Report for Financial Year
ENDING JUNE 30
W. F. YOCUM, Director
E. 0 PAINTER & COMPANY
Hon. Geo; W. Wilson, President........... Jacksonville
Hon. F. E. Harris. Vice President................. Ocala
Hon. J. D. Callaway, Secretary................ Lake City
Hon. C. A. Carson.........................Kissimmee
Hon. E. D. Beggs..........................Pensacola
Hon. L. Harrison...........................Lake City
Hon. J. R. Parrott........................St. Augustine
W. F. Yoeum. A. M., D. D................... Director
H. E. Stockbridge, Ph. D................ Agriculturist
H. K. Miller. M. S...........................Chemist
H. A. Gossard, M. S...................... Entomologist
H. Harold Hume. B. Agr. M. Botanist and Horticulturist
A. W. Blair, A. A .... ................ Assistant Chemist
W. P. Jernigan................. Auditor and Bookkeeper
John F. Mitchell..............Foreman of Station Farm
John H. Jefferies.... Gardener in Horticultural Department
Virginia M. \Wigfield......... Librarian and Mailing Clerk
Minnie Helvenston .................... Stenographer
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
Hon. \V. S. Jennings. Governor of Florida:
Sir-1 have the honor to transmit herewith the Annual
Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for
the year ending June 30. 190o.
I am. sir.
Very respectfully yours,
\V. F. YOCLUM.
Lake City, July 20. 19o0.
REPORT OF DIRECTOR.
The present report covers the financial year ending June
30. 19oi. The financial report presents for purposes of com-
parison the expenditures of the year ending June 30, 90oi.
THE GOVERNING BOARD.
No changes have taken place in the membership of the
Governing Board, which is also the Board of Trustees of the
College. Hon. J. R. Parrott. whose term of service expired
within the year. was re-appointed by your excellence. The
meetings of the Board, which have been frequent. have been
attended in nearly all cases by every member. When it i.
known that the members of the Board are all in active busi-
ness. that they receive no compensation for their services.
that several of them reside in distant parts of the State. and
that all of them attend these meetings at great personal in-
convenience. and at considerable sacrifice of business inter-
ests, their devotion to the welfare of the State cannot le too
The Station Staff has also remained without change.
Professor Stockbridge is in charge of the Department
of Agriculture in the College and Station. His duties are
multifarious. As a Professor of Agriculture in the College
lie lectures and conducts recitations on his subjects. He is
also in charge of the experiments in field crops and live stock
on the Station. By appointment of the Board he is in
charge of the Farmers' Institute work in the State. As
member and Seeretary of the State Agricultural Society he
devotes much time to correspondence and committee meet-
At the request of Dr. Stockbridge, the 1Board engaged
Dr. W\. E. French. of Daytona, to investigate the disease
called "salt-sick." Dr. French spent several months in this
investigation at the expense of the Station. The report of
the Agriculturist herewith enclosed will give the results so
far as they are ready for publication.
It mai be stated in this connection that the Department
at Washington sent Dr. Nargaard. a specialist in diseases of
cattle, to investigate the same disease. Dr. Nargaard came
in response to a memorial addressed to the Department of
Agriculture by the Legislature of Florida in its session of
1898. Dr. Nargaard arrived while Dr. French was in the
field. but found so few cases and met with such reluctance on
the part of the farmers that he soon returned to Washington.
The foreman who oversees the work of the farm is Mr.
John F. Mitchell. Mr. Mitchell has been in charge of this
work since 1894. As a superintendent of laborers, as an
expert farmer and gardener, as a man of indefatigable indus-
try and unimpeachable honesty. Mr. Mitchell lde.erves rec-
ognition in these pages. Whatever success has attended
the work of the Station must be in fair proportion attributed
to Mr. Mitchell.
In Chemistry. Ptof. H. K. Miller has done efficient
service. He has devised and constructed much inew\ appa-
ratus and many appliances to facilitate the work of the
Station and to economize labor, time and money. Professor
Miller's college work has occupied much of his time. but lie
has prosecuted valuable researches, which will be alluded to
in his report which accompanies this.
Mr. Miller has been admirably assisted by Mr. A. W.
Blair. who has done much of the routine work of the de-
partment. Mr. Blair's determinations may be relied upon
with confidence, as he has added to a careful college training
several years of experience as a State Chemist in a neigh-
BOTANY AND HORTICULTURE.
In Botany and Horticulture Mr. H. H. Hume has done
much work. the quality of which has been recognized by his
fellow-workers in other Stations and at Washington. Mr*
Hume has declined several invitations to go elsewhere at an
increased salary, recognizing the fact that Florida offers a
field of research which cannot be equaled in other States.
Entomology has been in charge of Mr. H. A. Gossard.
Mr. Gossard has been indefatigable in his study of the insects
of Florida and the methods of controlling such as are in-
jurious. The Australian lady-bird was imported by him and
is doing good work in South Florida. Mr. Gossard has also
made a thorough test of the value of the gas treatment and
has devised apparatus for the successful fumigation of the
large trees of Florida. His report of work follows.
Professors Hume and Gossard have been ably assisted
by Miss Lucia McCulloch. In addition to the duty of con-
ducting the laboratory work of the students. she has often
been called upon to hear the recitations in botany and
zoology, in the absence of the'professors of those depart-
ments. Miss McCulloch's skill in drawing has also been of
great advantage. as may be seen from the illustrations which
are found in the Bulletins of the Horticultural Department.
Mr. J. H. Jefferies is foreman of the garden. Mr. Jef-
feries has been in the same position for eight years, and to
his intelligent execution of the plans of the Horticulturist
must he attributed the improvements which are apparent in
the grounds, garden and conservatory.
In these brief references to the workers of the Station
Staff must be included the name of our efficient and obliging
stenographer. Miss Minnie Helvenston. No hour is too
early or too late and no task is too hard. if the interest of the
Station or the desire of its officers indicates that it ought to
be done. Miss Helvenston is polite, discreet and faithful, and
it is hoped that her services may be retained and more ade-
Thie library has been ably cared for by Miss Virgie
Wigfield. Our facilities for storing the constantly and rap-
idly accumulating material are very inadequate, but Miss
Wigfield has brought order out of chaos, so far as it has
The mailing list is now kept in a card index system and
new names are constantly added. While many complaints
come of non-receipt of bulletins, the fault is not in this
office. It has occurred to the writer that the postmasters
may not always regard the franked documents of the Station
as of value, and so may destroy such as are not promptly re-
The indispensable services of the auditor and book-
keeper deserve more substantial recognition than this brief
commendatory notice. Mr. \\. P. Jernigan is thoroughly
conversant with the laws of Congress and the decisions bear-
ing on them, and is enabled to guard the funds so carefully
that illegal expenditures are never made. His books and
vouchers have always been approved by the examiners sent
from Washington. It may be added that Mr. Jernigan's
scrupulous honesty is invaluable where so much money is
A-s the writer of this report now retires from the office
of Director, he may be allowed to express to the above-
named associates his high appreciation of their courtesy and
Since the issue of our last annual report three regular
bulletins have been issued, Nos. 56, 57 and 58. These bul-
letins deal with subjects of high interest to the State. and
form valuable additions to the literature of their respective
subjects, as is evidenced by the demand for these numbers.
This demand has come directly to this office and also in-
directly through the Department of Agriculture at Wash-
ington. whose officers have referred their correspondents to
These bulletins and all others published by the Station
are mailed free to all who request them. and are regularly
sent to over 3.0oo persons.
At the request of the Governing Board, several Press
Bulletins have been printed. They are named in the ac-
companying list. It was the expectation that these Press
Bulletins would be reprinted in many of the newspapers of
the State and thus obtain Nwide circulation. This expecta-
tion has been only partially realized.
A flattering reception has been accorded to the publi-
cations of the Station. and commendatory letters have been
received from readers in every part of the world.
In anticipation, it may be remarked that the members
of the staff are engaged in the study of citrus plants and
pineapples, with reference to their fertilization, cultivation,
diseases and insect enemies, and that much work has been
done which is not ready for publication.
For the first time in the history of the Station. the Leg-
islature has made an appropriation to supplement the Hatch
Fund. Among specified items is a sum for a new green-
house, which will be much larger and more substantial than
the small building hitherto used.
A handsome appropriation for the establishment of a
veterinatry department was also made.
The sum of $5o,ooo. was appropriated for a ne.w College
building, which will contain ample laboratories for the Sta-
A considerable sum wasi appropriated for Farmners' In-
stitutes. which work las been tnuch hampered by lack of
funds and has unwarrantably encroached upon the funds of
the Station and the time of the Station workers.
The scientists of the Station are also members oi the
College faculty. While the College thus secures men who
are cnga.red int research-a condition generally considered
favorable-there is evidently a conflict of duties in this ar-
.raiigement. WVe have conscientiously charged against
College funds a fair proportion of the salary of each pro-
fessor whose duties are divided between College and
Station work. The fact that professors are often obliged to
leave the College for several successive days in the interest
of the Station, aid the fact that the Station worker is often
obliged to interrupt his observations and researches to at-
tend to his professional duties, make it questionable whether
the present arrangement ought to be continued.
The Financial Report and the List of Publications fol-
low. The reports of the different members of the Staff are
Bulletins of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
0s.. rTHOR. TITLr DATE.
1 3. Kost............. General.......................... ... pril, 1 (Out of print).
2 s...................... ..... Gnra ................... lay and June. -IM.
SJ Kost ............. ... Agriculture ..................... ...... Septmher. lf. (Out of print.
S ela ........ nr............................ .... January. 19.
Jar. P. 'ePlass-----.. Analysis of Fcrtilizr................ April. 1*89: (Out of print).
S as. eas.....; ;cneral................... ......... July 1. 8. (Out of printl.
7 ala. P. l)ePas I ......... generall .............................. October. 1 (Out of print .
Sas. l DePass ........ eneral.. ....... ........-. Jamnary. 190. (Out of print).
9 las. P. cePass........ Entomological ,otes.... ....... .. April, 189). (Out of print).
0 as ~.) ePas......... Phosphate and Superpllosphate...... Jttl. 1890.
11 a 1'P. DePass ......... eneral..... ....... ........... (crther 189
12 Jas 1'. DePas......... ;eneal ......................... ..... January It. 191.
13 as. I. l k)Pal ........ (;cnal....... .......... ............ April. 1SS1.
14 las P. l)elass......... cncral................ .......... July. 11.
15 las. Del'as ......... Tolmcco and its Cultivation ........ October Ist. INML
16 Jas. IP l'Pas .I. .. general l Farm ('rops......... ...... January Ist. 1891
IT I'. DePal ........ G CraI ....... ............. April. MLe.
18 as. P. 1l). Pai ......... Gras-eC Forage Ilants and Tomato
Blight.......... ;.; ...........-.. uly,. IM.
19 Jar. P. 1)ePass......... Tobacco............................... October. 892.
82 A. A. Personi....-.. Soil and Firtilisertr ....-..-..-..... September. 18M3.
SP. IL kIolf .~.... The Tomato and Some of its Dis-
eases............... .............I October, 1893.
22 A. A. PI'rsons.......... Feriiters ......................... November. 1893.
23 P. IL Rols ............. Insecticides and ungicides.......... December. 18
24 0.. la.. .... ......- annual Report J- -.......- januat. 18M.
25 A. W.litting ........ .Leeches and Leeching .............ISeptember. 1896
26 A. W. iin .... Big lead.............................. October, S9
2 L. A.\ aslhbourne..... Pineapple...;.......... ......... November. 1894
.. \\. Bitting.......... Liver Flukte-S uthern 'attcl Fever I December. 189L.
9 P. IL Rilfr..-......... The San Jose Scale....... -..-..... August. 1M.
SO F. B. Mlouie.......... The Culture of Tobacco.......... November. 18 .
S1 P. IL Rolls......... .. Some Market Vegetables............ December. 1695. ((ilt of print).
32 A. A. Perronats;... ... Cotton and its Cultiviatin ........... Janitary, IS,9.
33 A. S- Mltreman ........ Orange Grove ..........;............ Vbr"ary, 1896
St A. I Qluaintance ..... Insect Remrdies.................... MIrch. I6.
h 4. Olute... ........... Casni-va ................-............. April. 18 (9 ut of print!.
36 A. 1. )uaintance ..... Insects InjiriouOs to rGiin......... October, 1838.
3T i Ctlute. W. A. Marsh Pineapple.......................... November. 196.
38 F. II. Moodi............. rhacco in Florida ................. january. 1sf.
39 S. Power ......................ri....................... .ly. 7.
40 A. 1_ uaitance....... The Fall Army Worm ................ 1897.
41 I'. II. ofs........... The Sin Jose Scale ................ gust 1897.
42 A. L Ottaintane....... .ome StrawSer Ins..ts........ August. 197.
43 A. A. Persons. ........ A Chemicai Sudy of Some Typial
Florida Soil..................... September, 18W.
44 H- E. Stockbridge ..... Cane. Syrup. Sugar................ January. 189. (Out of print).
45 A. L. (unintance...... Iijurioti. Insects ................ ... March. 1898.
46 A. I.. I'uaintance..... The Strawlerr Thrips and the
SOnion Thips .................. July. 189S.
47 P1. 11. Rolls ............ Disac of the Tomato ............. September. 198. (Out of print -
S8 A. L. ( uaintance...... Insect Entemies of the Tobaeco in
Florida.............. ........ October. 18s9
i49 E-.Stockbridge ...... Casava as a Money Crop........... Maarch. 1899
0 1. Roll............. Pineapple Feriilizers............. May, 1899.
t1 H. A. (ossard-...... .. ime Common Florida Sctaes....... January, 1900.
52 H. K. Miller.......... Taking P!owders...................... hrary. 1980.
4S H. Harold fltme ...... Some Citrus Troubles.............. March. 1900.
54 H. Harold llume.....-. PIecan Culture.......................... August. 190X
i~ II. H- Stockbridg..... Feeding with Florida Feed Stuffs... September. 190.
54 1I. A. iossard......... The Cottony Cushion Scale......... May. 190.
i5 H. Harold Hunie,;:. ; Top-woriking of Pecars...... .. .... une.. 1901.
