present on the higher lands,
although in smaller numbers. The attack on the potatoes is made
from the cut surface. The maggots seem to prefer decaying
potatoes, but attack perfectly sound ones. Starting from the cut
surface tunnels are run in various directions through all parts
of the potato. In some cases the potatoes were found much de-
cayed and a mass of maggots, hardly anything of the potato
remaining but the outer skin.
The maggot itself is small, not exceeding. when full grown,
three-sixteenth of an inch. It is smallest at the head end. legless.
and moves about with a twisting motion. The head is provided
with a single brown, hard tooth, having two sharp points pro-
jecting from the mouth opening. The tooth can be withdrawn
or extended at will, and is used in tunneling through the potato.
The full grown larva passes into the pupa stage, at which time
it appears as a brown cylindrical case somewhat shorter than
the full grown larvae. After about fourteen days in this resting
condition the adult, a small grayish fly, hardly as large as the
common house fly, emerges. The adults bred in the laboratory
from the maggots were identified through the kindness of Dr.

Florida Agricutural Experiment Station.

L. 0. Howard of the Department of Agriculture at Washington
as Pegomya fusciceps, commonly known as the seed corn mag-
The carefully compiled notes brought together by Dr. F. H.
Chittenden in Bulletin 33, New Series, Division of Entomology,
indicate that the seed corn maggot has a wide range of food
plants, having been previously reported as doing injury to young
plants and seeds of beans, corn, peas, beets, turnips, sweet po-
tatoes, radishes and onions. Seed potatoes and hedge mustard
are also mentioned. The species, originally described from Ger-
many, is believed to be of European origin, but has now become
widely spread over this country, having been found in many parts
of the United States and in Canada.
Remedy.-It is always difficult to apply insecticides success-
fully to underground insects, especially when as in this case large
areas are affected. It is doubtful if the injury to the tubers
would be particularly serious were it not for the accompanying
rot of the potatoes, and it is possible that in other seasons when
conditions are unfavorable for the development of the potato
rot the work of the fly will also be of little injury. It has been
suggested that the application of fertilizers containing kainit
and nitrate of soda may be of value as a deterrent to insect attack.
But this is of doubtful value in the case of the attack on the seed
potatoes where the fertilizer is applied some days before planting.
Ants attacking the stalk of potatoes.-Some injury has been
done to potato stalks and to the tubers themselves by a small red
ant (species not determined) which enters the stalk just at or
a little below the surface and runs channels for some distance
up and down the stalk. The tubers are also occasionally attacked.
particularly those near the surface, pit like excavations being
made into them. The effect of the attack on the vines is to cause
an enlargement above the ground and, in some case at least, the
formation of aerial potatoes. Possibly one per cent of the vines
on the Station ground have suffered from this insect. Should
the attack from the ants prove serious it is probable that relief
can be had by the treatment of the nests with carbon bisulphide.
The application is made as follows: into an opening in the side
of the ants nests made by a sharpened stick or other instrument,
pour one or two ounces of liquid carbon bisulphide, and close

Report for Fiscal )ear Ending June 3o1th, 1905.

the opening. The efficiency of the treatment is probably increased
by throwing a wet blanket over the nest thus partly preventing
the escape of the fumes. It should be borne in mind that the
carbon bisulphide is explosive, and that the fumes are poisonous
to man as well as to insects, and the necessary precautions used.
The Colorado Potato Beetle.-The Colorado potato beetle.
which is so familiar a pest throughout the Northern and Central
States. has been recently reported from this State. This insect
was described from the eastern rocky mountain region by Thomas
Say as long ago as 1824. It was there found feeding on one of
the solenaceous plants, related to the potato. Solanum restratum.
the \Vestern sandbur. It was not then known as an injuriuus
insect, and was but briefly described among many other insect
species, the author merely commenting, following a brief techni-
cal description: "This species seems to be not uncommon on the
Upper Missouri, where it was obtained by Mr. NuttallI'nd by
myself." It was not known as an injurious species until 1859.
The settlements from the east. bringing among other crops the
potato, had by this time extended west to the native feeding
grounds of the beetle. The cultivated potato proved more
to the taste of the beetle than the wild sand bur, and the spread
from patch to patch was rapid. The insect reproduced with
such rapidity as to completely overrun the potato fields, and
spread towards the east at an average rate of eighty miles a sea-
son, reaching the Atlantic coast in 1874. The spread to the
northeast was also rapid, Ontario, Canada, being reached in 1870.
Towards the southeast the insect made its way much more slowly.
It is reported that in 1875, one year after the Atlantic coast was
reached, none of the beetles were to be found south of a line
marking the north boundary of Tennessee. The species entered
Alabama in 1893. In Mississippi it appeared some years prior
to 1896. A map of its distribution, published in 1896 by H. E.
Weed of the Mississippi station, indicates that it was at that time
present throughout the northern two-thirds of the State. The
southern distribution is given in this bulletin as limited by a line
extending from Ft. Worth. Texas, to Savannah, Georgia. except
that in Louisiana it had reached somewhat south of this line.
The species entered Escambia, the northwest county of Flor-
ida, in the spring of 1905, coming apparently from Southern Ala-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

bama. Professors P. H. Rolfs and H. A. Gossard, former en-
tomologists of this State, state that it has been reported more or
less definitely from various localities in Florida in former years.
It appears, however, not previously to have gained so definite a
hold. Whether or not the species will be able to maintain itself
under the conditions of soil and rainfall, and especially in the
comparative absence of wild solenaceous plants in this State will
be observed with interest. As the potato fields of Florida are
usually more or less scattered, the eastern and central parts of
the State. unless invaded directly from Georgia, may hope, in
any case, to be free from the pest for some years to come.
Remedies.-Florida as probably the last of the States east
of the rocky mountains to be reached by this insect, is fortunate
in being able to profit by the experiences of the northern and
western States. At the time of the appearance of the beetle the
arsenical sprays were unknown. The mild insecticides in use at
that time, such as hellibore and lime, were of little use against
so hardy an insect. The absolute necessity for some more effec-
tive remedy resulted in the discovery and use of the arsenical
sprays now so widely applied to biting insects. As the beetle
feeds openly in all of its stages it is easily reached by the arsenical
sprays. Paris green has long been a favorite remedy, applied
either as a spray, or as a powder mixed with flour or powdered
lime. Most potato growers now spray regularly with Bordeaux
mixture for the blight. Arsenical sprays combine readily with
Bordeaux. and may be used in this way with comparatively lit-
tle trouble or expense. One half pound paris green to fifty gal-
lons Bordeaux mixture has been found effective. Directions for
making and applying the paris green sprays, either alone or with
bordeaux, are given in Bulletin 76 of this Station.
It is important that the first adults appearing on the young
potatoes should be destroyed. A single female layp as many as
five hundred eggs. and if unchecked they speedily become ex-
ceedingly numerous.
No difficulty will be experienced in recognizing the Col-
orado potato beetle. It may be known by its voracious feeding
habits alone. The eggs are yellow and are glued to the under-
side of the leaves. When first hatched the larvae are soft red
grubs. They begin feeding on the leaves at once and grow

Report for Fiscal )ear Ending June 3oth, i905.

rapidly the body becoming lighter colored and fleshy, the head
and legs becoming dark colored. When full grown the larvae
enter the ground to pass through the resting (pupa) stage from
which they emerge as the familiar beetle.
lMosquitoes.-Mosquitoes have been an excedingly great
pest in certain localities during the year. The common small
mosquito, Culex pipiens, was found breeding, on and in the
neighborhood of the station grounds, in tin cans, discarded
buckets, broken crockery, troughs, half barrels, barrels, an un-
used cistern, an abandoned cess pool: eggs and young larva!
were found in flower vases which held or had held cut flowers.
and in such occasional waste jars about the dormitories as were
allowed to stand more than one day. Practically all vessels
capable of holding water even temporarily were supplying theit
quota of mosquitoes. This species gives little or no trouble
during the day as it is then in hiding and quiet, coming out at
dark. Even at night it is much less troublesome in the presence
of bright light, and attacks the part of the body away from the
light, as the back of the hand when reading a book, or the side
of the face from the light.
All of the breeding places on the station grounds were de-
stroyed or treated with kerosene. The basins and fountains are
kept free of mosquito larvae by fish. In this way the number ot
mosquitoes at the college dormitories was noticeably reduced. By
the latter part of June the mosquitoes of this species were further
reduced to insignificant numbers even in the presence of consid-
erable rainy weather, being destroyed evidently by natural means.
The species was found to breed most abundantly in stagnant water
containing much organic matter supporting an abundance of the
micro-organisms on which the larvae feed. An ideal breeding
place was furnished by a few half buried troughs partly filled
with water containing water-soaked corn cobs, with grass and
other vegetation growing from the sides. The breeding places.
however, are by no means confined to stagnant water. A larger
water trough which was in constant use as a watering place for
the cattle of the dairy farm, and through which water was almost
constantly flowing, was found to contain numerous larvae. The
fresh water stream near the campus was free from larvae in all
of the pools of any size, and as far towards the head as even

Flo ida Ag; cultural Experiment Statimn.

