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Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Pomelos
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00005169/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pomelos
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 381-421 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1901
 Subjects
Subject: Grapefruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pummelo -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H. Harold Hume.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00005169
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA6487
ltuf - AEN1448
oclc - 18155961
alephbibnum - 000921008

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 383
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    Main
        Page 385
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        Page 388
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        Page 421
Full Text







BULLETIN No. 58.
FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT


POMELOS.


JUNE 1901.

STATION.


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By H. HAROLD HUME.
The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon application
to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.
1901
THE H. & W. B. DREW COMPANY,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


-_ -;,
















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


HON. GEO. W. WILSON, President ............. Jacksonville
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Vice-President .................. Ocala
HON. J. D. CALLAWAY, Secretary...............Lake City
HON. C. A. CARSON, Chairman Executive Committee
......................................... Kissimm ee
HON. J. R. PARROTT ...........................Jacksonville
HON. E. D. BEGGS .............................. Pensacola
HON. L. HARRISON. .......................... ..Lake City



STATION STAFF.


W. F. Yocii, A. M......... ..................... Director
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE, Ph. D .................. Agriculturist
H. K. MILLER, M. Sc ........................... Chemist
H. A. GOSSARD, M. Sc....................... Entomologist
H. HAROLD HUI3E, B. Agr. M.Sc.. Botanist and Horticulturist
A. W. BLAIR, M A .................... Assistant Chemist
W. P. JERNIGAN ....... ..........Auditor and Bookkeeper
JOHN F. MITCHELL ...............Foreman of Station Farm
JOHN H. JEFFRIES .. Gardener in Horticultural Department
VIRGINIA M. WIGFIELD .......................... Librarian
MINNIE HELVENSTON ...................... .. Stenographer









385














CONTENTS.

General Discussion ..............................
The Name................. ...........
H historical .......................................
Varietal ......... ..............................
Description of Tree....... ................
Varieties .....................................
Estimation of Varieties .....................
Fertilizing...................... ...............
A nalyses .........................................
Fertilizers ............. ...................
Acknowledgments ...........................
Explanation of Figures and Plates ..................











POMELOS.

GENERAL DISCUSSION.
THE NAAiME-The name pomelo (pl. pomelos), as applied
to the fruit under consideration, is the one now recognized
by all horticultural writers and has been adopted by the
United States Department of Agriculture, the American
Pomological Society and the Florida State Horticultural
Society. The word has been variously spelled pummelo,
pumalo, pumelo, pumelow, etc., but the name and spelling
as adopted in this publication are in accordance with the
present usage of horticulturists.
In regard to the origin of the name Bonavia1 makes
the following remark: "The word pummelo is, of course,
a corruption of the Dutch Pompelmoes through Pummel-
nose, by first making it Pummelos and then turning it
into the singular Pummelo." To the French the fruit is
known by the name of Pompelmouse. Rumphius in 1750
applied the Dutch name pompelmoes to the fruit.
Commercially this fruit is known as grape-fruit and in
market quotations reference is nearly always made to it
under this name. This appellation was given because the
fruit is so frequently borne in grape-like clusters of from
three or four to a dozen and a half. A glance at the front-
ispiece, which represents a cluster of twelve, of which
eleven are visible, proves that the name is not altogether
inapplicable. Not only is the fruit known in the market
as grape-fruit, but it is the name generally applied through-
out Florida and the United States, and many people know
it by none other. Whether the term-grape-fruit-will ever
be superseded in common use by the correct horticultural
name-pomelo-is extremely doubtful. When and where
this cognomen was first used it would be difficult to say,
but Risso and Poiteau2 in their "History and Culture of
Oranges," describe a variety of pomelo which they call
"pampelmousse a grappe," and in reference to it made the


1. Oranges and Lemons of India and Ceylon. 223. 1888.
Edition by Du Breuil. 99. 1872.











following notes: The author of the Flora of the Antilles
has equally observed the pomelo cultivated in Jamaica,
where the inhabitants call it grape-fruit. * * The
fruits are gathered in clusters of from fifteen to eighteen
on the branch, each of the size of the fist, spherical, firm,
with a slightly rough skin of sulphurish yellow."
Shaddock, variously spelled Shaddoc, Chaddock and
Chadec, was an English sea captain, who, according to
Miller, carried a variety of Citrus decumana to the West
Indies, and from him it took the name Shaddock, by which it
has since been commonly known and referred to by different
writers. Bonavia in his work on the orange and lemons of
India and Ceylon makes the name Shaddock synonymous
with pomelo. In the section of Thomas' Fruit Culture on
Subtropical Fruits, written by the late E. H. Hart, of Fed-
eral Point, Florida (1897), the name Shaddock is used, while
pomelo, spelled pummelo in his article, is made synonymous.
However, we have no better name for this fruit than
pomelo. It is of older origin than either of the others (if
with some writers we allow the synonomy of Shaddock),
the word from which it is derived having been in use a-
century and a half or more ago. The name pomelo has
been adopted by the best authorities and it is by all means.
advisable that they be followed and that we have some
constant name by which to designate the fruit. The fruit
now designated by the name Shaddock, considered horti-
culturally, is entirely distinct from the pomelo, but, botan-
ically considered, the two cannot be separated; they belong
to one species. The term Shaddock is more properly
applied to the large, pyriform or necked varieties. There
are some cther points of distinction between the two which
may be mentioned. The fruit of the Shaddock is much the
larger, often weighing fifteen pounds or more, the tree is
smaller, the leaves on full grown trees are somewhat larger.
From the foregoing discussion of the common names,
it will be seen that pomelo is the name given the preference,
grape-fruit is synonymous, while Shaddock is relegated to
a fruit botanically the same as the pomelo but horticul-
turally distinct.