I' H. Harol Hume...... Pomelos.........; ..................... Jy. 1901.
PRESS Hi 1.LLETINS.
No. 1. H. Harold Hume.. Directions for Preparation -,f I8or-
draux Mitiure. ................ pebruary 1. 118 t.
Xo. 2. 1. K. Miller-..-; tln.i nil Its. Relin..,n ro .g\rcul-
itre........................ March 1. 1901.
No. 3. I. larold Ilume.. Seed Testing......................... April 1, 1901.
o. 4. II. A. Go*sard.... The White Fly................-... May 1. 101.
No. &5 I. K. Miller.... i. Basi Slag.......................... JUy I, 1901.
FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE FLORIDA AGRI-
CULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
For the Years Ending June 30, 1899-1900, and g19oo0got.
Salaries .. ..................$ 5.290 43
Labor ...................... 3.540o.51
Publications .. ................ 678- 57
Postage and Stationery ......... 266.44
Furniture and Equipment ......... 281.34
Heat, Lights and Water ......... 243.84
Chemical Supplies .............. 383.36
Seeds, Plants and Sundry Supp'ies. 702o52
Fertiliers ..... ... ........ .. 461.73
Feed Stuffs ......... ......... 697.97
Library ... .. .. ...... ......... 232.33
Tools. Implements and Machinery 655.71
Furniture and Fixtures ........... 12.53
Scientific Apparatus ............ 5 7-43
Live Stock ...... .... ..... 892.81
Traveling Expenses .. ........ 618.91
Contingent Expenses ........... 54-24
Buildings and Repairs ............ 914.91
Total ...................$16,085.59 $15.683-.4
REPORT OF THE AGRICULTURIST.
Dr. \\. F. Yocum. Director:
SIR-The Experiment Station year ending on June 30
necessarily includes parts of two growing seasons. In the
matter of reporting upon farm operations and experiments.
this is particularly unfortunate since neither the beginning
nor the end of any series of operations begins or ends with
this period. My report. therefore, necessarily covers parts
of two seasons, refers to a few operations belonging really to
last year, hut finished within the present interval, and other
matters belonging to crops still growing or to operations
not vet concluded. It is therefore thought best to refer to
Station farm operations only in a general way. reporting
upon changes inaugurated during the year and such ex-
periments conducted or crops grown during the year as
seem to furnish results worthy of record in the report, but
not requiring the extended treatment of bulletin publica-
THE FAR.M.-The division of the farm into general
farm operations and a separate assignment of land for
special field plot experiments has already been alluded to
in previous reports, as well as the fact .of the very inferior
adaptation of the Station farm to the requirements of crop
experiments. The area of land belonging to my depart-
ment is, moreover, insufficient to justify the extended live
stock investigations desired. As a temporary relief from
these conditions the Board of Trustees placed at my disposal
in March of last year eighty-five acres of land situated about
two miles from the Station farm proper, the same having
been secured by rental for a period of years. The tract was
badly fenced and most of the same has been under cultiva-
tion by tenants for many years, so that the general condi-
tion of the land is inferior, and its location, without build-
ings of any kind. so far from the Station premises, renders
conducting of operations thereon in a satisfactory manner
impossible. The land. however, is in many respects well
adapted to the growth of staple crops and particularly to
stock growing, it possessing some timber and being ex-
tremely well watered. The crops grown upon this farm
have been mostly forage crops. by means of which we have
been able to maintain the large amount of stock kept upon
the Station farm. Velvet beans and cow peas constituted
the chief area thus utilized, furnishing not only crops meet-
ing requirements, but also improving the condition of the
soil. which was sadly needed. A large part of the velvet
beans grown were upon the poorest portion of this land.
and were partly fed to young stock as pasturage and partly
plowed under for fertilizing purposes, The crops now
standing upon this farm are as follows: Cassava. lo acres;
corn. 25 acres: cow peas, following oats. 22 acres; beggar
weed and grass, 5 acres. The Station farm proper aside
from the 8-acre field devoted exclusively to plot trials is now
occupied by the following crops: Sugar cane. 1 1-2 acres;
rice. 3-4 acre; velvet beans, 7 1-4 acres: pinders. 5 acres;
cassava, 3 1-4 acres: Mexican clover, following oats. 6
acres; corn, 3 acres; melons and canteloupes, 2 acres; sweet
potatoes, 2 3-4 acres; garden and vegetable crops, i 1-2
acres: cow peas, following oats. I 1-4 acres.
EQUIPMENT.-The farm equipment during the year has
been increased by the addition of two wagons to replace
those worn out in service, one Satley sulky plow, one Clark's
cutaway harrow, one Hallack weeder and one Eureka
Direct Draft mowing machine. This latter was selected
after practical trial of several machines, as being not only
peculiar in its construction and draft, but meeting one
requirement of the Florida farmer more satisfactorily
than any other machine; namely, the cutting of vel-
vet beans for hay, the growing of which has be-
come a very important part of farm industry in Florida,
and would have been very much more so were it not for the
difficulty experienced in mowing the crop with any machine
of ordinary construction. \e have found the "Eureka."
however, admirably adapted to this purpose and it has al-
ready been introduced with entire satisfaction by many
farmers. particularly because of its demonstrated ability to
thoroughly and economically harvest the velvet bean crop.
LIvESTOCK.-The amount of livestock kept on the farm
has varied very materially during the year. being largely in-
creased during the feeding period in the fall and winter and
reduced to a minimum during the summer months. The
total number of animals of different kinds kept during the
year has been as follows: H-orses and mules. 5; cows. 9: bull,
I: one and two year old heifers. to: calves 8: feeding steers.
18. hogs. go: besides sheep. 4: and poultry consisting of
Black langshan fowls, white Pekin ducks and Tolouse geese.
Soon after assuming charge of my department four
years ago. several native cows were selected and purchased
as the basis for a dairy herd which should be bred up by
being crossed with Jersey blood. The results of this ex-
periment are now apparent and are one of the most at-
tractive features of the Station farm. the original stock and
the progeny of half and three-quarters blood Jerseys being
comparable side by side. Several of the original cows have
now been disposed of and their half-blood progeny have
taken their place as dairy animals, while several three-
quarters blood young animals with their marked Jersey
characteristics represent the next generation. The result
shows conclusively not only the marked improvement in
blood and character of animals, but more important yet the
feasibility and ease with which such improvement can be
effected by anyone desirous of building up a dairy herd at
minimum expense. It is not supposed that the grade ani-
mals thus secured can always supplant full-blood stock, yet
in a very few years a herd thus constituted attains very
closely the type of the pure breed animal and displays in
addition some advantage of hardiness and adaptation to
surroundings. Within the past few months our dairy herd
has been increased and very materially improved by the ad-
edition of eight full-blood Jersey animals carefully selected.
representing some of the best families of Jersey blood and
being animals of very superior individuality. This is par-
ticularly true of the bull which now stands at the head of the
herd. namely, Romp (A. J. R. No. 49,791). a four years old
animal obtained from the famous St. Lambert herd of Capt.
\. I. Vason. in Tallahassee, and being unquestionably one
of the finest animals in the country, and one in the pos-
session of which the people of Florida may well take pardon-
able pride. Several of the young heifers now included in
the herd are also types of the best Jersey breeding and
worthy representatives of the breed.
These have been conducted with both steers and
hogs. and are a continuation of experiments briefly alluded
to in my last report. conducted, however. with dif-
ferent animals. Experiments with steers had two ob-
jects in view. First. the determination of the digest-
ibility or "digestible coefficients" of recognized Florida
feedstuffs: and Second, determination of the relative eco-
nomic and fattening properties of different rations com-
posed of the most available feeds. Incidentally. the beef-
making possibilities of Florida animals and feed-stuffs were
determined in the hope of demonstrating the possibility of
economically producing fat beef by the feeding of native
animals and demonstrating the desirability of the Florida
farmer feeding his animals for the market, and thus selling
the finished product instead of following the common prac-
tice of marketing range animals at very much lower prices.
The digestion experiments, the analytical work of which was
conducted in co-operation with the Chemical Department,
had for their object the determining of the digestibility of
common Florida crops. It is a fact that up to the present
time the feeding of even the most common of these crops,
like sweet potatoes and beggar weed hay, has been con-
-.,> U -:"
ducted under the disadvantage of the absence of reliable
data upon the actual digestibility of the same. It is in-
tended that this series of investigations shall be continued
until the actual digestibility and consequent real feeding
value of all our native feed stuffs has been determined. Thus
far. cassava, velvet beans and beggar weed are the only
crops studied. The process consists simply in the weighing
and analyzing of all the food fed to the animal used. Then
the weighing of all refuse and subjecting the same to anal-
vsis. The difference between these two results is neces-
sarily the material actually utilized by the animal and enter-
ing into his system, and is. therefore, the digestible portion
of the material consumed. Two animals have been devoted
exclusively to this work during the year. Illustration of
one of them, namely, a three years old native steer, is here
presented. [Fig. -.] Steer fattening experiments were con-
ducted during the past season on a larger scale than hereto-
fore. the animals utilized consisting of sixteen native Florida
steers obtained on the range in Hamilton county and driven
to the Station farm where for the first time they were sub-
jected to restraint and fed regular rations. L'pon arriving at
the Station these steers were all dehorned and then separated
into lots of four animals each, and after they had been sub-
jected to their new conditions long enough to eat readily,
were placed upon their experimental rations. The experi-
ment consisted of testing the comparative fattening value of
sweet potatoes. cassava. corn meal and shelled corn. The
same amount of nutriment and the same nutritive ratio were
given to each lot. in proportion to its live weight. except in
the case of sweet potatoes. of which the same actual weight
was fed as of cassava. that the result might show the actual
relative feeding value of the same quantities of these two
tubers. The feeding period consisted of seventy days. dur-
ing which time the animals were weighed ever- two weeks.
not only so that their progress could be definitely watched.
hut that the food consumed could be regularly increased in
proportion to the increased weight of the animals.
THE EXPERIMENT WITH FEEDING HOGS this year had a
very different object in view from that recorded in my last
report, details of which have been published in Bulletin No.
5-. The animals utilized in that experiment were genuine full-
blood native hogs of the "razor-back" type purchased in the
"'lat woods' and never from the remotest generation affect-
ed by the infusion of any trace of so-called improved blood.
In May. 19o.o one of the sows in this lot gave birth to a
litter of six genuine razor back pigs. A few days later a
litter of the same number of full-blood Red Duroc-Jersey
pigs arrived in one of the Station breeding pens. I imme-
diately recognized the presence of material for a very inter-
esting comparison between the native hog and the blooded
animal when taken in hand early and subjected to identical
conditions. The two sows with their off-spring were. there-
fore. placed in a pen by themselves, and the two litters of
pigs thenceforth for fourteen months were subjected to ab-
solutely identical conditions. When they arrived at
weaning age their mothers were taken from them and both
sets of pigs fed from the same trough, slept in the same nest,
and until the day of their slaughter were one family without
distinction except in origin. Their slaughter was deferred
four months longer than would have been preferred and
later than simple economy would justify. because of condi-
tions which could not be controlled but irrelevant to the ex-
periment. On July 6 the two lots of pigs were weighed and
the final comparison made. Three of the full-blood Duroc-
Jersey hogs and the entire number of native hogs were
slaughtered, so that dressed data were also secured. The
three remaining Duroc-Jerseys. which were superior sows.
were reserved for breeding purposes.
The comparative results are presented in the following
The figures presented show the weights of the animals
under experiment. and are interesting as they are also
important and surprising. It will be noticed that the
average live weight of the razor back hog was !.0 pounds
Razor tack ... 5 1072 214.4 853.2 170.6 79.6
Duruc Jersey. 6 1298 216.3 505.7 164.2 75.8
less than the average weight of the Duroc-Jersey. This
gives a slight advantage to the latter on a live weight basis
and on superficial appearance. The real test of the animal
for slaughtering purposes, however, must necessarily be upon
the dressed weight basis. On this point the last two columns
in the table present important data, namely, that the aver-
age dressed weight of the razor back hog was 6.4 pounds
heavier than that of the Duroc-Jersey animal, and the per-
centage comparison showed 79.6 per cent. of dressed weight
for the razor back as compared with 75.8 per cent, for the
Duroc-Jersey. In other words. although the latter. while
living. was slightly heavier than the former and presented a
somewhat more attractive appearance. the razor back animal
actually yielded the largest amount of dressed meat and a
very considerable higher percentage of dressed weight.
These results are so different from common conception as
to the relative merits of the two classes of hog that a word
of explanation seems to be called for. It must be remem-
bered that the hogs were all subjected to identical conditions
and that during the feeding period which covered the
entire life of the ainials. both classes had all the food they
could consume. Under these conditions the native razor
back animal produced on an average from the food con-
sumed 6.4 pounds more of marketable meat than his full-
blooded rival, quite contrary to usual expectation. If, as
seems by this experiment to be demonstrated. it is possible
to so feed the native animal that he surpasses at killing time
the blooded hog. what is the explanation of the supposed
superiority of the latter? \Vhy the common ill repute in
which the former is held? The explanation can be found. I
believe, in the fact that the razor back hog as known in Flor-
ida is seldom subjected to favorable conditions for develop-
ment. He is ranged, starved. ill-treated. forced to shirk for
himself and seldom actually subjected to favorable condi-
tions. and rarely systematically, intelligently or adequately
fed or fattened for market before being slaughtered. The
blooded hog. on the contrary, is in the hands of owners who
subject him to radically different treatment and to condi-
tions tending to fuller development and better results. In
other words. the high-priced blooded animal is better cared
for than the cheap ill-favored native, with the result that as
commonly seen and compared the latter is greatly inferior
to the former. The difference is well illustrated by the reply
of the farmer. who. when asked his opinion as to the best
breed of hogs. answered, "The corn-crib breed." In other
words. "feed" more than "breed" is responsible for results.
The facts here presented are well worth the careful consid-
eration of all hog-owners in Florida. I must not be under-
stood as advocating the substitution of the native hog for the
blooded animal, for the latter unquestionably possesses ma-
terial advantages, especially in the matter of early maturity,
which makes him a valuable acquisition. particularly for
crossing upon native stock. It is an unquestioned fact,
however, that the meat of the native is of incomparably
superior quality, and that when properly handled and given
suitable and adequate feed and attention the native crowds
his blooded rival in the race and can be made as profitable
as he is hardy.
