For Financial Year
Ending June 30th, 1899.
and fune 30th, 1900.
W. F. Yocam, Direclor,
Lake City, Florida.
E ST FLORIDA PRINTING COMPANY
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
Box. GEO. W. Wuisox. Presittent ............... Jacksonville
Hox. F. E. 1l.iimls, Vice President .................... Ocala
Hox. J. I). C'AL LAWAY, Secrctar .................. Lake City
BON. C. A. CARso., ('hairian; Executive C'onunittee
...... .......... ..... .. .... .... . Kissimmee
Ho.. J. R. Parmni-r ...... ........ ............Jacksonville
Hox. E. D. BE(-S .................... ........Pensacola
Hox. L. BHAUn 1 ox ........ .................Lake City
W. F. Yocu L. A. M............................... Director
IT. E. STOCK Bnii E. Ph. D........................Agriculturist
H. K. M.ILLEN. 31. SC..............................Chemist
H. A. GossAIln, M. Sce.........................Entomologist
H. HAROLD Ht'IME, B. Agr.......... Botanist and Horticulturist
A. E. BLAIR, M... ..................... Assistant Chemist
W. P. JERNIGAX ......................Auditor and Bookkeeper
JOHN F. 3 '1'CrE.L ....................Foreman of Station Farm
JOHN H. JEFFEnIEs. .... Gardener in Horticultural Department
LUCIAr McCULT.OCI ..... ........................Librarian
Mm'wr. HELVrESTo .............................. Stenographer
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
Hon. IW. D. Blozham, Governor of Florida:
SI--I have the honor to transmit herewith the Annual
Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for the
years ending June 30, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
W. F. YOCUM,
Lake City, June 30, 1900.
REPORT' OF DIRECTOR.
The pre-ent Report covers the years ending June 30, 1899, and
June 30, 1900.
CHANGES IN T1HE GOVERNING BOARD.
The Governing Board of the Station is identical with the
Board of Trustees of the College. Frequent changes in the mem-
bership of the Board have occurred by expiration of commission
and by death. Of the Trustees who were in authority at the date
of my last Report, only one is now a member of the Governing
Board. Capt. A. B. Hagen, a faithful friend of the College and
Station from its establishment, and for nearly six years the Secre-
tary of the Board, died on 3ay 16 1, 899. Capt. Hagen's unques-
tioned integrity, his scrupulous observance of the minutest details
in the laws governing the Station, and his assiduous devotion to the
duties of the office have done much to gain the confidence of the
public in the conduct of the College and Experiment Station.
In the latter part of May, 1899, Hon. W. D. Bloxham, Governor
of the Stale, appointed a new Board, consisting of the following
persons: T-on. E. K. Foster, Gainesville: TTon. T. T). Callaway,
Lake City ; Hon. L. Harrison, Lake City; Hon. F. E. Harris,
Ocala; HTon. Geo. W. Wilson, Jacksonville: Hon. E. D. Beggs. Pen-
sacoln :- on. C. A. Carson, Kissimmee. The retiring members had
served the College faithfully and efficiently for periods varying
from one to six years, and their administration had been marked
by substantial growth in all departments of the institution. Of
this new Board, lion. E. K. Foster was made President and served
faithfully until his death in November, five months after his ap-
pointment. Judge Foster was eminently qualified for a position
on the Board of Trustees. He was an alumnus of Yale lUniversity
and had served for some time as State Superintendent of Instruc-
tion of Florida. His acquaintance with the conditions prevailing
in the South, together with liis knowledge of educational progress
in oldur States, made his services particularly valuable to the Col-
lege, and his loss was deeply felt. Subsequently, in honor of his
services, the new building, containing the residence of the Director
and rooms for the young women of the College, has been named
To fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Foster, your
excellence appointed J. 1. Parrott, of St. Augustine. The Board
was reorganized by the election of Hon. Geo. W. Wilson. President;
Hon. F. E. Harris, Vice President: Hon. J. D. Callaway, Secre-
tary. The Standing Committees and the Staff of the Station are
named on the second page of this Report.
CHANGES t TTHE STATION ST.AFF.
Mr. A. L. Quaintance, who for several years had been Ento,
mologist, resigned in December, 1898, to accept the position of
Horticulturist and Entomologist to the Experiment Station in
Georgia. His place was Jilled by the election of Mr. H. A. Gossard,
of Ames, Iowa. Mr. Gossard entered upon his duties at once.
Prof, A. A, Persons offered his resignation, as Chemist, which
was accepted in August, 1898, to take effect October 1. Mr. H. K
Miller, of North Carolina, was elected to succeed Mr. Persons. and
began his duties Janutary 1, 1899. Later in the year Mr. A. W.
Blair was elected Assistant in Chemistry.
n August, 1899, Prof. P. II. Rolfs resigned to accept a place
on the faculty of Olemson College, South Carolina. Prof. Rolfs
had been with this institution for seven years and had done much
valuable work for Ihe Station and College. Prof. I H arold. Hume
was elected to succeed Prof. Rolfs. and entered upon his work in
September. 1899. Mr. Hume is a graduate of the Towa Agricul-
tural College, nnd hasl pursued special studies in Guelph. Ontario,
and1 in he Missouri Botanical Gardens.
'TIM WORK OF THE STATION
May be inferred from the titles and contents of the bulletins
which have been issued within the time covered by this Report.
The Agriculturist has directed his energies toward the devel-
opment of interest in the cassava plant as a source of starch and as
a food material for stock.
Much interest has been aroused over the publications of two
bulletins on this subject, and large editions of No. 49 have been
reprinted by several railroad companies for free distribution among
persons contemplating immigration to Florida. It is also claimed
that the interest excited by this bulletin has been a factor in in-
ducing capitalists to locate starch factories in this State. Other
experiments in the Department of Agriculture are alluded to in the
Report of the Agri-ulturist on the following pages.
THE HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT.
This department has in charge, as new work, a recently planted
grove of citrus trees at Boca Raton, on the east coast of the Penin-
sula. The land used was leased on long time and for a nominal
sum to the Station by the East Coast Railway Co., and the trees
were se~-red and planted by the Horticulturist of the Station, the
expense being charged to the Hatch Fund. A more detailed state-
ment of this work and other work of the Horticulturist is found in
the following pages.
The Entomological Department has been largely engaged in
work on the scale insects, several species of which have appeared in
considerable numbers in various parts of the State. Tests of the
value of certain spraying mixtures and of gas treatment of infested
trees have been made. and others are planned for the coming win-
The certificates of the Entomologist as to the freedom of nur-
serv stock from injurious insects have been sought by many dealers.
As there has been no legislation in this State on that subject, it is
left to the discretion of the Entomologist, and some embarrassment
has been felt. It is hoped that the Legislature will pass suitable
laws providing for the inspection of nursery stock.
Has taken up the questions of the adulteration of foods and of the
relative purity of drinking waters. Many requests for the analysis
of potable waters are received, and so far as possible these requests
are complied with. Pot experiments with pineapples are also con-
ducted by the Chemist, in order to determine the value of different
fertilizers. These experiments are a continuation or rather a sub-
stitute for the pineapple experiments begun by Prof. P. H. Rolfs at
Jensen. which experiments have been abandoned.
A full list of the bulletins issued by this Station is found be-
low. Our regular mailing list comprises about three thousand
nanes, exclusive of the official list. Numerous requests for a sin-
gle bulletin are received from all parts of the world. These bulle-
tins are received with much favor and are acknowledged with many
cmnlmelnatory remarks. In the following list the bulletins which
are now out of print or are :upers.eded by later issues are marked
with a star.
BDLI.FTINS OF TIlE FI.ORIDA AG;ICI.'LTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
J. Kost ......
Jas. P. DePass..
Jas. P. DePass..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePas ..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePass..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePass ..
Jas. P. DePass ..
.... Analysis of
..p. Phosphate a
Jas. P. DclPas .. ..
Jas. P. DePas ....
Jas. P. DePass ...
Jas. P. DePass ....
Jas. P,. DePass ....
A. A. Persons ....
P. H. Rolfs......
A. A. Persons ....
P. H. Rolfs ......
O. Clute .... ...
A. W. Bitting ...
A. W. Bitting ....
L. A. Washburne ..
A. W. Bitting....
P. Hi. Rolfs.... ..
F. M3. Moodie ....
P. H. Rolfs ......
A. A. Persons....
M. S. Moreman...
.. L. Quaintanee ..
O. Clute .... ....
A. L. Quaintane ..
S0. Clute . . .....
W A. lar-t .. I Pineapple.
) \\. A. 3[ar.h ,, .
F. M. Moodie .....
S. Powers .. ..
A. L. Quaintanee
P. H. Ilolf ....
A. L. Quaintance
A. A. Persons ..
. H. E. Stockbridge ..
A. L. Quaintance ..
A. L. Quaintanne ..
. P. TI. olfs ... ....
A. L. LQuaintance ..
.. T'haeco in Florida.
..The Fall Army Worm.
..The San Jose Scale.
..Some Strawberry Insects.
..A Chemical Study of Some Typical
..Cann. Syrup. Sugar.*
..The Strawberry Thrips and the
..Di saise- ort the Tomato.*
.Insc-t Enemies of Thacceo in Florida.
. .TobaIIo and its Cultivation.
.. General Farm Crops.
.. rasses, Forage Plants and Tomato
S.Soil and Fertilizers.
. The Tomato and Some of its Diseases.
.. .iisecticides and Fungicides.
..leehles and Leeching.
.. Big Head.
,, Liver Fluke-Southern Cattle Fever.
S.,lThe San Jose Scale.
-The Culture of Tobaco.
Son Market Vegetables.*
..Cotton and its Cultivation.
. Orange Groves.
. -Inset Remedies.
..Insects Tnjurious to Grain.
49. H. E. Stockbridge . Cassava.
50. P. H. Rols ........'Pineapple Fertilizers.
51. H. A. Gossard .. ....Sone Common Florida Scales.
52. H. K. Miller .. ..Baking Powders.
53. H. Harold Hume .. ..Some Citrus Troubles.
54. H. Harold Hume .. .Pecan Culture.
55. HI. E. Stockbridge .. ..Feeding with Florida Feed-Stuffs.
GROUNDS AND BUILDINGS.
The most important additions to the grounds controlled by
the Station have been two:
First. A tract of twenty acres on the east coast of Florida, at
Boca IRiton This tract has already been referred to as containing
the citrus trees. Pineapples have also been cultivated for experi-
Second. A tract of eighty acres in the vicinity of Lake City.
'Jhis tract has been leased for a term of years at $50 per year.
This rental is not payable from the funds of the Experiment Sta-
tion. This new ground affords opportunity for experiments in
grasses and in field crops, for which there is not sufficient room on
the original grounds, and for a pasture. For this latter purpose it
is admirably situated, being supplied with a living spring and
flowing water at all seasons.
'The only important addition to the buildings has been the
erection of a house for the Director. This is a wing of Foster
Hall. the rest of the building being devoted to the use of the women
students and instructors of the College. The Director's quarters
consist of seven rooms besides halls conveniently and pleasantly
located. The funds for this purpose have been provided by the
State. supplemented by the Hatch Fund.
The buildings of the Station are quite inferior to those found
in neighboring States. An ample appropriation from the State
tfeasnry is much needer. A science hall. in which may he located
the laboratories of the Station workers, is almost indispensable to
the increased efficiency of hlie service. As the members of the Sta-
tion Staff are generally also professors in the College. it would be
de'sirabkl that the same building should contain cla;s rooms and
laboratories for the College work in chemistry. botany. zoology,
An appropriation for Farmers' Institutes is also quite desira-
ble, in order that the work of the Station may reach more perfectly
the farming comununity- United States funds are only applicable
to this Ipurlose to a limited degree.
Following may be found the Financial Report for the two
years ending June 30. 1900:
FINAX('IAT. REPORT OF THE FLORII)A AGRICULTURAL
For the Years Ending June 30, 1898-99, and 1899-1900.
Salaries..... ........ ....... ... .$
Lalor .... ...... ...... .. ..........
Publifations w..... .................
Po-tag.o and Stationery .. ...... ........
Furniture and Equipment.. .... .....
Heat, Lights and Water .............
Chemical Supplies.. ...... ...........
Seeds. Plants and Sundry Supplies ......
Fertilizers .................. ......
Feed Stuffs ....... ...............
Library ...... .. ........ ...........
Tools, Implements and Machinery. .....
Furniture and Fixtures .. ............
Scientific Apparatus .. ... .........
Live Stock ... .. .. .. .. .............
Traveling Expenses .................
Contingent Expense- ................
Buildings and Repairs ..............
Total.......... ........ ......$15.137.83 $16.085.59
Jefieit June 30, I~8U ........$ 36.00 $
Balance ..... .......... 18.07 46.96
Total . . .. $15,191.90 $16,132.5
E.perimnent Station Fund. ............$15,000.00 $15,000.00
Esxpriment Station Incidental Fund .... 191.90 1,132.55
Totals .... .. .. .. ..............$15,1 .U $16,132.55
IREt'Ol'r OF AGRICULTURIST.
Dr. WI. F. Y6cum, Director:
San--3y last annual report called attention to the fact of a
new division of thi Station farm and the taking into cultivation
of virgin haimnock hlai for experimental iprposes. The work
of the past year. therefore. not only iemiraces the first season's ex-
perinients with this land. but is the first season during the history
of the Station when IEr.MA\NINrT EXIEIMENT PLOT h have iben
utilized. These plots are all of the .ame area. each containing
one-tonth of an acre. The field was accurately surveyed during
the winter nnd laid off into five )locks, each of which was sub-
divided into plots of equal area. irrespective of shape. and separA.ted
from the contiguous blocks by drivewa-s adequate to all require-
ments. The entire field. moreover, is homnded b)y driveway ten
feet in width, on that iaple means of access to each end of every
plot is afforded. The ateonmpanying illustration .mraphially pre-
sents not only the general contour and appearance of the field thus
planted. but also shows the crop utilization of each plot during the
The detailed work with each crop included in this scheme
of experimentation will be separately considered, together with
such residts as the year's work seem to make worthy of presen-
THE F.mL.--The area actually devoted to agricultural plot
experiments above alluded to is only eight acres. The farm, how-
ever, includes about forty acres of other land suitable for cultiva-
tion. Upon this portion of the farm the more common crops re-
quired for the iiiuuttenance of the farm itself are grown, and these
crops are under observation equally with the smaller area crops
upon the experimental plots. With these, however, the crops
grown, rather than the experiments involved, form the first
consideration. In other words, the crop to be grown is deter-
mined by the adaptations of the soil and the demands of the farm
business more than by the actual requirements of experimenta-
tion. The crop. however, having in this way been decided upon,
is utilized so far as possible for experimental purposes. The
crops grown during the past season upon this portion of the farm
included ten acres of cassava, twelve acres of corn, one acre of Irish
potatoes, one acre of rice, two acres of sugarcane, four acres of oats,
three and one-half acres of pinders. one-half acre of prickly
comfrey, one and one-half acres of velvet beans, one-half acre of
garden crops and one acre of melons. It will be noticed that the
total area thus enumerated exceeds the number of acres involved.