HISTORICAL-No fruit of importance now grown in the
United States has such. a meagre American literature as the
pomelo. Nor is this strange when we remember the fact that
it is only within the last fifteen years or so that the pomelo
has been regarded as a commercial fruit. For long years
neglected while the whole attention of the fruit growers
of our State was directed to the orange and all their
energies put forth in bringing that fruit to perfection, it has
only in very recent years taken its present position, to
which the critical taste of fruit consumers has raised it.
The pomelo was brought to Florida together with other
members of the genus Citrus by the Spaniards, who, under
the leadership of Ponce de Leon, first landed upon the east
coast of Florida in the year 1513. From that time until
1821 they disputed possession of this State with their
enemies in the Old World and the aborigines of the country,
except during a period of twenty years-1763-1783-during
which time Great Britain controlled the territory.
During the Spanish regime different citrus fruits were
introduced and cultivated in Florida. These, through the
agency of the Indian, were carried into all parts of the
State. To this day the common lime, generally known as
the Florida lime, the rough lemon and the sour orange are
to be found in southern Florida growing luxuriantly under
such conditions as would lead one, ignorant of their origin
and native home, to believe them indigenous to the soil on
which they stand.
Following the time of introduction, in many groves and
gardens throughout the State, pomelo trees were to be found,
annually laden with hundreds of fruit. By the inhabitants
the fruit was considered refreshing and tonic, but that it
might have a commercial value did not enter the minds of
the owners, or if it did, transportation in its then crude
state rendered any attempt to place this then unknown and
unappreciated fruit on the market, with an expectation of
profit, a precarious and uncertain undertaking. Conse-
quently the ground beneath the trees during a certain
portion of each year was covered with the yellow fruit left
to rot in the sun.











Just at this point it is interesting to note that the fruit
was either unknown to or disliked by horticultural writers,
or confounded with the Shaddock even up to very recent
years. Alexander Watson' in 1859 wrote the following:
"Shaddock is a still larger fruit (than the citron)*, in form
more resembling the orange, curious, but worthless." W. N.
White2, in 1868, says: "Pulp dry, sweetish or subacid,
but not very desirable, except for its showy appearance."
Rev. T. W. Moore, in his Hand Book of Orange Culture,
1881, does not mention it. Thomas in his Fruit Culturist
makes no reference to it up as late as the edition of 1885.
Wm. A. Spalding3 in 1885 makes the following remark:
"Meanwhile the Pumalo and its congeners when allowed
growing space continue to load themselves down with fruit.
as large as foot balls. They are matters of wonder and
that is all." Chas. Downing4 (1885), under the head of
Shaddock, has the following note: "The pulp is sweetish or
subacid and the juice is rather refreshing. It is, however,
more showy than useful, and certainly makes a magnificent
appearance in a collection of tropical fruits."
Northern visitors to the State learned to know and like
the pomelo and a certain demand was created by their
desire for the fruit upon their return. Somewhere about
1880 or 1885 the first pomelos were shipped from the State,
sold in New York and Philadelphia, and netted the shippers
about fifty cents per barrel. This was the beginning and
better prices were soon realized. The freeze of 1894-95
greatly reduced the crop and the small amount of fruit sold
that year brought an enormous price, in some cases as
much as 815 or $20 per box.
With a return of normal climatic conditions and a con-
sequent increase in the quantity of fruit the price has
dropped, the crop of the past season bringing from $4 to $7
per box for good fruit and less for inferior "packages.
Thousands of trees have been set out in Florida in the past
four or five years and prices in the future will not equal
1. The American Home Garden, page 363. 1859
2. Gardening for the South, page 384. 1868.
3. The Orange in California, page 89. 1885.
4. Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, page 579. 1895.
* ( ) Inserted by the author.











those in the past. Up to this time the supply has generally
been inadequate to the demand, but with the increase in
the amount of fruit a state of equilibrium between the sup-
ply and the demand will soon be reached. It is safe to
predict that with a favorable climate the future price real-
ized for pomelos will be much lower than at present. The
tree is a heavy bearer; it is no harder to propagate and care
for than an orange tree; it comes into bearing as early;
heavy plantings have been made, then why will it not
eventually be placed on the same basis with the orange?
It undoubtedly will, unless some new channel is opened up
for the consumption of the product.
To the careful, painstaking grower this need cause no
uneasiness, for there will always be a good demand for a
first-class fruit, well colored, well fed, carefully selected,
well packed and placed upon the market in inviting shape.
At present it seems probable that Florida will retain con-
trol of the pomelo market for some time to come, probably
indefinitely, if we are careful in maintaining the excellence
of the product. Let this be emphasized. California cannot
at present be considered a competitor, and whether that
State will ever seriously affect our market is doubtful.
Edward J. Wickson, in his Fruits of California (1900),
refers to the status of the pomelo industry there as follows:
"This citrus fruit achieved a very sudden interest in Cali-
fornia because of the prices commanded by Florida pomelos
about five years ago. When this supply to eastern cities
was cut off by the serious frost injuries in Florida, there
arose a passion for planting the trees in California, and a
considerable acreage was planted, and as the tree is a very
rapid grower, and precocious in fruit-bearing, large ship-
ments were made in 1898, but the results were not satis-
factory, and unless some new conditions should arise it is
possible that the California pomelo passion may subside as
rapidly as it uprose."
VARIETAL.
DESCRIPTION OF TREE-A tree upward of thirty feet in
height, slightly thorny; bark smooth, grayish brown;
branchlets angular or nearly round, green; young leaves