the smallest minnows could go. It is evident that in breeding in
small bodies of water this mosquito finds greater security from its
enemies, and that stagnant water is preferred to fresh on account
of the greater abundance of the food supply.
Taeniorhynchus perturbans, a medium sized mosquito with
light colored bands around the legs, has been present at Lake
City during the summer in small numbers and continues, ap-
parently unaffected by the disaster that reduced the number of
Culex pipiens. The very large mosquito, Psorophora ciliata.
occurs only rarely.
The species mentioned above do not, so far as definitely
known. have any part in the transmitting of any disease. Fortu-
nately the malaria mosquito, Anopheles, rarely occurs on or about
the College grounds. only a few specimens having been taken
during the year. The species of this genus are long legged,
medium to large sized mosquitoes. The genus may be recognized
at once from the palpi of the female which are long as the probos-
cis, giving the bill a three-pronged appearance. while in the case
of the common mosquitoes of the genus Cule.r the palpi are short.
The larvae of Anopheles may be distinguished by the fact that
they feed at the surface, and have a very short breathing tube.
It having been definitely determined that malaria is transmitted
through the bites of the mosquitoes of this genus, and so far as
known can be transmitted in no other way, and that yellow fever
is conveyed in a similar way by the yellow fever mosquito, the
importance of the recognition of the common species of mos-
quitoes and their control becomes at once apparent.
Remedies.-The different species of mosquitoes, of which
there are many, vary more or less in their breeding habits. The
remedies applied will also vary greatly and prove more or less
effective according to the species treated. Some species prefer
only fresh water, others brackish; some will thrive in stagnant
water, others prefer pure. Many select by preference shallow
and temporary bodies of water where the small organisms on
which the larvae feed are abundant and where natural enemies are
absent. All known species agree in passing their earlier larval
and pupal stages as aquatic, but air breathing, insects. During the
larval stage, at which time they are commonly known as wrig-
glers, air is obtained through a trumpet-shaped breathing tube

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 190.5 25

near the extremity of the slender abdomen. During the pupal
stage there are two such tubes projecting from the thorax. The
eggs are deposited on the surface of the water either in boat
shaped masses, as in the case of our most common mosquitoes of
the genuis Cule.r, or single, as in the case of the malaria, and some
other mosquitoes. The eggs hatch usually within one to two days,
the young wrigglers escaping from a cap-like opening at the lower
end of the egg. The wriggler stage varies with the different
species. lasting usually a week to ten days. The pupal stage is
rarely of more than one or two days' duration, after which the
adult winged mosquito appears. It is difficult to ascertain the
length of life of the adult mosquito. Those of the summer
brood are known to live for some few weeks at least. The adults
of the fall brood spend the winter in the colder climates in a dor-
mant or semi-dormant condition, coming out to deposit eggs the
following spring.
It was long ago found that putting kerosene on the small
pools of water reduced the number of mosquitoes. It was, how-
ever. not until as late as 1892, when Dr. L. 0. HowaWlegan ex-
permincts for the extermination of mosquitoes, that practical
application of this treatment was made on a large scale. Kerosene,
when poured upon water, spreads forming a thin film over the
surface. When the wrigglers. or the pupae, come to the surface
for air as they must, the breathing tube is clogged by the film of
kerosene. and death results. Wherever it can be applied kerosene
is a thoroughly efficient destroyer of all larvae and pupae. One ap-
plication will serve to keep a quiet pool free from larvae and pupae
for a week or ten days. Another week is required for the next
I brood of larvae to approach maturity, so that two applications a
month will prevent the maturing of any mosquitoes from that
particular pool. Ordinary kerosene may be used. and should be
applied at about the rate of one pint to two hundred and fifty
square feet of surface. Fuel oil is cheaper and somewhat more
lasting. The proprietary compound, Phinotas. made by the
Phinotas Chemical Company,. New York, is reported to destroy
not only the mosquito larvae, but all other aquatic insects and all
fish, and remains effective much longer than kerosene. The fact
that it is destructive to fish limits its application. It is recom-
mended for treatment of sewer-basins. cess pools, and similar
bodies of stagnant water.'

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

A much more satisfactory method of dealing with mos-
quitoes is, whenever possible, to destroy their breeding places. In
the case of the small house mosquito, Culex pipiens, and others
of similar habits which breed in tin cans, rain-barrels, troughs,
cisterns, etc., this can often be easily accomplished. The larger
bodies of fresh water and fountains are readily kept free from
larvae by the presence of fish. Mosquitoes do not as a rule breed
in large bodies of water, particularly such as are free from veg-
etation. By intelligent concerted action each inland community
should be able to do much towards freeing itself from the pest of
mosquitoes, and from diseases conveyed by mosquitoes.
The salt marsh mosquitoes breeding along the coast are more
difficult to control, since their breeding grounds are spread over
larger areas. Effective measures against the salt marsh mos-
quitoes often involve the drainage of the marsh areas, and a
special study of each particular locality is desirable before at-
tempting to apply remedies.
The yellow fever mosquito, Stegomyia fasciata. breeds, as does
the common mosquito in any body of standing water, and is likely
to occur in any part of the gulf region, where, through carelessness
or otherwise, pools of standing water are allowed to accumulate.
As in the case of the malaria mosquito, in order to transmit the
disease the mosquito must have previously bitten a yellow fever
patient. The measures used against the common house mos-
quito will be equally effective against the yellow fever mosquito.
The White Fly.-Among citrus insects the white fly, Aley-
rodes citri. continues to be the most serious pest. The low tem-
peratures of the past winter, resulting in a nearly complete defol-
iation of citrus trees throughout much of the State, however, gave
a temporary check to the activity of this insect. The sprays in use
for this insect, as reported by the large citrus growers, are not
proving entirely satisfactory. The larvae attaching themselves
on the under side of the leaves are very difficult to reach, espe-
cially with the class of labor that it is often necessary to employ.
Improved means of application as well as improved sprays are
needed. The red fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis, and the brown
fungus continue to do effective work against the insect in favored
localities. Some of the groves in the moister Manatee region are
entrusted entirely to these natural aids. An effort to induce and

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June jot/, 1905.

hasten the spread of these fungi from the Manatee into the
Orange county region. carried on by Mr. C. \V. Townsend. of
Orlando. under advice from this Station, was interrupted by the
cold wave which checked temporarily both the white fly and the
fungus. The red fungus, Sphaerostilbe cocophila, of the San Jose
and other scales has been again received from Orlando growing
upon the white fly. The white fly larvae have been observed passing
the winter upon blackberry, and honeysuckle, two additions to
the already long list of white fly food plants. It has also been
found, as stated in press bulletin No. 56. that this insect occasion-
ally attaches itself to the stem as well as the leaves.
.In Otiorhynchid larva feeding upon the roots of grape-fruit.
Early in January a correspondent at Cocoanut Grove sent to the
Station through Mr. G. L. Taber, a larva reported to be doing
serious injury to the roots of grapefruit trees. The specimen
forwarded on to the Division of Entomology at Washingtion was
kindly determined by Mr. E. A. Schnor. through Dr. L. 0. How-
ard, as the larva of an Otiorhynchid beetle, probably the genus
Pachnaeus distans.
The Cottony Cushion Scale. Icerya Purchasi, was received
from the region about Seminole, Florida. a few miles farther
south than the species had been previously reported. This insect
is so perfectly kept under control by its natural enemies, par-
ticularly the lady bird, Novius cardinalis. that its spread occasions
little alarm.
The Cotton Stainer, Dysdercus saturellus, was reported from
several localities, especially Eldred, Lakemont, Leesburg, Long-
wood, Ozona. Port Tampa, and St. Petersburg, during October,
November, and December. Clean culture and freedom from
weeds in the neighborhood of the groves was recommended as a
precaution against future attacks by this insect. In one instance
the bug is reported as having completely destroyed twenty-five
acres of long cotton.
During the latter part of June mealy bugs were reported as
unusually injurious to citrus groves at Fort Myers. St. Peters-
burg. Caloosa and elsewhere. The waxy covering of the body
of these insects and their habit of accumulating in heaps in pro-
tected spots makes it difficult to get all at a single application.
None of the standard sprays at present in use are satisfactory
against this scale as it occurs on citrus groves. Tests of the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

available sprays are being made in the hope of obtaining a more
satisfactory remedy for this insect.
It is hoped during the coming year to give close attention
to natural means of controlling citrus insects, as well as to more
thorough tests of available sprays for the more serious citrus
species. It is felt by many of the growers that the sprays at pres-
ent in use are but poor weapons against some of the orange pests.
A correspondingly greater attention is thus being called to
thorough and judicious cultural methods, and to the encourage-
ment of natural enemies of these insects. Test sprays against the
mealy bug are being made as mentioned above. Other species
will be considered as opportunity permits.
A good deal of attention has been drawn to potato insects
recently. and if possible additional data will be gathered regarding
these forms during the coming year.
The spraying of pecan trees against the bud moth and other
pecan insects begun in 1904 by my predecessor, Professor H. A.
Gossard, is being continued. The fumigation dosage necessary
to free pecan nursery stock from the danger of distributing the
bud moth is unknown. and as the pecan industry is assuming large
proportions, and this insect becoming widely distributed, thorough
tests of nursery stock to determine this point are very much to be
Respectfully submitted.

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 1905.