This will be understood by anyone familiar with Florida conditions
to result from the fact that most of the land has grown two crops
during the season; some of it has produced three crops, and upon
much of it there was a winter crop of rye not included in the
enumeration, and upon most of it at the time of writing
there stands a crop of peavine and crahgrass hay not enumerated.
The character of the soil composing tie farm is extremely
poor, being not only of the lightest sandy character, without clay
subhsil. but so uneven and broken in contour as to be extremely
susceptible to leeching and washing.
Tigh fertilization has not been practiced with the crops
grown. 'horough cultivation has been rigorously followed. The
average yields of most of the crops grown have been as follows:
Corn. 20 1-3 bushels; sugarcane. 32 tons, 88l pounds: long staple
seed cotton, 828 pounds; sweet potatoes, 125 bushels; velvet bean
hay, 9 tons, 160 pounds; cassava, 7 tons, 357 pounds, per acre.
EQvulrEu xr.-Attention was called in my last report to the
extremely inadequate condition of the farm equipment. This con-
dition still exists, although, I am happy to say, to a less degree than
was.true a year ago. The chief addition to the equipment during
the year has been a superior wagon scale, which now enables us for
the first time to accurately weigh all farm produce and animals.
New wagons, mowing machine and hand tools are imperatively de-
umlded for the successful and economical conduction of farm
In connection with this equipment of the farm it is perhaps
appropriate to mention the fact that the acreage under cultivation
during the past year has been increased about 20 per cent., though
the team force used in the working of the farm has been decreased
during the snme time by 25 per cent,, and that, moreover, the
amount of live stock maitainied upon the farm has been increased
more than 100 per cent., while the total expense of maintaining
the stock of the farm has been decreased 2 per cent;
Considering the live stock of the farm as an essential part
of its equipment, 1 here beg leave to call attention to the fact that
one of the first experiments begun upon the farnnunder my ad-
miini.stfation was the building up of a dairy herd of cattle with
native cows and a thoroughbred Jersey bull as a basis. Illustra-
tions of the result of this attempt are here presented. It is safe
to say that in the very near future the Station will possess a herd
of very superior grade Jersey cows obtained at an almost impercep-
tible outlay and by means at the disposal of almost any Florida
The introduction of a young Jersey bull to the herd is, how-
ever, iowi indispensable, and the addition of at least one thorough-
bred Jersey cow. in addition to the one iow owned, is extremely
Other additions to the farm equipment during the time in-
eluded by this report have been, one power velvet bean huller, one
steam power attachment to cane mill, one set steam syrup evapor-
ators. designed by myself. one spading harrow, and one steam boiler
for cooking feed, sweating tobacco and scalding hogs.
1 look upon the development of the stock industry not only
as one of the most important lin es of work which the Station can
conduct in the interest of the agriculture of the State, but also as
indispensable to the economical management of our own farm.
With us. unquestionably, hogs and hog products may be made our
most profitable crop, yet for the proper conduction of this branch
of our business, facilities for the slaughtering of animals are indis-
pensable. A smokehousc has already been constructed and fully
utilized. We have, however. absolutely no facilities whatever for
the proper killing or handling of fresh meat. The erection of a
building supplied with boilers for this purpose is extremely desira-
ble and might, at the same time with advantage, be so constructed
and equipped as to accommodate our experiments with the making
of syrup and sugar. Remodeling of the interior of the present
cattle barn is absolutely indispensable to the proper conduction of
the feeding experiments contemplated in the immediate future,
and the erection of permanent hog pens is extremely desirable for
the proper care and control of our very superior herd, consisting
of nearly one hundred head of Red Duroc Jersey swine, for which,
at present. We have absolutely no facilities and no shelter other
than that al.orded by the hammock pasture.
For the proper and satisfactory conduction of the important\X
live stock work in which I intend to engage. and for which there is a
great and increasing demand, additional land, particularly for pas-
ture purposes. is extremely desirable. In this connection it is only
proper to add that. so far as land equipment is concerned, the Sta-
tion at present labors not only under the disadvantage of inade-
quate supply. hui of unfortunate location, particularly in the mat-
ter of its inaccessibility. which places much of its experimental
work. which might be made of interest to the general public, be-
yond notice. since it can only be brought to attention by special
and intentional visit to the farm. which. from its remoteness from
public highways, is a somewhat serious and difficult undertaking.
PIBim.[ATrtos.-3M department has within the past year is-
sued hut one bulletin, viz.. No. 49, entitled, "Cassava as a Money
Crop." It is believed that this publication considered and pre-
sented the latest data upon a crop which is in the near future to be
developed into one of the leading industries of our State. The
recognition given the bulletin and the importance of the results
enumerated are evidenced by the exceptional demand. for copies,
the fact that abstracts, using its illustrations, were printed in most
of the agricultural journals of the country and several daily and
weekly papers, and also that three different railroad systems have
reprinted the bulletin either in full or in part for free distribution
along their lines.
()OTsIDE WOlK,-This has consisted of two different kinds,
viz., visits of the Agriculturist to different parts of the State at
the request of parties interested in the development of different
agricultural resources or industries of the localities visited, and,
second, the holding of Farmers' Institutes in the different counties
of the State, in accordance with the action of the Board of Trustees
and requests received from parties locally interested. The former
class of work has, in several instances, resulted in very large in-
vestments in Florida lands and the development of important agri-
iltlural interests, as well as a more economical utilization of large
areas of land.
The latter work has resulted in bringing the Station, its work-
ers ald work. into closer contact, union and sympathy with the
leading agriculturists of the State. Audiences have been large,
intelligent and appreciative, and it is believed that this work de-
velops a field of usefulness and creates a sympathy and fellowship
between the Statioi and the public, whose interests it hopes to
serve, in a way not otherwise attainable.
IIE$IT.TS OF SOME FILD EXPERiMfNTrs.-Frf m a practical
standpoint, one of the most interesting and important experiments
of the year was in the planting of Mexican June corn after oats.
A field of 3. 14 acres was nsci for this purpose. from which, late
in May, a fair crop of oats was harvested. The first week in June
the field was replowed and planted to Mexican June corn. the yield
of which was 66 1-2 bushels, or at the rate of ?0 1=4 bushels per
acre. It should he added that this corn was of very superior qual-
ity. produced good fodder, and that the field was planted with enfiw
peas at the time of laying by the corn, so that the course followed
resulted in the securing of good crops of oats, corn nnd peas from
the same land. and thnt the vield of corn thus obtained was consid-
erably more than double the average yield for the State where Iut
a single crop i. grown. The fertilizer application for the crop was
500) pound in er acre, containing 6 per cent. of phosphoric acid. 5
per cent. of nitrogen and 1o) Ipr cent, of potash.
cassava, ten plots, of one-tenth acre each, were devoted to the study
of the problems of fertilizing and cultivating this crop. The fer-
tilizer epex~ riments are somewhat cormlieting in results, so that de-
duetions %ill not be drawn Ironi this year's trial. The tests of
different distances for planting, however. gave results which seem
to be worthy of consideration. Three plots were planted side by
side under identical conditions of fertilization and cultivation. Plot
No. 1.s was planted in checks 4 feet apart each way. No. 17 was
planted with rows 5 feet apart and hills -1 feet apart. No. 1C was
planted with rows 4 feet apart and hills 3 feet apart. The yields
were n;a follow: I.OSS pounds, I.t78 pounds, 1.? l( pounds. The
resnlts of the comnpri'on l tween 4 feet anid 5 feet distances are
almost iientlical. It will Ie noticed, however. that the plot with
3 feet hills yielded 1t pIounds, more than the adjoining plot with
f. feet r",w.. This increase was at the rate of 8401 pounds or nearly
one-half ton Iper aere difference in favor of the closer planting.
It should heI added, however, in this connection, that the roots
thus produced were somewhat smaller than where, more room
was given. a diffTennem, however. chiefly affecting the appearance
of the crop.
C'ILTrIu EXI'PERI~IENXTS WITH ('CoI.--Seveln lots, of one-
tenth ncre each. were devoted to a consideration of the effects of
different rate-s of seeding and different methods of cultivation for
eorn. A very severe wind storm in June, however, prostrated so
much of the eorn that cultivation was necessarily interfered with,
so that the original experiment was abandoned. The plots were.
therefore. devoted to a study of the effects of different methods of
harvesting corn. and the corn. which was blown down so as to he
incapable of other use, was harvested and fed to hogs as green fod-
der. The yields upon these plots are worthy of consideration. The
average yield of corn was 27.8 bushels per acre. In addition
to the earn harvested. there were obtained from these seven plots
the following products: 4.000 pounds of green fodder. 370 pounds
of corn fodder from 4 plots, while 3 plots were harvested and
shocked entire, and from which yields, at writing, have not been de-
termined. In addition to the corn produced, 2,728 pounds of nea-
vine hay were harvested from 3 plots, while the peas upon 4 plots
were plowed under as green manure.
SwIVEr POTATO FI:THr.IZEn TIuaIS.--In addition to the field
crop of potatoes, 8 plots were devoted to tests of different rates of
fertilizing, the results giving an average yield per acre of 185
FEiTILIZER T'ES'I, WrITH (CoN.-Six plots were devoted to
this experiment. with an average application of 450 pounds per
acre, the average yield of corn being 289 pounds per plot, equiv-
alent to 41.3 bushels of shelled corn per acre.
FwrTILIuzER EXPERlIM ENT WITH C'OTTOS.-Seven plots wi-re
devoted to this experiment, the average yield being 828 pounds per
acre. In addition to the fertilizer experiments with cotton, Egyp-
tian cotton was tested, and also an experiment made upon the
effect of continued tse of sea island seed without resorting to fresh
supplies. The result upon this point was interesting, showing a
distinct deterioration year by year as the seed became removed by
time from the imported article; yields of 69 pounds ihe first year
and 52 pounds the third year gave unmistakable proof of the
necessity for obtaining fresh supplies of seed from the islands at
least every third year if the standard is to be maintained.
EXPI'EI BMETS WITlH VYLVEiT BEANS.-For the past three sea-
sons velvet beans have been grown for experimental purposes, dur-
ing which time certain facts have developed worthy of special com-
ment. First, we have found that this crop is especially valuable
in addition to the purposes for which it is commonly grown. be-
cause of its special ability in killing out noxious plants.. In the
spring of 1898 a field of two acres of very strong Bermuda sod was
turned under and the field planted to velvet beans. The ground
was covered with a perfect mat of vegetation, which evidently
choked out the Bermuda. As a test of this matter the field was
planted in 1899 to cassava, during which time it remained entirely
free of Bermuda. and the present season it is again in a hoed crop
with no e\ idenct" of Bermuda grass to be found. A more remark-
able case of similar nature was that with a field very seriously
infested with nut grass. upon which velvet beans were planted in
10,0 anud again iln l!'9. The rneslt i that two years' action of
the bean has so completely exterminated the nut grass that this
year the field is in potatoes and there is scarcely a vestige of the
pest visible. Utility of velvet Ieaun for soil renovation was well
illustrated upon one acre of extremely poor long-cldtivated ground,
which was planted in lhanw- in 1898 and in 1899, without other fer-
tilizer than the plowing under of the beans, it gave a yield of 110
lbusels of ve.ry Isuprior sweie pliatoes. Fertilizer tests with vel-
vet bewan were eoinducted during the season of 189S!!, when facts
already accepted as true of other legluninous renovators, namely.
that their renovating effect. or nitrogxrn-gatlering power. wa.s ma-
tPrially increased by supplying the legumes with mineral plant
food. particularly potash and phosphorie acid. In other words, the
supplying of the legume with these two essentials seems to have tlhe
effect of making a crop nitrogen-hungry, i. e., by the increased sup-
ply of mineral nutriment the plant is mIade to provide itself with
an adequate proportion of nitrogen to go with the potash and phos-
phate. the result Ileins that the slight addition of these mineral
nutrients very largely increase- not only the nitrogen-gathering
power, but the amount of growth made by the crop and its conse-
quent value as a renovator, both through increased organic matter
available for plowing under and tile increased action of root nodules
in the soil.
FI:. IIon Ex i nFRAi Xs.--*Dring the winter and spring just
passed systematic feeding exleriments were undertaken both with
hogs and with steers, the details of which will soon be presented in
bulletin form. The objects of these experiments and some of the
results apparently secured may appropriately be recorded here. Of
tie adaptation of Florida to different phases of stock husbandry
there can he no question. The industry, however, has thus far been
pursued in the crudest possible way. so that little is known of the
application of scientific principles to the stock interests or condi
tions of Florida. Tt was. therefore, thought appropriate to under-
take a series of experiments for the purpose of making accurate com-
parison; of different Florida feed-stuffs. that the comparative econo-
my and possible profits of different methods of feeding might I~l de-
monstrated. Another matter pertinent to this investigation was the
fact that the dicestible composition of many Southern feed-stuffs
has never vet been determined, soi that rations including Florida
products are necessarily fed at random, or without the degree of
accuracy possible where the actual composition of the material '0on-
sutned i6 known. That reliable data might be furnished to Florida
feeders. systematic digestion iexperimeiits for the purpose of deter-
ninhilg thel digestive eoellivivnit or proportion of digestibility of
our important food materials have been undertaken with tihe hope
of conitinnition until the actual facts relating to all the possible
feed-stuffs of Florida have been dcemonistriatd. In the feeding of
steers three dilter.ent compariisons of feed-stuffs were made by con-
potinding the different rations for each of the three different lots
of steers, each ration conis5tilgt essentially of thle s-aie anllllont
of nutrient for a given amount of live weight fed. but differing
in the source of supply. The three dilrerent rations thus compared
were cassaiva. cottonseed products and corn. The result of the
collparison showed that the eassnan ration was the ios-t effective
and economical for Florida feeders. it producing the largest net
gain. the largest percentage of live weight in carcass. the most ac-
ceptable beef and the largest net return for the cost of increase.