sparsely pubescent, light green; mature leaves ovate, blunt
pointed, smooth, dark green, with crenate margins and
broadly winged petioles; flowers large, white, sweet-
scented, borne in clusters; petals 4-5; stamens numerous;


FIG. I-Leaves of Pomelo one-half natural size.
The leaf to the right is not typical, but
such are sometimes found.


fruit a hesperidium, roundish oblate; flesh grayish green
or pinkish; rind smooth, thick, bitter, not separating
easily from the pulp; flavor a mingling of acid, bitter-
ness and sweetness; seeds large, white, frequently winged,
cotyledons white or whitish. Generally conceded to be a
native of the Polynesian and Malayan archipelagoes. More
tender than the sweet orange.









































FIG. 2 -Cross section of Mlanville Pomelo, three-fourths natural size,
showing rind, sections, seed, juice sacks and oil cells of rind.
The tree is known scientifically as Citrus decumana
Murr., but the author owing to a limited station library has
been able to give only the following synonomy:
Limo decumanus Rump. Herb. Amboyn. II: 96. 1750.
Citrus decumana Mnurr. in Linn. Syst. Veg. Ed. XIII: 508. 1774.
Citrus decumana Wild. Enum. Plant. 807. 1809.
Citrus aurantium decumanum Gall. Traite du Citrus, var. 37. 1811.
VARIETIES-It is the object of this section of the Bul-
letin to give as faithful an idea as possible of some of the
pomelos grown in the State at the present time. Full
descriptions of these fruits, such as may be found in stand-
ard works for other fruits, are almost entirely lacking, and
except for brief notes in the catalogues of our leading
nurserymen, those unacquainted with the fruits are without
information on the subject. It has been impossible to











obtain specimens of all varieties grown in the State and it
may be true that there are many seedling trees which pro-
duce fruit of as high a quality as any described in the fol-
lowing pages. The fact remains, however, that the planter
to-day is dependent upon our nurserymen for his trees, and
must at present make his choice from the following list;
Aurantium, Duncan, Excelsior, Hall, Marsh, Pernam-
buco, Tresca, Triumph, Royal and Walters, as these are all
that are listed in the nursery catalogues on file in the
department.
Attention must be called to two or three publications.
The Report of the State Horticultural Society for 1896 con-
tains a list of pomelos, with brief tabulated descriptions,
and in Bulletin No. 8., Division of Pomology, U. S. D. A.,
a similar list may be found. The late lamented P. W.
Reasoner, in Bulletin No. 1, Division of Pomology, U. S. D.
A., listed and briefly noted several varieties.
Aurantium. Page 409, Plate I.
Form oblate; size 3. inches x 3j* inches, frequently
smaller; stem small; color light yellow; rind smooth,
but with the oil cells slightly depressed; sections eleven,
regular; flesh grayish green; bitter principle not marked or
present only in a very slight degree; acidity medium;
sweetness good; seeds thirty-five, of medium size; season
late.
The Aurantium is a hybrid variety first sent out by
James Mott, formerly of Orlando. The date is not certain,
but Professor Brackett, United States Department of Agri-
culture, Division of Pomology, forwarded me a copy of the
description made of this fruit in the Department in 1895.
It was probably introduced some time previous to that date.
Specimens received from Reasoner Brothers, Oneco. Fla.,
and Mr. A. A. Gardner, Fort Myers, Fla. This variety, as
already noted, is held to be a hybrid between the sweet
orange and the pomelo, and the character of fruit-so dif-
ferent from that of the pomelo-gives color to this view.


* In all cases the diameter from base to apex is given first.











The quality is good, but falls short of the standard of
excellence for pomelos.
DeSoto. Page 411, Plate II.
Form oblate; size 3J inches x 48 inches; stem stout; base
creased; rind medium thick, compact; color light yellow;
oil cells very slightly elevated; sections fifteen large,
irregular; flesh light grayish; juice sacks large, well filled,
irregular; bitterness decidedly marked; acidity medium;
flavor and quality both good, though slightly lacking in
character; seeds forty-three, wedge shaped, large and
plump; season late.
Specimens from Mr. John Thomson, Clearwater, Fla.
This variety was selected by Mr. Thomson from a num-
ber of seedling trees grown from seed obtained in DeSoto
County.
Duncan. Page 413, Plate III.
Form oblate; size 3J inches x 47 inches, 41 inches x 51
inches; stem large; calyx segments broad, blunt; apex
slightly scarred; rind medium thick, firm; oil cells large,
sunken; sections fourteen; flesh light grayish green; juice
sacks closely packed, large; bitterness well marked; acidity
and sweetness good; core t inch across, somewhat open;
seeds* five or more, large, plump, blunt, not winged;
season late.
A fruit of very good quality, originated by A. L. Duncan,
Dunedin, Fla.
Specimens from Mr. G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla.,
borne on a small tree on trifoliata stock (first fruiting).
Fruits of larger size than those indicated by the measure-
ments given above are very frequently obtained.
Excelsior. (Excelsior Late.) Page 411, Plate II.
Form oblate; size 4 inches x 41 inches; color lemon
yellow; rind very slightly pitted; oil cells large, slightly
sunken; sections thirteen, large, irregular; flesh light
grayish; bitter principle well marked; acidity normal;
quality good; seeds thirty-one, wedge-shaped, large, plump;
season late.