Dr. Andrew, Sledd. Director.
SIR: I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the
Department of Botany and Horticulture. for the year ending July
1, 1905.
The work of this section has followed closely the schedule
presented at the beginning of the year. Much time has been
given to the co-operative work with the Department of Agricul-
ture in potato breeding experiments at Hastings, Florida.
A general survey of the Horticulture crops of the State has
been undertaken and some time has been given to a study of the
various diseases which attack our cultivated crops.
During the year the collections of fungi and mosses have been
mounted and properly arranged. These were placed in a case and
are now of considerable value to us in our plant disease work.
A complete set of pathological laboratory apparatus has also
been added to our equipment. Many specimens of plants were
received by the Department during the past year. In the great
majority of cases the trouble was due to some vegetable organism
and in nearly all of the cases we were able to give the scinetific
and common names of the organism. besides giving the most ap-
proved remedies.
In all of our station work we have endeavored to take up
such work as cannot ordinarily be done by farmers or vegetable
growers, as for example, testing the influence of Late blight on
the various varieties of Irish potatoes, and the best means of con-
trolling this disease. The influence of Brown rot on the different
varieties of peaches and the most successful means of holding
this organism in check, as well as the influence of various diseases
on other crops. We have planted different varieties of fruit trees
and garden crops in order to study the conditions which influence
or retard the development of the various diseases which are pro-
duced by vegetable organisms, but we have not undertaken a va-
riety test on the station ground. This line of work must be left
to the fruit and the vegetable growers in the various sections of
the State, since it is a well established fact that some of our fruits
which do remarkably well in one section are absolute failures in
the other sections. We also made no attempt to have a model gar-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

den or orchard but we have kept exact record of the condition of
the trees and crops upon every piece of land. It is not the purpose
of an Experiment Station to spend its money in keeping up a
garden or orchard for exhibition purposes.

ANTHRACNOSE, Colletotrichum lindenutheoiunum (.8 and C).
This organism usually attacks the pods, but it also frequently in-
vades the stem and leaves. On the pods it usually appears as
brown sunken areas surrounded by a reddish line and as the dis-
ease progresses the spots deepen and grow until they extend
across the pods. Frequently several of these spots run into each
other, forming large brown patches nearly covering the surface
of the pod. Badly diseased pods are usually contorted. The beans
within frequently become diseased and shriveled. The organism
is also on the rind of cucumbers, pumpkins, musk melons and
Treatment.-Select seed from healthy plants and avoid
planting on low, damp land. Bordeaux mixture will hold the
disease in check if the mixture is applied before the disease spots
appear. Remove all badly diseased plants.

BLACK MOLD. Alternaria Brassica (Berk).- This disease
first appeals on the old basal leaves in the form of dark circular
spots which soon take on concentric markings. These spots grad-
ually increase in size until some of them measure an inch or more
in diameter. The diseased tissue soon dries, becomes brittle and
falls away, leaving a smooth circular hole. Frequently during the
progress of the disease several of the infected areas coalesce soon,
giving the leaf a ragged appearance. The work of this fungus is
confined chiefly to the blade. The larger veins and mid-rib usually
remain intact for some time after the larger portion of the blade
has disappeared; however, the petiole gradually withers and
finally falls away, leaving a scar on the stem. Thus one by one
most of the leaves disappear until finally only a tuft of leaves or a
small loose head remains at the crown of the plant, giving'- it a
characteristic cabbage palmetto appearance. Finally the entire
plant blackens and succumbs. This disease has been unusually se-

Report for Iiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 19o5.

vere on our spring cabbage. A number of fields which came under
our observation were completely ruined by it. Varieties show con-
siderable difference in their susceptibility to the disease. In our
Experimental work on the Station grounds the plants of the
varieties Jersey Wakefield and the Bald Head were all killed,
while only 50 per cent. of the plant in the Greeley Cross were
killed. The Green Glaze remained practically free from the dis-
BLACK ROT, Pseudomonas Campestris (Panm) Smith. A
widespread and destructive disease. This organism gains entrance
to the plant at the roots or leaves. It may invade the plant at any
time. Usually, however, the first marked symptoms of root in-
fection appear about the time the head is forming when, during
the heat of the day, such plants appear wilted and have a lighter
green color. A cross section of the petiole of the basal leaves of
infected plants shows black fibro-vascular bundles. If such bundles
are carefully traced they will be found to extend into the stem
down into the roots. The upward movement of the water carries
the disease along the bundles into the leaves. As soon as a num-
ber of these bundles which lead to the leaf become diseased, the
leaf wilts and dies for want of water. The blade of the leaf turns
brown and the veins take on a black color. Frequently the organ-
ism enters at the tips of the leaves; the disease appearing in the
form of brown spots on the margin of the leaves. These brown
areas spread toward the center of the leaf and at the end of one or
two weeks the disease usually reaches the stem. From this point
it soon spreads to other parts of the plant, greatly interfering with
its normal development. Infected plants frequently remain small
and often produce inferior or one-sided growth of the head. If
the disease is severe .and developed early in the season no heads
form at all and in extreme cases the plant is killed outright.
Treatment.-We have at present no method of controlling
the disease, in the field. *Harding and Stewart have shown be-
yond a doubt that this organism frequently occurs on the seed
and that some of the organisms survive the winter on the seed
and become a source of infection to the young plants. As a pre-
cautionary means they advise that all cabbage seed be disinfected
before sowing, by soaking for 15 minutes in a 1-1000 corrosive
*Bulletin 251, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

sublimate solution, or in formalin, 1 oz. to 30 gals. water. Plant the
treated seed on land which is free from the disease. Of course,
this treatment will not prevent the disease if the young plants are
transferred to infected soil.
BLIGrT. Altenariuin (sp). The disease first appears on the
older leaves in the form of small brown spots which gradually en-
large, followed by the drying and curling under the margins of
the leaf. Although this disease did not prove to be serious dur-
ing the past season yet it caused considerable loss in some fields.
Plants that are properly fertilized and well cultivated do not ordi-
narily suffer severely from this organism.
Treatment.-Dilute Bordeaux mixture and potassium sul-
phide are efficient preventive of this disease.
BLcur. Cercospora apii (Fres). This disease produces red-
dish brown irregular spots on the leaves. Badly infected leaves
turn yellow and have a sickly appearance. This fungus fre-
quently lives through the entire summer in the field and cold
Treatment.-The refuse of celery ought not to be conm-
posted for celery fertilizer. If a field has once become thoroughly
infected with this disease the plants should be sprayed with Bor-
deaux mixture soon after they are transplanted and continue to
be sprayed about once a week until two weeks before banking
when amonical solution of copper and carbonate ought to be used
in order to avoid coloring the stems. Since this fungus lives in
the field or cold frame from one crop to another it is very essen-
tial to destroy or remove from the field all diseased plants and
Corticium vagum (,B. and C.)-This fungus has been fre-
quently observed killing the young plants in the bed before they
were transferred to the field. It has also been found on the old
plants in the field, but usually doing little harm.
STEM ROT, Sclerotinia libertiana (Fukle).-This fungus has
been a serious menace to the celery industry of this state during
the past- year. It may invade the plant at any time but is usually
most destructive after the boards are placed for bleaching, espec-

Report for Fiscal }'ar Ending June 3ot0/, 90o5. 33

ially if heavy rains occur during this period. The disease is first
noticed just above the ground line as a delicate white mould en-
circling the stem. The mycelium soon penetrates into the interior
and gradually extends upward and the base of the steins soon be-
comes a rotten wet mass. If such stems are carefully examined
one finds a number of black bodies (sclerotia) in this rotten tissue.
These sclerotia are masses of fun-us which are not so deli-
cate as the white fungus threads, and therefore are better able to
withstand unfavorable periods. When the stems decav the sclero:ia
fall to the ground where they remain in a dormant condition for
several months. When the weather conditions become favorable
the sclerotia give origin to fruiting bodies. At maturity the seed
(spores) are ejected and germinate at once, forming a mycelium
which lives in the dead organic matter of the soil for a time, but
later attacking the stems of various plants near the ground line.
During the past year we have observed the disease on the potato,
bean, squash, melon, turnip, cabbage, lettuce and radish.
Treatment.-This is a difficult disease to combat. All dis-
eased stems and leaves should be burned. Sprinkling quick lime
on the surface of the soil will kill the myvcelium during its period
of saprophytic existence. However, this treatment has little value
after the fungus has once entered the tissues of the plant. Fresh
stable manure on the surface of the soil greatly favors the spread
of the disease.
Free air circulation and sunlight seems to check the rapid
growth of the fungus, hence the single row culture has a distinct
advantage over double row method on infested land. The fungus
is usually most destructive during the bleaching period since the
bleaching boards form a dead air chamber which is extremely
favorable to the growth of the fungus. Loss during this period
can be prevented in a measure by lowering the boards for a half
day or so from time to time, thus allowing a free circulation of
air and sunlight to reach the base of the plants.
All the varieties on the station grounds are doing poorly and
many of the plants have been killed by Orange Rust. Leaf Spot
has also caused considerable trouble during the year. Several new
varieties which are apparently more resistant to Orange Rust,

F/o ida Agriculhtural Experiment Station.