The relative merits of the three rations were as follows: Cassava
first. cnttonseed meal second, cornmeal ration third. The method
followed with steers was repeated in all essential details with hois.
The aniannls in all eases and in both claPses of experiments were
native Florida individuals. In both series of experiments the one
advantage. lint this a material one. which seems possessed liy the
improved or blooded animal over the native. is the very much
earlier maturity and consequent shorter period required for secur-
ing a return from the investment.
H. E. STOCKBRTIDE.
*Written -everal months after the previous part of the report
REPO'r OF THE CHEMIST.
Dr. W. F. I'ocum,, Director:
SIn-'The following report on the work of the Chemical De-
partment for the two years ending June 30. 1l00., is herewith Lub-
During the fir r.t i i months of this lwriod there was a vacancy
in the Chemical Department. and all work of aI c-hmiicil nature was
sulSHndetd during this time, so this report includes only
eighteen months of active work. Ilpon taking charge of the De-
partment, January 1, 18S99. it wat found that no investigation of
a chemical nature were heins conducted. and then was no unfin-
ished work which was thought of snaficieut importance to complete.
The confdiion of the laborntotry was such that some changes had to
be made in order that effective work might be carried on. Some
substantiall improvel'mentt have been madle in the labiooraoy. among
which mary IK' mentioned the construction( n of ani cllicient battery
of Kjidahli condensers, an apparatus for liltering under pressure,
a new work table, a new .-ystemi of drain piilps. and a modification
of the .as naiehine., -o that a more uniform supply of gas is fur-
ni.shlIe. Tl'hez iniprovenint-t have greatly added to the con-
veniience. rapidity ald nfieuraev of prosecuitng the analytical work.
I'nfortunately. it was found that there was no record of the earlier
work of this apartmentt. and even that of recent years is in such
shalip as to ih of little service. .\ system for keeping a permanent
record of nil the( analytical work ha*s I-len established. and in the
funtur the original working shleet of any analysis will he ace.ssihle.
Tt wasi the policy- of the Station in the past to engage in making
analyses for citizens of the( Stale free of charge. It this kind of
work Ihcaiiie so hurdiienMm, toa practically p'rvent the carrying
on of original investigrations, and at thi suggestion of the authori-
ties nit Washington this has practially Iteen discontinned, except
where tleh anily-
were, any applications for gratuitous analvyses sent in that could
not lie granted on account of our small working force, which, until
Septtmlier 1. 1S99. consisted orf only the chemist in chrire, and
more than half of his time was required for collegiate duties.
Since September, 18i9, the elliciency of the Department has been
largely increased by the employment of an assistant, who gives the
greater portion of his time to Station work. Recently there has
been added to the equipment a live-horse power gasoline engine,
which is used for driving a grinding mill and a dynamo. After
making a study of thc field for chemical investigation in Florida,
it was decided to take up the following subjects: (1) A chemical
study of the velvet bean. (2) To determine something of the char-
acter and extent of food adulteration in Florida. (3) Pot experi-
ments with pineapples. (-) Cooperative work with other depart-
ments. (5) Miscellaneous analyses.
Th'le following is a summary of the analyses made in prose-
outing this world much of which
Fertilizers ........ .. 20
Tobacco stems ...... .. 1
Phosphates .......... 4
Velvet beans ..........11
Coontie root ...... .... 1
Rice mill waste ........ 1
Baking powders ........ 13
Cattle food .......... 1.
Sponge .. .. .. .. 1
Sea weed t........ .. 1
('ane syrup ..... .. .. 4
Pineapples .......... 4
(Canned tomatoes ....... 7
(anned peaches........ 7
Canned apples ........ 1
Canned pineapples ....... 2
Catsup .............. .
Concentrated food ...... 1
was worked in duplicate:
Cassava ... ...... 3
Water ........... .. 7
Minerals .. .. .. .. ... 1
Sugar cane .........18
Vinegar ......... 14
Condensed milk ........ .
Muck . .......... ?
Digestion sample ... 4
Cassava residue ....... 1
Soil .......... .... 1
Cypress ashes ......... .
Canned corn .......... 7
Canned heans ..... ..... 4
Canned peas . . .. 5
Canned okra.. ........ 1
Canned oysters~ .. ... 2
Succotash ... .... .. .. 1
Considerahbl pro.grlsls has heen made in the chemical study of
the velvet bean. m11 it will he necessary to secure samples from this
year's crop before the work can hie completed. It is hoped that
this work will prove of scinntifie interest as well as practical use to
the farmers of th So uth.
A study of some of the food prodtuts on our market has been
made in orler Iu an~ertain to what extent adulteration and the use
of preservatives is practice. A bulletin on baking powders has
been issued in this connection, and the material for a bulletin on
vinegar has been obtained as well as the greater portion of the ma-
terial for a bulletin on canned goods. This work will be continued
as time permits, the object being to give the people a knowledge of
the foods they lprehase and to find whether or not there is cause
for legislation in regard to the sale of foods in the State.
Theb pot experiments with the pineapples required a large
amount of analytical work, and otherwise consumed much time of
the chemist and assistant. This experiment was started with a
view to establishing the quantity and kind of fertilizer best suited
to the growing of pineapples. About fifty glass pots are in use
and these contain virgin soil collected from the pineapple region.
li was feared for awhile that the experiment would prove a total
failure on account of the pines becoming diseased. and while the
conditions under which the pines are growing are so abnormal that
no definite results are expected, yet the experiment promises to be
of some value; and even should it prove a failure it will be of value
in establishing the fact that it will be necessary to conduct such
work where the pineapple naturally grows. The pineapple interest
is an important one to the State of Florida, and it is hoped that at
an early date we may have means for continuing some experiments
that were inaugurated three years ago in the pineapple region,
but which were lost on account of the freeze.
During the past eighteen months this Department has assisted
the Agricultural Department in carrying on a number of experi-
ments, including a study of the effect of different fertilizers on the
production of starch in enssava and the effe-t of different fertilizers
en the production of sugar in sugar cane. An experiment to deter-
mine the dii-estiility of cassava has also been completed, the re-
sult of which will soon appear in a bulletin to be issued by the
agriculturist. Thirty analvAse of a miscellaneous character have
heMn mnde, a number of which will prove of general interest and
will he published in some future bIlletin,
7 wi~h Io t tak, tlis opportunity to mention some of the needs
of the Departenti, The most urgent need is a new hloratory
building; one designed to be used as such and arranged so as to
facilitate work. Under the present arrangement the work rooms
are on three floors. This entails unnecessary loss of time and labor
and renders the prosecution of our work very difficult. Our prep-
aration room and store room are in a basement, subject to frequent
overflows, a condition incompatible with accurate work and very
damaging to apparatus. The analytical work of the Station is eon-
fined to a single small room, while three are almost imperative.
Wnrk can only be conducted at a great outlay of time and incon-
venience, besides the plastering on the ceiling is in band condition
and endangers apparatus and experiments. I would urge that
the Legislature he asked to appropriate funds for the erection and
further equipment of a suitable building, and it seems to me that
if a building be constructed it should be rendered as nearly fire-
proof as possible. It would be desirable to have the water supply
in the laboratory connected directly with the street main, since no
small amount of inconvenience has been brought about through
the water heing cut off without warning. This would inot le the
r'ros if our -upply wns connected directly with the street main.
There would be an opportunity for considerable work of a chemical
nature by the Station if we were provided with a better greenhouse.
Some experiments were interfered with by the leaking of the green-
hosne we now have.
TIT K, MILLER.
REPORT OF THE BOTANIST AND HORTICT LTURTST.
Dr. W. F. Y'cum. Di'rerlor of the txperiment rSlalii, Florida
.A q'ricllunr Colle/r:
SiT,-T have the honor to transmit herewith a partial report of
the work (lone in the Department of Horticulture and Botany from
October 1, 1899, to Tune 30. 1900.
The work in hortieulture has been largely in the way of prep-
amrtiin for future work. anri hence in that Department no com-
pl1rt report can he given.
Tn botany the-work has been confined almost entirely to the
investigation of plant dise.ase. The dlownv milder& of thie uenium-
Ixr and the disases of celery are of so much economic importance
that I have treated them at some length in this report, while the large
number of inquiries regarding cirrus disease led to the publication
of Bulletin No. 53 of the Station.
To the College herbarium there has been added a collection of
nearly two hundred specimens of fungi as a nucleus for a crypto-
gamic herbarium, the need of which is greatly felt.
I wish especially to commend the valuable services of Mr. John
Jefferies, Gardener of the Horticultural Department, and those of
31r. Louis de Gottran, Foreman of the Station Citrus Experi-
The growing of citrus fruits in Florida has always been placed
among the staple industries of the State, and though some reverses
have been suffered F am pleased indeed to say that the present sea-
son's crop. according to the most reliable information, will reach
almost, if not quite, one million boxes. From all the orange sec-
tions come reports or well ladme trees. mud it appears flat those
who have confidence in the ultimate success of the orange industry
will not be disappointed.
It was the earnest wish of the President and Board of Trustees
that orange-growing should hecome the object of systematic inves-
tigation h- the Station. and through the generosity of the Florida
East Coast Railroad the llorticultural Department has been en-
abled to lay the groundwork for experiment along thet line. At
Boea Raton, forty-one miles north. of Miami, ten acres of( land
were placed at the disposal of the Department, and work was com-
menced in January last. The following is a short outline of what
has been done, together with a few suggetions as to the objects
held in view.
A shelter belt thirty feet wide as a break against the prevail-
ing winds was left on the south, east and north of the ground se-
lected. The trees adjoining the windbreak were planted thirty
feet in from it. It was decided to plant the trees in locks of ten
each; the trees in the blocks were placed twenty-one feet apart. and
the blocks thirty feet from each other. The following varieties
were chosen as being nearly representative: Parson Brown,
Bioone's Early, Pineapple, St. Miclhael, Tardiff, Jaffa, Jaffa
Blood, Washington Navel. Joppa, ) Daney Tangerine and Sat-
sunma ranges; Marsh and Silver Cluster pomeloes; ;Genoa and
Villa Franca lemons; limues and kumiiquats; in all about three hun-
dred trees. Nearly all were obtained front one nurseryman. Mr.
A. M1. Klemm. of Winter Haven, hence the trees had all been
grown under the sname conditions, and the trees wore received in
such good condition that, with one or two exceptions, all have lived
and made a good growth. This section of the grove will be used
principally to determine the value of different fertilizers and dif-
ferent methods of cultivation. This fall fifty navel and sweet
oranges budded on five different kinds of stock, viz., pomelo, sour
orange, rough lemon, sweet orange and trifoliata. will be set out.
The object of this is to try to determine to some extent the relative
merits of the different stocks. One or two trees of several other
varieties will also be set out, in order to learn something of the
relative fr itfulness and quality.
From this work it is hoped that much benefit to the orange
industry will come
During the year many inquiries regarding the planting of
pecan trees, suitable soils. the adaptability of the pecan to difTerent
sections. etc.. have heen received. 3Iuch interest has been awak-
ened in this industry and it appears that it will become one of
considerable importance and value. The result of my investiga-
tionls o to show that the pecan grows well in Western and North-
ern Florida. and that it may be planted with the certain expecta-
tion of highly remunerative returns.
Its frridiloln from fungous and to a large extent from insect
pests, and its power to withstand frosts, coupled with the fact that
it thrives on nearly all our Florida soils; cause me to recommend it
In a most commendable way our nurserymen have undertaken
the propogation of the pecan according to the most approved nieth-
ods, and while it still remains that the pecan is hard to graft or
bibd, aost of the!im baJe mIt with a fair degree of success. Along
this line at a later date J hope to render some material assistanee
both with regard to the nethods of budding and grafting and in de-
tenrmbing.:th value of the other hickories as stocks. Many people
do not recolnmend them, but as yet I cannot see the reason why.
At the meeting of the State Horticultural Society I read a
paper entitled "The Pecan as A Grove Tree for Northern and
Western Fliridi.' a-nd have since prepared a bulletin on pec~i cil-
tiue, which bha Iien issued as Bulletin No. o of the Experiment
Station, during the inmnith of August
NATIVE PLANTS FOR DECORATIVE PURPOSES.
Many shrubs vines and herbacons plants native to Florida
are widely known because nf their beauty, and there are still many
more to which attention might be directed. unfortunately, how-
ever, these phuits are ,ieglectedt by our people. The desire seems
to be to obtain something fromi a distance without regard to cli-
mafie or soil. !laptahility. and nimny failures are the natural re-
suit. In our w.otkds and fields are many plants with which the
home griundls might be decorated economically. while the beautiful
effects which could Ih obtained would be unsurpassed by any other
plant-s or combination ofr plants Tow prone we are to exclaim
"0, that's only a weed!" without pansing to think of what intrinsic
beauty there is in each flower and leaf, or in the whole plant as it
stands alone or when taken together with its surrtundings. rom
the many I have chosen three of our native plants to whieh I wish
to call attention. Not that they are superior to many other. but
simply a.leijig representative of the large class of native ornamental
plants. All of then will offer a good return for a very small
amount of ear. At soni fitture time I hope to do more along this
line, for I bltlieve it to le as much the work of the Horticulturist
to s to l-t develop thte bhrntiful and eartiktic as it is to p i sct the
economic and practical sidie of the work
7.EPi [VIANTIIE'S sr n AS&'I i lain.1
Al ?awasro Lily.
This Ieamiiifiul little lily. s -enlled. for it is not a truI lily, be-
longs to the family Amnirylliducwa'. It delights in rilch, moist,
shady locations, 11ii d in early spring iit nity lih fo'mid in the flat
woils beneath tlhe pitic' trees. Its natural rianim. is from Florida
northward probailly to the State of New Jerse.v.
The lionMer-s are generally white or 1iiurilish white, though
sometimes lecidtdly pilrprlis.- or with ia greenish tinge. Tlhe are
bhorne -ingllly on I brinutLed .seaIpe four to twelve inches high. When
fully e'panded the six or seven parted perianthi is about two and
one-hialf inches across.