* This number is probably decidedly under the average.










This variety originated in Florida, the parent tree being
a native seedling. Introduced by C. M. Marsh, Lakeland,
Fla.
Specimens of fruit received from John Thomson, Clear-
water, Fla., and C. M. Marsh, Lakeland, Fla.
Hall (Silver Cluster). (Halls) (Klemm's Silver Cluster).
Frontispiece.
Form oblate; size 4- inches x 4d inches, or larger; stem
large; color light yellow, but slightly darker than that of
most pomelos; base smooth, or sometimes slightly creased;
rind 3% inch thick; oil cells slightly indented; sections
fourteen, large, variable in size; bitter principle strongly
developed; acidity and sweetness well marked; juice almost
transparent; seeds thirty-two, small, roundish, plump,
quite a number aborted; season February-March.
There has been considerable discussion over the origin
of this variety, but it seems to be a fact well established
that it was originated by John W. Hall, of Caloosa, Fla.
The original tree was grown from seed sown by him when
he first came to the State about sixteen years ago. The
synonomy as given above may be open to some objections,
but in naming it the credit has been given to Dr. Hall, to
whom it is believed to be due. The frontispiece is from a
photograph of one of the clusters.
Specimens of the fruit received from Mr. A. M. Klemm,
Winter Haven, Fla. A good variety.
Josselyn. Page 413, Plate III.
Form roundish-obovate; size 3o inches x 31 inches;
stem medium; color yellow, darkest of all the varieties
which have come under observation; rind smooth; oil cells
slightly sunken; sections twelve, rather irregular, dividing
tissue thick; flesh grayish green; pulp melting; bitterness
strongly marked; acidity and sweetness well developed;
core I inch in diameter, solid; seeds forty-eight, whitish,
small and plump; season December-January.
This variety was introduced by Messrs. J. W. and F. D.
Waite, of the Magnolia Nurseries, Belleview, Marion
County, Fla., in 1888. The original tree stood in the old
Josselyn grove at East Lake, on Lake Weir.










Specimen of fruit from Mr. G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary,
Fla.
Manville. (Manville's Improved.) Page 409, Plate I.
Form oblate; size medium to large, :.- inches x 4-
inches; stem small; color lemon yellow; rind i inch thick,
smooth, the oil cells being flush with the surface or only
slightly sunken; sections thirteen, large, fairly regular;
flesh light grayish green; juice sacks large, irregular; bit-
terness well marked; acidity and sweetness good; core -
inch in diameter, compact; seeds sixty to seventy, large;
season late.
In relation to origin of this variety, Reasoner Brothers,
write as follows: "Manville's Improved was sent us by the
late A. H. Manville, from East Florida, years ago."
Specimens of fruit received from Reasoner Brothers,
Oneco, Fla. Thus far this variety has not been catalogued,
but the fruit appears to be very desirable.
Marsh (Marsh's Seedless). Page 415, Plate IV.
Form oblate roundish; size 3- inches x 4i inches, 3J
inches x 41 inches, 35 inches x 4i inches; stem small; color
light yellow; rind i inch thick, smooth; oil cells small,
scarcely or not at all indented: sections thirteen, regular;
partitions thin; juice sacks small; flesh grayish green; bitter
principle not strongly marked; acidity and sweetness
medium; pith g inch in diameter, open; seeds two to six,
or none, large, plump; season February-March.
This variety was introduced by C. M. Marsh, Lakeland,
Fla., about seven or eight years ago. The original tree was
a seedling, growing in Lakeland, and was at the time of the
freeze fully sixty years old. This pomelo has not the dis-
tinct, pronounced flavor of the typical fruit, but the quality
is good, and the fact that it is so nearly seedless is a very
desirable feature.
Specimens of the fruit received from C. M. Marsh,
Lakeland, Fla.; C. W. Butler, St. Petersburg, Fla., and
John Thompson, Clearwater, Fla.
McKinley. Page 417, Plate V.
Form oblate, or slightly oblate conical; size 31 inches
x 43 inches; color pale yellow; rind smooth, thin; oil cells