have been set out on new land and an effort will be made to check
the development of the disease in the new plantations.
ORANGE RusT, Gymnoconia interstitiales (Schl. Largerh).-
This disease gets its name from the orange colored spores which
are produced on the under surface of the leaves. Sometimes the
spore masses also occur on the canes. This disease is common to
blackberries, dewberries and raspberries. It also frequently is
found on a number of wild plants.
Treatment.-The mycelium is perennial in the underground
parts of the plants. The fungus enters the young shoots and de-
velops with the growth of the plants, growing up through the
canes and finally appearing in the leaves.
Dig up and destroy all infected plants as soon as discovered.
The diseased leaves have a pale orange tinge and have a sickly
LEAF SorT, Septoria Rubi (Westd).-This is a common dis-
ease on the foliage, producing small circular spots of dead leaf tis-
Treatment.-No successful line of treatment is known.
Early spraying with Bordeaux mixture would undoubtedly aid
in checking the rapid development of the disease.
These trees were planted in 1902, but apparently they have
not received proper attention. Most of them are infested with
Root Knot (Heterodera Radicicold), and are doing poorly. We
are testing the influence of mulch on infested trees.
The two varieties of Pomelo planted this spring are doing
quite well and are making satisfactory growth. The young hybrids
were killed to the ground during the last winter's freeze; however,
most of them put out new shoots. All of these trees were traps-
ferred to the east side of the Horticulture grounds and are mak-
ing a good growth.
Cions from these trees will be budded on Trifoliate stock dur-
ing the coming season.
Scab and Wither-tip have been reported as doing consider-
able damage to the Grape Fruit in several sections of the State.
SCAB, Cladosporum Sp.-This disease was introduced from
Japan. It was first observed on the sour orange. Citrus bigarodia,

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 301oth, 905.

about a quarter of a century ago. Both the fruit and leaves of
this variety on the Station ground have been severely injured
by it during the past year.
The Kumquats, Citrus Japonica (Thub.) and Satsuma, Citrus
nobilis (Lour), are also more or less affected with it. We have
corresponded with several growers in the State who mailed us
specimens of Grape Fruit, Citrus Decumana L., which were badly
distorted by this fungus. One man is of the opinion that the dis-
ease will destroy his entire crop and another estimates his loss
at about 2.000 boxes.
This organism produces very characteristic markings of the
fruit and twigs covering the surface with a corky elevation giving
it an unsightly rough appearance. The leaves are also frequently
badly distorted.
Conditions have a marked influence on the development of
the disease. This fungus makes little or no progress during a dry
spring but during a wet spell it grows rapidly. Groves in low,
damp situations suffer more from scab than those on high and dry
The period of greatest danger to both leaves and fruit is when
they are young and tender and growing rapidly.
Treatment.-The disease can be controlled by spraying
with either Bordeaux mixture or ammoniacal solution of copper
WITHER TIP. Colletotrichium gleosporioides.-This fungus
has been observed on the hybrids on the Station grounds and it
also has been reported from various sections of the State during
the year. Both old and young trees are injured by this disease. It
appears on the leaves in the form of round dead spots usually
invading the tip or edge of the leaf first. The infected area be-
comes light green, then brown gradually drying and finally fall-
ing away. giving the leaf a ragged appearance. From the leaf
the fungus works into the joining branches, killing many of the
fruiting twigs. The damage caused by this disease is frequently
entirely overlooked and attributed to die-back or blight.
This fungus also invades the fruit of the lemon, grape fruit.
and kumquat, frequently causing serious loss. Upon the fruit the
disease first appears as an irregular brownish spot which fre-
quently has a well defined margin. As it progresses the center of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

the infected area. for a time, takes on a lighter green color, how-
ever. finally the entire diseased area takes on a decidedly black
color. The fungus confines its attacks to the rine for a consider-
able Time, but it gradually works inwards and finally completely
destroys the fruit. We have at several different times received
diseased fruit from a New York commission house. In every case
the fruit was reported to have been in fair condition when it was
packed. showing mere traces of the disease, but the shipments
were delayed and the fungus practically ruined the fruit before it
reached its destination. This disease also produces wither-tip of
the orange, pomelo and lemon twigs and leaf spot of leaves of
various citrus species.
Treatment.-Anything which weakens the vitality of the
tree aids the fungus to gain a foothold. Wither-tip and leaf spot
mav be controlled by cutting out the diseased twigs and thoroughly
spraying the tree with Bordeaux mixture.
The spotting of the lemon and pomelo fruit may be largely
prevented by spraying or washing the sound fruit with ammonical
solution of Copper Carbonate before shipping.
For a full account of this disease see Bulletin 52 of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture by P. H. Rolfs on "Wither-Tip and
Other Disease of Citrus Trees and Fruits."
Corticium Vagum B. and C.-This fungus frequently causes
considerable trouble in the seed bed producing a damping off of
the seedlings. Infected plants appear as if water soaked at the
ground line. The tissue at this point soon becomes unable to sup-
port the young plant and it falls over on the ground where its de-
struction is soon complete. Under favorable conditions, this or-
ganism ruins a seed bed in a few days. It has occasionally been
reported as a destructive disease to green house lettuce, but as far
as I am aware, this is the first record of its causing loss to field
lettuce. It usually attacks the older leaves first. The blade is
soon completely destroyed but the mid-rib remains intact, appear-
ing very much as if the blade has been cut away or destroyed by
The disease soon spreads to the more delicate inner leaves,
which are rapidly consumed, blackening and decaying with the
progress of the disease. Delicate threads of the fungus cover the

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, I9o5.

infected leaves. This organism is usually most destructive on low
land and frequently causes considerable trouble on the higher
lands during the periods of excessive rain. The fruiting stage
of the fungus was observed on seed plants on the Station garden
during the past season. The size of the spores and the structure
of the hyphae agree perfectly with the Corticium of the potato.
Treatment.-Give careful attention to drainage and do not
crowd the plants. Place them so as to allow the sunlight and a
free circulation of air to reach the base of the plants.
THE DROPS, Sclerotinia libertiana, (Fukle).-This disease
caused considerable loss to the lettuce industry of the State during
the past season. This fungus lives in the soil and it usually at-
tacks the plants just at the ground line where it shows itself as a
delicate white mould encircling the stem. This mould spreads
rapidly to the leaves, often killing the plants in one day. Fre-
quently the basal leaves are invaded first and the fungus works its
way to the stem of the plants. After once reaching the stem the
plant's destruction is soon complete.
The diseased parts are covered with a white webb and if the
decayed parts are cut open a number of black sclerotia of variable
size and shape are found surrounded by mycelium. When the
plant dries up these sclerotia fall to the ground, remain dormant
for some time and finally giving origin to fruiting bodies. These
fruiting bodies produce spores which germinate at once, forming
a mycelium which lives for a time on dead organic matter in the
soil, but soon takes on its parisitic habit.
Treatment.-Fresh stable manure on the surface of the
ground greatly favors the spread of the disease.
Sprinkling quicklime on the surface of the ground will de-
stroy much of the mvcelium during its period of saprophytic
existence. However, this treatment has little value after the fun-
gus enters the tissue of the plants. When the organism is once
introduced into a field it remains in the soil for a number of
years. Consequently it is best to avoid planting infected soil to
lettuce. This disease also attacks potatoes, squash. melons, tur-
nips, cabbage, radish, beans and a number of other plants.
The trees in the hybrid grove are doing fairly well and the
freeze of the past winter apparently had but little influence on

Florida A k iculhiral Experiment Station.

The Satsuma trees also show little or no injury from last win-
ter's freeze. The trees all have some fruit on them. However a
number of them show marked indications of die-back and a few
of the trees are infected with wither-tip, (Colletotrichum Gleos-
pcrioides). The soil in which these trees are growing is apparently
not well adapted to orange culture and it would be best to trans-
fer these trees to a more desirable soil and use the present site for
some other crop.
For a discussion of the diseases of the orange see Bulletin 53
of this Station.
This orchard was laid out in 1902, and 140 trees were set out
during the spring of that year. However, since then 84 of the
trees have died. During the past spring the vacancies and the re-
maining portion of the field was filled out with young trees of
various varieties. All the young trees set out this spring are
alive and making a good growth, but a number of the older trees
are doing poorly and will undoubtedly die before the close of the
We now have 24 of the leading Florida varieties. This
orchard is not intended for a variety test, but is used for a study
of culture methods, fertilizer problems and hybridization.
It also affords an excellent opportunity for studying the in-
fluence of the various diseases on the fruit and trees of the differ-
ent varieties. The value of the native plum for a stock on old
land, infested with root-knot, is receiving some attention. We
also have an experiment in progress testing the value of keeping
trees which are infested with root-knot well mulched with leaves.
RUST. Puccinia Pruni (P). caused more or less injury to the
foliage during the season. Brown Rot, Sclerotinia Fruitigena
(Per Schrt) completely destroyed the fruit on a number of the
During the past year the potato industry of the State has
suffered severely from various diseases, one or two of which have
been unusually destructive. Considerable time has been given to a
study of these various disease producing organisms. A co-opera-
tive experiment has been undertaken with the Department of Agri-
culture. Fifty-two European varieties were planted at Hastings.

Report/ br Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth, 1905.