PLANT FOOD TRIALS.
The scheme of plant experiments described in my an-
nual report for 1898 has been carried out in accordance
with the plan there outlined with most of the staple Flor-
ida crops, the plot field of eight acres being devoted
exclusively to this work. Results with some of the crops
have now been obtained for three consecutive years.
Although the problem the solution of which has been at-
tempted, cannot yet be considered as settled, still it is he-
lieved that considerable information has been gained bearing
upon the matter of the economical fertilizing of the crops
tested. particularly upon the proportions and forms of the
different plant foods giving the best results for the crops
mentioned on such soils as constitute the Station farm. I am
constantly in receipt of requests for suggestions as to the
fertilizing of these crops, with which the experiments con-
ducted hardly demand the special publication of individual
bulletins. It is. therefore, thought advisable to here present
some of the results secured as doubtless furnishing indica-
tions as to the probable effects of the different forms of
plant food upon crops grown elsewhere under similar con-
The scheme of plant food investigation, it should he
borne in mind, involves the systematic trial of different pro-
portions of the recognized plant food ingredients to test the
relative productiveness and economy of composition. For
purposes of comparison, the series of plots for each crop in-
cludes a check plot upon which no fertilizer whatever is used
that the actual effect of the fertilizer application may he dem-
onstrated. A definite relation is maintained between the ap-
plications upon the different plots. A standard application is
adopted, which for each series is designated as the "normal."
each other formula in the series being simply a multiple of
the "normal" or the fractional part of the same so that a def-
inite relation exists between all the formulas used in the
series, all variations being fixed. The "normal" in each case
is determined for the crop in question, the known plant
food requirements of that crop. as demonstrated by
analysis. forming the basis of its composition with
such variations as practical experience and the rec-
ognized habits of the plant have demonstrated increase
the practical value or economy of the application. The area
of each plot in each series consists of one-tenth of an
acre. Tabulated applications and yields apply to this area.
SWEET POTATOES-Normal application per acre:
Acid phosphate ............................ .. 200 lbs.
Cotton seed meal ............................ 2o4 lbs.
Nitrate of soda ......... ......... ......... 66 lbs.
Sulphate of potash ............................ 80 Ibs.
lbs. lbs. lbs. *Gain
No. Fertilizer. market small total market
1. Normal .. .... ...... T6008 112 16o2 715
2. 2 Normal .. ....... o64 56 1120 781
3. A Normal phos. acid .... 700 84 784 417
4. 1 Normal nitrogen ..... 644 112 756 361
5. i Normal potash ...... 896 i68 1064 613
6. Normal muriate ....... 830 140 970 557
7. Check ......... .. ... 283 91 374
"'By use of fertilizer.
Three facts seem to be demonstrated as results of this
t. Doubling the total fertilizer application as between
plot I and 2 has but little influence upon the crop. It.
therefore, appears that the normala" application as applied
to sweet potatoes cannot be profitably increased.
2. The use of muriate of potash as shown by compari-
son between Nos. 1 and 6 is considerably inferior in result
to the sulphate of potash. The difference of 30 bushels per
acre much more than compensates for the greater cost of
3- Diminishing either the phosphoric aeid or the nitro-
gen proportion in the formula by one-half, as is shown in
Nos. 3 and 4. proportionally diminishes the yield, this
being particularly so with nitrogen, where reducing the
nitrogen content of the application one-half results in dimin-
ishing the yield of market potatoes over 33 per cent.
The comparison between plots 1 and 5 shows the effect
of diminishing the proportion of potash one-half. The yield
is reduced 112 pounds per plot, equivalent to 20 bushels of
market potatoes per acre. The value of the potash saved is
approximately one dollar, the loss in diminished crop is twen-
ty dollars, making a net loss of nineteen dollars per acre by
simply omitting one-half of the potash from the "normal"
SUGAR CANE-The "normal" application consisted of:
Acid phosphate ............................... o lbs.
Cotton seed meal ........................... oo lbs.
M uriate of potash ............................ 50 lbs.
Per cent. Pounds
No. Fertilizer. sugar.* cane.
i. Normal ...... .... .. .. ........t. t. 2066
2. i Normal ........................10.2 2032
3. Normal phos. acid ............... .. 0 20.80
4- $ Normal nitrogen.......... ..... .o 20ooo
5. 1 Normal potash................... 10.2 13oo
6. Nitrogen j each cotton seed meal and
nitrate of soda .............. ..... to. 2152
*Nov. 24. unripe cane.
The cane used in this test was green cane. it being in-
tended solely for syrup making. Red cane under identical
conditions grown side by side with the green cane and tested
at the same time for sugar content shows a difference of
nearly two per cent. of sugar. It should be added that the
crop in question was very small, having been subjected
to an extremely poor season, so that the yield was estimated
before harvest at being only about one-half of a normal
crop, such as the same soil and care would have produced
under favorable circumstances. This table apparently
demonstrates three facts worthy of attention as possessing
important practical bearings:
i. The yield of cane and the sugar content of the same
was almost identical upon plots i and 2. showing that in-
creasing the "normal" application one-half had no material
influence upon the crop.
2. Diminishing the proportion of phosphoric acid and of
nitrogen by one-half as is shown in Nos. 3 and 4 also had
no material effect upon the yield. although reducing the ni-
trogen content materially increased the sweetness of the cane
as was to have been expected.
3. Diminishing the proportion of potash in. the "nor-
mal" formula was followed by diminishing the yield 30 per
cent., while the sweetness of the cane was not affected. This
is in accordance with the well known relation of potash to
starch and sugar formation, and is an emphatic demonstra-
tion of the importance of the liberal use of potash in the
growing of sugar cane and the impossibility of materially de-
creasing the proportion below that in the "normal" appli-
cation without disastrously affecting the crop.
IRiSH POTAToI.s-The "normal" application consisted of
the following amounts per acre:
Acid phosphate ........................ 0oo lbs.
Cotton seed meal .............................250 lbs.
Nitrate of soda ............................. 125 Ibs.
Sulphate of potash ............ .. .......... 00 lbs.
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No. Fertilizer, market. small. total.
I. Normal ........... ......804 129 933
2. Normal ..................879 19o 169
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No. Fertilizer. market. small, total.
3.- Normal phos. acid.. ......942 204 1146
4. Normal nitrogen.........8T8 147 965
5, Normal potash........... 590 152 642
6. Cotton seed meal .......... 447 87 534
7. Castor pomace .. ..........493 73 566
8. Nitrate of soda ............ 643 8o 723
Two experiments were really included in this series.
The first five plots were devoted to the usual comparisons
between proportions of plant food. while the three last plots
were devoted to a comparison between cotton seed meal.
castor pomace and nitrate of soda as sources of nitrogen for
the potato crop. In this latter test the amount of nitrogen
applied to each crop in the three different forms was the
same as that applied in the "normal" application. Several
facts seem to be shown as results of these tests:
i. Comparison between plots I and 2 is interest-
ing. Each of these plots received the identical "'normal"
application, but each plot had been subjected to different
previous treatment so that the crops upon the differ-
ent plots were really grown under different conditions, de-
manding attention and furnishing valuable suggestions-
Plot No. I had for three years previous been cultivated to
tobacco without fertilizer application, it having been the
check plot in the tobacco series of experiments described in
my report of '98. The third tobacco crop which imme-
diately preceded the crop of Irish potatoes was so poor as
to thoroughly demonstrate the exhaustion of this soil so far
as tobacco production was concerned. It is. therefore. im-
portant to observe that the application of the "normal" po-
tato fertilizer brought this apparently exhausted plot very
nearly up to the productive point of plot No. 2, which had
been liberally fertilized in the tobacco series. An emphatic
demonstration of the value of crop rotation and how nearly
by this means the producing power of the soil may be main-
2. Comparison of plots 6 and 8 with 2 is import-
ant. The two latter plots were upon soil upon which no
leguminous crop had been grown during the previous year,
while the plots in the first series all bore crops of cow peas
last year. It is important to state that the cow peas were
harvested, so that the beneficial effect of the crop on the soil
was confined exclusively to the action of this crop as a nitro-
gen gatherer, while it remained on the soil during the grow-
ing season, and to the direct action of its roots remaining in
the soil. The yield of potatoes upon plot 2 preceded by cow
peas in the manner mentioned was 1069 pounds, while the
yield for other plots 6 and 8 was 628.5 pounds. The
difference is 40 per cent. in yield solely as the result of the
effect of the growing of a previous crop of cowpeas. This
fertilizing benefit from the peas it must be remembered was
wholly in addition to the crop itself, which gave full value for
cost of production, so that the increased yield of potatoes
shown is gratis and clear profit.
3. The comparison of plots 3, 4 and 5 is important.
these plots being those on which the three plant food con-
stituents, phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash, were respect-
ively diminished one-half. Plot 3 with but half the 'nor-
mal" application of phosphoric acid actually shows an in-
crease over plot 2 with the full "normal" application. Plot
4 with the nitrogen diminished one-half shows a reduction
in crop worthy of consideration. Plot 5, however, where
the potash application was reduced one-half, shows that the
crop was diminished 40 per cent. as the result. The eco-
nomical side of this result is apparent in the fact that the cost
of the fertilizer application was diminished $2 per acre by this
reduction in potash, while the diminished value of the crop
was $7-5o or a total loss of $5.5o per acre in crop solely as
the result of decreasing the proportion of potash by one-
4. Comparisons of plots 6, 7 and 8 grown under
identical conditions. except that the source of nitrogen used
was varied in each case, show that cotton seed meal and
castor pomace are practically identical in crop producing
power, so far as the Irish potato is concerned, but that nitrate
of soda is apparently a materially better form of nitrogen for
this crop, increasing the yield over the use of the other two
forms by 30 per cent. It should perhaps be mentioned in
this connection that this crop did not consist of early pota-
toes, not being harvested until June. It was. therefore, sub-
jected to the dry weather prevailing during the month of
May, which may explain the decided advantage of the nitrate
of soda application, upon the recognized influence of soda
salts in increasing the capillary movement of soil water,
CoRa-The "normal" application per acre consisted of:
Acid phosphate ........ .. .... ............. 200 lbs.
Cotton seed meal ......... ............. 25 Ibs.
Nitrate of soda .............................. 75 bs.
Muriate of potash ........................oo lbs.
Cost. $6.35 per acre.
No. Fertilizer. 1 .
t. Check ........ .. ..142 20.2
2. Normal ...........231.5 33 12.8
3. i Normal ..... .......268 38.2 i8
4. A Normal...... ......268 38.2 18
5. 1 Normal phos, acid.... 235 33-5 13-3
6. Normal nitrogen .... 234,5 33-5 13.3
7. Normal potash ... 251.5 35-9 15-7
The corn series of plots was that occupied by cotton
the previous year. thus following the common Florida rota-
tion and making results more universally applicable to rec-
ognized conditions in the long-staple cotton belt. Because
of the widely-accepted belief among Florida farmers that it
will not pay to fertilize corn, the comparisons in this test will
be made more particularly upon market value of the product.
As a basis for comparison, the cost of the fertilizer applica-
tion is based upon Jacksonville prices as follows: Acid
phosphate. $12 per ton: cotton seed meal. $23.50 per ton:
nitrate of soda. $37 per ton: muriate of potash, $44 per ton :
making the total valuation of the "normal" application of
5oo pounds per acre $6.33. Reference to the table shows
that the natural product of the soil without fertilizer, as
shown by the check plot. was 20.2 bushels per acre. The
gain in vield by the "normal" application was 12.8 bushels
per acre. as shown by plot 2. No. 3 with I 1-2 the "nor-
mal" application shows a gain of 18 bushels almost exactly in
proportion to the gain in plot 2. Singularly enough. how-
ever. reducing the "normal" application by one-half as in plot
4 was followed by no corresponding reduction in gain.
which still remained 18 bushels. This application, therefore,
was the most profitable in the series, its cost being $3.17.
while the value of the gain at 50 cents per bushel was $9. or
a total profit from the fertilizer application of $7.87. Plots
5, 6 and 7 in which each of the fertilizing constituents
was respectively reduced one-half, showed approximation to
equality in yield. The experiment, therefore, indicates that
the proportion of the three different plant food ingredients
furnished in the "normal" application perfectly meets the re-
quirements of the corn crop. but that the most profitable
quantity to be used. or that giving the largest profit, is one-
half of the "normal" application of 500 pounds of the mix-
ture per acre, from the application of which the profit derived
was extremely satisfactory and furnishes emphatic proof of
the error of common conception and that the corn crop when
properly fertilized returns satisfactory profit on the invest-
CorvroN-The "normal" application per acre was as fol-
Acid phosphate .... ..... .... ... ........ 187.5 lbs.
Cotton seed meal ................... ... .. 137- 5 lbs.
Muriate of potash ......... ............ 2 .o Ibs.
No. Fertilizer. .t
1. Check ........ ..... 1.35 1350
2. Normal .. .. .. .....44 1444 o6
3. 2 Normal .... ......... 46.7 1470 12o
4. 3 Normal ............ 151 150o 6o
5.- Normal phos. acid.... 140.7 1470o o2
6. i Normal nitrogen .....132.5 1325 25
7. I Normal potash .......144.5 1445 5
With this series, as with corn. the cost of the fertilizer
applied is given as possessing most important bearing on re-
sults. The same valuation for fertilizer ingredients is fol-
lowed as in corn. On this basis, the "Normal" application
of 350 pounds is valued at $3.20 per acre. Reference to the
table shows increase of o06 pounds of seed cotton as the re-
sult of the application of the "normal" fertilizer, demon-
strated by comparison between plots I and 2. Plots 3
and 4. in which the "normal" application was doubled and
trebled, showed regular increase in yield, though this gain
is not proportional to the increase in cost of fertilizer.