large, conspicuous, scarcely indented; sections fourteen,
large, slightly irregular; bitterness marked; acidity normal;
sweetness good; quality of the best; core I inch in diameter,
pithy; seeds sixty-two, wedge-shaped, large; season late.
This is a pomelo of considerable merit, and worthy of
propagation. Fruit from a seedling tree in the grove of
A. A. Gardner, Fort Myers, Fla.
Nocatee. Page 419, Plate VI.
Form roundish or somewhat oblate; size small, 2-
x 2, inches, 2- inches x 3 inches, 2- inches x 31 inches; stem
small; calyx small; apex slightly marked; color lemon
yellow, occasionally somewhat deeper; rind 9 to -f inch,
easily detached; oil cells minute, slightly indented; sections
twelve, variable in size, separating easily; flesh yellowish
gray; tissue thin, translucent; juice almost transparent;
acidity medium; bitter principle lacking; juice sacks small,
short, plump, in shape resembling those of the tangerine;
flavor a commingling of pomelo and tangerine; pith small,
- inch in diameter; seeds three to twenty-three, small,
slightly winged at the tip; cotyledons white or green, or
partly green and partly white; season late; a good keeper.
This variety appears to be a well-marked hybrid between
the tangerine and the pomelo, and I have placed it with the
pomelos because the fruit in general appearance more closely
resembles that fruit.
It originated at Nocatee, Fla., and Mr. T. J. Watkins,
the owner of the tree, gave me the following notes regard-
ing it: "The original tree is about twenty years old, and
somewhat larger than an average sour orange'tree of the
same age. It is a hybrid of accidental origin, showing
marks of grape-fruit, tangerine, and bitter-sweet orange. It
is a distinct type, having fruit, bloom, wood, habit of growth
and leaf different from all others, and is as easily recognizable
as the tangerine or grape-fruit. It is a strong, vigorous
grower, with limbs long and somewhat slender. The leaves
are medium size, broad, slightly bent upward from midrib
and slightly curved backward, giving a shape bearing some
resemblance to an apple leaf, but in color and texture it
resembles the leaf of the common orange. In habit of







398

growth it is loose, open-headed, and the foliage less dense
than a grape-fruit or common orange. The wood is almost
thornless and the tree prolific, being laden with fruit every
year. All characteristics of the tree and fruit are retained
in budded trees. Growth of budded trees
has been more rapid and vigorous than that of grape-fruit
buds under similar conditions.
"The fruit is of medium size, running about 150 to the
box, in color a clear, pure yellow; has few seeds, many of
the fruits being entirely seedless; has loose rind, separating
from the fruit a little less easily than tangerine's. *
It is good any time after December, and will hang on the
trees until August, but reaches full maturity about April,


.- \ -i > .
---- -- ^ |, -




FiG. .--Leaves of Nocatee Hybrid Pomelo, one-third natural size. These leaves were,
taken from a single taig.


when it develops a rare combination of rich and delicate
flavor."
The leaves of this variety are different from those of
the orange or grape-fruit. On some leaves the wings are
entirely absent. In others the wing is cut in on one side
only, leaving the other entire, while other leaves have a.
well-marked wing on both sides. Fig. 3 represents the
three types of leaves somewhat reduced. The drawings
were made from actual specimens on young shoots.
The fruit is certainly unique and interesting, and pos-
sesses a considerable degree of merit.


~
`` I


I


k









Pernambuco. Page 421, Plate VII.
Form oblate; size 32 inches x 43 inches, 31 inches x 42
inches; stem stout; calyx medium in size; color very light
yellow; rind I inch thick, compact, closely attached, smooth;
oil cells large, sunken; sections twelve, uniform in size,
well defined; flesh grayish green; bitterness well marked;
acidity and sweetness good; character well marked; seeds
sixty to seventy-five, whitish, wedge-shaped, irregular;
season late.
This variety was imported by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture from Pernambuco, Brazil. It is a
variety of very fine quality.
Specimens of fruit received from Reasoner Brothers,
Oneco, Fla.
Royal. Page 421; Plate VII.
Form slightly oblate; size 3 inches x 31 inches, 3 inches
x 31 inches; stem stout; color light yellow; rind inch thick;
oil cells small; sections eleven or twelve, small, regular;
flesh grayish green; bitter principle almost entirely lacking;
acidity medium; sweetness good-can be eaten from the
hand as an orange; seeds forty, grayish in color, roundish
and plump; core I inch in diameter, pithy; season medium,
early.
This fruit was introduced by Reasoner Brothers, of
Oneco, Fla., the original tree being a seedling growing in
their neighborhood, the seed from which it grew having
come from the West Indies.
Specimens of fruit from Reasoner Brothers, Oneco, Fla.
The fruit is quite desirable, but lacks the character of
the pomelo. The tree is a good bearer, probably a hybrid.
Standard (Indian River).
Form oblate; size large, 41 inches x 5 inches; stem
small; base slightly creased; color very light yellow; rind
Sinch thick; oil cells large, slightly depressed; sections
thirteen, large, rather irregular; flesh grayish green; bitter-
ness marked; acidity and sweetness normal; pulp melting;
juice plentiful; juice sacks large; seeds forty-nine to fifty-
nine, large, long, creased; core i inch, open; season Jan-
uary-March.