Some of these varieties showed considerable difference in their
resistance to the various diseases, especially to late blight. There
is also a marked difference in the keeping qualities of these va-
EARLY BLIGHT-, Alternaria solani (E. and M.)-This disease
caused considerable loss to our potato industry during the present
year. It attacks both leaves and stems. Plants usually show no
signs of the disease until they are six inches high. The first in-
dication of its presence is the appearance of small, circular, brown
spots on the older leaves. These spots gradually extend and form
large areas of dead tissue. The younger leaves soon show signs
of invasion and unless the plants are sprayed at once the entire
foliage soon becomes involved. In this advance stage the tips
and margin of the leaves roll up. The larger spots frequently
show concentric markings. Because of its slow progress it is
usually mistaken for the natural ripening of the plants. The de-
velopment of the tuber stops as soon as the leaves become thor-
oughly involved and the yield is often cut short as much as 20
barrels per acre. Plants which are weakened from any cause are
liable to be invaded by this fungus. Bordeaux mixture will hold
this disease in check. Applications of this mixture should be made
when the plants are four or five inches high and repeated at in-
tervals of about 10 days. until 6 applications have been made.
LATE BLIGHT. Phytophthora infestans (Dc By).-This dis-
ease invades all parts of the plants and also the tubers. The first
signs of its presence is the appearance of small brown or black
areas on the leaves which rapidly increase in size, followed by the
curling of the leaves. If a spell of warm moist weather follows.
the leaves and stems turn black and decay within a few days, giv-
ing off a disagreeable odor. Badly infected plants have only small
tufts of green leaves at the tips of stalks. Many of the leaves
hang shriveled, as if scorched by fire. The under surface of the
diseased leaves is covered with mildew. This mildew is com-
posed from minute tree-like branching structures which support a
minute egg-shaped spore (seed) at the tip of each branch. When
a spore falls on the moist surface of the leaf it pushes out a slen-
der colorless thread which soon enters the leaf, and if the weather
conditions are favorable it soon completely penetrates and kills
the leaf. It usually takes about five days from the time that the
spores germinate until a new crop of spores is formed. This ex-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

plains why the disease spreads so rapidly. The tubers of infected
fields may or may not rot. This depends largely upon the soil and
weather conditions. This rot is worse on heavy soils. So far as
known the fungus has no resting spores. It is believed to pass the
winter in the tissue of the tubers, consequently too much care
cannot be exercised in selecting clean, healthy seed. Thoroughly
spraying the plants with Bordeaux mixture will hold the disease
in check.
DRY RoT, Fusarium oxysporium (Schlechtendal).-Attacks
all parts of the potato plant below ground. The first indication of
the disease is a change in the appearance of the leaves which take
on a lighter green color and roll up, followed by a gradual drying
up and premature death of the plant. However, if the plants are
not attacked until they have about completed their growth these
early symptoms are often lacking. The upper part of the shoots
often becomes flabby, droops and dies, usually taking on. a dark
brown color. When infected tubers are first dug they appear
sound, but while they are stored the fungus gradually works in-
ward following the vascular ring, which soon takes on a dark
brown color. The fungus usually gains entrance at the stem end.
Black streaks extending from the stem and into the flesh is a relia-
ble symptom of the disease. Infected ends rot and shrivel, because
of this peculiarity the disease is often spoken of as dry end rot.
The hyphme (feeding threads) which occur abundantly in the dis-
eased tissue, often appear on the surface of the tubers in dense
white tufts. These soon bear small oval spores (seeds) and later
septate spores form. When these spores fall on the moist in-
jured surface of the tubers and plants, they germinate and de-
velop new points of infection.
This is a wide spread and destructive disease. It is a dif-
ficult matter to find a lot of seed which is not more or less
infected with it and it is not uncommon to find as high as 25 per
cent. of the seed completely rotted by it. Frequently tubers which
are healthy when cut, are completely rotted by this fungus before
the plants reach the surface of the ground. This is especially no-
ticeable when the germination of the seed is checked by unfavor-
able weather conditions. In such cases the fungus usually gains
entrance at the cut surface. The rotting of the seed in various sec-
tions of the State during the past winter was due largely to the
work of this organism. In a number of fields which came under

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth. 1905.

our observation, as high as 60 per cent. of the seed was rotted by
this fungus after it had been cut for planting.
The infection in most cases was largely due to carelessness
in mixing diseased seed pieces with infected ones. The spores
falling on the cut moist surface, soon germinated and invaded the
tuber. In many instances the planting was followed by a spell of
cold weather which retarded the germination of the seed and ap-
parently did not materially check the growth of the fungus, thus
enabling the fungus to consume the tuber before the young plants
reached the surface of the ground. In fields where the planting
was followed by more favorable weather conditions the stand
was better, still many of the seed tubers were sooner or later com-
pletely destroyed by the fungus; but the plants were fairly well
established before the destruction of the seed. When the dis-
ease is once introduced in the soil it is apt to remain for a num-
ber of years. Hence it is desirable to practice a systematic rota-
tion of crops.
Carefully selecting clean, smooth seed and rejecting from
time to time all tubers showing any signs of rot also aids ma-
terially in checking the spread of the disease. Exposing the seed
to the light from four to five weeks before planting is an excellent
practice. This treatment tends to hasten the germination of the
tubers after planting and frequently enables the plant to become
established before the seed tuber is entirely destroyed.

Bacterial Rot.
WET ROT.-A bacterial disease which is mistaken by some
growers for Smith's Bacterial Wilt. The young tips of the in-
fected plants wilt suddenly, as if injured by insects, which may
be followed by a gradual drying up of the plants. The tubers of
diseased plants are also frequently infected and contain rotten
cavities which are rapidly extended and under favorable condi-
tions for the development of this organism, the tuber soon becomes
a wet. foul smelling mass. Often, however, the plants show no
signs of the disease, but when the crop is harvested the tubers con-
tain large rotten cavities rendering them worthless for shipping.
It is not uncommon to have as high as 30 per cent. of the
tubers rejected by the pickers and left in the field to rot. In sev-
eral fields which came under our observation about 50 per cent.
were more or less rotted when the crop was harvested. The re-

1/orida Agrictdtural Expe iment Station.

maining portion of the crop was shipped, but it rotted badly in
transit and resulted in a complete loss to the owner. The disease
gains entrance to the tubers through the wounds and ventilating
holes in the skin.
Placing the tubers in a barrel while they are wet seems to
favor the development of this organism. This organism fre-
quently causes serious loss to stored potatoes.
Rotation of crops would undoubtedly do much to prevent a
recurrence of the disease.
BACTERIAL WILT, Bacillus solanacerium (Smith).-A very
common and destructive disease. This disease causes the fol-
iage to wilt and later the branches become discolored and die.
Infections may occur either above or below the ground. The dis-
ease also produces a brown or black rot of the tubers. This or-
ganism also attacks egg plants and tomatoes.
Select clean smooth seed, rejecting all those showing dark
and vascular bundles. Expose seed to the light four or five weeks
before planting.
RmIIzoCToxIA. Corticium Vagum var. Solani Burt.-A wide
spread disease. It is usually quite troublesome on low land, but
during excessive wet weather it also causes more or less loss on
higher land. Young plants suffer most and many of the young
shoots are completely cut off before they reach the surface of the
ground. This disease also frequently produces injuries which
bring about an abnormal development of small tubers. It also in-
vades the surface of growing tubers and frequently produces a
rough surface known as scab.
This fungus forms a white felt-like fruiting membrane on
the green stems just above the surface of the ground often extend-
ing up the stems for a distance of five inches. The membrane is
composed of a net-work of hyphae which produce many short club
shaped branches (basidae) on which small stalks (strigmata) de-
velop. At the end of each strigmata a single oval-shaped spore
(seed) appears. These spores fall as soon as they mature. If
they fall on some moist surface they germinate in a few hours
and thus start a new area of infection. It is also propagated by
black scale-like bodies called sclerotia. These form freely on the
stems and tubers below the surface of the ground. These sclerotia
are composed of large, closely packed cells. When dry these
bodies are hard to detect, but when wet they are dark brown and

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3o0th, f goy.

easily seen. Tubers which are more or less covered with these
bodies ought not to be used for seed, since the cells of these
sclerotia develop into long feeding threads which under favorable
conditions soon invade and frequently destroy the young shoots.
A diseased tuber in a sack of clean ones under favorable condi-
tions of heat and moisture may spread the disease to adjoining
tubers and in time infect the entire lot. Carefully selecting clean,
smooth tubers and exposing them to the light for four or five
weeks before planting gives excellent results. When the fungus
is once introduced into a field it remains in the soil for a number
of years. Good drainage and careful cultivation aids materially
in checking the progress of the disease.. Old stems anid tubers
also aid in disseminating the disease.
ScAB, Oospora scabies (Thax.)-Attacks only the tubers.
The skin of the tubers becomes pitted and frequently cracks. These
injuries form a gateway for an invasion of various fungi and in-
sects which in many cases extend the injuries. Beets are also at-
tacked by this organism. Infected tubers are the principal means
of spreading this disease. When once introduced into a field it
remains in the soil for a number of years.
Treating infected seed in a solution of one ounce of corros-
sive sublimate to 8 gallons of water for 1 1-2 hours about one
week before planting gives good results, provided the treated
seed is planted in soil free from this organism. A systematic ro-
tation of crops gives good results.
ANTHRACNOSE. Vermicularia. Sp.-Quite destructive to our
summer crop. The first account of this fungus was given by Dr.
Halstead. It attacked the stems and caused the premature death
of the plant. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture would probably
hold this disease in check. Burn all vines as soon as the crop is
BORDEAUX MIxXTURE-This has proved the most effective
spray for both early and late blight, but is simply a preventive and
not a cure for these diseases. It is very essential that the spray-
ing be done at the right time. If the treatment is delayed until
signs of damage appear, very little good will result. Spraying to
be effective must be done before any signs of disease appear, and
it must be done thoroughly. for unless the entire surface of the
plant is covered by the mixture some of the spores of the fungus
will fall on the unprotected spots and gain entrance to the plants.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Frequent applications are necessary, especially if sufficient rain
falls to wash off the mixture. The following is the standard for-
mula for Bordeaux mixture.