Plot No. 5 is the most interesting in the series, as it
shows that diminishing, the "norMal" application of phos-
phoric acid by one-half has no tendency to proportionately
diminish the crop, but on the contrary that the yield on this
plot was slightly greater than that on plot 2, and was the
same as that on plot 3 with the comparatively expensive
double "normal" application. The indication of this test,
therefore, is that the proportion of phosphoric acid adopted
in the "normal" application could with safety and economy
he reduced one-half without diminishing the yield of the
crop, but with a material reduction in cost of fertilizer anid
increase in profit. On the other hand, diminishing the pro-
portion of nitrogen and potash, as shown respectively in plots
6 and 7. is followed by a corresponding reduction in yield
of cotton: a reduction more than balancing the reduced cost
of the fertilizer used and demonstrating that this change in
the fertilizer is followed by considerable loss, and is. there-
fore. not to be recommended. The two most profitable plots
in the series were Nos. 2 with the "normal" application and
5 with the "normal" proportion of phosphoric acid dimin-
ished one-half. The profit from the fertilizer application in
these two cases was respectively $r.Lo and $2.70 per acre.
CASSAvA-The "normal" consisted per acre of:
Acid phosphate...... ..... ..... ............ 125 lbs.
Cotton seed meal.... ..... ......... ...... ..150 Ibs.
Muriate of potash........ ....... ............ 75 bs.
No. Fertilizer. root,
r. Check ..... .......................... 12.
2. $ Normal ... .... ............. .......... 354.5
3. Norml al...... ....... ................ ....318.5
4. i Normal phos. acid. ........... .......... 353.5
5. Normal nitrogen.......... ...................266.5
:4 ra ;?
No. Fertilizer. root.
6. Normal potash....: .... ... ..... ....... 320
7. Normal .... .. .. ......................... .539
8. 1i Normal...... ................... ,....... 742
9. 2 N orm al...... ...... ........ ............ 785
\Without going into the details of the results of
this year's feeding experiments, a few facts based upon
the same. it is believed, may be appropriately present-
ed here. while full report will be reserved for publication in
bulletin form. The animals were divided into four lots as
evenly as possible. each four being placed upon a separate
ration for comparative test. The daily rations fed were as
PER .00O LBS. LIVE WEIGHT.
Pea vine hay.............. .. ...... 0o 4.
Cotton seen meal.... .... .......... .. 4 4.2
Sweet potatoes........ ...... ..... ..35 12.2
Nutritive ratio, 1:5.
Pea vine hay...... ........... .....10. 4.
Cotton seed meal .......... ........ ... 4 5.2
Cassava Icut roots)......... ............35 4-3
Nutritive ratio, 1 :6.5.
Crab-grass hay .................. ...... 20
Cotton seed meal...................... .
Corn meal.. .... ...;......... ........ 5
Nutritive ratio, I :6.4.
Crab-grass hay ....... ......... .... ..20
Cotton seed nieal ......... ........... 5
Shelled Corn ............ ............ 5
Nutritive ratio, :6.5.
The steers were fed 70 days, being weighed meanwhile
every two weeks. The weights of the different individuals
and lots at the end of the o7 days together with the gains
made as the result of the feeding are presented in the follow-
LIVE WEIGHT RESULTS.
Weight at Weight at end
No. beginning, of 70 days.
13 560 668
7 402 526
6 382 534
4 438 550
Total 1782 Ibs. 2278 Ibs.
Weight at Weight at end Pounds Per cent.
No. beginning, of 70 days. gain. gain.
2 536 684 148
8 382 564 182
5 400 522 122
16 460 584 124
Total 1778 lbs. 2354 lbs. 576 32.4
14 508 648 138
r 456 598 142
to 378 508 '30
3 448 580 132
Total 1790 Ibs. 2332 lbs. 542 30.8
IT 528 660 132.
12 398 520 122
9 466 660o 94
15 384 488 104
Total 1776 lbs. 2308 lbs. 552 31.0
The basis on which the cost of the different rations were
determined was as follows: Hay $8.0o, cassava $3.00, sweet
potatoes. $7.00. corn $17.oo, corn meal $20.0o, cotton seed
meal $26.5o per ton. The percentage result of the feeding
showed that the actual live weight gain made by lot II was
considerably in excess of that of either of the other lots. It
is immediately apparent how materially more economical the
cassava ration is than either of the other rations em-
played. It is easily demonstrated that native Florida steers
when properly fed can be made in an interval of 70 days to
approximately increase one-third in weight. It must be re-
membered that not only does the feeder become the gainer
to the extent of this increase in weight, but that there is a
very material increase in market value of the entire carcass,
a fact which materially increases the profits of fattening
under all conditions. It is necessary further to simply add
that corn is a recognized profitable constituent of feeding ra-
tions, and is the recognized fattening material of America.
\When it is shown, as this experiment abundantly demon-
strates. that by the use of cassava a ration corresponding in
composition to that adopted with corn. can he supplied at less
than one-half of the cost of the corn ration. and that the cas-
sava ration, when thus fed to inferior native steers increases
their weight 32.4 per cent. in 70 days. one-half the time com-
monly required by the corn feeders of the west. there can
hardly be a question raised as to the value of this crop. The
profits available to cassava feeders, and the certainty of the
development of a great stock-feeding industry in the one
State recognized as a cassava producer seem to be demon-
PUIBIlcATIONS.-Only one bulletin was published by me
during the past year. This was No. 55, "Feeding With Flor-
ida Feed Stuffs,'" This bulletin was longer and covered
more ground than I believe is usually desirable in a single
publication of the kind. This. however, was necessary
from the fact that no previous publication had been issued
by the station treating of the subject of stock feeding or feed
stuffs in any manner whatever, and it was. therefore, deemed
necessary to devote some space to a consideration of the
principles involved, that the actual experiments recorded
might be the more fully understood. For the convenience
of Florida stock owners, moreover, it was thought, best to in-
corporate in the bulletin the accepted standard tables of
composition and feeding value of feed stuffs, that the same
might be in convenient form for reference. The experi-
ments recorded included feeding tests with both steers and
hogs. native Florida animals. such as are available in all parts
of the State. and were utilized for the purpose that results
might he applicable to average Florida conditions. The
bulletin seemed to fill a recognized want. and was re-
ceived with favor not only gratifying to the author, but it is
believed was instrumental in increasing friendly relations be-
tween the Station and public. The edition was the largest
ever published by the Station of any bulletin actually re-
cording the results of Station experiments. In addition to
the regular Station edition, a reprint of 50.000 copies was
published for general distribution by parties interested in
the development of Florida resources. Some of the more
important of the results mentioned in the summary should
perhaps he repeated here.
I. Florida produces numerous and economical feed
stuffs of each of these classes in abundance: two of the for-
mer. namely beggar weed and the velvet bean. and one of the
latter, cassava. are almost distinctively Florida crops. In ad-
dition to these. we produce the typical forage and feed stuff
crops of the Southern States.
2. Experiment has shown that there are definite "feed-
ing standards"for each class of live stock. and that by means
of the composition of the digestible part of the different
foods it is possible to so proportion the ingredients of rations
as to meet the actual requirements of any animal.
3. The amount of food which may be economically con-
sumed by any animal varies with the weight of the animal in
question, and should be proportioned to the live weight of the
4. The three rations fed to steers gave percentage of
gain and the greatest daily gain in the following order: Cas-
sava. cotton seed products and corn meal. The percentage
of dressed weight shown as the result of slaughtering was in
the same order.
5. In the comparison of the native steers with grade
animals the former made the largest gain. but the latter the
largest proportion of hind-quarters, and heaviest net weight.
6. The quality of the beef produced was fully equal to
the western beef offered in our markets.
7. The result of feeding showed a profit on the invest-
ment as follows: Cassava, 48.82 per cent.; cotton seed prod-
ucts, 37.43 per cent.: corn meal. 14.69 per cent.
8. Velvet bean (pod) meal is believed to be the natural
protein food for Florida feeders. and the necessary comple-
ment to cassava. It could not be used for experimental ra-
tions, however, until its digestion coefficient had been
thoroughly established. Its use with cassava would have
very materially reduced the cost of the ration and the re-
9. After being placed on full feed, 70 days of feeding
seems to bring Florida steers to their maximum gain and
most profitable point. For animals taken directly from the
range about 30 days are required for getting upon full feed.
10. By comparison with the results of actual feeding ex-
periments in Texas and Nebraska, two great cattle feeding
States, our Florida steers gave a profit of 23.35 per cent. over
the results in the former State, while our average gain per
(lay was double that of the latter and our actual cost per
pound of product was less than one-half as much. Our re-
sults, moreover, were secured in one-half the time required
i The rations tested with hogs showed results in the
following order of merit: Cassava ration, corn ration, po-
tato ration, corn alone.
12. The native hogs gave a higher proportion of dressed
meat than the cross-bred animals.
CORRESPONDEN;cE.-More and more of my time seems
to be necessarily devoted to the correspondence of my de-
partment, which is constantly on the increase. An average
of about 200 letters per month is written, This correspond-
ence is of two general kinds: First. replying to inquiries com-
ing from citizens of the State who encounter some obstacle,
to overcome which assistance is desired. or who solicit infor-
nation directly applicable to the practical management of
their soils, crops or animals. Second, The furnishing of in-
formation to people in other States and countries concerning
the agricultural conditions. resources and possibilities of
Florida. Almost every case presented involves individual
characteristics and requires personal consideration so that
the amount of time demanded by this work is very consider-
able. It is believed that this is one of the most important
ways by which I am able to be of practical benefit to the
farmers of the State.
O()TSIDE \~ORK.-During the past season, as during
previous years, a very considerable proportion of my time
has been devoted to work outside of the routine work of my
department at Lake City. Frequent visits have been made
by request to different portions of the State for the pur-
pose of special investigation of local conditions or the fur-
nishing of opinions and assistance to parties interested in the
development of the agricultural interests of the State.
Farmers' Institutes have been a most important portion of
this outside work. The demand for institutes has regularly
increased and the results of the same are not only acknowl-
edged as noticeable in the localities where held. but it is be-
lieved that the results of the Institutes are becoming mani-
fest in a more intelligent, systematic and successful agricul-
ture in the State as a whole. The organization of the State
Agricultural Society, several special agricultural organiza-
tions and the development of the State Fair movement now
approaching successful issue, as well as the recent unprece-
dented liberal appropriation from the State Legislature. in-
cluding special appropriations for my department, it is be-
lieved are directly traceable to the Farmers' Institute work
conducted during the past three years.
So much attention has been given to this subject
in the State recently that it is believed allusion here should
be made to the disease itself, and to the recent efforts
of the Station to investigate the same. Without going
into details of the nature of the disease, its prevalence
or the investigations conducted under my supervision, it may
be briefly said that this so-called "salt-sickness" is a disease
or condition prevalent in a considerable portion of the State,
being confined chiefly to those counties situated upon the
higher sand ridge constituting the backbone of the Florida
peninsular. extending from the Georgia line south to Lake
Okeechobee. My attention was first called to the widely
distributed prevalence of the disease, at a Farmers' Institute
held in Putnam county in February, '99. As a result of ac-
tion taken at that time, a resolution introduced by Hon.
J. H. Harp, was passed by the Legislature then in
session requesting the United States Department of
Agriculture to send an expert to the State to inves-
tigate the disease with a view to discovering a remedy for the
same. Considerable correspondence was carried on between
myself and the Bureau of Animal Industry relative to this
matter, which, however, was followed by no practical re-
sults. the authorities in Washington not feeling able to spare
a man for the investigation needed. No further action was
taken, therefore, until January of the present year. when. at
my request and solicitation, I was authorized by the Board
of Trustees to secure the services of a competent veterina-
rian to undertake a pathological study of the disease. Dr.
W\. E, French, V. S., of Daytona, Florida, was engaged to
co-operate with me in this work and the details of the ex-
periments undertaken were carried out under his direct
supervision. A temporary Station for the investigation of
this disease was established in Osceola county, where at one
time fifteen animals representing different stages of the
trouble were under treatment. This work was conducted on
the premises of J. E. Ennis. M. D.. who also co-operated
in the work at that place. A large number of cases in
dirierent parts of the State were also examined by Dr.
French and myself. very numerous post mortems were held,
and many animals subjected to treatment. The details of
I- -. ~- -- .
This was a yearling heifer pronounced to be a typical case of salt sickness
in the secondary stage- Characterized by weak heart action, eyes sunken, hair
on head standing on end. constant gritting of teeth and had "scours." Temper-
ature was high and continued for several days, yielding to no known method
for reducing fever. After waiting ten days. treatment with lime water and
solution of iron was begun with notic-able improvement at the end of ten
days treatment. Food became well digested and bowels normal. Case was con-
sidered cured. Dr. French pronounced Lhis one of the worst cases he has ever
.l FIG. V.
A typical case of "salt sickness" in first stage.- Case four.
as _W w*
A four year old cow in the last stages of the disease: she was so weak she
was scarcely able to stand. Bowel discharges were profuse, muzzle dry and
hot skin exceedingly tight. temperature high and constant gritting of teeth.
She was allowed no drink hut lime water. Was given doses of iron solution
twice weekly. Gritting oi teeth and "scouring" ceased at the end of one month.
Animal was finally completely cured.
Seven year old cow. Case was so bad that owner had cut her out of herd,
expecting her to die. Bowels were constipated but were relieved by two doses
of Epsom salts. She was restricted to lime water for drinking purposes and
given a few doses of sulphate oi iron. This animal wa completely cured.
When the experiment was closed was giving a good flow of milk.
this work and conclusions arrived at are now in preparation
for publication in bulletin form. A brief summary may be
1. The disease known locally as "salt-sickness" is not
believed to he a specific disease. but rather a condition re-
sulting from improper environment, especially insufficient
2. Similar occurences have existed elsewhere and are
usually confined to regions where the predominating soil is
light, sandy. comparatively sterile and covered by sparse veg-
etation comparatively lacking in nutritious qualities. Cape
Cod peninsular in Massachusetts being a locality similarly
3. The condition is most prevalent at the end of the win-
ter season, when animals have been for several months con-
fined upon range or pasture consisting of the dry wire-grass
and other inferior vegetation of the sand ridge portion of the
4. The disease is distinctly digestive in character, has
its seat in the alimentary canal and finally develops into
chronic inflammation of the small intestine, resulting in mal-
nutrition, anaemia and frequent death from starvation.