The origin of this variety is unknown. C. T. McCarty,
Ankona, Fla., from whom the specimens were secured, wrote
as follows regarding it: "This pomelo is known here as
Standard, or Indian River; I don't know its origin. It came
here from Rockledge sixteen years ago."
This fruit is of very fine quality indeed.
Triumph. Page 415, Plate IV.
Form oblate or slightly oblate-oblong, slightly flattened
at base and apex; size 35 inches x 4 inches; stem small;
color light yellow; rind very smooth, A inch thick; oil cells
slightly depressed; sections eleven; bitter principle not so
strongly marked as in some; acidity and sweetness normal;
juicy; pulp melting; seeds thirty-seven, medium, plump,
roundish; core ( inch in diameter, open or pithy; season
medium early.
Mr. J. H. Fessenden, Tampa, Fla., under date of March
6, 1901, wrote as follows regarding the origin of this variety:
"The buds for the Triumph grape-fruit were taken from a
seedling standing in the yard of the Orange Grove Hotel at
this place. The fruit was noted for its excellent quality.
The propagation of it was commenced in 1884. The parent
tree was killed by the freeze of 1894-'95. This is a good
fruit, of medium size, the flavor being very pleasant and
sprightly."
Specimens of fruit received from Dr. F. W. Inman,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Walters (Walter). Page 417, Plate V.
Form oblate; size 31 inches x 4J inches; stem small;
color pale yellow; rind smooth, 4 inch thick; oil cells almost
flush with the surface; sections thirteen, large; bitter prin-
ciple strongly marked: acidity and sweetness good; quality
very good; seeds fifty-eight, large, plump, wedge-shaped
or irregular; core I inch in diameter, solid; season medium.
Mr. F. D. Waite, manager of the Manatee Lemon Com-
pany, Palmetto, Fla., gave the following notes on the origin
of this variety: "We assisted Mr. Walters
in introducing the Walters. The tree was only one mile
from my home in Belleview, Marion County.e *e *
The Walters was introduced in 1887."









Specimens of fruit received from Dr. F. W. Inman,
Winter Haven, Fla. In habit of growth this tree very
closely resembles the Hall, and by some they are thought to
be the same, but the origin of the two is entirely different,
and an examination of the seeds (Fig. 4) shows that they
are entirely distinct. The figure represents the seeds taken
from a Walters and Hall fruit and photographed side by
side, Walters on the left, Hall on the right.


._________ - -'- -

1 .-.. ... - ..,- -- -- .. .- .--'.- "
















FIG. 4.-Seeds of Walters and Hall Pomelos, showing that these varieties are distinct.
ESTIMATION OF VARIETIES.-The pomelo, like all other
citrus fruits grown in the State, is in a very large measure
a reflection of the care and food given the tree. Upon these
depend juiciness, amount of rag, thickness of rind, and
quality in general, more than upon any other factors, though
the age of the tree is also important, as the best fruit can
not be expected until the tree has borne several crops.
The fruit which has been received at the Department
came from many different parts of the State, was grown
~-j













under as many different conditions, and the age of the trees
was quite variable. Hence it has been in some measure










difficult to place a just estimation upon the different
varieties. Had it been possible to secure a larger number
of fruit from different points in the State, this might have
have been overcome.
Last season the market called for a large pomelo--one
which would pack forty-six to fifty-four or less to the box-
and the demand was considerably less for smaller fruit, the
price being correspondingly low. The fruit, to come well
up to the standard of excellence, must have the character-
istic pomelo flavor-a pleasant commingling of bitterness,
sweetness and acidity. Dividing the varieties listed and
described above according to strength of flavor, we find
that DeSoto, Duncan, Excelsior, Hall, Josselyn, Manville,
McKinley, Pernambuco, Standard and Walters have the
flavor pronounced. The Triumph and Marsh are not so
characteristic, but both are very desirable. Aurantium,
Royal and Nocatee can not be classed as characteristic
pomelos, and all are probably hybrids. DeSoto, Duncan,
Excelsior, Hall, McKinley, Pernambuco, Standard and
Walters rank as large; Manville and Marsh, medium to
large; Triumph, medium; while Josselyn, Aurantium,
Royal and Nocatee are classed as small for pomelos.
Every person has his preference, and probably no two
will agree in regard to the choice of varieties. This can
not be regarded as strange, because, to a very large extent,
such things are a matter of personal taste. Of the large
varieties the author would recommend Duncan, Hall,
McKinley, Pernambuco, Standard and Walters. The
Triumph is a good variety, as well as the Marsh, the latter
being very desirable because of the small number of seeds.
Of the smaller varieties Josselyn is the only one which is
characteristic, but Aurantium, and especially the Noctee,
have considerable merit, though characteristically diffe. ent
from the true pomelo.

FERTILIZING.
ANALYSES.-The following analyses of the pomelo were
made for the Horticultural Department by the Station
Chemists, Prof. H. K. Miller and Prof. A. W. Blair. To











them the sole credit of the work belongs, and since it is
probably the first work of the kind done on this fruit, its
importance goes without saying.
The fruit of the first four varieties was obtained from
Reasoner Brothers, Oneco, Fla.; the fruit of the last two from
Dr. F. W. Inman, Winter Haven, Fla. In each case the
analysis was made from ten fruits, which were well
developed and fully ripe.
TABLE No. 1.


m.-
LAB. No. VARIETY




1234 Royal....... 541 48

1235 Pernambuco..' 742.77


1236 Manville.....


1237 Aurantium ..

1250 Walters.....

1251 Triumph.....


19.1

26.2


487 62 17.2

430.92 15.2

721.34 25.4

534.60 18 8


w i






3.20 46.4 69.32

3 75 61 0 68.52

3.10 67.2 74.72


3 00 37.3 68.60
...- I-

3.75 56.0 68.64

8.15 43.3 65.16


Table No. 1 gives the average weight in grams and
ounces, the average diameter of the fruit in inches, the
average number of seeds and percentage of pulp, rind and
seed in each variety. From this it will be noticed that the
weights of the Pernambuco and Walters are about the same,
that the Royal and Triumph average nearly the same num-
ber of ounces, though in fact the Triumph usually runs
larger than does the Royal. Between the Manville and the
Aurantium there is in weight a difference of two ounces.
The number of seeds in the different varieties varies from
forty-three to sixty-seven. The largest percentage of pulp
-74.72-was contained in the Manville; the Royal, Per-