Copper Sulphate ................ 6 pounds.
Fresh lime ...................... 4 pounds.
W ater .......................... 50 gallons.
Potato vines require from two to six barrels of this mixture
according to the size of the plants. When spraying is done on an
extensive scale it is usually convenient to make up a stock solu-
tion of copper sulphate. Suspend a coarse sack containing 45
pounds of copper sulphate into a barrel containing 45 gallons of
water. The copper sulphate should be placed near the surface of
the water a day or two before it is to be used. Stir this solution
thoroughly before using and one gallon of it will contain one
pound of copper sulphate.
A fresh quantity of lime may also be slacked and placed in a
barrel, and if it is covered with a few inches of water it can be
kept in an excellent condition for some time.
To prepare a mixture from these solutions take 6 gallons of
copper sulphate and place it in the spray barrel and add 19 gal-
lons of water. From the slacked lime barrel, take four pounds of
the paste, dilute it with 25 gallons of water and add it to the cop-
per sulphate solution. All the material ought to be passed
through a seive so as to exclude the particles which might clog the
If the "bugs" are plentiful, add one pound of paris green to
50 gallons of the above mixture. A paste should be made of the
paris green by mixing it with a small quantity of water before
putting it in the sprayer.
Potassium Ferro-cyanide is used to determine if enough lime
has been added to combine with all the copper sulphate. It is a
yellowish poisonous salt which dissolves readily in water. Ten
cents worth dissolved in about ten times its bulk in water will ordi-
narily be enough for one season. In using this test, pour into
your sprayer about 25 gallons of diluted copper sulphate solu-
tion and then add about 25 gallons of the milk of lime. Stir the
mixture thoroughly and then add a drop of the potassium ferro-
cyanide. If enough lime has been added the drop will not change
color when it strikes the mixture; however, if sufficient lime has

Report./or Fiscal Year Ending fune 3oth, r90o.

not been added it will immediately change to a (lark reddish brown
and more lime must be added. Even after the test shows no
color it is best to add a little more lime.
sublimate or bichloride of mercury is sold in the form of white
crystals. It may be bought at any drug store at about fifteen
cents an ounce. The cost of the material for treating the seed
for an acre will not exceed fifty cents. The solution is made by
placing one ounce of this chemical in an earthern or wooden dish
containing one gallon of water; as soon as it is all dissolved, pour
the contents of the dish into a vessel containing seven gallons
of water. Put the potatoes in this solution and let them remain
about an hour and a half. The solution may be used a number of
times. The disinfection may be done at any time. Experiments
indicate, however, that treating the tubers about a week before
planting and spreading them on the floor or ground facilitates
their growth after planting. Corrosive sublimate is a deadly
poison to both man and animal when taken internally, but the
solution and treated potatoes may be handled freely without ex-
periencing any ill results.
Corrosive sublimate.......... ...... 1 ounce.
W ater ............................8 gallons.
Soak potatoes...................... 1/ hours.

LEAF MOLD, Alternaria Solani, (E. and M.)-This disease
was observed on a number of plants in the Hastings section and
apparently doing considerable damage. Bordeaux mixture will
hold the disease in check.
ANTHRACNOSE. Colletotrichum Lycopersici (Ches).-Ap-
pears as small brown spots on the stems and leaves. Under favor-
able conditions these spots enlarge and the greater portion of the
leaves may become involved. In our experimental plots the dis-
ease was first observed just as the fruits were turning, and within
two weeks the entire foliage was practically killed. On the fruit
it forms sunken discolored spots each with a dark center. As the
spots increase in size the area is blackened and depressed, sur-
rounded by shrunken, discolored skin. The fruit of egg plants

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

which were growing in an adjoining plot were also rotted by this
Treatment.-This disease may be held in check by spraying
the plants thoroughly with Bordeaux mixture. The spraying
should be commenced before any signs of disease appear. The
spray does little or no good after the disease has once gained en-
trance to the fruit or leaves.
Corticium Vagum (B. and C.)-This fungus has been fre-
quently observed on the tomato plant during the past year, but
apparently the plants do not suffer materially from its presence
when they are planted on well aerated land; however, a num-
ber of infected plants, growing on wet land, were apparently se-
verely injured by it. The fruiting stage of the fungus developed
freely on the stems just above the surface of the ground often ex-
tending up the stem for a distance of six inches. As a rule the
fungus does not penetrate the tissues here but simply covers the
stem with a gray felt-like membrane which disappears with the
death of the plant. The tomatoes which touch the ground are
frequently more or less covered by this fruiting membrane of the
fungus, which mars their appearance. So long as the tomato is
green and the skin remains uninjured, the fruit remains sound;
however, if the skin of a ripe fruit is ruptured in any way the
fungus soon destroys it producing a brown rot. This organism
also frequently gains entrance to the fruit at the stem end.
The size and shape of the spores and the structure of the
hyphae agree quite well with Corticium of the potato. The fruiting
stage of this fungus has also been observed on the following
Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane).
Solanum verbascifolium L.
Solanum Melongena L.
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Pig weed).
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Law) Brett & Rusby.
Richardia scpbra (St. Hilaire).
Ipomera batalas (Law), (Sweet Potato).
Cucurbita pepo L., (Pumpkin.)
Citrullus vulgaris (Schrad), (Watermelon).
Zea Mays L.. (Sweet Corn).
Phasealus vulgaris Savi. (Pole Bean, Kidney, etc).

Report for fiscal Year Ending, June 30th, 1905

Pisum satiorum L., (Pea).
Crotilaria, (Rattle box).
Cryperus rotundus L.
Heterotheca Lamarckee Cass.
Phytolacca decandra L., (Pokeweed).
BLIGHT, Bacillus Solanacearum (Sm.).-This is one of the
most destructive diseases of the tomato. It also attacks egg
plants, Irish potatoes and a number of weeds. No line of treat-
ment has been successful in controlling the disease; however,
different varieties of plants show considerable difference in their
susceptibility to the disease. A. number of the more resistant
varieties are being carefully tested. It is hoped that by crossing
and carefully selecting the most resistant plants a desirable strain
may be secured. The disease was unusually destructive during
1904 but the plants have suffered very little from it during the
present season.
Colletotrichum Lagenarium Pass-This parasite is very in-
jurious to the seedling of the watermelon. it also invades the
stems and leaves of the older plants frequently seriously injuring
the plants. It appears on the fruit in the form of small circular
spots. Its attacks may occur at any period from the setting of the
fruit up to the full size. Frequently the fruit is completely de-
stroyed by it. Respectfully .submitted.

Florida Agricultural Expetiment Station.

Dr. Andrew Sledd, President.
DEAR SIR :-I have the honor to present my third annual re-
port as veterinarian, covering the period from July 1st, 1904,
to June 30, 1905.
The major work of the department has consisted in the
eradication of equine glanders. This work was done under the
authority of the State Board of Health, by special agreement with
the Board of Trustees of the University.
About fifty cases of the disease were discovered, many of
which were visibly affected, while others gave the recognized
reaction upon the application of the mallein test. A bulletin which
discloses in detail the various forms of the disease, the locations
of the outbreaks, the mode of entrance and dissemination and the
methods employed in stamping out the malady, was published.
Considerable attention was also given to the fortification of
imported pure-bred cattle against tick fever. The success which
attended this work was unusually good. As a whole, about 7
per cent. die from the operation and from subsequent tick-in-
The operation consists of two subcutaneous injections of a
small quantity of the blood of a tick-infested native at periods
sixty days apart and a trial infestation with the young cow ticks
artificially hatched. The work was done in the cold weather and
no deaths have resulted, even though the animals are now and
have been for some time running on ordinary fenced pastures,
and have been heavily infested with cattle ticks. Thirty-four ani-
mals were treated at the owners' homes, thus saving considerable
expense, which would have been entailed if the work had been
done elsewhere.
The usual correspondence and minor work, which in some
cases consumed considerable time, were carried on.
Respectfully submitted,