3. The symptoms show those generally attendant upon
chronic anaemia; loss of flesh, loss of appetite, or abnormal
appetite, including craving for foreign substances like earth,
sand and bone, and diminishment of red blood corpuscles, as
evidenced 1 thinness of blood. swelling or ulceration under
the jaw and white bloodless appearance of mucus membranes
particularly inside of the mouth and eyelids.
6. Alimentary correctives and tonics are suggested as
counteracting these conditions.
7, The change of affected animals to new range or pas-
ture is both preventive and curative in effect.
8. The use of lime water and gentian or iron salts have
proved invariably beneficial and during our investigation of
the subject not an animal thus treated died. but all eventually
recovered normal condition. Air slacked lime ounce, and
sulphate of iron 1-6 ounce, are recommended in 3 gallons of
water, the former as often as the animal will drink and the
H. E. STOCKBRIDGE.
REPORT OF THE CHEMIST.
Dr. W. F. Yocum, Director:
Sir-The following report of the work of the Chemical
Department for the year ending June 30, I90so is herewith
Among the subjects which have claimed the most at-
tention during the past year may be mentioned the follow-
First. The analysis of a number of samples of drinking
water, collected from different parts of the State by a rep-
resentative of this department or through correspondence
with individuals, with a view to publishing a bulletin on this
subject at sone future date. This work will require some
time for completion. as it must be stopped quite frequently
in order that other important work. which cannot wait. may
be taken up.
Second. Digestion experiments have been conducted to
determine the coefficient of digestibility of velvet bean hay,
green and dry. The results of these experiments will be pub-
lished in a bulletin on the velvet bean to be issued some time
during the coming year.
Third. The determination of the phosphoric acid, pot-
ash and nitrogen in the pineapple, both fruit and plant, for
the purpose of securing data for making a balanced fertilizer
mixture for the pineapple. This work is still in progress.
Fourth. The determination of phosphoric acid. potash
and nitrogen in a number of samples of pomelos for the Hor-
ticultural Department for the same purpose, the results of
which may be found in Bulletin No. 58. Besides this work.
a number of analyses have been made and a great many let-
ters of inquiry have been answered. The pot experiment
with pineapples has been continued, though during the past
year this has required but little attention. Some time has
also been given to co-operative work for the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists.
The following is a summary of the analyses made in
prosecuting this work:
Fertilizer.... .......... .. ........................ 3
Ashes .... .. ....... .......................... .
Blood ...... ...... ............... .... ...... 3
Fodders ... .. .. ... ... .. ......... .... .... 9
Pomelos ........ ......... ........ ............... 6
Pomelo seed ........ .......... ............... 6
Pomelo pulp .............. ............ ......... 6
Pomelo rind ...... ......... ... ................ 6
Prepared food ....... ..........................
Potassium cyanide ................................ r
Stable manure .... .... .. ........................
Vinegar ............ .........................; .
Fish scrap ........ ............ ... ........... ..
A. 0. .. C. samples ...... ........... ........... 7
Baking powder ..... .... ........................
Clays ................. .. .................... 3
Drinking water .......... ......................40
Mutck.. ........ ... .. ............. .......... 3
O ranges .... ..... ...... .. .... ............. ..... 3
Pineapple- fruit .. .. . ... ......... ... ...... .
Pineapple-plant ..... ....... .................
Phosphate ........ .... .. ... . .............
Sea-weed .. ..... ............. ................
Soils........ .......... ........ ...... .... ,.. 3
Sugar cane ..... .. . .. .............. ....... 16
The work on the pineapple, pormelos and the digestion
experiments was all done in duplicate or triplicate, and,
therefore. represents more than twice the number of deter-
minations indicated. The crowded condition of things in
the laboratory renders the prosecution of the work unsatis-
factory. and it is therefore desirable that more space should
be secured at as early a date as possible. But few improve-
ments have been made this year. though the addition of a
boiler and condenser in one of the basement rooms furnishes
the laboratory with all the distilled water that is needed.
H. K. MILLER.
REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.
Dr. W. F. Vocum, Director of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
Sir-Herewith is submitted a report of the work done
by the Department of Entomology from July 1 900. to
July 1. 1901.
Work in the office has consisted in arranging and en-
larging the collection, so far as class-room and more imme-
diate duties would permit; to making identifications, com-
piling life histories, preparing recommendations for corres-
pondents, etc. The correspondence of the department is
contained on upwards of 5oo pages of copybook. comprising
perhaps from 700 to 800 letters. Numerous journeys of in-
vestigation and inspection have been made, covering ap-
proximately 4500 miles of travel. One regular Bulletin No.
56 on the Cottony Cushion Scale has been published, and a
Press Bulletin on the white liv, Alcurodes citri. A number
of papers have been prepared for agricultural and horticul-
A most valuable accession to the library has been the
first ten volumes of the Transactions of the American Ento-
mological Society; the remaining volumes of the Society
should be added as early as possible.
An efficient assistant, though dividing her time between
the Departments of Botany and Entomology, has enabled
me to undertake important experiments at distant points,
which would otherwise have been impossible without injus-
tice to the department of instruction; I have thus been able
to give an honest division of labor between the College and
the Experiment Station.
INSPECTION OF NURSERIES.
Inspection work has been performed as hitherto, but
one case occurring with a firm having its headquarters out-
side of the State in which I felt obliged to refuse a certifi-
I am satisfied that the fumigating work of some of our
nurseries cannot be surpassed in the world, and as a whole
the certified nurseries in the State rank high in this respect.
No certified nursery is without a fumigatorium.
The organization of an American Society of official Hor-
ticultural Inspectors appears to me to promise a great deal
of good to our horticultural interests in unifying practices
of inspection and certificate requirements. If, as its friends
ardently hope. the work of the Society should commend it-
self to fruit growers and nurserymen alike, much which
might be included in a national inspection law will be prac-
tically reached in a few years without legislative enactment.
It seems very fortunate that the movement was inaugurated
by the careful and conservative Dr. Forbes, of Illinois, and
it is to be hoped that the confidence which his leadership
will give to all. including the shy. not to say distrustful nur-
ser-yman, will never he sacrificed to hasty action or disregard
of the rights of any of the parties at interest.
I have found the inspection officers of the country cour-
teous, fair-minded and regardful of the rights of other com-
munities and of their professional brethren. except in one
instance, that of a well-known, much exploited county board
in California, which I have felt it my duty to black-list, so far
as giving them any information is concerned, and to refuse
all co-operation whatsoever with them.
THE COTTONY CUSHION SCALE.
The Cottony Cushion Scale is no longer a serious eco-
nomic factor in orange growing. even in the districts where
it is now established. As predicted in my last report, it
was practically exterminated by October I. and its numbers
have not since been replenished. The Australian lady-bug,
Nottius cardinalis. which secured a firm foothold in June and
July of last year. got under such headway in August and
September, that, to use the language of Mr, J. H. Brown,
who was entrusted with the work of distributing it over the
infested territory. "It was as if a fire had gone through the
scales." He reported that in some places he could have
gathered up double handfuls of living lady-bugs. A visit
to the infested district during the latter part of January,
190o. discovered only a few scales in a single grove in Clear-
water. Mr. Brown reported that both scales and lady-bugs
were present in a grove about six miles from town. but he
knew of their being present nowhere else. Letters dated
since April I report that lady-bug larvae were present in
both groves referred to, from which it seems that we may
depend upon the lady-bug remaining a fixture with us.
Some means should he provided by Hillsboro county or by
the State by which a record can be kept of where it shall
have been last seen. and colonies can, therefore, be secured
for infested spots from which it is absent. The scale will
at times become somewhat threatening, but will be found
by the lady-bug if only a few\ months time be given. Native
enemies and diseases of the scale are great helps in suppress-
ing it. but cannot be relied upon alone, since they confine
their work mostly to the third brood of scales. Localities
likely to become infested are apt to be at some distance from
Clearwater rather than in its vicinity.
OTHER IMPORTANT SCALES.
THE PEACI SCALE, Diaspis amygdali.-A correspond-
ent at Quintette reports that the scale has greatly decreased,
apparently owing to the attacks of lady-bugs. The insect
is reported as threatening a peach orchard at Nesbitt. Duval
county. where it was at first discovered on the fork of a large
mulberry tree from which it seems to have spread to ad-
jacent trees of other species.
GOPHER SCALE. Aspfdito)is juglans-regihi.--\ number
of cases of severe infestation of peach with this insect
has come under my observation. and several other cases
have been reported by correspoltents. In every instance.
however, the scale was conspicuously parasitized. 1.1 fact,
I have never observed a case of excessive multiplication of
this species without an accompanying multiplication of para-
THE MIYTILASPIS SCALEs.-Both species of lytilaspis,
glorcrii and cilricola. have come to hand a number of times
and often so affected with the grey-headed fungus that it
seemed only necessary to recommend that nature be allowed
to take her course. Later developments apparently justi-
lied the recommendations in every case heard from.
THIE .ECA.II'MS AND WAX. SCALES.-Various Lecan-
iums and the wax scale. Ccroplast's floridesitis. have come to
hand. more often than not being devoured by the carnivo-
rous Pyralid. Loctilia coccidiora. This little caterpillar is one
of Florida's blessings. ranking in value with some of our im-
portant lady-bugs. The Barnacle scale. Ccrophlascs cirriped-
iformis. was received from Kissimmee
EAI.Y Bc.GS.-The mealy bugs. Dactylopiis citri. Due-
tylopins lohgispinus. etc.. as noted in last report, were un-
usually troublesome, and complaints against them continued
throughout last summer and fall. I have heard but little of
them this year. probably owing to a rainy spring and sum-
mer. The experience of one of our correspondents in fight-
ing mealy bug on pineapple is worthy of record in showing
what can be done by thorough treatment. and others may
wish to adopt his original method of application. His com-
munication is as follows:
\\inter Haven. Fla.. Oct. 5. T90o.
Prof. H. A. Gossard. Lake City. Fla.:
Dear Sir-The information you gave me saved my pine-
apples from the mealy bug. You said they could be killed
best in the rainy season, so I turned on the water with a hose
and washed out all the sand. which the ants had piled in
them. and. after getting them clean, used the tobacco juice.
The ground was covered with the bug after the washing,
Have used the water and tobacco twice. Have them under
control, but will watch, and when needed will give another
dose. I boiled strong Kentucky tobacco and put on as
warm as the plants would stand. stream of water with a
good force will cut off all it can reach. I thank you very
much for the information. Hereafter I will get plants that
I am sure are healthy.
Yours very respectfully.
(Signed) HENRY TANDY.
The recommendation to Mr. Tandy called for a pound
of tobacco stems or leaves in one or two gallons of water.
and he was advised that the difficulty with mealy bugs was
not in killing those that could be readily reached, but in
reaching them all.
SAN JOSE SCALE.-Twenty-five different centers of in-
festation are now recorded for this insect in sixteen different
counties, and the rate at which reports begin to accumulate
indicates that Florida is about to reap the same harvest that
other States have done. While I have personally observed
trees from which the scale almost wholly disappeared, ap-
parently not to return, owing to the work of natural
agencies, and some correspondents have sent in similar re-
ports with specimens showing evidence of both parasitic and
fungous attack. I have also observed a great many more
orchards which have been killed by their being let alone, and
many of our fruit growers have had similar experiences.
some cutting down their trees without hesitation after one
or two seasons experience with the insect. Perhaps the
latter practice is too drastic, and I do not recommend it. but
it must be remembered that the life of a peach tree is several
years shorter in Florida than farther North, and the grower
feels less disposition to doctor a tree that in the natural
course of things has well-nigh reached its limit of usefulness
anyhow. I believe that nine out of every ten infested orchards
in the State will die without treatment, as certainly as
if they were located in Northern Georgia or Alabama. unless
they are situated on lowland ranging high in humidity.
While the fungus, Sphaerostilbc coccuphila, exists on the up-
lands everywhere as well as lowlands, it only flourishes on
upland during moist weather conditions, allowing the scale
to overtake and pass it during the drier months.
Crude petroleum for winter treatment and Kerowater
or Whale Oil Soap Compound for spring and summer treat-
ment have given best satisfaction as sprays. and are recom-
The Trifoliate orange is sometimes very seriously in-
fested with San Jose Scale. I have seen it almost as thickly
crusted with the insect as peach. Since both the plant and
the scale are quite certainly natives of Japan, their connec-
tion in this way is not without interest.
Our pecan growers have been having some trouble with
an insect that destroys the swelling terminal bud in the
spring as well as the blossoms, the crop of nuts being greatly
reduced because of it. An insect with habits similar to the
hickory shuck-worm. Acrobasis carlvac. is known to be pres-
ent in one of the groves that have suffered severely and this
is possibly the marauder. Spraying with arsenate of lead
just at the time the leaves begin to open has been recom-
mended. but more must be learned regarding the identity
and life history of the insect to secure certain results,
The walnut case bearer. Mlincoih juiglamlis, is also pres-
ent an(d doing considerable damage to foliage, but it seems
improbable that it is responsible for the greater injury to
buds and blossoms. This insect has been observed at work
at Orange Heights in June, and caterpillars of apparently the
same insect have been received from Palatka in the latter
part of April.
The caterpillars of some of the Catocalas are also numer-
ous on pecan at times, and must be reduced by trapping with
A special effort wilt ie made to follow up the insects of
pecan the coming year.
THE WHITE FLY (Aleurodes citri).
White fly was more numerous than usual last year. aind
called forth much apprehension in some districts. Accord-
ing to the general laws of insect multiplication, however, its
extraordinary numbers brought its own undtin with it. The
attacks of fungous disease had so overtaken it by autumn
that the large orange growing districts in Manatee county.
where the insect abounds, are this year cleaner than they
have been during any of the three seasons since coming
under the writer's observation. A visit to this territory the
past month led me to recommend that the trees be left to
themselves until the fall brood of larvae, when an applica-
tion of resin wash might be given if the fruit was becoming
smutty with mold.