The slaves. ire lion linear anti concavo, They persist
throughout the stiniiinmei. Thic Ihulbs from which tle hlaves and
flowers slprinlg. are ; alout on0e' intli long, top-shaped and three-quar-
ters of an inhli in diameter at the lar.g'r end.
The Atamasco lily is easily
grown in tlie garden. The spot
where the bulbs may be found
should be marked when the
plants are in flower and in May
or June they may be tl'ans-
ferred to the garden. Good
success often follows the re-
moval of the bulbs at flowering
time. The soil shoild be rich.
Leaf mould from the hammock
or a little well-rotted manure
mixed with the sand answers
the purpose very well. It is
not essential that the soil be
naturally moist, as sfftticient
moisture (an be suppllied artiti-
cally. The bulbs should
be placed in the prepared
soil at a depth of two Cut 1. Zephynraithes attmesco Herb.
or three inlcws. I'nil.- thie soil i.- already quite rich. an applina-
tion 'ir twi, >fr lilliid mainlur during the summer will prove benefi-
cial. as larger iand -troniger buls, will bI obtained as a result of the
added nouri.shlnant. The msiiIl amount of labor required to pro-
cure and plant thte bulhs will IHx amply repaid the following spring.
V.AUCIN'M UtO EIOI I 11 'MICIIX.
SpMI rklhe',rr!y. Farklbierr!y.
'This small tr(.r i-s Ift'e of shrub-like ihaliit. It is found
throughout a large portion
of Florida, growing on
rich, well drained soil.
SlThe branches are wide-
spreading, almost fan-
shaped and quite rigid.
T 'The leaves are bright
,green, crisp and shiny.
The towers appear after
Sthe leaves, in this section,
during the month of May,
and while in bloom the
tree is indeed very attrac-
.- tive. The white flowers
in general appearance
S*, suggest the lily-of-the-
valley. They are pro-
'uta Vaae.-nurm amhreumMichx. duced in drooping ra-
iArIvc sanlflowers cemes beneath the foli-
age and hanging downward from the spreading branches appear to
be in successive tiers, giving a most beautiful effect. The berries
are black in color and ripen late in the season.
By planting the Sparkleberry in connection with some others
of our native shrubs. beautiful massing effects could be obtained.
In spring the flower- are very showy, while throughout the whole
summer the dark green foliage makes it a noticeable oibjct along
the borders of and in our woods.
RIIsG COPIALLINA L.
Sumach is one of the most common Florida shrubs. It usually
grows in clumps, owing to the fact that new plants often spring up
from the roots of old ones.
The flowers are greenish in l
color and produced in panicles.
These are often very graceful and
spreading, giving the shrub, when
in bloom, a very pleasing appear-
ance. The leaves are compound,
dark green and shiny; the petioles
are winged. The berries persist
throughout nearly the whole win-
ter. They are red or reddish in
color, and quite striking in ap-
pearance, generally, when ripe
forming a somewhat conical
Altogether this is a very des- cut. Rhus cupallina L.
irable species for planting in Leaves ad towers.
shrubberies, and though the running habits of the roots may eause-
some trouble, still it can easily be kept within bounds.
TOWNY MILDEW OF THE CUCUMBER.
Plasmopara Cubensis (B. & C.) Humnph.
This fungus was first described from specimens obtained in-
Cuba. by Berkeley and Curtis, (1) in 1869. The following is a
copy of the original description:
1. Berkeley, MA. J.. Rev. M. J. Berkeley on Cuban Fungi. Jour. Linn. Soc.
X: 363. 1809.
"Peronospora cubensis B. & ('. Candida : IlHoci.- siursuu furea-
tus, ramulis ultitnis rectis nec lun1inati. sioris inetilieformibus
vel oblongis obtusis (412).
"On leaves of some cucurbitactous plant. Spores about .001
Nothing umor was heard of the disease until the year 1888,
when it was found in Japan and specimens were forwarded to Dr.
Farlow, (2) of Harvard University. In 1889 it was reported by
Dr. Halstead (3) as occurring in New Jersey. In 1890 Prof. J.
E, Humphrey ( 1) found it in Massachusetts, and as a result of his
studies changed it from the genus Peronospora to Plasmopara.
About 1892 it appeared in Eastern New York and by the season of
1896 had gained such headway as to cause great loss in the pickle
fields of Long Island (5). 18!i5 saw the fungus in Ohio (6),
from which State it was reported as occurring both on field and
The first knowledge we have of its occurrence in this State
is from a note published in 1889 by Prof. Galloway (7) of United
States Department of Agriculture. Specimens were forwarded to
him which were collected at Anona, Hillsboro county, by Mr. J. F.
Howe, in December, 1889. However, it first attracted attention
as a serious trouble when on May 4. 1899, Wyman and Rogers, of
Manatee, wrote to Prof. Rolfs, then Biologist and Horticulturist
of this Station, asking his assistance in controlling this disease.
In that instance it occasioned a loss of several thousand dollars.
Later specimens of the same fungus. growing on cucumbers, have
been collected by the writer at several different points in the State,
namely, Sanibel Id., Boca Raton. Mlen St. Mary and Lake City.
From its occurrence in these widely separated localities it would be
safe to conclude that it is present throughout the whole State. As
yet no information has been received regarding its occurrence on
cantaloupes or watermelons, though it has been reported as occur-
ring on these plants in other localities.
2. Farlow. W. G. Bot. Gas. XIV: 180. 1880.
3. Halstead, It. Bot. Gaz. XIV: 152-153. 1889.
4. Humphrey. J. E. Report Mass. State Agrl. Exp. Station. 210-12.
5. Stewart. F. C. Buill . A. grl. Exn. Station. 110: 1.8-150. 1806.
6. Selbv. A. TX Bul. Ohio Aerl. E-n. Station 80: 107. 1897.
7. Galloway. B. T. Tour. Mye. V: 210. 1889.
CHIItICAC'tmtt5Tius OF TIIE DISEASE.
The disease makes its appearance first on the older leaves of
the cucumber vine, and all are eventually affected except four or
five toward the tip. As these become older they too are affected,
and so the fungus keeps pa e with the leaf development. Yellow-
ish. angular spots make their appearance; these gradually turn
darker in appearance. On thu underside of these discolored patches
the spores of the fungus are produced on specially developed por-
tions of the fungus, called conidiophores.
When examined under the microscope, the conidiophores are
found to be many times branched. At the tips of the branches,
mall olive-colored, ovate bodies, the conidia, or spores, are borne.
Prof. F. C. Stewart found some peculiar modifications of the
conidiophores in slweimeus collected in New York. and these are
also present in Florida specimens. The spores, when matured, are
blown about by the wind or scattered by the falling rain, and drop
upon thi surface of the leaves. Tender favorable conditions of
heat and moisture (nearly always present in Florida) they give rise
to a number of zoospores. These in turn germinate; a small tube
is produced, and this enters through the breathing pores. or sto-
mata of the loaves. Once inside, the fungus threads myceliumm)
grow rapidly, pushing their way among the inner cells of the lonf.
Here and there small suckers, called haustoria, are found; these
penetrate the cell walls and constitute the feeding organs of the
fungus. The watery solutions. Which were intended as food for
the plant. are sucked up. the leaves turn brown in spots: these en-
large and eventually the whole surface becomes spotted, turns
brown and the leaf dies. Stewart (8) suggests that in all proba-
bility a poisonous substance is produced by the mycelium, which
causes the cells of the leaf to die more rapidly. After the growth
of thle imyclium is sufficiently advanced, the specially developed
portions (colidiophores re re shoved out through the breathing
pores on the under side of the leaf. and spores are again produced.
Thus the fungus during the warm weather goes through its life
history, and under favorable conditions the spores rapidly increase
in number and the disease in the severity of its attack.
8. Stewart. F. C. IBut. N. r. Ar. Exp. Station 11): 161. 1806.
HOW IT PASSES THE WINTER IN FLORIDA.
Besides the spores, mentioned above, there have been found in
connection with other closely related fungi another kind of spores.
These are round, comparatively larger and thicker walled. They
develop in the tissues of the leaves, instead of being raised above
the surface, and are known as winter or resting spores, because
their office is to carry the fungus through periods unfavorable to its
development. Technically they are known as oospores. It is
somewhat doubtful whether these resting spores are ever produced
in the the Downy Mildew of the cucumber. They have not as yet
been found, though diligently sought for by many investigators.
So far as we are concerned in Florida, it makes but little difference
whether these oospores are produced or not, as the fungus lives
and thrives here in many localities throughout the whole year.
CONTROL OF TIHE FUNGUS.
Experiments in preventing the ravages of this disease have
been carried out by Prof. F. C. StewarL in New York; Prof. A. D.
Sclby, in Ohio; Dr. Halstead, in New Jersey, and by others. They
have proven that in their several localities the disease can be prac-
tically and quite economically controlled. The question as to
whether the same methods of control would he successful in Florida
could not, of course, be satisfactorily answered without first trying
them. Arrangements had been made to supervise the spraying of
the cucumber field at Manatee. where the disease first did its de-
structive work. Unfortunately, the extremely wet weather in March
made it impossible to get a good stand of ucuumbers. and of three
or four acres Wyman & Rogers had only about one-half an acre
left. This was carefully sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, four
pounds copper sulphate and four pounds of lime to forty gallons of
Their experiences with this crop are given in Mr. Wyman's
"Our crop of three and one-half acres was in fine condition
on March 18th, plants having from four to eight leaves, and we
were ready to begin spraying. Then came a shower with a rain-
fall of live inches in as many hours, followed by others on succeed-
ing days, until we had eight inches during the week. The entire
crop was covered with water for about thirty-six hours, and most
of it for a much longer time. At the end of two weeks we had five
small patches of plants left, in all about one-half acre, and about as
sorry looking a lot of plants as a man could ask for, with brown
fungous spots on all the leaves except close to the bud. * lad
the plants sprayed twice a week at first, and when time to begin
shipping arrived there was very little sign of the fungus. We
shipped over two hundred crates and could have gathered many
more if prices had not failed. Am satisfied from past experience
and observation of crops not sprayed that we would not have been
able to ship five crates if we had not sprayed."
DISEASES OF CELERY.
During the year numerous inquiries have been received by the
Department relative to the diseases affecting the celery plant.
Celery has taken a prominent place among the truck crops of the
State, and its culture has been very successfully carried on in many
sections where the soil is suited to its growth. Consequently these
diseases are of considerable economic importance. Three have been
brought to my notice, viz., the Celery Blight, the Centre Blight
and Leaf Spot due to a Septoria.
Cercospora Apii Fres.
The Celery Blight is found affecting the crop wherever it is
grown in Florida, and considerable loss is occasioned annually by
its work. The disease makes it appearance on the leaves, causing
them to become discolored in irregularly shaped areas, as shown in
Plate 11, Fig. 1. As the disease progresses, the leaves become yel-
lowish in color and have a rather wilted appearance. Shortly they
become useless as organs of the plant, and finally die. The plants,
as a natural consequence, become sickly, and can make no proper
use of the food provided for their nourishment. As the new-
leaves develop they too become affected.
Blight is caused by a fungous parasite known as Cercospora
Apii Fres., which belongs to the lower forms of plant life. It
grows in the celery leaves, feeds upon the cell contents, and in this
way produces the diseased appearance. If the diseased spots are
closely examined in certain stages with a hand lens, or even with
the naked eye, they will be seen to have a somewhat velvety appear-
ance. This is an indication that the fruit bodies, or spores, are
ripe and ready for dissemination. Under the microscope these
spores are seen to be long, slender and usually club-shaped, or
somewhat resembling a baseball bat in general outline. They are
slightly smoky in color and consist of a number of cells, each of
which is capable of germination. The spores are borne upon
darker colored stalks, or conidiophores, which are developed from
the mycelium within the leaf and shoved out through the tissues.
When the spores are mature they are scattered by the wind and fall
upon the celery leaves. These in due course of time germinate,
sending out delicate tubes, which gain entrance to the leaf through
the stomata. In order to demonstrate this to my own satisfaction,
portions of celery leaves were enclosed in a moist chamber, and
upon their surfaces the spores of the fungus were sown. At the
end of forty-eight hours portions of the epidermis, or surface tissue
of the leaf, were stripped off, and carefully examined under the mi-
croscope. Fig. 11, Plate No. 2, shows one of the stoma through
which four of the tubes from different spores had entered. Three
of the spores were so far removed from the stoma that the drawing
would have been too large had they all been put in, but Fig. 7
shows the tube developed from the fifth cell from the basal end of
the spore, and entering the stoma.
It has been my observation that the fungus, unlike some others,
causes great damage during dry weather. In fact it appears that
its ravages are worse when the rainfall is small.
Three different fungicides were tried on the experimental
grounds last fall, viz., Bordeaux mixture, ammoniacal solution of
copper carbonate and sulphide of potassium. The conclusion was
reached that the blight can be successfully held in check by any one
of these, if the spraying is regularly and thoroughly done. All
things considered, my preference is for Bordeaux mixture, as it is
more economical than potassium sulphide and quite as easily pre-
pared as any other solution. Its fungicidal value is somewhat su-
perior to that of ammoniacal solution. Prepared in the strength of
four pounds of copper sulphate and four pounds of lime to
forty gallons of water, it gave very satisfactory results indeed.
During the first part of the season the spraying was done twice a
week, and later once a week. In order to secure good, healthy, vig-
orous plants, they should be sprayed in the seedbed, and the fungus
never allowed to gain a foothold. In this way the plants are free
from the disease when set out, and if the fungus is fought from the
first it is much more easily and satisfactorily controlled.
Considerable damage seems to have been done by this disease
in certain of the celery-raising districts. Fortunately, it is not so
prevalent as the disease commonly called Celery Blight, for it is
much more difficult to control.
The disease appears to manifest itself first on the older, outer
leaves of the celery plant. These have a somewhat wilted appear-
ance, and a watery substance appears beneath the epidermis. Later
on the young central leaves of the plant assume this same watery
appearance, and as the disease progresses they become dark in color
and rot away.
Unfortunately, sufficient time was not at my disposal to make
a thorough investigation of the disease, hut Dr. Halstead has proven
it to be due to a species of bacterium. How the disease gains en-
trance to the plant is a point upon which I am not quite certain.