Report for Fiscal )"Year Ending fune 3oth. 1oq5. 49

Agricultural Advertising .............. .. Chicago, I11.
Agricultural Epitomist ...... .... .... .... Spencer, Ind.
Agricultural Experiments .... .... .. .. Minneapolis, Minn.
American Agriculturalist ............ .... New York, N. Y.
American Fertilizer .......... .... .... Philadelphia, Pa.
American Nut Journal.. .................. Petersburg, Va.
American Swineherd ...... .... .... .... .. Chicago, Ill.
Beet Sugar Gazette .... ........ .. .... .. .. Chicago, Ill.
Brick ............ .. .. .... ...... ..... Chicago. Ill.
Bulletins, Bussey Institute ........ Jamaica Plains, Boston, Mass
California Cultivator .......... .... .... Los Angeles, Cal.
Chicago Live Stock World .......... ...... .. Chicago, Il1.
Citrograph ............ .. ...... .... .. .. Redlands. Cal.
Colman's Rural World .............. ...... St. Louis, Mo.
Dairy and Produce Review .......... .. San Francisco, Cal.
Daytona Halifax Journal .. .. ..... ...... Daytona, Fla.
Elgin Dairy Report .......... .......... .... Elgin, Ill.
Farm and Floral World ............ .... .. Mobile, Ala.
Farm and Home .......... .... .. .... New Orleans, La.
Farm I lome .......... ...... ...... Springfield, Il1.
Farm Life .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Chicago, Ill.
Farm Progress ................ .... .... St. Louis, Mo.
Farm, Stock and Home ................ Minneapolis, Minn.
Farm Stock Journal .................. .. Rochester, N. Y.
Farmer's Guide .................. .... ..Huntington, Ind.
Farmer's Review ........ ...... .... .... .. Chicago, Ill.
Farmer's Voice .... .... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. Chicago, 111.
Florida Agriculturalist .................. .. DeLand, Fla.
Florida East Coast I lomeseeker ................ Miami, Fla.
Flour and Feed ........................ Milwaukee, Wis.
Hoard's Dairyman .... .. .......... Fort Atkinson, Wis.
Homestead .......... .... .......... Des Moines, Iowa
Hospodarske Listy ........ .............. Chicago, Ill.
Indiana Farmer ............ .......... Indianapolis, Ind.
Kansas Farmer .............. ...... .... Topeka, Kan.
Kimball's Dairy Farmer ........ ........ Waterloo, Iowa,
Live Stock and Dairy Journal ............ San Francisco, Cal.
Louisiana Planter .. .. .................. New Orleans. La.
Maryland Agricultural College Quarterly .... College Park, Md.
Transactions Massachusetts Horticultural Society.. .. Boston, Mass.
Metropolitan and Rural Home .............. New York, N. Y.
Missouri Agricultural College Farmer .......... Columbia, Mo.
Modern Farmer ............ ............ St. Joseph, Mo.
National Farmer and Stock Grower .......... St. Louis. Mo.
National Nurseryman ................. .. Rochester. N. Y.
New York Botanical Gardens .. ... ... New York. N. Y
New York Entomological Society .......... New York, N. Y.
New York Tribune Farmer ............ .. New York, N. Y.
Nut Grower ............ ............ .... Poulan, Ga.
Our Horticultural Visitor .............. .... Kinmundy, 111.
Pacific Fruit World .............. ...... Los Angeles. Cal.
Pacific Poultryman .............. ...... Tacoma, Wash.
Pacific Rural Press ... .. .......... San Francisco. Cal.
Poultry Standard ............ ...... .... Stamford. Conn.
Practical Farmer .............. ...... .. Philadelphia. Pa
Prairie Farmer .......... ....... ..... Chicago. Ill.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

List of Exchanges-Continued.
Reliable Poultry Journal .... ............. Quincy, Ill.
Republic .. .... .... ...... .......... St. Louis, Mo.
Rural New-Yorker .. .. .......... .... New York, N. Y.
Southern Agriculturalist .............. .... Nashville, Tenn.
Southern Cultivator .. ................... Atlanta, Ga.
Southern Farm Magazine ............ .... Baltimore, Md.
Southern Planter ........................ Richmond, Va.
Southern Ruralist .. .. .. .............. Atlanta, Ga.
Southern Tobacconist and Modern Farmer .. .. .. Richmond, Va.
Stockman .......... ............ De Funiak Springs, Fla.
Successful Farming ................ .... Des Moines, Iowa
Successful Poultry Journal ................. Chicago, Ill.
Sugar Beet .................... .... Philadelphia. Pa.
Town and Country ................... San Francisco, Cal.
Tri-State Farmer .. ................ Chattanooga, Tenn.
Twice-a-Week Times ........ ....... .. Shreveport, La.
Up-to-Date Farming . .. . ..... Indianapolis, Ind.
West Virginia Farm Review .............. Charleston, W. Va.
Western Fruit Grower ........ ............ St. Joseph, Mo.
W ilson Bulletin .......... .... ..... .... Oberlin, Ohio
Agriculturchemischen Versuchsstation .... .. Koeslin. Germany
Mark Lane Express ................... London, Eng.
Rural W orld .. ............ .... ...... London, Eng.
Bulletin Economique de L'Indo-Chine ...... Tonkin, Indo-China
Informed Mensual Sanatario y Demographico .. .. Havana, Cuba
Insect W orld .. .. .... .............. ...... Gifu, Japan
Imperial Agricultural Experimental Farm .. .. .. Tokyo, Japan
Boletin da Agricultura ........ .... .... Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sociedade Scientifica de Sao Paulo ........ Sao Paulo. Brazil
Inspectie van der Landbouw in West Indie .. Paramaribo, Surinam
Journal of the Dept. of Agricult. of Victoria. .Melbourne, Victoria
Journal of the Dept. of Agr. of Western Australia... .Perth, W. A.
Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales .. .. Sidney. N. S. W.
Natal Agricultural Journal and Mining Record. .Natal, So. Africa
Transvaal Agricultural Journal .... Pretoria, Transvaal, So. Africa
Department of Agriculture ........ .... .... Madras. India
Department of Agriculture ...... .. .. .. Kingston. Jamaica
Department of Agriculture ...... ..... Bengalore, India
Royal Botanic Gardens .......... .... .. Peradeniya, Ceylon
Bombay Experimental Farms ............ .. Bombay. India
Crooica Agricola ............ .. Buenos Aires, Arg. Republic
Istituto Sperimentale . ................ Naples. Italy
Central Experimental Farm .......... Ottawa, Canada
Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm ...... .. Woburn. England

Report for Fiscal Year Ending June 3oth. 190o5. 51

Bulletins of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


S Kost ................... General ...................... April, 1888. (Out of print).
I. Kost................... General ...................... May and June, 1888.
Kost .................. Agriculture ................... September, 1888. (Out of print).
4. as. P. DePass...... .. General ...................... January, 1889.
5. as. P. DePass........... Analysis of Fertilizer.......... April. 1889. (Out of print).
0. as. P. DePass ......... :General ...................... July, 1889. (Out of print).
7. as. P. DePass............ General ................... October, 1889. (Out of print).
8. as. P. DePass......... General ...................... January, 1890. (Out of print).
9. as. P. DePass....... ... Entomological Notes........... April, 1890. (Out of print).
10. as. P. DePass.......... Phosphate and Superphosphate.. July. 1890. (Out of print).
U. as. P. DePass........... General ..... ............... October, 1890.
It. as P. DePass........... General ..................... January Ist. 1891.
I. as. P. DePass........... General ...................... April. 1891.
14, as. P. DePas ........... General ...................... July, 189L (Out of pritl).
15. as. P. DePass..... .. .. Tobacco and Its Cultivation.... October 1, 1891. (Out of prtn,'
1S. as. P. DePass ......... General Farm Crops.... .... ..January 1, 1892.
17. as P. DePass ..... General ..................... .'April, 1892.
18. as. P. DeP'ass ... .. ..Grasses. Forage Plants and To-!
mato Blight............... July, 1892. (Out of print).
19. Jas. P. DePass.......... Tobacco ...................... October, 1892.
20. A. A. Person .......... Soil and Fertilizers............ September, 1893. (Out of print).
2L P. H. Rolfs .......... The Tomato and Some of Its.
Diseases ................. October, 1.93. (Out of print).
22. A. A. Persons...... .. Fertilizers ................... iNovember. IS93.
SS. P. H. Rolfs.............. Insecticides and Fungicides..... IDecember. 1893. (Out of print).
S4. 0. Clute .................. Annual Report................ January, 1894.
16. A. W. Bitting ......... I.eeche< and Leeching ......... September, 1894.
8.& A. W. Bitting............ Big Head.................... IOctober. 1894.
7T. L. A. Washbourne........ Pineapple ................... November. 1894.
28. A. W. Bitting.. .... Liver Fluke Southern Cattle;
Fever .................... December, 1894.
9o. P. HI Rolfls............. The S-in Jose Scale........... August 189. (Out of prit.
0SO. F. B. Moodie............ The Culture of Tobacco ....... Noveiner, 189.
31. P. II. Rolfs....... ...... Some Market Vegetables....... December. 1895. (Out of print).
$2. A. A. Persons........... Cotton and Its Cultivation...... 'January, 1886.
3S. M. S. Moreman..... ... Orange Groves................ February, 18i .
14. A. L. Quaintance......... Insect Remedies.............. March, 1890.
O5. 0. Clute..... ..... Cassava ..................... April, 189. (Out of print).
L6. A. L. Quaintance-....... Insects Injurious to Grain...... October, 1896.
87. 0. Clute, W. A. Marsh .. Pineapple .................. November, 1896.
88. F. B. Moodie............. Tobacco in Florida ........ January, 1897.
89. S. Powers................ Strawberries .................. July. 1897.
40. A. L. Quaintance ........ The Fall Army Worm......... July, 1897.
41. P. H. Rolfs .......... The San Jose Scale............. August, 1897.
42. A. L. Ouaintance------ Some Strawberry Insects....... August, 1897.
43. A. A. Persons.......... A Chemical Study of Some
Typical Florida Soils...... September. 1897.
44. H. E. Stockbridge........ Cane. Syrup. Sugar ........... January, 1898. (Out of print).
45. A. L. Ouaintance........ Injurious Insects .............. March, 1898.
48. A. L. Quaintance..... The Strawberry Thrips and thej
Onion Thrips ........... luly, 1898. (Out of print).
47. P. H. Rolfs.............. Diseases of the Tomato........ September, 1898. (Out of print).
48. A. L. Quaintance......... Insect Enemies of the Tobacco
in Florida ................ October. 1898.
49. H. E. Stockbridge...... Cassava as a Money Crop...... March, 1899. (Out of print).
60. P. H. Rolfs .......... Pineapple Fertilizers ........ May, 189t. (Out of print).
01. H. A. Gossard........... Some Common Florida Scales.. January. 1900.
S2. H. K. Miller.... ..... Baking Powders............... February. 1900.
88. H. Harold Hume........ Some Citrus Troubles .......... March, 19010.
54. H. Harold Hm. ne......-. Pecan Culture. ................ August. 1900. (Ont of print).
65. H. E. Stockbridge...... Feeding With Florida Feed]
Stuffs .................... September, 1900.
6. H. A. Gossard..... ..... The Cottony Cushion Scale..... May, 1901.
57. H. Harold Hume.......... Top-working of Pecans ......... June, 1901.
58. H. Harold IHume........ Pomelos ...................... ly. 1901.
.59. H. Harold Hume......... Cauliflower ................... October, 1901.
60. I. K. Miller......... ... Velvet Beans.................. january. 1902.
61. If. A. Gossard............ .Two Peach Scales............. uly, 1902.
62. H. Harold Hume........ The Peen-to Peach Group...... July, 1902.
$8. H. Harold Hume....... Packing Citrus Fruits......... September. 1902.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Bulletin of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station--Continued.