\Vhile trees affected with the insect are sometimes
killed, and the interior or shaded branches still more often
die out. it is noteworthy that the earliest infested grove on
the west coast, that of Col. C. H. Foster. the one mentioned
in some of the earliest literature of white tlv (Insect Life,
Vol. V.. page 219). and. therefore, infested for at least ten
years, is still living. with the exception of a few trees, and
looks as if it could keep up the struggle for ten or twenty
years longer. The interior branches of most of the trees have
a color, thrift and vigor that are not found in some groves
wholly free from the insect. Except that the bearing ca-
pacity of the grove has been reduced, it might still be called
one of the most valuable in the State. T was told by parties
acquainted with its recent history that it hears a good crop
about once in three years followed by two comparatively
light crops: It was hardly carrying more fruit than would
pay for the cost of maintenance at the time of my inspection
of it. No measures of suppression have been taken against
the insect in this grove for a number of years. Its vitality
under such circumstances appears to me to have all tilhe sig-
nificance of promise. Very few insects as vulnerable as
white fly overrun trees after its manner for ten or twenty
years without developing myriads of insect as well as fun-
gous enemies, and I confidently expect that before this grove
is dead. if it holds out as well as the present indicates, the
efficient and always ready enemy of the pest will have ap-
The fungous diseases of the insect seem well distributed
throughout the State. but may have been introduced
wherever they occur by the hand of man. I have observed
both the red fungus, .-schersniia ulciurdis. and the brown
fungus also in every part of the Manatee river section, at
Myers. and at Orlando. The brown fungus seems to be
more efficient than the red.
In no case known to me in which a grower has put into
practice the use of resin wash upon my recommendation has
he ever abandoned the practice or reported other than the
most satisfactory results. I feel satisfied, however, that the
experience of many who used resin wash some years ago
should be carefully considered ib those who are again com-
mencing its use. I have yet to find a man who followed
the practice of making three or four applications per year
for a number of years who did not finally abandon the work
altogether under the belief that the spray was injuring his
trees. Trees sprayed with it are generally stimulated the
first year, but the wash seems too caustic for continued use;
at least. 1 cannot account in any other way for such a con-
census of opinion, based upon experience. My present rec-
ommendation is to spray thoroughly once or twice during
the winter with a ten to fifteen per cent. mixture of kerosene
and water with a Gould or D)eming pump. or a fifteen per
cent. kerosene emulsion so as to give the trees a good clean
start in the spring. This may be followed by an application
of resin wash. if necessary, in the fall. whenever indications
of smutty fruit become pronounced. By this alternation of
washes I hope the caustic effects of resin spray will make
themselves less felt. and that spraying may be prolonged in-
definitely without danger to the trees. My examinations
have shown that about seventy-five per cent. of the insects
are dead within twenty-four hours after a thorough applica-
tion of the spray.
Some unrecorded points in the life history of the in-
sect are that a few adult flies may linger until early Decem-
ber; it is apparently impossible to find an unhatched egg by
the middle of December. and most of the insects are in the
third or fourth stage by Christmas time. The earliest ima-
goes observed were upon a number of lemon bushes in
especially sunny spots at Ellenton, Florida. on the Ith of
February; egg-laying had already commenced when these
early comers were observed. The bulk of the brood, how-
ever, does not appear until April or May. It is thus seen
that there must be considerable overlapping and straggling
of broods, perhaps an irregular fourth brood. as suggested
by the late and early dates for imagoes. By mathematical
computation a leaf from young orange, five inches long and
two and one-half inches wide in the middle, collected at
Myers June 22, 1901. had upon it upwards of twenty thou-
sand eggs. While so many eggs upon such a space is be-
yond the average, it is by no means rare. I am unable to
account for such a number of fresh and unhatched eggs upon
a single leaf, except upon the assumption that an adult fly
lays more than twenty-five or thirty eggs as commonly
stated. Examinations of newly hatched adults have not sat-
isfied me upon the latter point.
Fumigation work, commenced as reported last year, was
continued during the past winter, and some conclusions
reached of permanent value, whether or not fumigation ever
comes into general use in fighting white fly. We secured the
aid of Prof. C. W. Woodworth, of the California Station, for
a few weeks, and his experience and suggestions were
utilized throughout the course of the investigation. ULpon
his arrival, our first work was to visit the McFarland Tent
Factory at Titusville. and look to the selection and treatment
of cloth, patterns of tent, etc. Six ounce drilling treated
with parafine, the sort of cloth used by the company in the
manufacture of tents for protection against cold, was tested.
but seemed to allow too much escape of gas: after forty min-
utes. while some gas still remained inside the tent. it would
hardly have endangered the life of a cat to have been thrown
in and left there. Several patterns of tent. sheet, hoop and
bell were made ready. using either eight ounce duck or six
ounce drilling, some of our largest bell tents for trees thirty
feet in height and twenty-live feet in diameter being made
from the latter material. In practice the drilling proved
quite satisfactory for the smaller tents, but was too easily
torn for heavy work. The cloth was all mildew-proofed at
the factory, and when on the ground where it was to be used
was painted with linseed oil. into which enough lamp black
was stirred to give body and color to the preparation. We
experienced some trouble with burning of cloth: in fact.
found it impossible to paint a large bell tent without serious
damage, necessitating extensive patching, unless the der-
rick upon which it was swung was in perfect working order
and repair, so as to avoid the risk of leaving a fold in the
canvas for even a short time while drying out. The weight
of oiled tents is also a great objection to them. Cactus juice
is not available in Florida in sufficient quantity for tent treat-
ment and some new application must be found. Fortunate-
ly a preparation known to sailors in tropical waters, but
seemingly not to entomologists, has come to my attention
and [ hope it may prove of value, Mr. Arthur Weaver, who
superintended the fumigating of Mr. A. G. Liles' grove,
used the preparation and reported it lighter, cheaper, and
in all respects superior to oil with which lie had had equal
experience. It is said not to burn cloth and to be mildew
proof. Cloth so treated and in use upon boats in tropical
waters is reported to last for five or six years. I had feared
from experience that tents could not be kept in this climate
for more than one or two seasons with modes of treatment
hitherto used, and shall feel that one great obstacle has been
overcome if continued experience with the recipe proves it
to be as satisfactory as reported.
The ingredients alone were named to Mr. Weaver and
as the result of hasty experiment he developed the following
formula, giving it to me with the suggestion that I might
find it desirable to change the proportions of materials or
the order of mixing them: Five pounds white lead. fifteen
pounds of laundry soap. chipped, ten pounds of lamp black.
two gallons of boiled linseed oil, six gallons of water. Heat
to boiling two vessels of water. having three gallons in each.
In one dissolve the soap and keep the other hot, Thor-
oughly pulverize the lamp black by stirring and mix well
with one-half gallon of vinegar. Now add the lamp black to
the linseed oil, stir, and pour into the soap solution. Add
the. white lead, mix the whole thoroughly, using all the wa-
ter, and apply to cloth with a brush, keeping the paint hot
enough to just show steaming while being used. If the first
coating is not sufficient reverse the tent and give an applica-
tion to the opposite side. As I received the recipe but a few
days ago I have not had time to give it a personal test.
For trees not over twelve feet high I found hoop tents
most satisfactory: above that to twenty feet in height I think
sheet tents will prove best; above twenty feet the bell or
sheet will be most satisfactory. As one result of the work a
new pattern of derrick was devised for swinging large bell
tents, which seems more flexible to varying requirements
than the California patterns: or perhaps I should designate
tents handled after this plan as box tents. for they are swung
in pairs with the derricks upon the same general principle
as the box tent; i. e.. the type of box tent described in Bul-
letin 122 of the California Station, the derrick taking the
place of a lifter. The idea that a bell tent might be swung
like a box tent was due to Prof. Woodworth. who mentioned
it upon the day of his departure arid the practical working
out of the idea was achieved by the writer's combination
of ideas derived from various sources: Mr. Arthur Weaver's
suggestions were especially helpful.
Our derrick consists of a main mast of spruce pine about
thirty-five feet high for trees thirty feet in height, and stands
between the rows to be treated. To each side of it is at-
tached a gaft twenty-two feet long, also of spruce pine. The
foot of the gaft clasps the mast with arms of oak, being
raised and lowered with double blocks and pulleys exactly
after the manner of a ship gaft. The top of the gaft is
double blocked and pulleyed to the top of the mast, so by
means of its top and bottom attachments the gaft can be
raised to any height. its top many feet above the top of the
mast if necessary, or it can be lowered to reach the ground.
Since it can take any angle of direction also, it may be quick-
ly adjusted to trees of any height and of variable distances
apart. The top of the bell is attached by pulley near to the
end of the gaft. Three trail poles of hickory, each about ten
feet in length. are fastened to one side of the lower border of
the tent. their ends being securely lashed to each other with
rope. so when they pull against each other the rope and not
the cloth will catch the strain. The cloth is caught up and
bagged slightly at these points of union of the trail poles as
additional protection against tearing. The center of each
of these trail poles is connected with the top of the gaft by
pulley, and thus the border of the tent to which they are
attached may be elevated to any height, the opposite border
swinging free, within reach, near the ground. A trail rope
is attached to each of the trail poles. All pulley ropes be-
longing to the apparatus are secured to cleats on the mast.
In operation. when the main mast. on rollers or wheels.
has been placed in position, the height of the tree to be fumi-
gated and its distance from the mast are noted. and the foot
of the gaft is raised or lowered to the point of greatest ad-
vantage as learned from experience. A similar adjustment
is made of the top of the gaft. The top of the tent is next
drawn fully up and then the three trail poles: the hanging
free edge near the ground and as much of the border as pos-
sible is now brought into position, and the top of the gaft
lowered some if necessary. Slack is now given to the trail
poles and a man at each trail rope so pulls the pole to which
his line is attached that the whole tent drops into position
over the tree. The lower border of the tent must be extra
strong to avoid tearing: it is best bound with rope. To re-
move the tent from the tree the procedure is almost exactly
reversed. With men trained to work together, the tent
may be lowered over a tree in seven or eight minutes and
removed in about five. Since the operation of removing the
tent from one tree raises it almost in position to drop it upon
the next. the time required for changing will not be the
sum of eight and five minutes, but the last five minutes is
divided between the two trees, removing from the one and at
the same time getting almost in position to lower upon an-
other by a quick adjustment of the angle of the gaft, it re-
quiring less than eight minutes to cover a tree from this po-
sition. The apparatus requires four men. one of whom may
he the fumigator if he has his materials weighed out before-
hand. A gang of four can operate about four tents or two
derricks, if the rows are not more than twenty-five or thirty
feet apart. This gives forty minutes time to the tree and
allows ten minutes for shifting of the tent. In order to real-
ize this expeditiousness in practice all apparatus must be in
perfect working order and repair and the men trained to
handling it. The results secured in my practice satisfied me
that this would be a reasonable estimate, for it was done
often enough in this time with our then imperfected appa-
ratus to justify such a conclusion. Full specifications and
illustrations of the derrick at work will be published later in
Some determinations suggested by Prof. \Voodworth
and made by Prof. Miller. of the Chemical Department. are
of interest and importance. He found that one ounce of sul-
phuric acid and one ounce of water, mixed and cold. when
added to one ounce of potassium cyanide. yielded 428,4 cubic
inches of gas: that one ounce of sulphuric acid and one ounce
of water, mixed and added immediately. while warm, to one
ounce of potassium cyanide. yielded 467.9 cubic inches of
gas. greater by a little more than nine per cent.
than with a cold mixture of water and acid. Mixing the
acid and water, therefore, only as used. means a saving of
six or seven cents per tree on large trees requiring two
pounds of cyanide. He further determined that a greater
proportion of acid did not materially alter the results, and
that ammonia seems not to be formed immediately after the
reaction, under laboratory conditions,
A number of experiments were made with citrus twigs,
orange. lemon. pomelo. etc.. infested with white fly, to de-
termine the susceptibility of the insect to the gas. dose of
chemicals to use, length of time necessary and most favor-
able temperature for treatment, influence of moisture being
present upon the leaves when fumigated, etc.
It was found that the insect in its larval and pupal stages
is very readily killed by a much lighter dose of gas than is
commonly used against the black scale in California: in fact.
our field practice with tents demonstrated that we could re-
duce it about one-half: that the time should be about forty
minutes: the variation in temperature ordinarily encountered
in Florida seems to be a neglectable factor; moisture did
not seem to interfere greatly with the efficiency of the work,
unless the leaves were almost dripping. when it became a
factor of much disturbance, though not so great as we had
Trees were fumigated in the field in warm sunshine at
all hours of the day. in cloudy weather and at night. We
observed but little injury to trees or foliage if fumigated at
night. during cloudy weather, early in the morning or late
in the evening. Trees fumigated after 9 a. m. and before 4
p. m. in sunshine were invariably somewhat injured, some of
the younger limbs dying back and all of the leaves usually
shedding. The fallen leaves were all replaced by new
growth in a few weeks and no permanent injury done, but
the crop upon such trees was noticeably reduced. The
dropping of leaves from a tree in Florida has comparatively
little significance, the trees, instead of dying, as they some-
times do in California, putting on new foliage and going
along as if nothing special had happened. However. the
burning of limbs and injury to bloom is another matter, and,
therefore. midday fumigation can hardly be practiced.
While some defoliation occurred with trees fumigated at
other times than midday, even after night. it was not strik-
ingly noticeable, nor was damage to limbs or crop of suffi-
cient amount to be detected after a few months. Some of
this work was done as late as February 18. when the blos-
soms were beginning to open, some of them being well ex-
panded. The bloom seemed unaffected by the treatment
unless the work was done with the sunl at high meridian.
The white fly seemed practically exterminated upon the
treated trees, In examining hundreds of leaves from doz-
ens of trees about ten days after they were fumigated. and
covering thousands of insects, I was able to find but a single
living specimen. If a grove was segregated from all others.
I have no doubt that one fumigation would render it so
nearly clean that it would need no additional attention for
two or three years. The great hindrance to its becoming a
practicable remedy is that but few groves are so isolated that
the fly will not come to them from neighboring groves, and
since the insect seeks young and tender growth for egg-
laying purposes, there is. perhaps. some tendency for it to go
to trees that have been fumigated and are therefore putting
out new growth. Under ordinary circumstances, the insect
is not a great traveler, though winged, and will often take a
whole season, extending over three full broods, to spread
over a ten-acre grove: its progress will be marked by the
trees showing sooty mold.