27.23 3.45

28.05 3.43


20.93 4.35


28.29 3.11

28.22 3.14

3182 3.02











nambuco, Aurantium and Walters were about the same,
68-69, while the Triumph dropped to 65.16 per cent. The
variety having the least percentage of rind was the Man-
ville, the Royal coming second, while Pernambuco, Au-
rantium and Walters were about the same, 28, and this
particular lot of Triumph had 31.82 per cent. rind. 'This is
probably accounted for by the fact that the fruit was
gathered from young, vigorously growing trees, bearing
only their first or second crop. The lowest percentage of seed
was found in the Triumph, while the remaining varieties
range in this order: Aurantium, Walters, Pernambuco,
Royal, Manville. From this table little can be said regard-
ing the merits of the different varieties in relation to the
relative amounts of pulp and rind, because the trees from
which the fruit was gathered were not of the same age,
nor had they been given the same treatment.
TABLE No. 2.


VARIETY


R oyal..........
1234


Pernambuco...
1235


Manville ......
1236


Aurantium .
1237


Walters ........
1250


Triumph ............
1251


LAB. No.

S 1238
... 1239
1240

J 1241
.....


4




4


SUB-
STANCE
Pulp
Rind
Seed
Pulp
Rind
Seed
Pulp
Rind
Seed
Pulp
Rind
Seed
Pulp
Rind
Seed
Pulp-
Rind
Seed


P, 05
per cent.
.033
.020
270
.050
.034
.3860
042
043_
.320
.045
.042
.330
.046
.030
.310
.048
.030
301


K, 0 N
per cent. per cent.
.211 __081
.330 .108
.430 .980
.195 .074
.230 .076
.460 1.130
.212 .058
.350 .080
.450 .960
.202 05
.307 073
.445 .850
.212 .101
.260 .098
.440 1.050
.226 .085
.240 .096
.456 1.030









405

Table No. 2 gives the percentage of phosphoric acid
(P, O,), potash (K, 0) and nitrogen (N) in the pulp, rind
and seed. In every instance it will be noticed that the per-
centage of phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen is highest in
the seed. The percentage of phosphoric acid is in almost every
instance higher in the pulp than in the rind, while the per-
centage of potash is always higher in the rind than in the
pulp. The percentage of nitrogen is higher in the rind
than in the pulp, except in one variety, the Walters, and
even there the excess is very slight, .003 of one per cent.
Table No. 3 shows the total percentage of phosphoric
acid, potash and nitrogen in all the parts of the fruit, pulp,
rind and seed combined. A glance at the table shows that
the phosphoric acid varies from .040 per cent. to .056 per
cent., that the potash varies from .213 per cent. to .251 per
cent., and the nitrogen from .085 per cent. to .119 per cent.
The average percentages in the six varieties are as follows:
.050 per cent. phosphoric acid, .237 per cent. potash and .110
per cent. nitrogen.
TABLE No. 3.

P, O0 K, O N
VARIETY
VARIY per cent. per cent. per cent.

Royal .................. ....... .040 .250 .119
1234

Pernambuco .................. .056 .213 .111
1235

Manville ..................... .054 .251 .102
1236

Aurantium ............... ... .053 .239 .085
1237

W alters...... ............... .049 .233 .129
1250

Triumph....................... 050 .237 .117
1251,

AVERAGE................. .050 .237 .110










To make practical application of this table we will
assume that the average weight of a box of pomelos is 80
pounds and find the amounts of the three important plant
constituents removed by ten boxes of fruit, 800 pounds. In
ten boxes there will be taken from the grove and subse-
quently sold in New York, Boston or some other market
.40* pounds phosphoric acid, 1.90* pounds potash and .88*
pounds nitrogen. Now, if each tree bears ten boxes of fruit,
these amounts must be supplied to make fruit alone, to
say nothing of the amounts required to make wood growth.
Suppose we select as our fertilizing materials acid
phosphate, analyzing 14 per cent available phosphoric acid,
high grade sulphate of potash, analyzing 50 per cent avail-
able potash, and nitrate of soda, analyzing 15 per cent
nitrogen. Of these materials there will be required as fol-
lows: Acid phosphate 2.85 pounds (2 lbs. 132 ozs., approxi-
mately); high grade sulphate of potash 3.8 pounds (3 lbs.
12M ozs., approximately), and nitrate of soda 5.86 pounds
(5 lbs. 131 ozs., approximately.) This gives in all 12.51
pounds (12 lbs. approximately) of fertilizer. If other fertil-
izing materials are used the number of pounds will vary,
but such amounts must be used so as to supply phosphoric
acid, potash and nitrogen as given above; that is a suf-
ficient amount must be supplied to give .40 pounds phos-
phoric acid, 1.90 pounds potash and .88 pounds nitrogen, if
ten boxes of fruit are produced by the trees, or one-tenth
of these weights for each box; namely, .04 pounds phos-
phoric acid, .19 pounds potash and .088 pounds nitrogen.
Of these amounts a certain portion is gathered from the
soil, but in giving the weights as above no allowance has
been made for the materials obtained from this source. It
is deemed best to supply these amounts for the fruit and
make the necessary deduction from the amounts required
to make wood growth. On the other hand, no increase has
been made to counterbalance the losses from leaching, etc.
All these things have to be taken into account. It is a
noteworthy fact, however, that the grower who fertilizes
heavily has the largest crop, the best fruit and realizes the
Obtained by multiplying by the average percentage at bottom of Table No. 3.