All of the plants forwarded to the Department were affected by the
Celery Blight on the leaves, and it may be that the bacteria gains
entrance through the portions of tissue already destroyed by the
fungus. In some cases it appeared to be associated with a damp.
moist condition of the soil. In one instance, at least, its presence
was noted after a portion of the celery field had been under water
for some time. One of the growers informed me that the Centre
Blight had been present in the same field the year before, which
would indicate that the bacteria are retained in the soil from one
season to another.
Spraying is likely to prove of little or no benefit as a direct
controlling agent for the Centre Blight. hut if. as I believe, the
bacteria sometimes gain entrance through spots diseased by the fun-
gous blight, spraying should be carried out in order to prevent this
possible avenue of ingress. Celery requires a moist soil, but, not-
withstanding that, good drainage should be supplied, so that water
may not stand in the field after a heavy shower, or a flow of water
from the irrigation pipes. All refuse should be gathered from the
field after the crop is removed, and burned.
Seploria Petro'elini Des. var. Apii B & C.
Ilauts affected by the Cercospora were also found to be affected
by another species of fungus, which, at a casual glance, might be
mistaken for the more common Celery Blight. Upon examining
the plants affected with this fungus more carefully, it will be no-
ticed that the whole leaf is more generally affected, and that here
and there thickly scattered over the brownish colored surface small
black dots are to be seen. These black bodies contain the spores of
the fuugus. These spores are quite narrow and linear. The pro-
cess of dissemination is much the same as that of the ordinary Cel-
If the celery plants art thoroughly sprayed as recommended
for the control of Celery Blight there need be no fear of injury
from this fungus.
1. Halstoad. B. D. A Bacterial Disease of Celery. N.J. Slate Ag. Rept. 18
FUNGI OF FLORIDA.
Collections of fungi have been made in Florida.by Ravenel,
Martin, Underwood, Webber, Swingle, Rolls and other collectors,
and much new and interesting material has been brought to light.
Thus far I believe no attempt has been made to list the species oc-
curring in the State. Perhaps no section of the country offers a
larger and more promising field than does this.
The following list is the beginning of a work which I hope
may some day be brought to some degree of perfection. namely, a
comprehensive list of the fungous flora of Florida. The present list
of about seventy species is confined almost entirely to the parasitic
forms. It comprises only those collected up to June 30th, 1900.
The scientific name of the host is followed by the common name
(where possible), the place of collection and the initials of the col-
lector. G. L. Y. stands for Miss Georgia L. Yocuin, L. McC. for
Miss Lucia McCulloch, L. T. P. for L. T. Patillo. J. J. for John
Jcfferice, and H. H. H. for the author. The classification of Sac-
cardo. Vol. VIII, Sylloge Fungorum, has been followed in all ex-
cept the Perisporaeea, in which I have followed Ellis and Everhart,
North American Pyrenoinmcetes.
To M3r. J. B. Ellis. of Newfield. New Jersey, my thanks are due
for notes upon ille nomnenclature and for kindly assistance in the
naming of doubtful species.
SS. Exobasidium Peckii Hals., on Andromeda Mariana L., "Stag-
ger-bush," White Springs.-H. II. H.
57. Fromyces caladii (S) Farl., on Arisama Dracontium Sehott,
"')ragon-root," Lnke C(ity.-L. McC.
12. V. elegant (B & () Lagh., on Trifolium carolinianum Michx.,
"Carolina Clover," Lake City.-H. H. H.
14. U. graminicola Burr.. on Panicum virgahtm L., Sanibel
Islaud.-H IT. H.
13. U. Iledysari-pauiculati (Schw) Farl., on Desinodium canq-
dfi1-4. 1) C. "lingleaived Tlick-trefoil," Lake City.--H. H. H.
15. I'. SiPermacoCes (,Schw) Thum., on Diodia teres Walt, "Rough
Buttonweed," Lake (ity.-H. II. IH.
Si. Puecinia coronate Cda., on Avena sativa L., "Oats," Lake
20. P. gramtinis Pers,, on Secale Cereale L., "Rye," Lake City.-
H. H. H. 64. On Avena sativa L., "Oats," Lake City.-
67. P. Ifieracii (Schum) Mart., on Pyrrhopappus carolinianus
D C, "False Dandelion," Lake City.-L. McC.
33. P. IHdrocotyles (Mont) Ckc., on Hydrocotyle umbellata
L.. Lake City.-H. I. H.
40. Theccopsora Vaccinorum Lk., on Vaccinium myrsinites Michx.,
"Blueberry," Lake City.-II. II. I.
19. Ravenelia glanduliformis B. & C, on Tephrosia spicata Torr.
et Cnray. "G(oats Rue." Lake City.-H. H. H.
16- Uredn Cawuna-uitens Schw., on Rulms cuneifolius Pursh,
"Blackberry," Take City.-H. H. H.
37. Graphiola Phcenicis (Mong) Poit., on Phoenix dactylifera L.,
"Date Palm," Boca Raton.-H. H. I.
34. Cystopus candidus (Pers.) Lev., on Lepidium virginicum L,
"Wild Peppergrass," Lake City.-H. H. H. This fungus
may also be found on the radish, mustard, and other allied
79. C. Tpomoete-panduratat (Schw.) Stev & Sw., on Ipomoea pan-
durata L. Meyer, "Wild Potato Vine," Lake City.-H. H. H.
60. Peronospora Gonolohii Lagh., on Gonolobus suberosus R. Br.,
Lake City.-L. MeC.
24. Plasmopara C'ubensis (B. & C.) Hump., on Cucumis sativus
L.. "Cueumilr." Take City.-II. H. Widely distributed
throughout Florida. and sometimes very destructive to the
cucumber crop. As yet I have not observed it on the canta-
22. Uncinula Clintonii Peck., on Tilia Americana L., "Bass-
wood," Lake City.-H. HH.H.-L. T. P.
Z5. Phyllactinia suffulta (Rob.) Sace., on Cratagus parvifolia
Ait., "Haw," Lake City.-II. H. H.-L. T. P.
29. Micerosplnhra calocladophora Atk., on Quercus aquatica Walt.,
"Water Oak," Lake City.- L. H. H.
30. Microspha.ra quercina Burr., on Quercus cinerea Michx.,
"Oak," Lake City.--T. H. 31. Quercus tinetoria. "Black
Oak." Lake City.-H. HI. IH.
21. Moliola palmicola Wint.. on Serenoa serrulata Hook. "Saw
Palmetto." Fort Myors.-H. H. H.
52. Asterina inquinans Ell. & Ev., on Sabal Palmetto R. & Sch.,
"Cabbage Palmetto," Sanibel sland.-H.H. H. Sapro-
39. Sphafrostilbe coccophila Tul., on Aspidiotus perniciosus Com.,
"San Jose Scale." Bartow.-H. H. TH.
48. Phyllachora Cyperi Rehm., on Cyperus rotundus L., "Nut
Grass," Lake City.-H. H. H.
50. l3hytisma Vaccinii Fr.. on Vaccinium arboretum MIarshall,
"Farckle Berry." Lake City.-G. L. Y.
23. Taphrina ~ruleiscens (Desm. & M[ont.) Tul., on Quercus
Phellos L., "Willow Oak." Lake City.-T-. TT. TT.
37. Exoaseus various Atk., on Prmnus serotina Elirh.. "Bhlck
Cherry," Clermont.-Mrs. J. H. Compton.
84. Phyllosticta Acanthospermi Ell. & Ev., on Acanthosperlium
Xanthioides D. C., Lake City.-L. M[cC.
42. P. acericola C. & E., on Acerubrum L., "Red Maple," White
Springs.-H. H. H.-L. McC.
65. P. Caryme Peck, on Carya Alba Nutt., "White Hickory," Lake
56. P. CGrtisii (Sacc) Ell & Ev., on Bumelia lanuginosa
(Michx) Pers.. "Woolly Buckthorn," Lake City.-H. H. H.
80. P. Tpoinowam Ell & Kell., on Ipomoca pondurata Meyer, "Wild
Potato Vine," Lake City.-L. McC.
44. P. liviida Ell. & Ev., on Quercus aquatic Walt., "Water Oak,"
Lake City.-H. H. H.-L. T. P.
27. P. Nurii West, on Nerium Oltander L, Hobe Sound--
H. H. H.
81. P. Phascolina Sacc., on Phaseolus Inatus L., "Lima Bean,"
Lake Citv.-L. McC. This was the cause of considerable
damage to the beans grown on the Experiment Station, caus-
ing rusty colored spots on the leaves, commonly called
75. P Phomiformis Sa8c., on Quercns stellnta Wang., "Post Oak,"
Lake City.-L. McC.
18. P. Roberti Boy & Jacz.. on Ficus elastic Roxb., "Rubber
Plant." Hobe Sound.-H. H. H.
74. P, Tilife Sace. & Speg., on Tilia Americana L., "Bass-wood,"
Lake City.-L. McC.
66. P. Vaccinii Earle, on Vaeecinium arboretum Marshall, "Far-
kleberry," Lake City.-L. 3McC. 35. Lake City.-H. H. H.
9. Septoria Drummondii Ell & Ev., on Phlox Drummondii
Hook, "Phlox," Lake City.-TI. H. H. The successful grow-
ing of this beautiful shedding plant is interfered with seriously
in this region, owing to the prevalence of the fungus.
49. S. laerncicola Ell & Mart.. on aetnuca sp.. "Wild Lettuce,"
Lake City.-H. L H.
11. S. Lycopersici Speg.. on Solanum Lycopersicnin Tourn. "To-
mato." LakI. City-. I- I,. )During the past season toma-
toes grown on the Horticultural grounds have beuu attacked by
10. S. Oenothera West., on Oenotlera sinuata L., "Sinuate-leaved
Evening Primrose," Lake City.--H. I. II.
83. Phleospora Mori (Lev.) Sace. on Morus rubia L., "Mulberry,"
Lake City.-J. J.
46. Linoqspora ferruginea Ell & Mart., on Andromeda ferruginea
Walt., Hobe Sound.-H. II. II.
47. Entomosporium maculatum Lev., on Pyrus communis L.,
"Pear," Lake Citv.-G. L. Y. 82 on Cydonia vulgaris Willd.,
Lake City.-L. Mc. C.
53. I'estalozzia Palmarumn Cke., on Cocos nucifera L., "Coca-nut,"
Sanihel Island.-H. H. H.
26. P. Crataegi Ell & Ev.. on Crategus parvifolia Ait.. "Haw,"
Lake City.-H. H. H.
72. Piriellaria gri-ea (V'ke.) Sace., on Paspalun sp.. Lake City.
51. Seolecotriehuii Caricea E. & E.. on Carica Papaya L., "Melon
Papaw," Booea Ii ton.-H. H. H.
28. C'lado.141 orium sp. Serih. (('ladosporium elegant Penzig?). on
Citnru Ri inr;adia-T)uh.. Bartow.---. II. II. This fungus is
tlih cause of the "sealb" of lemons and sour oranges.
T0. Illlminthosporium Rlavenelii Curt. & Berk.. on Sporobolus
indieus IR. Br.. "Smut-gras.." Lake City.-L. McC.
3. C'cr-popora .\pii Fres.. on Apium graveolens L.. "Celery,"
Lake rity.-l. [T. 1. .The celery crop is injuriously affected
by this parasite throughout the whole State, and careful,
thorough spraying is required d o hold the di-a~e in check.
2. C. beticola Sacc., on Beta vulgaris L,.. "Beet." Lake City.-
H. H. H.
6. C. Callicarpa* Cke., on Callicarpa Americana L., "French Mul-
herry," Lake City.-Hl. If. IH.-L. T. P.
1. C. CatalpaR Wint., on Catalpa bignonoides Walt., Lake City.-
H. H. 11. This fungus i. very injurious to the host, discolor-
ing the leaves and causing the premature defoliation of the
59. C. flagellaris Ell & Mart., on Phyvtolaea decandra L.. "Poke
Weed." Like City.-L Me('.
58. (. llniam elidis Ell. & Ev., on aimanwlis.Virginian". Witch
Ilazel." Lake City.-L. McC.
S. C. lliii.ici Trae* & Earle, on Hilbisctus evM-ulentus. I.. "-kra,"
Lake City.-H. H. H. This often proves a serious pest.
5. C. Hydroeotvles Ell & Ev.. on Hydroeotyle umbtellata L.,
Lake City.-ll. II. H.
62. C. Petersii (B. & C.) Atk.. on Smilax rotundifolia I.. "Green-
lrier.' Lake City.-L. McC.
41. C. Phvllitidis Ilmie, on TPolypodimin l'hyllitidis L., IIobe
Sound.-IL H. 11.
1t. C. ricinella Sace. & Berl.. on Ricinus vonnunis L.. "Castor-
oil Bean." Lake (ity.-TI. H. H. This fliunull occurs on the
Ca-tor-oil Bean wherever grown in Florida.
7. C. VignP Ell. & Ev.. on Vigna Catjang L.. "Cowpea." Lake
Cit v.-. TT. TI. n.
70. Maerosporiumi Solani Ell. & Mart., on )Datura Stramonium
L.. "Jamestown Weed." Lake City.-- .. Mf. 38. White
Spring..--H. TT. IT.-L. MeC.
71. IM. Asimini n. sp.
Spot lairgge mnphligenols. orbicular or irregular lrown.lighter
below, becoming grayish, harder distinct. purplish: conidio-
phores cea.spitose. slightly-curved. septate. somewhat contracted
at the sept. two or three globular bodies in catlh cell. slightly
enlarged at the hase. 100-15i t-.5 ui: eonidia vlavate. narrowed
below into the pedicil. light or yellowish brown 5-10 celled;
sept transverse with one or two oblique. or all oblique
32.5-45x10-15 u; pedicel as long as the spore 1.5-2.5 u wide.
On leaves of Asimina graudiflora Dunal; "Papaw." Lake City,
June 19, 1900.-L. McC.
73. M. Dianthemphus n. sp.
HMyelium covering the dead capsules with a dark coating; co-
nidiophores loosely cwespitose, almost straight or somewhat
curved, fruiting ends blunt 40-50(x4-5 n; conidia clavate
smoky black (i-I celled. septa transverse or perpendicular
35-50x10-17 u: pedicel about three-fourths the length of the
spore; on Dianthus sp., "Grass Pink," Lake City, June 16,
Cut 1. 1-3. Macrosporium Asimini n. s. p.