Special observations were made to determine the effect
of the gas upon lady-bugs. On the afternoon of January 22,
seventy-two lady-bugs, almost all Chilocorus bivulherus,
which had fallen to the ground under fumigation treatment,
were placed in a shallow tin box and left until January 23;
at 9:30 a. m. of the latter date seventy beetles were in the
box, a few of them active; at 4 p. m. sixty-six remained in
the box. about a dozen of them showing signs of activity.
.t 8:45 a. m. January 24, sixty-two lady-bugs were in the
box, and sixty at 12:40 p. in.; the sixty never exhibited
signs of animation, all being observed to be dead several
days afterward. January 24 by i p. m. another lot of one
hundred seventy-six fallen bugs. nearly all of the same spe-
cies as before, was collected and kept in the same manner as
the first ones. January 25 at 4:30 p. m.. one hundred sixty
of these were dead. sixteen out of the lot having recovered.
In the first lot. sixteen per cent. of the whole revived, in the
second lot about nine per cent.
July 2. 19oo. from Emporia. Florida, were received
some larval specimens of an insect belonging to the family
Chlironomidac, reported as being numerous in cisterns; per-
manganate of potash, not more than two ounces to one
thousand cubic feet of water. was recommended. Red
spider has been received from many quarters, both last year
and the present one. Lagoa opercularis and Empretia stimulea,
on orange, were received from Eden. July 23.
A troublesome species of ant, biting the terminals of
citrus, has been reported a number of times; Mr. M. E. Gil-
lette, of Tampa, after trying bi-sulphide of carbon and va-
rious other remedies against them. reported that he secured
by far the most satisfactory results by mixing a pint of crude
carbolic acid with a peck of lime and scattering the mixture
about the plants the ants were in the habit of troubling.
The mole cricket. Gryllotalpa borealis, was received from
Biscayne. September T2. Fort Myers. October 29. also from
Marco. February 5. where it was reported as destroying
vegetable plants.: it is said to have been introduced at Marco
from Key West and Fort Myers in shipments of stable
manure. Alicurodes floridensis was received from Earleton,
November 12. on guava. Chimauspis citri on orange, Seff-
ner. November I. Leptoglossus phyllopius and Raphigaster
hilaris came from Seminole, November r, reported as
sucking oranges and causing the fruit to fall and decay.
Henrichionaspis minor on Hibiscus was received from West
Palm Beach, November 22. Diaspis bromeliad was reported
from Ankona December i. and from Punta Gorda Decem-
ber 15, on pineapple, in both cases: one correspondent re-
ported that he failed to kill the pineapple scale with resin
wash, but that a strong kerosene emulsion did the work.
Lecanium hesperidumn was received from White City, January
21. under supposition that it was the larval form of white
fly. Alcurodes citri.
The cotton stainer. Dysdercus suturellus. was received
from Sarasota. February 5. reported as puncturing oranges;
it was received from Ocala on the same day. The last
named insect was observed by the writer at Ellenton in Jan-
uary; January 25. a Dancy tangerine tree., carrying perhaps a
bushel of fruit, was fumigated for forty minutes under a
12x12 foot tent. and three hundred fifty-six specimens of
the stainer were dropped from the tree; the following day
thirty-four additional dead bugs were collected under the
same tree, making three hundred ninety in all. January 26,
two hundred ninety-eight cotton stainers out of a lot of
three hundred twenty-eight, picked up the day previously
from tent fumigation. were dead. thirty having recovered.
Upon this tree two per cent. of gas was used. Thirteen
specimens of Raphigaster hilaris were dropped from the same
tree, six of which recovered by the following day. One ad-
ditional Raphigaster was picked up dead under the tree on
the 26th. In cotton fields the stainer seemed to attract less
attention last year than during the two or three preceding
The Curculio has been destructive to peach, both last
year and this. The Chaff scale, Parlatoria prgandlri. has
been received from a number of points, in one case being
supposed to he San Jose scale. The strawberry flea beetle,
Haltica iguita. was received from Daytona and Orlando on
May i5 and June 29 respectively. The cabbage Plutella,
Plutella imacidicollis, was quite destructive to cabbage in
South Florida last winter. Mosquitoes were exceptionally
bad at Myers in June.
In a few instances orange growers wrote of using Bor-
deaux mixture as an insecticide against scale insects. It
seems almost needless to remark that where fungous diseases
of insects thrive as they do in Florida, the degree of scale in-
festation is so notably increased by the use of Bordeaux that
many growers refrain from using it as an application against
serious fungous diseases because of the excessive multiplica-
tion of the scale almost certain to follow.
This includes the more important matters of economic
interest which have come to my attention during the year.
II A. GossARD.
REPORT OF THE BOTANIST AND HORTICUL-
Dr. WX. F. Yocum, Director of the Florida Agricultural
Sir-The report of the work done by the departments
of Botany and Horticulture from June 30, 1900, to June
30. 19o01, is submitted herewith.
Since the report of last year the work of the department
has progressed along the lines of Micology and Horticulture.
In relation to the diseases of plants, attention has been given
principally to those affecting truck crops. Much informa-
tion has been collected and it seems particularly advisable
that experiments in controlling these diseases be carried on
in the locality where they have wrought the most damage.
In Horticulture, attention has been given to straw-
berries. citrus fruits, pecans, native fruits; and in relation to
pineapple culture, plans have been laid for future work, the
carrying out of which will result in much benefit to those
engaged in growing that fruit.
Many additions have been made to the College her-
barium. and to the horticultural library a number of much
needed volumes have been added.
There has been a crying demand for information on the
growing of fruits and vegetables in the State as well as in
relation to many other matters pertaining to our horticultu-
ral interests. The supply of bulletins relating to these sub-
jects published in former years is exhausted and to give the
desired information within the limits of an ordinary letter
has been impossible. This lack of published material will
be supplied in due course of time.
During the past year three bulletins and two press bul-
letins have been issued by the department: Bulletin No.
54. Pecan Culture, a preliminary report; Bulletin No. 57,
Top-\orking Pecans: Bulletin No. 58, Pomelos; Press Bul-
letin No. t. Bordeaux Mixture, and Press Bulletin, No. 3,
CITRUS EXPERI1M ENTS.
The experimental grove at Boca Raton, now one year
old. has'made a satisfactory growth, and the second section
for the testing of different stocks was set during the past
winter. A few trees ruined by rabbits had to be reset and
at the present time of writing all are in good condition.
A wind mill provided with a tank of I,ooo gallons ca-
pacity has been set up in order to provide water for the trees
during unfavorable periods.
As pointed out in my last report, the older section of
the grove is to be used for fertilizing experiments. Thus
far, all the plats of trees have been treated alike. the same
fertilizer being used in all cases. The materials supplied
thus far have been nitrate of soda. acid phosphate and high
grade sulphate of potash. When the trees have become
firmly established. different combinations of fertilizer will be
used. Thus far the materials given above have been en-
tirely satisfactory, a good healthy growth being produced on
In Bulletin No. 54 descriptions of seventeen varieties
were published. Since that time a large number of specimens
have been forwarded to the department. descriptions of
which are given below. Of these, twenty-six were tent by
Mr. S. W. Peck. of Hartwell. Ga.. and for the present are re-
ferred to by number.
No. I. size 1 1-2 inches x 13-16 inches; oblong. slightly
pointed at both ends. rather prominently marked with four
ridges at the apex: shell thin, considerable corky material in
the partition: kernel full: quality good.
No. 2. size 1 3-8 inches x 15-16: ovate, blunt, four
ridges. well marked apex: partition medium thick: kernel
plump; flavor fine. nutty.
No. 3, size I 7-16 inches x I inch; ovate: base blunt
oblique: apex tipped with a short sharp point: shell thin;
partition corky: kernel plump: quality fairly good.
No. 4. size 1 3-4 inches x 15-16; oblong, hlunt at base;
flattened off at the apex: marked lengthwise with two
prominent ridges; shell thick; kernel open: quality good.
No. 5. size 7-8 inches by 13-16 inches: oblong, narrowed
rather abruptly into a point at the apex, base blunt: shell
medium thick: partition thin: quality fair.
No. 6, size 1 3-4 inches x 7-8 inches; oblong, rather
flattened toward the base: blunt pointed; shell medium thin;
partitions thin; kernel full and plump; quality very good.
No. 7, size 1 7-16 inches x 1 -16 inches; ovate: base
blunt, apex blunt; marked with a small blunt tip; shell me-
dium thick: partition corky: kernel full, plump): shell separ-
ating easily: quality good. quite desirable.
No. 8. size 1 7-8 inches x I inch: oblong pointed; base
blunt, apex tapered; marked with two ridges: shell thick;
partitions medium; quality fair,
No. 9. size i 3-8 inches x 15-16 inches: ovate; oblong,
base and apex both blunt: apex marked with four ridges:
partition rather thick, corky: kernel full. plump: quality very
No. 10, size i 7-8 inches x 7-8 inches: oblong pointed;
base blunt; largest diameter above the middle sloping to a
blunt pointed apex, slightly curved; shell medium; partition
thin; kernel plump.
N6. r1. size 1 T-2 inches x i inch: oblong, in general
outline somewhat rectangular: base blunt: apex sloping
square off to a blunt tip; shell thin: partitions thin: kernel
plump; quality excellent.
No. 12. size 2 1-8 inches x I 1-16 inches; oblong,
pointed at both base and apex: base rather blunt: shell me-
dium thick: partition thin: kernel full and plump: quality
good. A desirable nut, weighing when thoroughly dry,
13.918 grains, nearly 1-2 ounce.
No. 13. size 1 13-16 x 7-8 inches: oblong, apex and base
blunt pointed; shell thin; partition thin; kernel plump; qual-
No. 14, size 1 13-16 x 3-4 inches: oblong pointed; apex
tapering gradually to a point: shell medium: partition me-
diumn: kernel full and plump; quality very good.
No. 15. size i 15-16 inches x inch; oblong; base blunt;
apex sloping somewhat abruptly: shell rather thick: parti-
tion corky; kernel shrunken. In general appearance this
nut very much resembles Rome.
No. 16, size t 13-16 inches x 3-4: ovate; apex abruptly
pointed: base blunt: shell very thin; partition very thin;
kernel very full and plump; quality excellent.
No. 17, size I 7-16 inches x 7-8 inch; oblong, apex
blunt; base rounded: shell thin: partitions medium: kernel
full and plump; quality good. sweet and nutty.
No. 18, size I I1-16 inches by t inch: oblong, flattened
abruptly off at the apex: base rounded; shell medium; par-
tition corky: kernel inclined to be open: quality good.
No. 19. size 1 1-2 inches x 3-4 inch: oblong; apex
pointed; base round pointed: shell thin: partition thin: ker-
nel fairly plump: quality fair.
No. 2o, size I 9-16 inches x i 1-16 inches: ovate conical;
apex pointed and ridged: base rounded; shell 1-16 inch
thick;: artition medium; kernel rather shrunken; quality
good: flavor sweet and nutty.
No. 21. size 1 9-16 inches x inch; ovate conical, flat-
tened: apex pointed; base almost square: shell thiu.: parti-
tion thin; kernel medium plump: quality very good.
No. 22, size 2 1-8 inches x 13-16 inches: oblong; base
blunt: apex rather abruptly blunt pointed; prominently
ridged, slightly constricted; shell thin; partition thin : kernel
full. plump and of good quality.
No. 23, size J1 -4 inches x 7-8 inch; oblong, sloping
slightly to the apex: base blunt; apex tipped with abrupt
point; partition shell medium: kernel fairly plump: of good
No. 24. size I 15-I 6 inches x 7-8 inch; oblong, apex and
base blunt: apex shouldered and terminated by a blunt
point; shell medium thin : some corky material present in the
wall: partition thin: quality very good; flavor sweet and
No. 25, size 1 3-4 inch x 7-8 inch; oblong: rounded at
the base; apex blunt, pointed with four ridges; shell fairly
thin: partition thin; kernel plump; quality very good.
No. 26, size iI l-t6 inches x 13-16 inch: slightly ovate,
tapering from above the middle to both base and apex; base
and apex pointed: shell thin: kernel very plump and full;
Of this collection, Nos. 4, 7, 8, II, 12. 22, ., 518, 25, 20,
21 and 24 are of desirable size. Nos. 24, 22, and particularly
No. 12 are of very large size.
Century (2oth Century). size 2 inches x I inch, 2 5-16
inches by I 1-4 inch: oblong, conical; base rounded; apex
blunt pointed; shell thin in proportion to size: partition me-
dium ; kernel fairly full: quality good.
Paragon, size 2 inches x 15-16 inch; oblong; pointed at
both ends: rather blunt; shell thin; partition thin; kernel
full, plump; quality good. Specimens from Herbert Post,
Texas Seed Pecan Co.. Fort Worth, Tex.
Post, size 1 7-16 inches x 1 1-16 inches: round: ovate;
base and apex rounded; apex ending in a very short blunt
point: shell thin; kernel full, plump; quality very good: flavor
sweet and nutty. Specimens from Herbert Post, Texas
Seed Pecan Co.. Fort Worth, Tex,
Rome. size 2 inches x I inch; oblong, blunt pointed at
the apex. rounded at the base: shell medium: partition me=
dium: kernel fairly full: quality good. Specimens from J.
Steckler Seed Co.. New Orleans, La.
PLATE .--Varieties of Pecans; Numbers 1-15 and 19. (AH Natural Size.)
PLATE I. -Varieties of Pecans; Numbers 16-18; 20o Bottom row, Paragon, Post, Century, (small sized nut,), and Rome
ihnvav iho .fantnry IAWHLNatural Si-L
During the past year forty-five varieties of strawberries
have been tested on the Experiment Station grounds to de-
termine the relative productiveness. quality, and resistance
to disease. Forty plants of each variety were used. but
owing to differences in vigor at the time of planting there
remained a smaller number of several of the varieties at the
close of the experiment.
The following is the list of varieties arranged alphabet-
ically: Aroma, Barton. Brandywine, Brunette. Bubach.
Carrie, Colbden Queen, Cloud. Clyde. Crescent. Cumberland.