most from his trees. Liberality in fertilizing may be taken
as an indication of the grower's care in all things pertaining
to the production of a first-class fruit.
FERTILIZERS-The experience of most growers points to.
the use of chemical fertilizers alone for all citrus trees. The
grove fruits more heavily, a better quality of fruit is
obtained and the trees are certainly in a healthier condition.
Where large amounts of organic fertilizers are used, die-
back will almost surely affect the trees, and ammoniated*
fruit or fruit containing a large amount of rag and of poor
shipping and keeping quality is the result. A pomelo, as
already stated, is in quality a reflection of the food and
cultivation given the tree on which it was borne.
Fertilizers should be applied at least twice a year, just
before or at the time of the commencement of growth and
again in summer, about the month of July. During the
winter the roots of citrus trees in some parts of the State
continue growth, and it would appear advisable in those
parts to make a third application in the fall. If nitrate of
soda be used as a source of nitrogen it is best to apply it in
three separate dressings, in March, May and July, and the
phosphatic and potash fertilizers twice, as recommended
above. Nitrate of soda moves readily through the soil and
may be lost to the tree unless appropriated in a comparatively
short time after being placed in the soil.
The leaching of fertilizers is in a large measure pre-
vented by the presence of. humus, and pains should be taken
to maintain a very considerable quantity of this material
in the soil. It may be done either by mulching or by the
growing of cover crops.

ACKNO WLEDGMENTS.
To Prof. H. K. Miller and Prof. A. W. Blair the author
desires to again acknowledge his indebtedness for the
chemical analyses shown in the tables.
Reasoner Brothers, Oneco, Fla.; G. L. Taber, Glen St.
Mary, Fla.; John Thomson, Clearwater, Fla.; A. A. Gard-
ner, Fort Myers, Fla.; Dr. F. W. Inman, Winter Haven, Fla.;
A term frequently applied to fruit showing evidences of die-back.











,C. W. Butler, St. Petersburg, Fla.; T. J. Watkins, Nocatee,
Fla.; A. M. Klemm, Winter Haven, Fla.; F. D. Waite,
Palmetto, Fla.; J. H. Fessenden, Tampa, Fla., and C. T.
McCarty, Ankona, Fla., have kindly assisted with speci-
mens and notes. Prof. G. B. Brackett, Pomologist United
States Department of Agriculture, furnished descriptions
of varieties on file in the Department. Each and all of
these men have contributed to the completeness of the
Bulletin, and the thanks due them are here expressed.
H. HAROLD HUME.

EXPLANATION OF FIGURES AND PLATES.

FRONTISPIECE. Cluster of Hall Pomelos.
FIG. 1. Leaves of Pomelo.
FIG. 2. Cross section of Manville Pomelo, three-fourths
natural size.
FIG. 3. Leaves of Nocatee hybrid Pomelo, one-third
natural size, showing variations.
FIG. 4. Seeds of Walters and Hall Pomelo. Proof that
they are distinct varieties.
PLATE I. Aurantium and Manville Pomelos. In most
cases the knife, 31 inches long, has been
photographed with the fruit.
PLATE II. Excelsior and DeSoto Pomelos. The Excel-
sior to the left is scarcely typical.
PLATE III. Duncan and Josselyn Pomelos.
PLATE IV. Marsh and Triumnph Pomelos. The former
showing a cross section.
PLATE v. McKinley and Walters Pomelos.
PLATE VI. Nocatee hybrid Pomelos.
PLATE VII. Pernambuco and Royal Pomelos.










409







T .l














., .,











F 4





















PLATE I. Aurantium diameter /8 inches. Manville, diameter 4X inches.












411























.7'-.-r- .. -' .. .
*--* : .; : .
C












4 .

r .






2 1 .


PLATE II. Excelsior, diameter 4% inches. DeSoto, diameter 4/s inches.





































































i"I

-


PLATE III. Duncan diameter 4! inches Josselyn, diameter 3Y4 inches.


ft'





/- 4

I~


i;



T=~-%;L~L~i i I-~ *
i


;-

.~
-TCi~~ 'b










415










~B4I ~- M

4-










4~ 4.
-4 ~ ,r .


PLATE IV. Marsh, diameter 4% inches. Triumph, diameter 4 inches.

























1: .... -


* . 4, - ,,


1 :
II-;I


K'


PLATE V. McKinley, diameter 4% inches. Walters, diameter 4V7 inches.


. _
















liP


PLATE VI. Nocatee, diameter 2Y inches


\


I


~.--i
~.i.;;.
I-- i.


_.-










421






Is^
v-
,V .





'^~


PLATE VII. Pernambuco, diameter 4% inches. Royal, diameter a/ inches.


Aw.
74




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