1. Conidiophores: 2 conidia; 3 mycelium.
4-5. Macrosporium Dianthemphus n. s. p.
4. Conidiophores; 5 conidia.
(Drawing by Miss L. McCulloch.
H. HAROLD HUME,
Botanist and Horticulturist.
EXPLANATION OF PLATES.
Plate I.-Downy Mildew of Cucumber.
1. Epidermis of cucumber leaf, showing stomata (s) through
which the fungus gains entrance t the leaves.
2. Normal conidiophore.
3. Conidiophores showing peculiar branching. Three from a
stoma: usually there is only one.
4. A conidiophore of abnormal shape just emerging from a stoma.
0. Short-stalked spores at the base of a conidiophore.
Plate II.-Fungus of Celery Blight.
1. Diseased areas on a celery leaflet.
2. Conidiophores on which the spores are borne,
4.-6. Conidia showing germination.
7. Conidia showing tube entering a stoma of a leaf.
8.-10. Other tubes from spores.
Plate III.-Centre Blight of Celery.
Diseased plant showing blackened condition of the heart leaves.
Plate 1.-Downy Mildew of C. cumber.
(Drawing by Miss L. McCulloch )
Plate IT.-Fungus of Celery Blight.
(Drawing by Miss L. SMCulloch )
Plaite III -cetit re Bliglht cdf Celery
(Photo ,by the author.)
REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.
Dr. WF. F. Yocum, Director of the Florida Agrl. Exp. Station:
Sin-Herewith is submitted a report of the work done by the
Department of Entomology from January 1, 1899, to July 1, 1900.
The initial year of an Entomologist's work in a field such as
is furni.hed by Florida must necessarily be one of more or less ten-
tative investigation, as both species and conditions vary to a con-
siderable degree from those furnished by other parts of the country.
Important additions have been made to our collections by cap-
ture, and 1,000 species of classified coleoptera were recently pur-
chased from M'r. H. F. Wickham. The identity of nearly all of the
unelassified ITemiptera in our collections were determined by the
writer, and in consideration of the loan of specimens for study, the
species of a number of families in other orders were determined by
specialists residing in other States. We have more requests for
inlwet exchanges from the various collectors of the United States
than we are able to meet.
Besides various special economic problems that have received
our attention, we have collected considerable data regarding the life
histories of different insects. The farmers. truck-growers and fruit-
men of the State have been availing themselves of the advantages
furnished by the Department, and about eight hundred letters have
been written in reply to queries relating to the identification or life
histories of insects, to remedial measures against them. or to other
matters e"ncernin., economic Entomology. A numlrlw of articles
have also leen prepared for the public press and horticultural or-
g~niritlions. The correspondlniIce of thl Departrment seems t) be
TTTE NEW PEAIt' R CAI.E.
One of the most important rceonlrd of injurious insects during
the pnat year is that of the new periah scale. Dina iis amn!gdali, in
the neihhrirhonod of NIolino and Ouintetto. West Florila. While
the insect has been emtabilished in that hloalit-v for some little time.
it ha.- only commuanced to demonstrate its power for doing mis-
chief. The insect is supposed to be of West Indian origin. and is,
therefore, commonly spoken of as tie West hidia or J.amaiea soale.
So far as known to us, it is recorded as existing at present t t Wash-
ington, District of Columbia; alt los Angeles, California; in Ohio,
and at Molino and Quintutte, Florida. It also occurs in t nuitmer
of localities in Georgia about Thomasville. Bainbridge, Irby and
Ashburn, some large orciltrds having been destroyed by it at lrby.
It is said to attack pacrh, plum, apricot, pear, grape, p:lrsimumnun
and other plants. Like many of our insects imported from abroad,
it must be regarded as an insect with somewhat threatening possi-
bilities, especially so in Florida and territories having a climate
ii. some degree like that of its original home, though it can doubt-
less be controlled beyond the power of greatly checking the vitality
of the trees it iufects, by applications of kerosene, whale oil soap.
or petroleum and water. Mechanical mixtures of 20 to 30 per cent.
of kerosene and water, or equal strengths of petroleum and water,
will doubtless meet all neceseiry demands against it. Whale oil
sonp used at the rate of 2 pounds per gallon of water would also be
effective. Such applications are best made during the winter sen-
son. Parties in the neighborhood of Quintette report that it has
la',n euecessfully managed by spraying in some instances, though
the materials used for the purpose are not specified. Prof. Scott.
of (teorgia. reports that the seale is quite susceptible to cold and
suffers from freezing. correspondents s believe there are four broods
per year at Quiitette. The insect can doubtless he controlled even
more thoroughly by fumigation of the trees under tents with hydro-
cyanic acid gas than by spraying, but the cost of Applying the last
treatment would be rather against the application. except in the
case of very large orchard&, or where a number of smaller orchards
were in tested in the same district, when cooperative measures might
be considered desirable. If it were possible to exterminate the in-
sect while yet in its incipiency, it would doubles. pay Florida well
to do the work. but no provision is made by the State for such
work, and it is not often possible to rely upon private enterprise in
such a contingency,
SAN JOSE SCALE.
It has not been practicable for us to make any special investi-
gation regarding the distribution of San Jose scale, but depending
upon our correspondents and incidental discoveries we have records
of its occurrence, present or past, in thirteen different counties of
the State, a number of such counties having more than one case of
infestation. It had been recorded in ten counties by Prof. Bolfs
and Prof. Quaintance, before our connection with the Station. Its
ravages have been greatest in West Florida, where conditions are
reported to have wben improving during the past two or three
years. We are unable to pass judgment as to how much mischief
the insect may be expected to do. since, owing to conditions both of
climate and comparatively sparse settlement, the scale is, perhaps,
less of a menace to orchard interests in Florida than in some other
StatS: however, it should not be inferred that we believe that with
its present known and suspected distribution it can le anything less
than a grave threat to various important branches of Florida fruit-
growing. The summer and fall of 1899 contained some extended
dry periods, and the scale seemed to thrive as well under these cir-
cumstances as in any part of the country. During the spring just
pnt a number of trees were found at Bartow, by Prof. Hume, in-
fested with the scale, which was again notably attacked by the fun-
gus, Sphaerostlilbe cmeophil a., though it seemed unlikely that the
disease would succeed in saving the trees. When the fungus is
thoroughly established we Iblieve that with favorable conditions it
may save mature orchards of old trees, but without artificial intro-
duction and encouragement we doubt if it may be relied upon to do
much for young trees that have been in the ground but a year or
two. We have found it in great abundance attacking other species
of Aspidintus, which it seems to do much to keep in check, and
some onrr-epondents have reported good results from having intro-
duced it into orchards infested with San Jose scale. It is an ally
always deQirable to have at band, hut we believe its work should be
supplemented by other and quicker noting remedies.
We have recently furnished fungus material to a number of
experimenters in other States and countries. having had requests
thrnmgh Prof. Rolfs from aMr. Koehcle. in -Tawaii, for material, and
from the Argentine Republic through Dr. Howard of the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture.
CIHDE PUETOLEUL' AS AN INSECTICIDE.
During the year we have made some experiments with crude
petroleum and kerosene applications against San Jose scale upon
pear, peach and plum. Our object in making the crude petroleum
experiments was to ascertain how far the conclusions of Dr. Smith,
of -ew Jersey, would be applicable in a State possessing a very dif-
ferent climate and conditions. Dr. Smith, in a bulletin issued by
the New Jersey Station during the past year, makes the following
'Since January, 1898, nearly four thousand trees in ordinary
orchard fruits. other than cherry, have been treated with crude pe-
troleum. either undiluted ot mixed with from 0O to 7T per cent.
of water. The trees varied from stock just out of the nursery row
to old trees in fudl bearing. Not a single ease of injury to any tree
treated in winter has been observed. On the contrary, in a num-
ber of cases the oil seems to have acted as a stimulant, and the
sprayed trees have shown greater vigor and better foliage than those
untreated. In no ciae has there been an injury to fruit buds. but
on this point the observations have been incomplete, no early winter
treatment having hien made in bearing orchards. Applications
made after January 15th have in no way lessened the crop of apples
and piars the following year, but applications made in March have
not injured the fruit buds in peach and plum trees. Crude petro-
leumn is not suited for a summer application either pure or diluted,
because of its choking effect on foliage and its persistence. It is
fully as effective against scale insects as kerosene and is harmless to
the most tender varieties and on the youngest trees. As the oil re-
mains on the surface for a long time. it mnkes no difference whether
it is put on undiluted or mixed with water. If mixed with water,
the latter evaporates and leaves the oil, so that the material in con-
tart with the tree is as much undiluted as if the water had not been
applied with it. It remains as an oily or greasy surface coating for
many weeks, aind no s-ale enn set on this coating within a mouth of
the application and live. Tt does not ordinarily penetrate through
even the surface layer of bark. Under the most unfavorable circum-
stances the inner layer remains healthy and there is no progressive
injury. A minor advantage is the fact that it gives a greasy brown
color to the bark, making it easy to see exactly how thorough the
application has been."
In view of the fact that what may be characterized as spring or
summer conditions practically exist in Florida at intervals during
the winter season, deciduous trees, though devoid of leaves, being
hardly more than partially dormant, and also that pure kerosene
was at one time considered by even high entomological authorities
to be a safe winter application to fruit trees, and it was afterwards
discovered that it is exceedingly variable and capricious in its be-
havior under what are apparently precisely similar conditions, and
when we remember that extensive orchards have been killed by its
use, it seems safe to be somewhat cautious in accepting Dr. Smith's
results, obtained under New Jersey conditions, as being applicable
to the entire country, and especially to Florida. While our experi-
ments have been as yet comparatively limited, and our conclusions
must become much more definite with more prolonged investigation,
some of our results seem worth publishing at this time, without
waiting for wider experimentation.
On the V2th day of January some applications of 100 per cent.
crude peIrnleum were given to pear, plum and peach trees. The
petroleum was applied with a Deming pump with an emulsion
nozz'e. The variety of pear is unknown, but three trees, of which
we will s-laik as Nos. 1. 8 and 3. were badly infested with San Jose
scale. Tree No. I was apparently nearly dead; the trunk was blis-
tered anl c-rusted with scales. the leaves and branches having been
thickly infested the preceding season clear to the tips; there was
probably not nn inch in length of living twig to be found in any
place upon the tree which was not crusted with scals. To all ap-
pearaines tie tree could not be expected to live whether the scales
upon it were killed or not. The hark upon both trunk and branches
was very rmuch Iiiih-hound and had to be split open with a knife in
order to give the new wood n chance to form beneath. This tree
was slow in puttinE out its leaves in the spring, but eventually
leaved out and on the first of M3ar n .memd to have a fighting chance
for life. All scales upon it were apparently killed. We are uneer-
tain whether it would have been possible for this tree to have recov-
ered any degree of healthful vigor under any circumstances, and,
unfortunately for our observations, it was one of our first pears to
succumb to fire-blight. At present writing it is dead, except two or
three sprouts which have come up from the root, healthy and free
from scale. Tree No. 2 was a larger pear of the same variety and
not so badly infested, although many of the branches were com-
pletely crusted and coated with scales and the bark of the trunk and
larger branches hal to be split with a knife as in the first ease to
give an opportunity for new growth. This tree leaved out at the
usual time and by May first was vigorous and thrifty in appearance,
apparently not having suifereld from the application of petroleum.
This tree also perished by fire-blight and to-day is dead. We are
unable to pass judgment as to whether the petroleum affected the
resisting powers of the trees in any way or not. It would he as rea-
sonable to charge any apparent weakness in this respect against the
scale as against the spray. A smaller pear tree, No. 3, was also
given a treatment of 100 per cent. petroleum, and seems to be in
perfect condition at present writing, with all scales upon it killed.
Fire-blight has been unusually severe the present season, and many
trees have died in the same manner as those under observation,
though given no insecticidal treatment at all.
Upon the same day a number of plums of eight different
varieties, including rPpresentatives of the Satsuma, Burbank. Kel-
sey, Normond, Yellow Japan, Abundance, Bailey and Botan
varieties, were sprayed with 100 per cent. petroleum, Beside each
of these trees in an adjoining row another tree of the same variety
was left untreated as a check for comparison. Unfortunately,
both the treated row and the chwek row seemed to lave been in an
unhealthy condition, and it has been impossible to weigh accurately
the effects of the petroleum. A greater number of sprayed trees died
than of those in the check row. and they were certainly much worse
than some adjoining rows that were sprayed with a 30 per cent.
mechanical mixture of water and petroleum. Tt is our belief that
these large trees were injured in some degree, but some smaller
plum trees that had been in the ground only one year nt the time of
making the application seem to have survived without the least
noticeable injury. One hundred per cent. petroleum was also applied
to nine bearing Flurida Gem peaches on tile 26ith of January. Of
these trees l)ut two or three have any signs of lif: to-day, and they
may as well be called dead. Two young trees in the same row and
of the same variety survived tihe treatment without any noticeable
injury. We conclude that bearing trees of the Florida Gem variety
of peach will not stand a heavy dose of crude petroleum in Florida,
unless the conditions governing its appliention are different from
those that surrounded these particular trees. No special care was
taken in making these applications, a!- our object was to find out
what would be the effect of crude petroleum if put on liberally, in
quantities sufficient to just reach the dripping point, and without
regard to sunshine or the precautions that are generally observed in
making applications of kerosene.
Some hundreds of plum and peach trees of various varieties
were sprayed with from 15 to 30 per cent. mechanical mixture of
petroleum and water during the first three weeks of February, and
we have been unable to detect the least injury of any kind following
any of these diluted applications. The trees in all cases were
sprayed until they just reached the dripping point and in no case
were they banked, nor was any attention paid to cloudy weather nor
to the hours of evening near to dusk. Some applications were made
upon bright days. but most of the time the weather was decidedly
hazy, the sun being scarcely if at all visible.