Dunlop. Earliest. Edith. Enormous. Excelsior. Gaudy. Glen
Mary. Haverland. Hoffman. Howell's Gem. Improved New-
nan. Jessie. Jerry Rusk. Johnson's Early. Lady Thompson.
Mark Johnson. Mary Stuart, Michel's Early. Murray's Extra
Early. McKinley. Mexican. Parker Earle. Patrick. Phoenix.
Pride of Cumberland. Risings. Ridgeway. Sample. Seaford.
Tennessee Prolific. Victor Walker. Warfield. West Lawn.
Many of these varieties appear to be worthless under
our conditions here, and while some of them would answer
for home purposes. as market fruit they would not do. It
will, however, take several seasons to determine their com-
parative worth. The best varieties, all things considered.
are McKinley. Lady Thompson. Murray's Extra Early,
Brandywine. Cloud. 'Michel's Early. Johnson's Early and
The leaf spot disease. Sphaerella fragariae. (Tul.) Sacc,
caused considerable damage among nearly all varieties. Lady
Thompson, Michel's Early. Johnson's Early and McKinley
were almost entirely free from the disease. Lady Thomp-
son in particular showed so little of the disease that
it might almost he pronounced immune. This is an import-
ant point in favor of this variety. Michel's Early was also
comparatively free. whetherr these varieties will under all
conditions be as free. remains to be seen. It is believed they
VEGET. B IES.
Special attention has been given to the growing of
cauliflower. okra. egg-plant and peppers. and the culture of
these vegetables will be the subject of a bulletin to be issued
during the coming year.
Tile few cantaloupes grown on the experimental
grounds tllis season have been badly affected by two dis-
eases: one not hitherto reported in the State, the other a
rotting of the vines and fruit caused by the fungous blight,
or Sclerolitin blight.
MIACROSPORIL'M B.IGIIT.-This disease is caused by a
species of M acrosporium, probably Macrosporium cucu-
meriumn E. & E. reported as damaging the cantaloupe crop at
Rocky Ford. Colorado. The fungus attacks both the leaves
anl the vines.
\hen the leaves are first affected the diseased areas ap-
pear as minute yellowish specks. As it progresses, these
areas become larger, some reaching a diameter of 1-2 inch,
but for the most part they are about 1-4 inch in diameter.
Generally they are well defined. but frequently and particu-
larly on leaves on which the disease has been at work for
some time. and which are badly infected. they become con-
fluent, and large, irregular brownish areas are the result. In
these areas the separate centers of infection may be made
out. Leaves on which the disease has been at work for
some time are very much spotted, and when the spots be-
come old they drop out. leaving the leaf punctured and
The disease is usually first noticeable upon the older
leaves, when they have become spotted and brown, but it
will be found upon closer examination that it is at work upon
the younger leaves as well. The petioles and vines are spot-
ted. but not damaged as the leaves are.
Dkee:,isJ Leaf of CAMnAo01pe Shiowing Ettct of Macrosporium Blight.
The spores of the fungus. when viewed microscopically,
are found to be rather oblong in outline, blunt pointed at the
base and apex and supported upon a pedicel one and one-
half to two times the length of the spore. They are a very
light golden brown in color. The spore proper consists of
from nine to fifteen cells, each of which is capable of germi-
nation under favorable conditions. The spores are pro-
duced in large numbers upon the affected areas, and are the
means Ib which the disease is propagated and disseminated.
The fruiting period of vines affected 1)b this disease is
very materially shortened. Fruit produced from diseased
vines is not so good as that from healthy vines, the quality
and flavor being much inferior.
TREATMENT.-The process of the disease was so rapid
and the plat so small that no attempt was made to control
the disease. Experiments will be carried out along this line
during the coming season. In the meantime spraying the
plants with Bordeaux mixture is recommended. Three oi
four applications will likely prove efficient.
%Ier m iJenmS ,,gt I isim tiltmilip. (Nmit*IraI Size.)
SCLEROTIUM BLIGHT.-This disease has been very prev-
alent (luring the spring, and a large percentage of canta-
loupes has been destroyed by it. The portions of the plant
affected are the fruit and vine. Upright growing plants are
not affected by this disease except in those parts which are
in immediate contact with the ground. but since the whole
cantaloupe plant lies upon the surface there is really no part
of it free from attack.
The effect on the fruit is, however, very noticeable, and
as the fungus is a facultative parasite it attacks the green as
well as the ripe cantaloupes. When the fruit is attacked,
the first sign of the presence of the disease is a slight rotting
on the underside: i. e.. the side in contact with the ground.
Subsequently a white fringe of fungous threads is noted sur-
rounding the whole fruit, and soon the fruiting bodies of the
fungus make their appearance. These are small round
bodies varying from a dirty white to a (lark brown in color,
and they are produced in great numbers. The number pro-
duced usually bears a certain relation to the amount of food
at the disposal of the fungus. These bodies are called
Sclerotia, and are nothing more than dense, hard masses of
mycelium or fungous threads. Through their agency the
disease is carried over unfavorable periods, and they are un-
able to resist climatic influences for a long time. As pointed
out by Prof. Rolfs, this fungus grows upon a large number
of plants, and it appears to have no particular choice in re-
gard to hosts.
TREATMENT.--t is difficult to control this disease, but
the treatment which gives the best results at present is to
destroy the affected plants and fruits and thoroughly spray
the ground and vines with Bordeaux mixture.
THE LETTUCE DROP.
The growing of lettuce has become a very remunerative
industry in many parts of the State. and a great deal of at-
tention is given to the crop. It is grown both in open cul-
ture and in large frames covered with canvas. Open cul-
ture is usually practiced with the fall crop. while the winter
crop is usually grown under cover. The fields are heavily
fertilized and are irrigated either by nieans of standpipes
four or five feet high with sprayers on the top. or by sub-
irrigation. From these brief notes it will be seen that the
growing of this crop calls for the investment of considerable
withinn the last few seasons a disease has wrought con-
siderable destruction to the crop. This disease is common-
ly known among the growers as "Damp Off." In some
cases tile attack resulted in the total loss of the crop, while
in others a loss of from 25 to o5 per cent. was suffered. The
loss appeared to hear a direct relation to the weather condi-
tions and to the number of crops which had been removed
in succession from the same piece of ground. A trip was
made to the lettuce fields in the region of Gainesville. just
at the close of the shipping season in March, and an exam-
ination made to find. if possible. the cause of the disease, and
suggest a remedy.
It was suspected that the cause might be due to Botrytis.
but this proved not to be true. In not a single diseased
plant was any trace of that fungus to be found; but the first
affected plants examined showed that the trouble was caused
by the fungus, Sclrolinia libertitum in each and every plant
examined it was found that this fungus was the cause of the
How THE Pt.ANT TS AFFECTED.-Upon examination of
the plant in the early stages, the signs of disease were
usually observed upon one of the basal leaves in con-
tact with the ground, The affected portion was rotten and
decayed. the whole substance of the leaf being broken up.
From the affected leaf the fungus works its way to the stem
or cone of the plant. In some cases the disease appeared
to begin at the stem. where it was in contact with the
ground. In the first stages the stem when split longitudin-
ally showed in most cases a reddish streak, a discoloration
wrought by the fungus. After having reached the stem the
complete destruction of the plant appeared to he the work of
but a few hours. It wilts and droops, assuming an ap-
pearance as though hot water had suddenly been dashed
upon it. The work of the fungus is extremely rapid. Plants
which may be standing stiff one day are dead and wilted the
The fungus mycelium may he noticed as a white webby
growth upon diseased portions of the plants. At the center
of the plant in the axils of the leaves or beneath them on the
ground. and in the cone or stem. the fruiting bodies were
found. These are hard,
irregular black masses
*1-8 to 1-2 inch across.
IW\hen in process of for-
mation they are seen to
S. e bunches of myceli-
t um: later these become
hard in the center and
4 are still surrounded by
a certain amount of my-
celium: this outer cover
leaving the masses as
described above. A
large number of these
bodies. sclerotia. are
produced, as many as
thirteen having been
taken from a single plant. After lying dormant for a certain
period, the sclerotia germinate, and spores are produced
from a disk-like structure. By means of the sclerotia the dis-
ease is carried over from one season to another.
Hfow TIrE DISEASE SPREADS.-The fungus, although an
active parasite, is facultative. It can exist in the vegetative
stage upon decaved vegetable matter, and by growing over
this organic matter in the soil is able to make its way from
one plant to another.
Lettuce plants are set so close together that after a cer-
tain period of growth they are in contact. If one plant in
a row becomes diseased and portions of the decayed or dis-
eased plants happen to touch its healthy neighbors, these,
too. are almost certain to become affected. Diseased
plants or parts of plants are full of infectious material.
As observed above, the disease is carried over from one
season to another by the sclerotia. These are not destroyed
by the ordinary climatic extremes of heat. moisture or
drought. At the base of each diseased plant a number of
sclerotia remain after the plant has entirely decayed. In cul-
tivating the ground, these reproductive bodies are distrib-
uted through the whole body of surface soil. and each is
capable of sen-ing as a means of infection as soon as the
opportune moment arrives.
TREATMENT.-Owing to the lateness of the season, no
means of control were tried. The only work in controlling
this disease up to this time was done at the Hatch Experi-
ment Station by Profs. Stone and Smith. Their work is re-
ported in Bulletin No. 69 of that Station. but the means of
control found to be effective by them are applicable only to
When once plants are attacked, nothing can be done to
save them. and whatever means of control are adopted must
he in the way of prevention rather than cure.
Sub-irrigation is likely to prove superior to sprinkling,
as the surface of the ground is not kept in such a moist con-
dition. The presence of a large amount of moisture in the
soil and in the atmosphere immediately surrounding the
plant is very favorable to the disease.
Ground on which the disease has once made its appear-
ance should not he replanted for the reasons given above.
How long before it would be safe to replant would be diffi-
cult to say. The sclerotia of the fungus are probably able
to exist for an indefinite period in the soil and still retain
the power of germination.
Diseased plants should be carefully removed and
burned, as they are only a menace to the healthy plants
about them. After removing, it is recommended that the
ground le well sprayed with a good fungicide to destroy
such vegetative portions of the fungus as may remain.
STRAWBERRY LEAF SPOT.
The leaf spot disease of the strawberry must be re-
garded as the most serious fungous disease of that crop in
our State. In fact, it is the only fungous disease at present
known to the writer, which causes any amount of damage
to the plant.
The disease affects the foliage and the first mark of its
presence is the appearance of minute. purplish spots upon
the leaves. These spots gradually enlarge and change in
color, becoming a light gray in the center, but the periphery
remains purple in color or with the inner edge shaded into
brown. The spots are of different sizes. some are as much
as three-quarters of an inch in diameter. though frequently
a number of them coalesce, forming blotches of irregular
shape and of considerable extent. In the natural process
of the disease, the substance of the leaf is destroyed. It be-
comes withered, brown and at length dry and dead through-
out. If the season is in any wise unfavorable for the de-
velopment of the plants, they are usually killed outright.
If, however, this is not the case, the vitality of the plant is
sapped and the same quantity and quality of fruit need not
be expected from affected plants.
The disease is caused by a fungous parasite. Sphaerclla
fragariac (Tul) Sacc. Two kinds of spores are produced:
those commonly known as summer spores are borne upon
conidiophores, which are produced in tufts. These are to
be found upon the discolored areas. The other spores are
commonly called winter spores, and are produced in small
spore cases called perithecia. lloth kinds of spores serve to
spread the disease. and the latter (those produced in peri-
thecia) are useful in carrying the disease through unfavor-
The disease exists upon the strawberry plant through-
out the whole year in Florida. so tlat winter spores can
scarcely he considered as necessary to its continued exist-
ence in the State.
METHODS OF CONTROL.-Two or three different meth-
ods have been recommended for the control of this disease.
For old plantations, some writers have recommended the
burning over of the crop. thus destroying the leaves together
with the fungus. This. however, is not feasible after the
plants commence to bloom or are making growth previous
to the blooming period. In small beds the diseased leaves
should be cut off when first noticed, and if a little attention
be given in this way it is not likely to give much trouble.
In larger plantings, however, this is not feasible, and these
should be sprayed. The results of my experiments at the
Experiment Station this past season have been very satis-
factory. In October. forty-five different varieties of straw-
berries were planted. The leaf spot disease soon made its
appearance and was allowed to run its course in order to
determine, if possible, the comparative resistance of differ-
ent varieties to the disease. After having obtained results
from that portion of the experiment, the beds were sprayed
with Bordeaux mixture. 4 pounds copper sulphate, 4 pounds
of lime to 4o gallons of water. The first application was
made on February 26. the second on March 8, and a third
on March 18. By the time the last spraying had done its
work the disease was completely checked and it was a diffi-
cult matter to find a leaf at all diseased in the whole patch.
By May 14, however, it was noticed that the disease was
making some slight headway, and the plants were again
sprayed. It may be thought by some that Bordeaux mix-
ture would be objectionable on the crop while fruiting, as
the berries might be stained by its use, but on account of
the habit of growth of the strawberry I do not think the
objection has much weight. The ripened or partly ripened
fruit is quite well protected by the leaves above, and as the
spray is directed down upon the top of the plant. but little of
it has a chance to reach the fruit, and I have never been able
to detect any staining when the crop was gathered. It is
best, however, to make the application just after the ripe fruit
has been picked, It may be of interest to make a few notes
upon the relative resistance of different varieties to this dis-
Cobden Queen. Lady Thompson. McKinley, Improved
Newnan, West Lawn. Aramo and Jesse were almost en-
tirely free from the disease. Cloud. Pride of Cumberland,
Howell's Seedling, Haverland and Earliest were slightly
affected: while Murray's Extra Early, Mary Stuart, Seaford.
Sample, Warfield. Parker Earle and Tennessee Prolific were
very badly diseased; in fact. some of them were almost
The accompanying table shows the maximum and mini-
mum temperature, the barometer and rainfall from January
I to June 30. The barometer readings were taken by Prof.
Blair of the Department of Chemistry, and are given in
mms. Some vacancies occur in the table, due to the fact
that frequently no visit was made to the College on Sun-
H. HAROLD HUME.
J A AN 1AARY. IHRIlUA I1Y.. MARCH
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