61. G. F. Dawson............ Texas Cattle Fever and Salt October, 1902.
Lick .................. December, 1902.
65 H. Harold Hume........ The Kumquats........... .,February, 1903.
66. H. Harold Hnme....... The Mandarin Orange Group.. June, 1903.
67. H. A. Gossard........... White Fly..................
68. H. K. Miller. H. H. Hume. Pineapple Culture. I-Soils..... June, 1908.
69. H. Harold Hflume........ 'Cultivation of Citrus Groves.... January, 1904. (Out of print).
70. H. H. Hume, H. K- Miller., Pineapple Culture, II-Varieties. February, 1904.
71. H. Bl Hume. F. C. Reimer.. Japanese Persimmons......... March, 1004.
7g. C. M. Conner ......... Feeding Horses and Mules on
Home-grown Feeding Stuffs. June, 1904.
73. F. C. Reimer............. The Honey Peach Group....... July, 1904.
74. H. Harold Hume......... Anthracnose of the Pomelo..... August, 1904.
75. H. Harold Hume......... Potato Diseases ............... August. 1904.
76. H. A. Gossard, H. H. Humre.'Insecticides and Fungicides..... November, 1904.
77. C. F. Dawsoen............ Equine Glanders and Its Eradi-.
cation ..... ........ February, 1905.
78. C. M. Conner............ Forage Crops. The Silo....... March. 1905.
79. H. A. Gossard........... Insects of the Pecan........... April, 1905.
So. A. W. Blair.............. The Composition of Some of the
Concentrated Feeding-stuffs
on Sale in Florida........ April, 1905.
8L E, R. Flint............... Fertilizer Suggestions.......... August, 1905.

Press Bulletins.

No. 1. H. Harold Hme ...... Directions for Preparation oi
Bordeaux Mixture......... February 1, im)l.
No. 2. H. K. Miller.......... Lime and Its Relation to Agri-
culture ................... March 1. 1901.
No. 3. H. Harold Hume...... Seed Testing.................. \pril 1, 1901.
No. 4. H. A. Gossard........ The White Fly ................ May 1, 1001.
No. 5. 1. K. Miller......... Basic Slag................... July 1, 1901. (Out of print).
No. 6. H. A. Gossard........ Nursery Inspection (part 11.... August 15. 1901.
T. 7. H. A. Gossard........ Nursery Inspection (part z) .... September 1, 1901.
No. 8. J. F. Mitchell ........ Care of Irish Potatoes Harvest-
ed in the Spring and Held
For Fall Planting......... September 15, 1901.
No. 9. Chas. F. Dawson...... Sore Head................... :October 1, 1901.
No. 10. H. Harold Hume..... Plants Affected by Root Knot.. October 15, 1901.
No. 11. A. W. Blair.......... Vinegar ..................... November 1, 1901.
No. 12. John H. Jeffries....... Seed Beds and Their Manage-
ment ..................... November 15, 1901.
No. 18. H. A. Gossard........ Treatment for San Jose Scale.. December 1, 1001.
No. 14. H. E. Stockbridge..... Beef from Velvet Beans and.
Cassava .................. December 15, 1901.
Nos. 15 and 16. Chas F. Dawson Some Poultry Pests...........January 1 and 16. 1902.
No. 17. A. W. Blair......... Preservatives in Canned Goods. February 1, 1902.
No. 18. IL Harold Hume...... Cantaloupe Blight ............. February 15, 1902.
No. 19. II. A. Gossard........ Cut Worms .................. March 1, 1902.
No. 20. Chas. F. Dawson...... Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. March 15, 1902. (Out of print).
No. 21. Chas. F. Dawson...... Parturient Paralysis........... April 15. 1902.
No. 22. H. K. Miller......... Nitrogen as a Fertilizer........ April 16, 1902.
No. 23. H. F. Stockbridge.... Protection Against Drought.... May 1, 1902.
No. 24. IH. A. Gossard........ Orange Mites.................. May 10, 1902.
No. 25. Chas. F. Dawson......'Roup ........................ June 1, 1902.
No. 26, Chas. F. Dawson...... Lumpy aw.................. une 15, 1902.
No. 27. II. Harold Hume .... Cover Crops ................. uly 1, 1902.
No. 28. C. F. Dawson......... Moon Blindness............... July 15, 1902.
No. 20. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration............. September 1 1902.
No. 30. C. F. Dawson... ..Dehorning Cattle ............. October 1, 1902.
No. 31. A. W. Blair..........Food Adulteration; Coffee...... November 1, 1902.
No. 32. C. F. Dawson.........'Foot and Mouth Disease....... December 1, 1902.
No. 33. H. A. Gossard ........ The Red Soldier Bug or Cotton
Stainer .................. January 1, 1902.
No. 34. C. F. Dawson......... Ox Warbles................... February 1, 1908.

lepori fur Fisal Year Ending June 3oth, ryo5.

Press Bulletins-Continued.


No.35. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration; Butter......March 1 1903.
o0.86. C. F. Dawson......... lhok Worms in Cattle......... April 1, 1903.
o. 37. C. It. Conner......... The Velvet Bean............. May 1, 1903.
No. 38. C. F. Dawson......... Practical Resuits of the Texas
Fever Inoculations ......... une 1. 1903.
No.39. C. F. Dawson... ... Lung Worms in Swine........ July 1. 1O02.
NoL 40 and 41. C. F. Dawson. Glanders ..................... October 1, 1903.
No. 42. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration; Spires and
Condiments ............... November 1, 1903.
ko. 43. C. M. Conner........ How to Feed a Horse.......... December 1, 1908.
No. 44. F. C. Reinier.......... Planting Trees............... December 1, 1903.
No. 45. H. A. Go.sard........ The Sugar Cane Borer......... :December 15, 1903.
No. 46. C. M. Conner..... Selecting Seed Corn........... February I, 1904.
No. 47. C. F. Dawuon........ The Rabid Dog......March 1. 1904.
No. 48. A. W. Blair.......... Food Adulteration: Adulterated
Drugs and Chemicals...... April 1. 1904.
No. 49. IL K. Miller..........Saw Palmtto Ashes.... ... May 1. 1904.
No. 50. C. F. Dr.wson........ Insect Psts to Live Stock...... !June 1, 1904.
No.51. C. F. Dawson......... Wormy Fowls................. August 15, 1904.
No. 52. E R Flint .......... The L. of Nitro-rn on the
Farm .................... December 1. 1904.
No. 6. C. F. Dawson......... Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. 'December 13. 1904.
No. 64. F. M. Rolfs ........Seed Ptatocs................. December 15. 1904.
'No. 5. F. ML R.olfs..... .. Potato Illight and Its Reme-ly.. February 7. 1905.
No. 5o. F.. H. Sellards......... Whit- Fly Conditions in \Nrth-
crn Florida................ February 28. 1905.
No. 57. E. R. Flint ....... Prosed Experiments ,m Fcrti-
I ligation of the Orange..... September 11, 1905.
No. 58. C- F. nDawsnn......... Forage Poisoning .............. iOctober 1. 1905.

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