The statements of Dr. Smith. that the oil would remain on the
trees for some weeks and that it can he plainly seen just what parts
of the tree have been treated, and that the oil will gradually spread
a considerable distance from the spot where the liquid has fallen.
we are able to confirm throughout. As we also made sonic applica-
tions of kerosene. 1.5 per cent. to 20 per cent., at the same time. we
decided thai the petroleum seemed to be the more desirable insecti-
cide. althonsh it might not come through the pump quite so readily
as the kerosene mixture. Very careful comparisons of the sprayed
and unspraved trees were made to as crtain the effect of the appli-
cation nn the bloom, with the result that we were unable to discover
that tile lloom had been injured in the least. Ihonuh the bloom buds
were swelling, and in some cases just ready to hurst. or actually
opening, when the applications were made. Even those plums
which had received the pure petroleum seemed to blssom as freely
as the untreated checks beside them, though the fruit did not set
upon them, nor much better upon the untreated cheek row.
We believe that Dr. Smith has contributed a very important
material to our list of insecticides, but it is quite possible that it will
be found to deserve more cautious handling than has yet been sug-
gested, as kerosene has been proved to need in the past. It is possible,
and perhaps probable, that if we had applied the 100 per cent. petrO-
leum with an atomizer, instead of with the machine used, assuming
that a liquid as stiff as petroleum would atomize successfully, no
damage would have resulted to any of the trees from the applica-
tion ; but we preferr-e to use such a pump and apply the liquid in
nchi quantity as will very certainly be practiced in Florida, if pe-
troleuni is used at all, in spite of all admonitions as to care and
While many orchardists would safely handle iny material,
Holding the nozzle themselves, many others are obliged to trust the
work of spraying to help not accustomed to fine operations of this
RIcongnizingl these conditions, we are. as yet. unnhle to say that
it would be safe to apply undiluted petroleum to fruit trees of any
description ii Florida, and for the present would adviw that moly
the diluted material be used and that canr Ien taken not to allow the
liquid to collect at the bases of the trees; banking the trees may
sonetimes be found useful, as in the case of using kerosene.
In accord with t!ui practice ot other stations, the Entonmolsriist
of the Floridn .\griculturni Expe' rinrnt Station has accommodated
the nurserymen of the State by noting as inspector of nurseries in
the obscIie of alny State official. authorized to make inspections
and issue certificates of freedom from insect pests. While this
work is not regarded by the Entomollogist as obligatory, in the ab-
senet of nny xplirssion to the contrary on the part of the Station
autihoitie.. he has assumed that it is desired that he ?shall exercise
his own hbst jpdlmnont regarding the cnntinunner of such work,
and the preseriptiiii, of the regulations under which it shall pro-
While soine Florida-grown nursery stock has not fully escaped
the imputation of carrying San Jose scale with it, it is noteworthy
that in the records of other States, as small or perhaps a smaller
number of eases of infestation have been charged against Florida
nurseries than against those of almost any other of the Atlantic
Coast States. So long as we perform inspection work it shall be
our earnest endeavor to maintain the previous high record of Flor-
ida-grown stock, and no certificates of inspection are at present held
by any Florida nurserymen who do not possess fumigatoriums, and
in all questionable localities we have made it certain that all nursery
stock bought or sold will be carefully fumigated before it is set, or
before it leaves the nursery grounds.
TIHE WITTTE FLY.
The white fly, Al.erodes citri. reached about its usual degree
of destructiveness the past year, a few localities suffering, perhaps,
a little more than in average years. The observations of careful
olange-growers seem to indicate that closely-planted groves are far
more badly infested by this insect than those in which the trees are
well spaced and in which sufficient priming is done to allow free
circulation of air through the tops.
We have uniforady recommended Prof. Webber's formula for
resin wash to inquirers, and in nearly all cases very favorable results
have been reported from the use of this application. We have heard
of a few instances in which the fruit fell from the trees following
an application made in May. but have been informed that the
amount of caustic soda used in some of these cases was in excess of
that prescribed by the formula. Too much care cannot be taken
in the mixing of insecticides, since the line between elements de-
structive to insect life and not injurious to plant life is a very nar-
row one indeed, and any material variation from al accepted for-
mila is liable to bring quick disaster. Again, local or unstudied
conditions sometimes render unsafe an application that is nu!nes-
tionably approve l for general use elsewhere. Tn view of the r.Xpe-
rince reported hv several parties, though perhaps to be accounted
for by reasons similar to the foregoing. it would seem Ihst that
ever man should first experiment on a limited se le with the wash,
ab he himself prepares andu applies it, before using it on his entire
grove. If satisfactory results are secured in a small way operations
may then be extended to the remainder of the trees. \We have never
heard of bad results following the use of the wash in July or Sep-
tenmber, but regard May applications as dangerous even when the
formula is followed to the letter.
We have reached a pretty definite conclusion that California
methods of tent fumigation can be followed in Florida with profit
in those districts where the orange is a reasonably certain crop,
and we further believe that the process can be profitably used with
deciduous trees under some circumstances.
Arrangements are being perfected to carry on experimental
work in grove and orchard fumigation the coming winter on a scale
suiiiciently large to adequately test its practicability against white
fly.. A beginning Vas made in this direction last winter. Early in
February the Entomologist was invited to initiate experiments in
the grove of IMr. ('. P. Fuller, of Ellenton, Florida, who had pro-
cured an outfit of tents and was anxious to give the process a trial.
We had not sullicient time to do more than get a few tents oiled
and thrown over a few trees for mere testing purposes before linl'
departure, The trees were beginning to bloom at this time and we
thought it safer for the prospective crop to defer further work until
the fruit was well. set and mechanical arrangements for handling the
tents could be perfected. So far as could be determined, no white
flies were in other than the pupa stage, although a few were reported
to have been seen in the ,Manatee neighborhood upon the wing at
about this date. A few gnnts could be started up from the trees and
as these insects resemble white fly on the wing we presume they
were the insects observed and that perhaps no white flies had yet
issued; Most of thel empty pupse cases upon the leaves seemed to be
old ones that had remained adhering to the leaves since the pre-
ceding September; but some were fresh enough in appearance to
suggest the possibility that a few flies had Come forth at this early
date, Such published records as have been consulted indicate that
the insects are hardly expected to appear before the last of Maar~l
or first of April, and Mr. Fuller writes under date of April 9 that
millions of them were on the wing and had but recently appeared.
A collection of infested leaves taken from the fumigated trees nmin
brought to Lake City were examined some ten days afterwards, and
a large percentage of the pupae were Ibginning to decompose, show-
ing that they were unmistakably dead. No insects ever issued from
any of the pupae cases, but we did not expect that they would retain
their vitality upon the drying leaves for more than two or three
weeks at the longest, and, therefore, we cannot regard the conclusion
as certain that everything was killed by the gas treatment. Some
specimens of red spider and other important insects were also killed,
but we are unable to pass a decisive judgment as to whether the gas
may be relied upon to kill the eggs of any of these insects, although
we think it very probable.
One of the fumigated trees was dripping wet with dew when
it was tented, and we therefore increased the strength of chemicals
prescribed by Mr. Scott, of the Los Angeles Board of Horticulture,
about one-third, and still expected the work would be unsatisfactory.
However, an examination of infested leaves taken from this tree,
made after an interval of about two weeks, indicated that a large
percentage of the pupe were in process of decomposition, from
which we infer that the treatment was much more thorough than
we expected it would he. We suspect that the heavy dews of Florida
will render it difficult to do satisfactory fumigation work at night,
and that we shall have to adapt the process to day conditions. Since
we have a large number of cloudy days in winter the problem may
not prove to be especially difficult.
Prof. W\ebler observes. in hik cnmparnitive experiments with
resin wa.il and other r"metlik- aiaiinst souty mold, that a single
fumintion is far more thoronuh than a sneile spravyiin. As sooty
m1oll nuiunllv follows white fly attack. our presumption is that he
was working with trees that had been infested with white fly. and
we conclude that the fumigation treatment annihilated the white
fly, or whatever insect supplied the honey dew in which this mold
dc\olon.. and hence no mold followed.
Since the gas is effective against all forms of insect life, the
common grove sales as well as the insects that we have just been dis-
enusin.g we hope thnt one. or at most two fumigation treatments per
year will practically hold in check all of the insects with which the
orangeorrower has to deal, White fly is known to us to occur about
Fort Myers, over most of the orange district along the Manatee
river, at Tampa, Bartow, Tarpon Springs and Belleview, Marion
county. It was at one time widely scattered over the northern sec-
tion of the State as well as the southern, but seems to have retreated
southward with the oranges.
The excellent results reported by a number of experimenters in
tile East lead us to believe that the gas treatment may be beneficially
employed in Florida with deciduous trees, in many cases. However,
it should not be inferred that those who have had the most expe-
rience with tent fumigation believe that it entirely exterminates the
insects against which it is used. The most that they claim for it is
that it does the work more thoroughly than any other treatment,
and that the number of applications is, therefore, so reduced that,
on the average, gas is cheaper than spraying.
TIIC COTTOXY CUSHION SCALE.
A very important matter has been an outbreak of the Cottony
Cushion Sale (lerya imrchasi) at Clearwater, in Hillshoro county.
Information of its presence in said neighborhood was first commu-
nicated to the Station in the fall of 1898, through letters from
Messrs. J. A. Duncan and D. N. Starr, addressed respectively to
Prof. Rolls and Mr. H. C. Hubbard, of Crescent City, the latter re-
ferring his letter also to the Station.
A visit was paid to the infested district in February. )1899 and
upon several occasions since. At the time of our first examination
the scale could only be found in limited numbers and within an
area of lperhaps twenty acres. So sparse were its numbers, com-
pared with the multitudes that had previously been present in some
places as evidenced by the remains of frayed egg-sacs. that we sus-
pected at this time that some agent of destruction had 1IoIn at work
among them. We remembered that ianithlr insect of the same
genus, Ircery rosmwe. is a native of Key West. Florida. where it has
at times become something of a pest upon citrus fruits, but thai it
has never destroyed the industry there, nor beon of overshadowing
importance. and we though it might not lie unrneasnnble to infer
Ihat native checks would ultimately develop in Florida of sufficient
efficiency to prevent any member of this genus from working such
wholesale destruction as was at one time threatened in California
and has since been experienced in several quarters of the world.
We commenced a field study of the cottony cushion scale about
the first of July last year and continued on the ground for some
seven weeks. At the time of beginning our investigation the in-
sect was very abundant in some groves, although we noticed that it
had practically disappeared from the thickets of myrtle, Myrica cer-
ifera, where it had been abundant in the preceding May, Within
two or tree days we were able to find some trees thickly infested
with scales. which were being rapidly consumed by a small cater-
pillar which we were soon able to identify as Loetilia coccidivora, an
insect hitherto recorded as feeding upon the Leeanium scales, Pul-
vinaria. mealy bugs. the wax scales, the cochineal insect, and at
times upon the armored scales. Mr. H. Hubbard, in speaking
of this insect, writes as follows:
"Underneath the covering of web the caterpillars of Dakrunma
(Loetilii)move back and forth actively engaged in removing the
bark-lioe from the hark and suspending them in the investing wEb.
Knthing could he more thoroull than their work. Branches in-
crusted with Lccanium scales are very quickly cleared of the lice,
and the Dalrnuma larvI do not cease to extend their operations until
every individual coceid in the colony has been lifted from its place
and severely fastened in the web above.
"While constructing their galleries the caterpillars stop occa-
sionally to feel upon the coceids. At such times they seldom finish
their repasts, but, like busy workmen as they are, hastily snatch a
bite or two by way of Inch, and suspend the half-devoured frag-
ments in lthoir wbl. When the entire scale colony has been secured
within its inet ihe Tlnkruma larva rests from its labors end feeds
at leisure upon the cocridis suspended in its larder It devours not
only the eisgs and young and the softer parts of the bark lice, but
even to snme extent the harder skin or scale. The result of its op-
erations upon Trcaninm and Ceroplastes scales is to utterly anni-
hilate the nl.nnies oF these insects which they attack."
What Mr. Hubbard olwerves of this insect in connect ion with
the Tecaninms and Ceroplastes we also affirm of it in regard to the
Cottony Cushion Scale. We were curious for a long time to learn if
the Loetilin wild he ahle to catch up with the seale in the course
nf a season, since the young scales asten upon the leaves of the trees
and only upon reaching maturity go to the trunk and limbs where
the caterpillars make their webs. We therefore had these trees
upon which the caterpillars were in greatest numbers carefully in-
spected at intervals, and under date of September 22 our corres-
pondent, Mr. Duncan, wrote that these trees, which had attracted
our special interest, were "pretty well rid of the old bugs, but there
were a good many young ones on the leaves."
An inspection of these trees, made by the writer, April, 1900,
disclosed a scale here and there, but they were practically free. The
trees were not greatly injured, and although white with Iceryas last
sunumer, they appeared at this date to have suffered more and to be
in greater danger of injury from the long scale, Mytilaspis gloverii,
than from Icerya purlchasi. Observations since taken upon the
same trees in July, 1900. showed considerable numbers of scales upon
them, and the caterpillars just beginning to put in their appear-
ance. One of the trees became infested just badly enough to attract
notice last summer, but it seemed impossible for any of the scales
upon it to reach maturity before they were attacked, and only a few
larva; could then be found upon the leaves. At the time of the last
examination referred to. this tree was thickly infested. while its
near neighbor, which was coated with the pests last summer, was in
much better shape and not suffering a great deal, though still
threatened. Last year we found the same caterpillar scattered
everywhere over the infested district and multiplying rapidly.
Among the myrtles, and even in places where would be found an
isolated infested tree, half a mile or more away from other infested
ones. we found this little caterpillar at work, and often in numbers.
We do not recall an instance of finding an infested locality, whether
containing one or many trees, where, by diligent search, we did not
find the Loetilia also. In the forks of the trees just now.discussed,
where the scales had gathered in great white patches, covering in
total several square feet in area upon a single tree, it was almost
impossible to find an adult that had not been eaten out and the egg-
mass completely destroyed. The caterpillar seems to be not present
with the first brood of scales, which apparently hatch in January or-
February, nor with the second brood, which, in very general terms,
may be said to appear about the first of May. but the moths must
issne sometime during June, for the caterpillars are to be found
during the first week in July and are abundant by August. We
therefore consider it probablle that the insect feeds only upon the
third and suliscquent straggling broods of scales that appear in the
fall. The broods of Icerra so overlap each other and appear so
irregularly that their separation is not very readily made.
We found a number of other predaceous insects, harvest mites,
forficula-, lace-wing etc.. feeding upon this scale. some of them
possessing a considerable degree of efficiency. The work of none of
these insects can he considered equal to that of the Australian Lady-
bug, for the reason that their modes of attack are different, and the
caterpillars. which alone agree in habit with the lady-bugs in eating
out the nests, will not go out upon the leaves hunting for their din-
ners. However, it must he -aid in their favor that they are na-
tiveq of Florida. that they feed upon other insects than the cottony
cushion scale, and that they will never be absent, nor become lost,
nor need artificial propagation in order to secure their perpetuity,
and if our climatic conditions, as may be entirely possible. should
unexpectedly prove unsuited to the health of the lady-bug, we at
lea.t possess the knowledge that we have at hand some native bugs
who-s efficiency exceeds that of any other insects hitherto recorded
as feeding upon Icerya, with the exceptions of Noriu.s cardinalis and
NoriuA KoeCblei from Australia, and possibly of Rodolia iceryae in
During the season of IS99 a fungus disease which, as yet, has
received no biological study. and is only known to belong in the
family Phvmatasporae, destroyed more scales than rny other
ancnev. The first diseased .l-pecimens were found on the 12th of
July upon certain badly infested orange trees. and a few days later
we noticed that the weeds and undergrowth of this, the worst in-
fested grove in Florida. especially in damp situations, were covered
with the remains of slaughtered scales. We therefore impatiently
awaited a shower of rain. and from the 23rd to the 26th of .Tuly
were favored with a continuous downpour, accompanied n ith heat,
as much as 14 or 16 inches of water, at the very least. coming down
in 72 hours. We examined the trees. upon which the fungus was
disevoe-ed. ;t the conclusion of the storm, while it was still raining,
fnd fonnd them enveloped in a white winding sheet of dead scales
from the trunks to the tips of the leaves. We estimated that not
les than ninety-
live per cent. of
the sea!es inl all
stages'. had per-
i.hted. About a
month later we
i(ict IIno1' than
,we sc.ale in a
S- Ii vi n g up ton
what had been
the worst infest-
ed trees ill the
,rove. and the
few living ones
that could be
OIr llge tlrree infested with Cotltonly-(h'llllitl ttile fid wee Onew-
Plhologragmph hy tih.l uttholr.
lyv hatched lar-
va,, a few of the
eggs in the egg-
InIIt having been
iroved I h\- fin.
i:s. U)Iring the
mnit th following
mentioned 'e .
had hilt lle or '-" "
two light show-
ers, so the con-.
ditions for the
and r e ad
Nearer view of tralnge trunk covered with leryaus.
Photograph by the author.
of the fungu- were unt. so favorable a: they might have been. Not-
withstanding the drought at the time of our departure from Clear-
water on the 23rd of August there was hardly an infested tree upon
which the fungus was not established, and trees that gave no evi-
dence of it two weeks before now had many diseased specimens. It
seems certain that the air was at this time full of the floating spores
of the disease, and that in our naturally moist atmosphere, with the
help of the dews, the disease is enabled to gradually progress, even
when comparatively dry. After the disease is established upon a
few specimens located in different quarters of a tree a driving rain
will drench the remainder with spores, and in a short time after-
wards the tree is largely cleared of the scale. The egg-sac, when
wholly or partially formed. furnishes sufficient protection to the
egg- and newly-hatchvd insect. beneath to render improlbble the
complete annihilation of the Ibugs for several weeks, but trees in-
habited by scales in the various larval stages are practically freed
of them in a few days.
Our correspondent, Mr. Duican, writing under date of Sep-
tember 2,, reported that the bugs. in the grove before mentioned,
were decreasing; that the fmiguis was affecting them very badly;
he could scarcely find one that was not affected, and that while some
trees in the grove still harbored some young scales, the fungus was
to he found upon all. He further reported that about P9 per cent.
of the insects in some other groves that were just beginning to show
the presence of the fungus at the time of our departure were dead.
and the owners stated that where ten scales existed three weeks
earlier not more than one could be found at the date of writing.
The fungus was found present in a number of groves in the latter
part of April. 1900, and hy the 1 3th of July following the scales in
the myrtle thickets were nearly all dead through its agency. and from
25 to 75 per cent. of thi,.se in i'-fst.red gtrovts were dentl with the
diseane rapidly 41reordin mndl dilily inereasibn in virilit.. That
this disease, and the insects before mentioned, possess eipabilities
of immense value for subduing the insect during some, and perhaps
we may say all seasons, we do not doubt, but it should still be re-
membered that the scale multiplies vigorously during certain pe-
riods of the year and that it is capable of inflicting great damage
during this time. The third broad of scales is well on the way to
maturity before any of these destroying agencies appear. We enter-
tain no doubt that the California lady-bug will prove much more
efficient than any of these native checks if it is able to stand Florida
conditions and climate.
We made an attempt to colonize the Australian lady-bug last
summer, but the introduction seems to have been unsuccessful. A
number of adult bugs, somewhere between two dozen and thirty,
were hatched from California shipments, kept under close observa-
tion until they were observed to have copulated. after which they
were confined for a short time in a Inrge sack upon thickly infested
limbs, so as
r tion of their
they flew to
As we were
Icr:rya pim rehast: anlult female on branch of myrtle. i atu r y
.mUyriev cerifera: from phutograplh by the author. I at r
put our lady-bugs upon the worst infested trees to be found in the
worst infested grove. It was but two or three weeks from the time
the lady.bugs were liberated until the fungus struck the trles,
and we suppose that the lady-bug latrve must have perished
from want of scales to feed upon, unless they, like the scales,
withered before Florida rain and heat. We hoped that
same of the bug- had gone to other trees than the ones upon
which they were turned loose, since they were confined in the sack
not more than 12 or 15 hours, or over night, and that many lady-
bugs would appear in the grove later, but nothing was ever known to
develop. The trees upon which the bugs were liberated were almost
wholly free from scales in April, but later supported them in num-
b-rs. We attribute the temporary disappearance of the scales, how-
ever, to the fungus disease and native predaceous insects, and not
to a probability that any lady-bugs had anything to do with it. We
instructed our correspondent to keep a careful watch on the field and
report to us later in the season if circumstances seemed to favor
a new introduction. Under date of September 19 one of our cor-
respondents, Mr. Johui Thomson, wrote:
"The weather that we have been having this month has been
favorable, it mwins, for the spread of the fungus, as quantities of
the dead liurs in their various stages show, and it is very qiestion-
Novius cardlnalts (Riley and Howard. Div of Inm Pu. .'S. Dept. of Agr. Insect Life,
August, 1900.) a. Larva, dorsal view; b larva, from side: c. pupa; d. adult-enlarged.
able just now, I think, if the situation would justify the undertak-
ing of getting a sufficient supply of lady-bugs from California to
stock up with. By and by when the rain stops and everything gets
dried off once more, we can better come to some definite conclusion
in the matter, but just now the whole thing looks like a pretty big
uncertainty to me. and I really do not know what to say about it."
In December letters from both Mr. Duncan and Mr. Thomson
indicated that the hugs were siilicientlv numerous in some groves to
warrant the relief that the introduction of the lady-hug would prob-
ably prove successful. We therefore wrote to the California Board
on the ?nd of January, informing them of the situation and our de-
sires. hut had to wait two months fort a reply, and were then in-
formed that their colonies were low and they could not supply us
with Imirs until the latter part of May. However. Mr. Kimball. a
gentleman stopping in Clearwater. succeeded, through the request
of The Fruit World. in getting a consignment from one of the
County Boards of Horticulture, at San Diego, California, about the
middle of April, and the bugs were turned loose upon an infested
tree in accordance with instructions received along with the insects.
While no obvious explanation for their failure to propagate can be
given, no subsequent trace of them could ever be found. It is pos-
sible that they were not wasted, but that their progeny became
mixed with that of later importations of bugs, colonized at no great
distance from them, though we have no evidence to suggest such a
Three colonies of insects were sent to Clearwater by Mr. Craw,
of the California State Board of Horticulture, under date of May
h,; one of them was sent to Mr. Thomson at our request, the two
others being sent to Mr. Markley by request of his brother, i resident
of California. We instructed Mr. Thomson to have an infested
tree tented with cheese cloth for the reception of the insects upon
their arrival. as previous experience in putting bugs upon open trees
had failed to give satisfactory re.ults. Mr. Markley, after confer-
ence with Mr. Thonmson, adopted the same plan, using canvas in-
stead of cheese cloth. One of his colonies was placed upon a tree
standing in his yard in Clearwater. and the other by Mr. Thomson's
advice was sent to the grove of Mr. Win. McMullon, about seven
miles from town. The rainy season setting in at about this time,
nnd fearing another onslaught of fungus, we wrote Mr. Thomson
nhiout ten days after he received the lady-bugs to remove the tent
and give them the freedom of the grove. This suggestion was at
once put into practice by Mr. J. II. Brown, who had been placed in
immediate charge of the insects, and who also advised Mr. MNarkley
to pursue a similar course. The heavy covering upon the colony at
Mr. fMcMullen's grove was not removed so soon. and, as a conse-
quence, the insects did not do nearly so well. We made an exami-
nation about one month after the insects were loosed, and found
larvie well scattered over perhaps twenty different trees, adjacent to
the one upon which they were liberated, and, while they were not so
widely scattered at Mr. Marklev's place, they were much more read-
ily found in numbers.
Since some caution must he exercised in choosing trees upon
which to plant colonies, if embarrassment from fungus is to be
wholly avoided, we spent a day with Mr. Brown in going over the
infested territory, and arranged to have him take charge of the work
of distributing bugs over all the infested district as soon as sufficient
material could be procured. \'e believe that all scales, not having
uccniiuhOed to other agencies, will have been practically destroyed by
the lady-bug within 90 days from the date of writing (August 1)
and that the friendly insect will be upon the ground ready for busi-
ne-ss when the scales again coninence to multiply next spring.
We believe that the area of infestation lhas become sufficiently
large to warrant the belief that the lady-bug will remain perma-
Icerya purchase (itiley. Dir. of Ent., C. S. Dept. of Agr.. Ann. Iteport, 1886.) a, adult male-
enlarged; b, bind tarsus of same; c. wing and poiser of same, showing hooks and pocket-
still more enlarged.
nently upon the field, despite the slender food supply available in
autumn. It is quite possible. if indeed not probable, that the
chances for its permanent retention have been greatly increased by
the failure to get it successfully established last summer. We very
much doubt if it would be possible to artificially propagate the in-
sect at the present time, and again it is possible, though not prob-
able, that it will sooner or later die out. It will require a yet longer
period of observation to gauge with precision the exact status of the
scale, and also of its insect enemies, native and imported. Districts
which may Ibeco m infested away from (learwater. and where the
lady-bug has not hbeen estallishld, are likely to be in more danger
of injury in the future than the district which has been infested and
now supports the lady-bug.
Our acknowledgements are due in this connection to the Hills-
boro Board of County Commissioners for financial assistance made
available upon warrants signed by Mr. Thomson. By this means
we employed Mr. J. A. Duncan to make inspections when requested
to do so, and were this enabled to learn accurately the course of the
scale and of its cuemies last fall. Mr. Brown is at present employed
in the same way to distribute the lady-bugs.
Among the more important insects, not already spoken of, to
which our attention has been called by correspondents at various
times, may be named the following: .Aspidiolus ficus, the red scale,
on oranges, Manatee; .slpidious julglans-regia, the "gopher" scale,
on peach, Lake City; Ceropi'stirs floridenlsis, the white wax scale,
on oranges, at Ellenton, Palmetto and Miami; Lecanium hesperi-
dlnm, the "turtle back" scale. from a number of widely scattered
localities. nearly always upon oranges; Dartylopius citri. the "mealy
bug," upon oranges, pineapples. jessamines, roses, etc., very abun-
dant and more than ordinarily injurious over a large part of the
State this season (19Io); Dinspis. bromeliae, the pineapple scale.
serious at Braidentown. and received from Clearwater and a number
of other localities: Mtillaspis gloverif, Mftilaspis citricola, and
Parlatoria perqgandii. from nearly all sections of the citrus belt, es-
pecially on the west coast: the fig scale, Asteroleconium pustulans.
has been received from Cutler, Fla.
The garden flea hopper, Hallicus uhleri, has done some damage
to celery and ornamental plants at Lakeland and Tarpon Springs,
and what we suppose to have been the same insect was reported
at Bartow, though specimens were not sent to us. The pickle
worm, Margaronia ,iiidolis. and the melon borer, lMararonia hyal-
inaha. have been the subjects of inquiry from many quarters. The
cucumber beetles, Diabrotica vittotP and Diabrotica 12-punctata
have been received several times the past spring, and seem to have
been very troublesome in some localities. Grasshoppers were re-
ported as being uncommonly severe in the western part of the State
last summer. Curculio has stung more fruit the present year than
last; the loss in the peach and plum districts of the State has been
large. Many inquiries regarding Aphis, upon various plants, were
received last year, not so many the present season. The boll-worm,
Heliothis armigera, is said by truck-growers to have damaged toma-
toes much more than usual this year. Chintz bugs and Jasside
(mostly Linoletix exitiosa) were reported as damaging lawns in
Southern Florida last summer. The warble fly, Hypoderma bovis,
commanded some notice the past spring. The American Argas,
Argas amrericana. was received from Cutler, where it was overrun-
ning poultry. Many other insects of greater or less importance
have come to our attention, but we will not detail them further.
H. A. GoSSARD.
Entomologist of the Station.
EXPLANATION TO PLATE.
TiE COTTONY CUSHION-SCALE.
Fig. 1.-Outline of the egg-greatly enlarged.
Fig. 2.-Dorsal view of newly-hatched larva-greatly enlarged.
Fig. 3.-A female larva, second stage, ventral view-greatly enlarged; b,
antenna of same-still more enlarged.
Fig. 4.-Female larva, third stage, ventral view-greatly enlarged.
Fig. 5.-Adult female (fourth stage), dorsal view-greatly enlarged; a,
antenna-still more enlarged.
Fig. 6.-Greatly magnified portion of lateral border of adult, showing base
of glassy filaments.
Fig. 7.--Male larva, second stage, ventral view-greatly enlarged.
Fig. S.-Male pupa, ventral view, greatly enlarged.
Fig Pig. i
Iecrya ptrchhai., (Riley. Division of Entomology. U. S. Dept. of Agr.. Ann. Report. 188M.)